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Encyclopedia > Saliva
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Saliva is the watery and usually frothy substance produced in the mouths of humans and most other animals. Saliva is produced in and secreted from the salivary glands. Saliva is a hard rock band who makes use of grunge techniques as well as a bit of nu metal on their older albums, though they still incorporate rapped verses to a degree. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 150 languages. ... This article is about modern humans. ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... The salivary glands produce saliva, which keeps the mouth and other parts of the digestive system moist. ...


Some swifts use their gummy saliva in the construction of their nests. In the case of some Aerodramus swiftlets, the nests are made only from saliva, and are collected to make the delicacy bird's nest soup. For other uses, see Swift (disambiguation). ... Genera Hydrochous Collocalia Aerodramus Schoutedenapus The birds called Swiftlets or Cave Swiftlets are contained within the four genera of Aerodramus, Hydrochous, Schoutedenapus and the remaining species left in Collocalia. ... Genera Hydrochous Collocalia Aerodramus Schoutedenapus Bold text The birds called Swiftlets or Cave Swiftlets are contained within the four genera Aerodramus, Hydrochous, Schoutedenapus and Collocalia. ... The key ingredient of bird-nest soup Bird Nests box showing $888. ...

Contents

Functions

Digestion

The digestive functions of saliva include moistening food, and helping to create a food bolus, so it can be swallowed easily. Saliva contains the enzyme amylase that breaks some starches down into maltose and dextrin. Thus, digestion of food occurs within the mouth, even before food reaches the stomach. Salivary glands also secrete enzyme to start fat digestion. This is useful for infants to digest the fat in milk. Look up bolus in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Ribbon diagram of the enzyme TIM, surrounded by the space-filling model of the protein. ... Amylase is the name given to glycoside hydrolase enzymes that break down starch into glucose molecules. ... Starch (CAS# 9005-25-8, chemical formula (C6H10O5)n,[1]) is a mixture of amylose and amylopectin (usually in 20:80 or 30:70 ratios). ... Maltose, or malt sugar, is a disaccharide formed from two units of glucose joined with an α(1→4) linkage. ... Dextrins are a group of low-molecular-weight carbohydrates produced by the hydrolysis of starch. ... In anatomy, the stomach is a bean-shaped hollow muscular organ of the gastrointestinal tract involved in the second phase of digestion, following mastication. ...


Role in emesis

The importance of the salivary protective function can be demonstrated by considering a scenario where an individual is about to vomit. Vomit contains gastric substances which are extremely acidic and will erode teeth. A protective reflex occurs before the individual prepares to vomit. Signals are sent from the brain to the salivary glands via the involuntary nervous system to cause increased saliva secretion, even before vomiting occurs. Thus, when vomiting does occur, there is already saliva present in the mouth acting to minimize the acidity and thus prevent destruction of tooth structure. Vomiting (or emesis) is the forceful expulsion of the contents of ones stomach through the mouth. ... In anatomy, the stomach is a bean-shaped hollow muscular organ of the gastrointestinal tract involved in the second phase of digestion, following mastication. ... For other uses, see Reflexive (disambiguation). ... The salivary glands produce saliva, which keeps the mouth and other parts of the digestive system moist. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


Pellicle deposits

In addition to this, saliva is responsible for depositing salivary pellicle that covers the entirety of the tooth surfaces. This pellicle is believed to play a role in plaque formation, though there is evidence that it may also act as a protective barrier between acids and the tooth surface.[1] Improper removal of plaque caused a build up of calculus (dark yellow colour) near the gums on almost all the teeth. ...


Disinfectants

A common belief is that saliva contained in the mouth has natural disinfectants, which leads people to believe it is beneficial to "lick their wounds". Researchers at the University of Florida at Gainesville have discovered a protein called nerve growth factor (NGF) in the saliva of mice. Wounds doused with NGF healed twice as fast as untreated and unlicked wounds; therefore, saliva does have some curative powers in some species. NGF has not been found in human saliva; however, researchers find human saliva contains such antibacterial agents as secretory IgA, lactoferrin, and lactoperoxidase.[2] It has not been shown that human licking of wounds disinfects them, but licking is likely to help clean the wound by removing larger contaminants such as dirt and may help to directly remove infective bodies by brushing them away. Therefore, licking would be a way of washing, useful if purer water isn't available to the animal or person. Disinfection is the destruction of pathogenic and other kinds of microorganisms by physical or chemical means. ... The University of Florida (Florida, UFL, or UF) is a public land-grant, research university located in Gainesville, Florida. ... Location in Alachua County and the state of Florida Coordinates: , Country State County Alachua Incorporated (city) 15 April 1869 Government  - Type Council-manager  - Mayor Pegeen Hanrahan  - City Manager Russ Blackburn Area [1]  - Total 49. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... Nerve growth factor (NGF), is a small secreted protein which induces the differentiation and survival of particular target neurons (nerve cells). ... This article is about the animal. ... An antiseptic is a substance that kills or prevents the growth of bacteria on the external surfaces of the body. ... IGA may stand for: Koji Igarashi, a video game producer Interactive genetic algorithm International Geothermal Association Independent Glass Association International Gothic Association International Gamers Award International Goat Association Irish Games Association Irish Geological Association ImmunoGlobulin A - see IgA nephritis which is a renal disease IGA (supermarkets) Independent Grocers Association or... Lactoferrin is a globular protein found in milk and many mucosal secretions such as tears. ... Lactoperoxidase is a peroxidase enzyme found in milk. ...


The mouth of animals is the habitat of many bacteria, some of which may be pathogenic. Animal (including human) bites are routinely treated with systemic antibiotics because of the risk of septicemia. A pathogen or infectious agent is a biological agent that causes disease or illness to its host. ... An antibiotic is a drug that kills or slows the growth of bacteria. ... Sepsis (in Greek Σήψις) is a serious medical condition caused by a severe systemic infection leading to a systemic inflammatory response. ...


Recent research suggests that the saliva of birds is a better indicator of avian flu than are faecal samples. [3] For the H5N1 subtype generating the concern see H5N1. ... Horse feces Feces, faeces, or fæces (see spelling differences) is a waste product from an animals digestive tract expelled through the anus (or cloaca) during defecation. ...


Stimulation

The production of saliva is stimulated both by the sympathetic nervous system and the parasympathetic.[4] The Sympathetic Nervous System (SNS) is a branch of the autonomic nervous system. ... Anatomy and Physiology of the A.N.S. In contrast to the voluntary nervous system, the involuntary or autonomic nervous system is responsible for homeostasis, maintaining a relatively constant internal environment by controlling such involuntary functions as digestion, respiration, and metabolism, and by modulating blood pressure. ...


The saliva stimulated by sympathetic innervation is thicker, and saliva stimulated parasympathetically is more watery.


Daily salivary output

There has been some disagreement regarding the daily salivary output in a healthy individual. Today, it is believed that the average person produces approximately 0.75 l of saliva per day, less than half of the output originally thought produced.


It is produced at a rate of 1-1.5 l/day. 20ml/hr at rest, 250 ml/hr under stimulated conditions. While sleeping, salivary flow drops to almost zero.


Contents

Produced in salivary glands, human saliva is 98% water, but it contains many important substances, including electrolytes, mucus, antibacterial compounds and various enzymes. [5] The salivary glands produce saliva, which keeps the mouth and other parts of the digestive system moist. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... An electrolyte is a substance containing free ions that behaves as an electrically conductive medium. ... Mucus is a slippery secretion of the lining of the mucous membranes in the body. ... An antiseptic solution of Povidone-iodine applied to an abrasion Antiseptics (Greek αντί, against, and σηπτικός, putrefactive) are antimicrobial substances that are applied to living tissue/skin to reduce the possibility of infection, sepsis, or putrefaction. ... Ribbon diagram of the enzyme TIM, surrounded by the space-filling model of the protein. ...


It is a fluid containing: A fluid is defined as a substance that continually deforms (flows) under an applied shear stress regardless of the magnitude of the applied stress. ...

  • Water
  • Electrolytes:
  • Mucus. Mucus in saliva mainly consists of mucopolysaccharides and glycoproteins;
  • Antibacterial compounds (thiocyanate, hydrogen peroxide, and secretory immunoglobulin A)
  • Various enzymes. There are three major enzymes found in saliva.
    • α-amylase (EC3.2.1.1). Amylase starts the digestion of starch and lipase fat before the food is even swallowed. It has a pH optima of 7.4.
    • lysozyme (EC3.2.1.17). Lysozyme acts to lyse bacteria.
    • lingual lipase (EC3.1.1.3). Lingual lipase has a pH optimum ~4.0 so it is not activated till entering an acidic environment.
    • Minor enzymes include salivary acid phosphatases A+B (EC3.1.3.2), N-acetylmuramyl-L-alanine amidase (EC3.5.1.28), NAD(P)H dehydrogenase-quinone (EC1.6.99.2), salivary lactoperoxidase (EC1.11.1.7), superoxide dismutase (EC1.15.1.1), glutathione transferase (EC2.5.1.18), class 3 aldehyde dehydrogenase (EC1.2.1.3), glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (EC5.3.1.9), and tissue kallikrein (EC3.4.21.35).
  • Cells: Possibly as much as 8 million human and 500 million bacterial cells per mL. The presence of bacterial products (small organic acids, amines, and thiols) causes saliva to sometimes exhibit foul odor.
  • Opiorphin, a newly researched pain-killing substance found in human saliva.

Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... An electrolyte is a substance containing free ions that behaves as an electrically conductive medium. ... For sodium in the diet, see Edible salt. ... Blood plasma is the liquid component of blood, in which the blood cells are suspended. ... General Name, symbol, number potassium, K, 19 Chemical series alkali metals Group, period, block 1, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 39. ... For other uses, see Calcium (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number magnesium, Mg, 12 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, period, block 2, 3, s Appearance silvery white solid at room temp Standard atomic weight 24. ... The chloride ion is formed when the element chlorine picks up one electron to form an anion (negatively-charged ion) Cl−. The salts of hydrochloric acid HCl contain chloride ions and can also be called chlorides. ... For baking soda, see Sodium bicarbonate In inorganic chemistry, a bicarbonate (IUPAC-recommended nomenclature: hydrogencarbonate) is an intermediate form in the deprotonation of carbonic acid. ... A phosphate, in inorganic chemistry, is a salt of phosphoric acid. ... Mucus is a slippery secretion of the lining of the mucous membranes in the body. ... Chondroitin sulfate Hyaluronan Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) or mucopolysaccharides are long unbranched polysaccharides consisting of a repeating disaccharide unit. ... N-linked protein glycosylation (N-glycosylation of N-glycans) at Asn residues (Asn-x-Ser/Thr motifs) in glycoproteins[1]. Glycoproteins are proteins that contain oligosaccharide chains (glycans) covalently attached to their polypeptide backbones. ... The structure and bonding of the thiocyanate ion Thiocyanate (also known as sulphocyanate or thiocyanide) is the anion, [SCN]−. Common compounds include the colourless salts potassium thiocyanate and sodium thiocyanate. ... R-phrases , , , , S-phrases , , , ,, , , , Flash point Non-flammable Related Compounds Related compounds Water Ozone Hydrazine Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a very pale blue liquid which appears colourless in... ... Ribbon diagram of the enzyme TIM, surrounded by the space-filling model of the protein. ... Amylase is the name given to glycoside hydrolase enzymes that break down starch into glucose molecules. ... For other uses, see PH (disambiguation). ... Lysozyme single crystal. ... Lysozyme single crystal. ... Lysis (Greek lusis from luein = to separate) is the reduction of symptoms of a disease the dissolving of cells osmotic lysis chemical lysis viral lysis a dialogue of Plato about friendship (philia) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the... Lingual lipase is an enzyme found in the saliva that breaks down lipids. ... For other uses, see PH (disambiguation). ... Structure of the monomeric unit of human superoxide dismutase 2 The enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1. ... Halitosis, oral malodor (scientific term), breath odor, foul breath, fetor oris, fetor ex ore, or most commonly bad breath are terms used to describe noticeably unpleasant odors exhaled in breathing – whether the smell is from an oral source or not. ... Opiorphin is a chemical compound isolated from human saliva. ...

References

  1. ^ The acquired enamel pellicles in adults and children
  2. ^ Discover Magazine, "The Biology of ...Saliva" October 2005
  3. ^ "Saliva swabs for bird flu virus more effective than faecal samples" German Press Agency December 11, 2006 Retrieved 13 November 2007
  4. ^ Physiology at MCG 6/6ch4/s6ch4_7
  5. ^ Physiology at MCG 6/6ch4/s6ch4_6

In 1828 the Medical Academy of Georgia was chartered by the state of Georgia with plans to offer a single course of lectures leading to a bachelors degree. ... In 1828 the Medical Academy of Georgia was chartered by the state of Georgia with plans to offer a single course of lectures leading to a bachelors degree. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
What's Spit? (362 words)
Saliva is a clear liquid that's made in your mouth 24 hours a day, every day.
Without saliva, a grilled cheese sandwich would be dry and difficult to gulp down.
Sometimes a person may not have enough saliva, but this is usually the result of certain medicines or treatments, some kinds of diseases, or old age.
Saliva Summary (1087 words)
Saliva is secreted by a number of glands including the salivary glands that include mucous glands, parotid, submaxillary (mandibular), and sublingual glands.
Saliva, often informally known as spit, is the moist, clear, and usually somewhat frothy substance produced in the mouths of some animals, including humans.
A common belief is that saliva contained in the mouth has natural disinfectants, which leads people to believe it is beneficial to "lick their wounds".
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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