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Encyclopedia > Salisbury Plain

This article is about the plateau in southern England; Salisbury Plain is also an area on South Georgia Island. South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands is an overseas territory of the United Kingdom, also claimed by Argentina. ...


Salisbury Plain is a 300 sq mi (780 km²) chalk plateau in central southern England. The plain is sparsely populated and the principal land uses are arable agriculture, chalk grassland, military institutions, and a few small areas of beech and coniferous woodland. The plain is the largest remaining area of calcareous grassland in northwest Europe. Its highest point is Walbury Hill, at 297 m above sea level. To help compare different orders of magnitude and geographical regions, we list here areas between 100 km² and 1000 km². See also areas of other orders of magnitude. ... The Needles, part of the extensive Southern England Chalk Formation Chalk is a soft, white, porous form of limestone composed of the mineral calcium carbonate. ... For alternate uses of the term, see Plateau (disambiguation). ... Royal motto: Dieu et mon droit (French: God and my right) Englands location within the UK Official language English de facto Capital London de facto Largest city London Area  - Total Ranked 1st UK 130,395 km² Population  - Total (2001)  - Density Ranked 1st UK 49,138,831 377/km² Ethnicity... Land is sometimes used synonymously with country. ... In geography, arable land is a form of agricultural land use, meaning land that can be (and is) used for growing crops. ... Calcareous grassland (or alkaline grassland) is an ecosystem associated with thin basic soil, such as that on chalk and limestone downland. ... Institutions are organizations, or mechanisms of social structure, governing the behavior of two or more individuals. ... Species Fagus crenata - Japanese Beech Fagus engleriana - Chinese Beech Fagus grandifolia - American Beech Fagus hayatae - Taiwan Beech Fagus japonica - Japanese Blue Beech Fagus longipetiolata - South Chinese Beech Fagus lucida - Shining Beech Fagus mexicana - Mexican Beech or Haya Fagus orientalis - Oriental Beech Fagus sylvatica - European Beech Beech (Fagus) is a genus... Orders & Families Cordaitales † Pinales   Pinaceae - Pine family   Araucariaceae - Araucaria family   Podocarpaceae - Yellow-wood family   Sciadopityaceae - Umbrella-pine family   Cupressaceae - Cypress family   Cephalotaxaceae - Plum-yew family   Taxaceae - Yew family Vojnovskyales † Voltziales † The conifers, division Pinophyta, are one of 13 or 14 division level taxa within the Kingdom Plantae. ... Biologically, a woodland is differentiated from a forest. ... A satellite composite image of Europe Europe is geologically and geographically a peninsula, forming the westernmost part of Eurasia. ... Walbury Hill is the highest point in Berkshire at 297 m (974 ft) above sea level. ... The metre, symbol: m, is the basic unit of distance (or of length, in the parlance of the physical sciences) in the International System of Units. ... The term above mean sea level (AMSL) refers to the elevation (on the ground) or altitude (in the air) of any object, relative to the average sea level. ...


The Wylye, Avon and Bourne valleys cut through the plain. They have narrow flood plains, steep sides, and relatively high population density. All three valleys flow down to Salisbury where the rivers meet. Durrington and Amesbury are the only towns on the plain, though there are a number of small villages and hamlets. The A303 cuts across the plain, and a tunnel is soon to be constructed to protect Stonehenge from the damage done by the huge volume of traffic which passes just metres from the stones. The River Avon is a river in the county of Hampshire in the south of England. ... The River Bourne is a river in the English county of Wiltshire, and a tributary of the River Avon. ... Fljótsdalur in East-Iceland A valley is a landform, which can range from a few square miles (square kilometers) to hundreds or even thousands of square miles (square kilometers) in area. ... In geography, a plain is an expanse of land with relatively low relief. ... Flood Plain along Lynches River Johnsonville, South Carolina Showing high water mark on tupelo and cypress trees In geography, a flood plain is a plain formed of sediment, typically dropped by a river. ... Salisbury Cathedral by Constable. ... For the Second World War frigate class, see River class frigate The Murray River in Australia A river is a large natural waterway. ... See also Amesbury, Massachusetts. ... A hamlet is (usually — see below) a small settlement. ... The A303 is a trunk road in England. ... Disused railway tunnel now converted to pedestrian and bicycle use, near Houyet, Belgium A tunnel is an underground passage. ... Stonehenge Stonehenge is a Neolithic and Bronze Age monument located near Amesbury in the English county of Wiltshire, about 8 miles (13 km) northwest of Salisbury. ... In many parts of the world traffic is generally organized, flowing in lanes of travel for a particular direction, with interchanges, traffic signals, or signage at intersectons to facilitate the orderly and timely flow of traffic. ...


The Hampshire Downs and the Berkshire and Marlborough Downs are chalk downland to the east and north of Salisbury Plain, and the Dorset Downs and Cranborne Chase are to the southwest. In the west and northwest the geology is mainly of the clays and limestones of the Blackmore Vale, Avon Vale and Vale of Wardour. To the south is the New Forest. The Dorset Downs shown within Dorset The Dorset Downs are an area of Chalk downland in the centre of the county Dorset in south west England. ... Ashmore pond Cranborne Chase is a Chalk plateau in central southern England, straddling the counties Dorset, Hampshire and Wiltshire. ... Geology (from Greek γη- (ge-, the earth) and λογος (logos, word, reason)) is the science and study of the Earth, its composition, structure, physical properties, history, and the processes that shape it. ... Clay is a generic term for an aggregate of hydrous silicate particles less than 4 μm (micrometres) in diameter. ... Limey shale overlaid by limestone. ... Sturminster Newton watermill. ... Bucklers Hard on the Beaulieu River The New Forest is an area of Hampshire in England which includes the largest remaining tracts of unenclosed pasture land, heathland and old-growth forest in the heavily-populated south east of England. ...


Salisbury Plain has featured in the writings of William Wordsworth, Thomas Hardy, William Henry Hudson, and A.G. Street and in the paintings of Constable. William Wordsworth, English poet William Wordsworth (April 7, 1770 – April 23, 1850) was an English poet who with Samuel Taylor Coleridge launched the Romantic Age in English literature with the 1798 publication of Lyrical Ballads. ... Photograph of Hardy Thomas Hardy, OM (2 June 1840 – 11 January 1928) was a novelist and poet, generally regarded as one of the greatest figures in English literature. ... William H. Hudson William Henry Hudson (August 4, 1841 - August 18, 1922) was an Argentinan-British author, naturalist and ornithologist. ... Categories: Stub | 1776 births | 1837 deaths | British painters | Romantic art | Suffolk | Romanticism ...


The plain is one of the Ministry of Defence and NATO's principal training grounds because of the sparse population. Because of the large training areas inaccessible to the public, the plain is also a wildlife haven, and home to two National Nature Reserves, but there is concern that the low level of grazing on the plain could allow scrub to encroach on the grassland. This articles deals with the British ministry, see defence minister for other countries. ... The flag of NATO NATO 2002 Summit The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), sometimes called North Atlantic Alliance, Atlantic Alliance or the Western Alliance, is an international organisation for defence collaboration established in 1949, in support of the North Atlantic Treaty signed in Washington, D.C., on April 4, 1949. ... National Nature Reserve is a United Kingdom government conservation designation for a nature reserve of national significance. ... Scrub has a number of meanings: to rub a surface hard, especially with a brush. ... An Inner Mongolia Grassland. ...


The plain is also home to DSTL Porton Down, a laboratory whose work is shrouded in secrecy. The Defence Science and Technology Laboratory (Dstl) is part of the British Ministry of Defence. ... Defence Science and Technology Laboratory, Porton Down, or often known more simply as Porton Down, is a United Kingdom government facility for military bio-chemical research. ... Biochemistry laboratory at the University of Cologne. ...


History

Stonehenge on the Salisbury Plain
Stonehenge on the Salisbury Plain

Salisbury Plain is famous for its history. In Neolithic times there was an extensive population and much of the original vegetation had been cleared. The population was centred around the causeway camps of Whitesheet Hill and Robin Hood's Ball. By 2200 BC, Stonehenge and Avebury had become a focus for building, including a large quantity of round barrows and long barrows. Around 600 BC, large Bronze Age hill forts were constructed at Scratchbury and Battlesbury. Roman roads are visible features, probably serving a settlement near Old Sarum. Villas are sparse, however, and Anglo-Saxon place names suggest that the plain was mostly a grain producing imperial estate. Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 385 KB)Stonehenge by Stefan Kühn File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 385 KB)Stonehenge by Stefan Kühn File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Stonehenge Stonehenge is a Neolithic and Bronze Age monument located near Amesbury in the English county of Wiltshire, about 8 miles (13 km) northwest of Salisbury. ... ,neos=new, lithos=stone, or New Stone Age) was a period in the development of human technology that is traditionally the last part of the Stone Age. ... (Redirected from 2200 BC) (23rd century BC - 22nd century BC - 21st century BC - other centuries) (4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC) Events 2217 - 2193 BC -- Nomadic invasions of Akkad 2181 BC -- Egypt: End of Egypt: End of Seventh Dynasty, start of Eighth Dynasty 2160 BC -- Egypt: End... Stonehenge Stonehenge is a Neolithic and Bronze Age monument located near Amesbury in the English county of Wiltshire, about 8 miles (13 km) northwest of Salisbury. ... Avebury is the site of an enormous henge and stone circles in the English county of Wiltshire, surrounding a village of the same name. ... Alternate meanings of barrow: see Barrow_in_Furness for the town of Barrow in Cumbria, England; also Barrow, Alaska in the U.S.; also River Barrow in Ireland. ... Centuries: 8th century BC - 7th century BC - 6th century BC Decades: 650s BC 640s BC 630s BC 620s BC 610s BC - 600s BC - 590s BC 580s BC 570s BC 560s BC 550s BC Events and Trends Fall of the Assyrian Empire and Rise of Babylon 609 BC _ King Josiah... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... The term hill fort is commonly used by archeologists to describe fortified enclosures located to exploit a rise in elevation for defensive advantage. ... A Roman road in Pompeii The Romans, as a military, commercial and political expedient, became adept at constructing roads; many long sections of them are ruler-straight, but it should not be thought that all of them were. ... This history article needs to be wikified. ... The idea and function of a villa has evolved considerably since its invention towards the end of the Roman Republic. ... The Anglo-Saxons refers collectively to the groups of Germanic tribes who achieved dominance in southern Britain from the mid-5th century, forming the basis for the modern English nation. ... Cereal crops are mostly grasses cultivated for their edible seeds (actually a fruit called a caryopsis). ... Imperial is a term that is used to describe something that relates to an Empire, Emperor, or the concept of Imperialism. ... An Estate comprises the houses and outbuildings and supporting farmland and woods that surround the gardens and grounds of a very large property, such as a country house or mansion. ...


In the sixth century Anglo-Saxon incomers built planned settlements in the valleys surrounded by strip lychetts, with the downland left as sheep walks. To the south is the city of Salisbury, whose 13 and 14th century cathedral is famous for having the tallest spire in the country, and the building was, for centuries, the tallest building in Britain. The cathedral is evidence of the prosperity the wool and cloth trade bought to the area. In the post-Medieval period, the system of floated flood meadows was developed, and large manors and estates developed around Salisbury. In the mid-19th century the wool and cloth industry began to decline, leading to a decline in the population and change in land use from sheep farming to agriculture and military use. Wiltshire became one of the poorest counties in England during this period of decline. There are a number of chalk carvings on the plain, of which the most famous is the Westbury White Horse. The Kennet and Avon Canal runs to the north of the plain, through the Vale of Pewsey. Salisbury Cathedral by Constable. ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... (13th century - 14th century - 15th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 14th century was that century which lasted from 1301 to 1400. ... A cathedral is a Christian church building, specifically of a denomination with an episcopal hierarchy (such as the Roman Catholic Church or the Anglican churches), which serves as the central church of a bishopric. ... A modern spire on the Lancaster University Chaplaincy Centre A spire is a tapering conical or pyramidal structure on the top of a building, particularly a church tower. ... Building is either the act of creating an object assembled from more than one element, or the object itself; see also construction. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... For the area of Sheffield, in England, see Manor, Sheffield. ... An Estate comprises the houses and outbuildings and supporting farmland and woods that surround the gardens and grounds of a very large property, such as a country house or mansion. ... Salisbury Cathedral by Constable. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Long and short hair wool at the South Central Family Farm Research Center in Boonesville, AR Wool is the fiber derived from the hair of domesticated animals, usually sheep. ... A variety of fabric. ... Binomial name Ovis aries Linnaeus, 1758 A sheep is any of several woolly ruminant quadrupeds, but most commonly the Domestic Sheep (Ovis aries), which probably descends from the wild moufflon of south-central and south-west Asia. ... Farming, ploughing rice paddy, in Indonesia Agriculture is the process of producing food, feed, fiber and other desired products by cultivation of certain plants and the raising of domesticated animals (livestock). ... Wiltshire (abbreviated Wilts) is a large southern English county. ... The Westbury White Horse is a chalk carving on Salisbury Plain in England. ... The Kennet and Avon Canal at Brass-Knocker-Bottom near Bath The Kennet and Avon Canal is a canal in southern England. ... The North Wessex Downs Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty (AONB) is located in the English counties of Berkshire, Hampshire, Oxfordshire and Wiltshire. ...


In 1896 George Kemp and Marconi experimented with wireless telegraphy on Salisbury Plain, and achieved good results over a distance of 1¾ miles. 1896 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Guglielmo Marconi (25 April 1874 – 20 July 1937) was an Italian electrical engineer and Nobel laureate, known for the development of a practical wireless telegraphy system commonly known as the radio. Marconi was President of the Accademia dItalia and a member of the Fascist Grand Council of Italy. ... Wireless telegraphy is the practice of remote writing (see telegraphy) without the wires normally involved in an electrical telegraph. ...


External links

  • The Countryside Agency - Lots of information on the plain
  • The Salisbury Plain Life Project
  • The Ministry of Defense's Salisbury Plain information document
  • William Wordsworth Poems on Salisbury Plain
  • http://www.themodernantiquarian.com

See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Salisbury Plain Life Project (799 words)
A mixed herd of 120 cows and calves was released onto the Plain on June 2nd under the close supervision of a herdsman who controls the herd by day and returns them to a temporary penning in the evening.
To restore sensitive grazing to new areas of the Plain for the benefit of the internationally important plants and other wildlife that occur on Salisbury Plain.
Salisbury Plain is the largest unbroken expanse of chalk grassland in north-west Europe (approximately 14,000 hectares), representing 41% of the UK resource.
Salisbury Plain - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (683 words)
The plain is sparsely populated and the principal land uses are arable agriculture, chalk grassland, military institutions, and a few small areas of beech and coniferous woodland.
The plain is one of the Ministry of Defence and NATO's principal training grounds because of the sparse population.
To the south is the city of Salisbury, whose 13 and 14th century cathedral is famous for having the tallest spire in the country, and the building was, for centuries, the tallest building in Britain.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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