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Encyclopedia > Salishan languages
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The Salishan (also Salish) languages are a group of languages of western Canada and the Pacific Northwest of the United States. They are characterised by agglutinativity and astonishing consonant clusters—for instance the Nuxálk word xłp̓x̣ʷłtłpłłskʷc̓ (IPA: [xɬp’χʷɬtɬpɬːskʷʦ’]) meaning 'he had had a bunchberry plant' has 13 consonants in a row with no vowels. Jump to: navigation, search Darker red states are always part of the Pacific Northwest. ... An agglutinative language is a language in which the words are formed by joining morphemes together. ... Listen to this article · (info) This audio file was created from the revision dated 2005-07-20, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. ... Nuxálk (also Bella Coola) is a Salishan language spoken in the Canadian town Bella Coola, British Columbia by approximately 20-30 elders. ...

Pre-contact distribution of Salishan languages (in red)
Pre-contact distribution of Salishan languages (in red)

The terms Salish and Salishan are used interchangeably by Salishan linguists and anthropologists. Many languages do not have self-designations and instead have specific names for local dialects as the local group was more important culturally than larger tribal relations. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (735x699, 159 KB) distribution of Salishan languages info created by w:User:Ish_ishwar in 2005 released under CC-by-2. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (735x699, 159 KB) distribution of Salishan languages info created by w:User:Ish_ishwar in 2005 released under CC-by-2. ...


All Salishan languages are endangered—some extremely so with only three or four speakers left. Practically all languages only have speakers who are over sixty years of age, and many languages only have speakers over eighty. An endangered language is a language with so few surviving speakers that it is in danger of falling out of use. ...

Contents


Family division

The Salishan language family consists of twenty-three languages. Below is list of Salishan languages, dialects, and sub-dialects. This list is a linguistic classification that may not correspond to political divisions. Many Salishan groups consider their variety of speech to be a separate language rather than a dialect. A dialect (from the Greek word διάλεκτος, dialektos) is a variety of a language used by people from a particular geographic area. ...


I. Bella Coola

1. Nuxálk (a.k.a. Bella Coola, Salmon River)

II. Coast Salish Nuxálk (also Bella Coola) is a Salishan language spoken in the Canadian town Bella Coola, British Columbia by approximately 20-30 elders. ... Bella Coola may refer to several things, all closely related to a geographic area within British Columbias Central Coast. ...

A. Central Coast Salish (a.k.a. Central Salish)
2. Comox
  • Comox (a.k.a. Q’ómox̣ʷs)
  • Sliammon (Homalco-Klahoose-Sliammon) (a.k.a. ʔayʔaǰúθəm)
3. Halkomelem
Island (a.k.a. Hul’q̱’umi’num’, həl̕q̓əmín̓əm̓)
Downriver (a.k.a. Hunq’umʔiʔnumʔ)
Upriver (a.k.a. Upper Stalo, Halq’əméyləm)
4. Lushootseed (a.k.a. Puget Salish, Skagit-Nisqually, Dxʷləšúcid)
Northern
Southern
  • Duwamish-Suquamish (a.k.a. Dxʷduʔabš)
  • Puyallup (a.k.a. Spuyaləpubš)
  • Nisqually (a.k.a. Sqʷaliʔabš)
5. Nooksack (a.k.a. ɬə́čələsəm, ɬə́čælosəm) (†)
6. Pentlatch (a.k.a. Pənƛ̕áč) (†)
7. Sechelt (a.k.a. Seshelt, Shashishalhem, šášíšáɬəm)
8. Squamish (a.k.a. Sqwxwu7mish, Sḵwx̱wú7mesh, sqʷx̣ʷúʔməš)
i. Straits Salish group (a.k.a. Straits)
9. Klallam (a.k.a. Clallam, Nəxʷsƛ̕áy̓emúcən)
  • Becher Bay
  • Eastern
  • Western
10. Northern Straits (a.k.a. Straits)
  • Lummi (a.k.a. Xwlemi’chosen, xʷləmiʔčósən) (†)
  • Saanich (a.k.a. SENĆOŦEN, sənčáθən, sénəčqən)
  • Samish (a.k.a. Siʔneməš)
  • Semaihmoo (a.k.a. Tah-tu-lo) (†)
  • Sooke (a.k.a. T’sou-ke, c̓awk) (†)
  • Songhees (a.k.a. Lək̓ʷəŋín̓əŋ) (†)
11. Twana (a.k.a. Skokomish, Sqʷuqʷúʔbəšq, Tuwáduqutšad) (†)
  • Quilcene
  • Skokomish (a.k.a. Sqʷuqʷúʔbəšq)
B. Tsamosan (a.k.a. Olympic)
i. Inland
12. Cowlitz (a.k.a. Lower Cowlitz, Sƛ̕púlmš) (†)
13. Upper Chehalis (a.k.a. Q̉ʷay̓áyiɬq̉) (†)
  • Oakville Chehalis
  • Satsop
  • Tenino Chehalis
ii. Maritime
14. Lower Chehalis (a.k.a. ɬəw̓ál̕məš) (†)
  • Humptulips
  • Westport-Shoalwater
  • Wynoochee
15. Quinault (a.k.a. Kʷínayɬ)
C. Tillamook
16. Tillamook (a.k.a. Hutyéyu) (†)
Siletz
Tillamook

III. Interior Salish The Komox are a group of Salishan speaking people in British Columbia. ... The Komox are a group of Salishan speaking people in British Columbia. ... Halkomelem (Halqeméylem) is a Salish language of the First Nations around the Fraser river and the southern end of Vancouver Island in British Columbia. ... Nanaimo (2004 pop. ... The front entrance to the Richmond Campus of Kwantlen University College Kwantlen University College (sometimes abbreviated as KUC or simply Kwantlen) is a higher-education institution in British Columbia. ... Jump to: navigation, search The Musqueam are the only Indian band whose reserve lies within the boundaries of the City of Vancouver. ... Chehalis is a term from the language of the Native American tribe of the same name meaning sand. ... Chilliwack can refer to: the city of Chilliwack in British Columbia, Canada. ... Tait is a Scottish surname that most likely originated in Berwickshire, Scotland. ... Jump to: navigation, search Lushootseed (also xwÉ™lÅ¡ucid, dxwləšúcid, Puget Salish, Puget Sound Salish, Skagit-Nisqually) is the language or dialect continuum of several Salish Native American groups of modern-day Washington state. ... Jump to: navigation, search The Skagit (pronounced skajit) are a Native American people living in the state of Washington. ... Snohomish is the name of a tribe of Native Americans whom reside around the Puget Sound area of Washington, north of Seattle. ... Puyallup is a term from the language of the Native American tribe of the same name meaning seeker. Puyallup, Washington Puyallup River Puyallup Native American tribe This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Nisqually can mean either: Nisqually River, or Nisqually (tribe) Native American tribe This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Nooksack is a Native American tribe in western Washington state in the United States. ... The District of Sechelt is centrally located on the Sunshine Coast of British Columbia. ... Categories: Stub | British Columbia communities | Coastal towns of Canada ... Klallam (also Clallam) is a Straits Salishan language natively called Nəxʷsƛ̕ay̕əmúcən, spoken by Klallam peoples. ... The Lummi Nation is a Native American tribe in western Washington state in the United States. ... The District of Saanich is a municipality on Vancouver Island in British Columbia. ... Sooke is an incorporated community situated on the southern tip of Vancouver Island, Canada. ... Skokomish is a Native American tribe in western Washington state in the United States. ... Jump to: navigation, search Skokomish is a Native American tribe in western Washington state in the United States. ... Cowlitz is a group of Native American peoples from what is now western Washington state in the United States. ... Chehalis (tribe) is a group of Native American peoples from western Washington state in the United States. ... Chehalis (tribe) is a group of Native American peoples from western Washington state in the United States. ... Quinault (tribe) is a group of Native American peoples from western Washington state in the United States. ... Quinault is the name of a group of Native American peoples in the Pacific Northwest. ... Tillamook may refer to: Tillamook, Oregon, United States Tillamook County, Oregon, United States the Tillamook County Creamery Association Tillamook River, United States This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Siletz can refer to: The town of Siletz, Oregon The Siletz River in Oregon The Siletz, Coast Salish tribe of Native Americans The Confederated Tribes of Siletz This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Nehalem can refer to several things: The Nehalem are a tribe of native Americans peoples who lived in the Pacific Northwest. ...

A. Northern
17. Shuswap (a.k.a. Secwepemctsín, səxwəpməxcín)
Eastern
  • Kinbasket
  • Shuswap Lake
Western
  • Canim Lake
  • Chu Chua
  • Deadman's Creek-Kamloops
  • Fraser River
  • Pavilion-Bonaparte
18. St’at’imcets (a.k.a. Lillooet, Lilloet, St'át'imcets)
  • Lillooet-Fountain
  • Mount Currie-Douglas
19. Thompson River Salish (a.k.a. Nlaka’pamux, Ntlakapmuk, nɬeʔkepmxcín, Thompson River, Thompson Salish, Thompson)
  • Lytton
  • Nicola Valley
  • Spuzzum-Boston Bar
  • Thompson Canyon
B. Southern
20. Coeur d’Alene (a.k.a. Snchitsu’umshtsn, snčícuʔumšcn)
21. Columbian (a.k.a. Columbia, Nxaʔamxcín)
  • Chelan
  • Entiat
  • Moses Columbia
  • Wenatchee (a.k.a. Pesquous)
22. Colville-Okanagan (a.k.a. Okanagan, Nsilxcín, Nsíylxcən, ta nukunaqínxcən)
Northern
  • Head of the Lakes
  • Penticton
  • Similkameen
  • Vernon
Southern
  • Lakes-Colville-Inchelium
  • Methow
  • San Poil-Nespelem
  • Southern Okanogan
23. Spokane-Kalispel-Flathead (a.k.a. Kalispel)
  • Flathead (a.k.a. Séliš)
  • Kalispel (a.k.a. Qalispé)

Pentlatch, Nooksack, Twana, Lower Chehalis, Upper Chehalis, Cowlitz, and Tillamook are now extinct. Additionally, the Lummi, Semiahmoo, Songhees, and Sooke dialects of Northern Straits are also extinct. Statimcets (also Lillooet, Lilloet) is an interior Salishan language spoken in southern British Columbia, Canada around the middle Fraser and Lillooet rivers by the Statimc people. ... The Thompson River Salish (also Thompson, Thompson Salish, Thompson River) are an Interior Salishan people in southern British Columbia and northern Washington. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... The Coeur dAlene are a First Nations/ Native American people who lived in villages along the Coeur dAlene, St. ... Note: The similar sounding country uses a different spelling--see Colombia. ... Flathead could refer to: The Flathead Indians or the Flathead Indian Reservation Flathead Lake Flathead River Flathead National Forest Flathead County, Montana The flathead engine A type of fish or flathead catfish A family of rulers in the fictional Zork universe. ... Jump to: navigation, search The Pend dOreilles, or Kalispel, tribe is one of three tribes of the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes of the Flathead Nation in Montana. ... For the city, see Spokane, Washington For the county, see Spokane County, Washington For the Native American tribe, see Spokane (people) or Spokane Indian Reservation For the movie, see Spokane (2004) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... An extinct language (also called a dead language) is a language which no longer has any native speakers. ...


Genetic relations

It has been proposed that the Salishan languages may be related to Wakashan and Chimakuan languages in a hypothetical Mosan family. There have also been efforts to relate the language isolate Kutenai (Kootenai) to Mosan. Wakashan is a family of languages spoken around Vancouver Island. ... The Chimakuan language family consists of two languages that are spoken in northwestern Washington, USA on the Olympic Peninsula. ... A language isolate is a natural language with no demonstrable genealogical (or genetic) relationship with other living languages; that is, one that has not been demonstrated to descend from an ancestor common to any other language. ... Kootenai Group Near Tipis (ca. ...


Family features

In linguistics, a language is said to possess vowel harmony (also metaphony) when it has a phonological rule that requires all vowels in a word to belong to a single class. ... Reduplication, in linguistics, is a morphological process in which the root or stem of a word, or only part of it, is repeated. ... Jump to: navigation, search Infix has meanings in linguistics, mathematics and computer science, and chemistry. ... Metathesis is a sound change that alters the order of phonemes in a word. ... Glottalization is the complete or partial closure of the glottis during the articulation of another sound. ...

External link

Bibliography

  • Czaykowska-Higgins, Ewa; & Kinkade, M. Dale (Eds.). (1997). Salish languages and linguistics: Theoretical and descriptive perspectives. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. ISBN 3-11-015492-7.
  • Kroeber, Paul D. (1999). The Salish language family: Reconstructing syntax. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press in cooperation with the American Indian Studies Research Institute, Indiana University, Bloomington.
  • Thompson, Laurence C. (1973). The northwest. In T. A. Sebeok (Ed.), Linguistics in North America (pp. 979-1045). Current trends in linguistics (Vol. 10). The Hauge: Mouton.
  • Thompson, Laurence C. (1979). Salishan and the northwest. In L. Campbell & M. Mithun (Eds.), The languages of native America: Historical and comparative assessment (pp. 692-765). Austin: University of Texas Press.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Classified List of BC Native Languages (1153 words)
The Athabaskan language family as a whole is fairly closely related to Eyak, a language once spoken in the Cook inlet area of southern Alaska.
Salishan languages are spoken in much of the southern half of British Columbia.
The Tsimshianic languages are spoken on the northwest coast and in adjacent areas of the interior.
Native American languages. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05 (3048 words)
A language family consists of two or more tongues that are distinct and yet related historically in that they are all descended from a single ancestor language, either known or assumed to have existed.
Among the tribes speaking Salishan languages are the Bella Coola, Klallam, Coeur d’Alene, Colville, Nisqualli, Okanogan, Pend d’Oreille, Puyallup, Salish or Flathead, Shuswap, Spokan, and Tillamook.
At present, the aboriginal languages of the Western Hemisphere are gradually being replaced by the Indo-European tongues of the European conquerors and settlers of the New World—English, Spanish, Portuguese, French, and Dutch.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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