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Encyclopedia > Salamanca
City of Salamanca

Flag

Coat of arms
Image:Salamanca, Spain location.png
Region Castilla y León
Province Salamanca
Autonomous community Castilla y León
Postal code 37001-370nn
Coordinates
 - Latitude:
 - Longitude

40°58' N
5º40' W
Altitude 802 m
Surface 38'6 km²
Distances 212 km to Madrid
115 km to Valladolid
Population
 - Total (2005)
 - Density

160,331 inhab. (census of 2005)
4153 hab./km²
Demonym Salmantino, salamanquino o salamanqués
Rivers River Tormes
Arroyo Zurguén
Mayor (2003- ) Julián Lanzarote (Partido Popular)

Salamanca (population 160,000) is a city in western Spain, the capital of the province of Salamanca, which belongs to the autonomous community (region) of Castile-Leon (Castilla y León). Image File history File links Bandera_de_Salamanca. ... Image File history File links Escudo_de_Salamanca. ... Image File history File links File links The following pages link to this file: Salamanca ... Look up Region in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Capital Valladolid Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 1st  94,223 km²  18,6% Population  â€“ Total (2003)  â€“ % of Spain  â€“ Density Ranked 6th  2,480,369  5. ... A province is a territorial unit, almost always a country subdivision. ... Salamanca province. ... Spains fifty provinces (provincias) are grouped into seventeen autonomous communities (comunidades aut nomas), in addition to two African autonomous cities (ciudades aut nomas) (Ceuta and Melilla). ... Capital Valladolid Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 1st  94,223 km²  18,6% Population  â€“ Total (2003)  â€“ % of Spain  â€“ Density Ranked 6th  2,480,369  5. ... Postcodes are generally clearly visible outside Australia Post offices. ... See Cartesian coordinate system or Coordinates (elementary mathematics) for a more elementary introduction to this topic. ... Look up grade in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A minute is a unit of time equal to 1/60th of an hour and to 60 seconds. ... Compass rose with north highlighted and at top Look up North in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A compass rose with west highlighted This article refers to the cardinal direction; for other uses see West (disambiguation). ... Altitude is the elevation of an object from a known level or datum. ... This article is about the unit of length. ... An open surface with X-, Y-, and Z-contours shown. ... Square kilometre (U.S. spelling: square kilometer), symbol km², is a decimal multiple of SI unit of surface area square metre, one of the SI derived units. ... Distance is a numerical description of how far apart objects are at any given moment in time. ... “km” redirects here. ... This article is about the Spanish capital. ... “km” redirects here. ... For the city in Mexico, see Valladolid, Yucatán. ... Population density by country, 2006 Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. ... A demonym or gentilic is a word that denotes the members of a people or the inhabitants of a place. ... For other uses, see River (disambiguation). ... From the left: Mariano Rajoy, Josep Piqué and José María Aznar during the proclamation act of Josep Piqué in September 2003 The Peoples Party (Spanish: Partido Popular) is a large liberal-conservative political party in Spain. ... In addition to its seventeen autonomous communities, Spain is divided into fifty provinces. ... Salamanca province. ... Spains fifty provinces (provincias) are grouped into seventeen autonomous communities (comunidades aut nomas), in addition to two African autonomous cities (ciudades aut nomas) (Ceuta and Melilla). ... Capital Valladolid Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 1st  94,223 km²  18,6% Population  â€“ Total (2005)  â€“ % of Spain  â€“ Density Ranked 6th  2,510,849  5. ...

Contents

Geography

The city lies on a plateau by the Tormes River, which is crossed by a bridge 150 m long built on 26 arches, fifteen of which are of Roman origin, while the remainder date from the 16th century. A Roman bridge in Vaison la Romaine, France Roman bridges, built by ancient Romans, were the first large and lasting bridges built. ...


History

The city was founded in the pre-Ancient Rome period by the Vacceos, a Celtic tribe, as one of a pair of forts to defend their territory near the Duero river. In the third century BC, Hannibal laid siege to the city. With the fall of the Carthaginians to the Romans, the city began to take more importance as a commercial hub. At this time it was called Helmantica or Salmantica.[citation needed] Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... The Vacceos were an ancient tribe who settled in the Meseta of northern Spain. ... View of the river mouth from Portos Crystal Palace Gardens, facing West Douro (Latin Durius, Spanish Duero, Portuguese Douro) is one of the major rivers of Portugal and Spain, flowing from its source near Soria across central Spain and Portugal to its outlet at Oporto. ... For other uses, see Hannibal (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Carthage (disambiguation). ... This article is about the state which existed from the 6th century BC to the 1st century BC. For the state which existed in the 18th century, see Roman Republic (18th century). ...


Salamanca surrendered to the Moors in the year 712AD. The defensive city wall was strengthened, with the Mozarab population being relegated outside of it. It was, however, a time of constant fighting with the Astur-Leonese kingdoms, and the city was trapped on the line between Christian North and Muslim South, with the city becoming a no-man's land between the two sides. It was reconquered from the Moors in the twelfth century by Ramn de Borgoa, son-in-law of Alfonso VI of Castile. For other uses, see moor. ... The Mozarabs (in Spanish, mozárabes; in Portuguese, moçárabes) were Iberian Christians living under Muslim dominion, and their descendants. ... Astur-Leonese or Bable (Asturianu in Asturian, Llïonés in Leonese) is a Romance language spoken in some parts of the provinces of Asturias, León, Zamora and Salamanca in Spain, and in the area of Miranda de Douro in Portugal (where it is officially recognized as Mirandese). ... Alfonso VI of Portugal -- (1643-1667) second king of the House of Braganza Alfonso VI of Castile -- (1065-1109) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


One of the most important moments in Salamanca's history was the year 1218, when Alfonso IX created the University of Salamanca. Soon it became one of the most significant and prestigious academic centres in Europe.[1] The University of Salamanca (Spanish: Universidad de Salamanca), located in the town of Salamanca, west of Madrid, is the second oldest university in Spain (the first one is the university of Palencia, now disappeared), and one of the oldest in Europe. ...


In the Peninsular War of the Napoleonic campaigns, the Battle of Salamanca, fought July 22, 1812, was a serious setback for the French, and a mighty setback for Salamanca, whose western quarter was seriously damaged. The battle which raged that day is famous as a defining moment in military history; many thousands of men were slaughtered by cannon fire in the space of only a few short hours. For the 1862 American Civil War campaign, see Peninsula Campaign. ... Combatants United Kingdom, Portugal, Spain French Empire Commanders Earl of Wellington Auguste Marmont Strength 51,949[1] 49,647[2] Casualties 5,914 dead or wounded 13,000 dead, wounded, or captured The Battle of Salamanca (July 22, 1812) was an important victory for an Anglo-Portuguese army under Earl... is the 203rd day of the year (204th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the overture by Tchaikovsky, see 1812 Overture; For the wars, see War of 1812 (USA - United Kingdom) or Patriotic War of 1812 (France - Russia) For the Siberia Airlines plane crashed over the Black Sea on October 4, 2001, see Siberia Airlines Flight 1812 1812 was a leap year starting...


Main sights

Salamanca is considered one of the most spectacular Renaissance cities in Europe. Through the centuries the sandstone buildings have gained an exquisite golden glow that has given Salamanca the nickname La Ciudad Dorada, the golden city. This golden glow is unique in Spain and is due to the "Villamayor Stone", a type of sandstone coming from a quarry situated in Villamayor, a village close to Salamanca. This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ...


The Plaza Mayor is the central square in the city and is known as the living room of the Salmantinos (Salamancans). It was constructed by Andrés García de Quiñones at the beginning of the 18th century. The plaza has a capacity of 20,000 people and is surrounded by shaded arcades. The plaza was originally a venue for bullfights but is currently used primarily for concerts. The plaza is regarded as one of the finest squares in Europe. Next to Main Square we can see the Central Market of Salamanca with typical fresh products of Spain. Plaza is a Spanish word related to field which describes an open urban public space, such as a city square. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Central Market of Salamanca, is the oldest market of the city. ...


The old Romanesque cathedral was founded in the 12th century. The dome that covers its crossing springs from a double arcade that is daringly pierced with windows, a distant reflection of Hagia Sophia. The mass of four pinnacles at the outside corners counter the thrust of the dome's weight. The thrust of the vaulting is borne by four massive pinnacles. The vault of the apse was frescoed by the Early Renaissance painter Nicolas Florentino. The adjoining "new" cathedral was built in stages from 1509 and combines Late Gothic architecture, particularly in the interior, with the Renaissance style called Plateresque. It was still being finished in 1734. In the treasury is the bronze crucifix that was carried into battle before El Cid. South transept of Tournai Cathedral, Belgium, 12th century. ... For other uses, see Dome (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Hagia Sophia (disambiguation). ... This article is about an architectural feature; for the astronomical term see apsis. ... The new cathedral of Salamanca is, next to the Old Cathedral, one of the two cathedrals of the city. ... The western facade of Reims Cathedral, France. ... Plateresque refers to the 15th and 16th century art form in Spain, characterized by an ornate style of architecture. ... Statue of El Cid in Burgos. ...


The Augustinian monastery contains the tomb of the count and countess de Monterrey, by Alessandro Algardi. Alessandro Algardi (July 31, 1598 - June 10, 1654), was an Italian sculptor and architect. ...


Since 1996 Salamanca has been the designated site of the archive of the Spanish Civil War (Archivo General de la Guerra Civil Española). This archive was assembled by the Francoist regime, selectively obtained from the administrative departments of various institutions and organizations during the Spanish Civil War as a repressive instrument used against opposition groups and individuals. [2] The socialist government moved the Catalan part of the archive to Barcelona in 2006 despite opposition from the local authorities and popular protests. Salamanca's mayor, Julian Lanzarote (PP), changed the name of the street where the archive is located from "Gibraltar" to "El expolio" ("the plundering") in February 2006. Not to be confused with the Spanish Civil War of 1820-1823. ... “Franco” redirects here. ... From the left: Mariano Rajoy, Josep Piqué and José María Aznar during the proclamation act of Josep Piqué in September 2003 The Peoples Party (Spanish: Partido Popular) is a large liberal-conservative political party in Spain. ...


In 1551 Charles V the Holy Roman Emperor ordered an inquiry to find out if the science of Andreas Vesalius, physician and anatomist, was in line with the Catholic doctrine. Vesalius came to Salamanca that same year to appear before the board and was acquitted.


Culture and sports

Old City of Salamanca*
UNESCO World Heritage Site

Salamanca Cathedral
State Party Flag of Spain Spain
Type Cultural
Criteria i, ii, iv
Reference 381
Region Europe and North America
Inscription history
Inscription 1988  (12th Session)
* Name as inscribed on World Heritage List.
† Region as classified by UNESCO.

In 2002 Salamanca shared the title of European Capital of Culture with Bruges. Salamanca is a popular tourist destination, especially in the summer. Tourism is the primary economic activity in the city. A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... As of 2006, there are a total of 830 World Heritage Sites located in 138 State Parties. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Spain. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... This is a list of the UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Europe. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... Geography Country Belgium Community Flemish Community Region Flemish Region Province West Flanders Arrondissement Bruges Coordinates , , Area 138. ...


Salamanca offers the amenities of a larger city while retaining an intimate small town atmosphere. Since 1923, "Los Charros", formally the Union Deportiva Salamanca, have been the Salamanca soccer team from Salamanca. Unión Deportiva Salamanca is a Spanish football team based in Salamanca. ...


Salamanca's inhabitants are said to speak the "purest" Spanish of Spain, a reputation it shares with Valladolid. For this reason Salamanca is popular with people all over the world who want to learn Spanish.[citation needed] For the city in Mexico, see Valladolid, Yucatán. ...


Salmanca was the setting for the 2008 political thriller Vantage Point, although the movie was almost exclusively filmed in Mexico. Vantage Point is a 2008 thriller film. ...


The classic dish of the Salamancan, known as Charreria ("peasant lands"), is a cocido, a baked casserole of garbanzo beans. Binomial name Cicer arietinum L. The chickpea, garbanzo bean or bengal gram (Cicer arietinum) is an edible pulse of the Leguminosae or Fabaceae family, subfamily Faboideae or Papilionoideae. ...


A traditional Salmantinian celebration is the Lunes de Aguas, "Water Monday", the Monday after the Sunday following Easter. Originally this served to celebrate the official allowance of the authorities for the prostitutes to return to the city after Lent and Easter. All the shops close and Salmantinos picnic in the countryside to eat a kind of pie called "hornazo".


University

Plateresque facade of the University.
Plateresque facade of the University.

In 1218, Alfonso IX of León founded the University of Salamanca. Under the patronage of the learned Alfonso X, its wealth and reputation greatly increased (1252-1282), and its schools of canon law and civil law attracted students even from the Universities of Paris and Bologna. At the height of the university, in the 16th century, one in five of Salamanca's residents was a student[citation needed], and the city's fortunes depended on those of the university. About the time Christopher Columbus was lecturing there on his discoveries, Hernán Cortés took classes at Salamanca, but returned home in 1501 at age 17, without completing his course of study. (About ten years later the conquistador Francisco Vázquez de Coronado was born in Salamanca.) It was scholars of the University, heavily influenced by the Paris-based Scottish philosopher John Mair, who established in Spanish law (at the Council of Burgos, 1512) the right to life and liberty of the indigenous peoples of America - perhaps the first ever international statement of human rights. Miguel de Unamuno was a student here as was Miguel de Cervantes. Ignatius Loyola, while studying at Salamanca in 1527, was brought before an ecclesiastical commission on a charge of sympathy with the alumbrados, but escaped with an admonition. In the next generation St. John of the Cross studied at Salamanca and so did the poet and writer Mateo Aleman. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 495 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (990 × 1200 pixel, file size: 265 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Fachada de la Universidad de Salamanca (España) Facade of University of Salamanca (Spain) Author: valyag File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 495 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (990 × 1200 pixel, file size: 265 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Fachada de la Universidad de Salamanca (España) Facade of University of Salamanca (Spain) Author: valyag File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link... Alfonso IX of León (August 15, 1171 â€“ September 23 or 24, 1230; ruled from 1188–1230), first cousin of Alfonso VIII of Castile, and numbered next to him as being a junior member of the family, is said by Ibn Khaldun to have been called the Baboso or Slobberer... The University of Salamanca (Spanish: Universidad de Salamanca), located in the town of Salamanca, west of Madrid, is the second oldest university in Spain (the first one is the university of Palencia, now disappeared), and one of the oldest in Europe. ... Alfonso X and his court. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Canon law is the term used for... For other uses of civil law, see civil law. ... Christopher Columbus (1451 – May 20, 1506) was a navigator, colonizer, and explorer and one of the first Europeans to explore the Americas after the Vikings. ... Hernán(do) Cortés Pizarro, 1st Marqués del Valle de Oaxaca (1485–December 2, 1547) was the conquistador who became famous for leading the military expedition that initiated the Spanish Conquest of Mexico. ... A Conquistador (Spanish: []) (English: Conqueror) was a Spanish soldier, explorer and adventurer who took part in the gradual invasion and conquering of much of the Americas and Asia Pacific, bringing them under Spanish colonial rule between the 15th and 19th centuries. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... John Mair, or John Major (1467-1550) was Scottish philosopher. ... The cathedral Our Lady of Burgos. ... For other uses, see Native Americans (disambiguation). ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... Don Miguel de Unamuno Miguel de Unamuno y Jugo (September 29, 1864–December 31, 1936) was an essayist, novelist, poet, playwright and philosopher from Spain. ... Cervantes redirects here. ... Ignatius of Loyola Saint Ignatius of Loyola (December 24, 1491? – July 31, 1556), baptized Íñigo López de Loyola, was the founder of the Society of Jesus, a Roman Catholic religious order commonly known as the Jesuits that was established to strengthen the Church, initially against Protestantism. ... For other uses, see Illuminati (disambiguation). ... For the personification of the average Filipino, see Juan de la Cruz, and for another Saint who lived around the same time and area, see John of Avila Saint John of the Cross (San Juan de la Cruz) (June 24, 1542 – December 14, 1591) was a major figure in the... Mateo Aleman (1547 - 1609?), Spanish novelist and man of letters, was born at Seville. ...


Many people continue to come from all parts of Spain to study at the University, and the students represent a significant percentage of the city's population (the University has 36000 students, approximately). The support of the student population is one of the most important economic activities in the city. These young people (also consisting of international students studying the Spanish language) provide Salamanca with a highly active night life, specially when school is in session on both weekdays and weekends. This has led Salamanca to be in the top list of cities with the highest bar per inhabitant ratios in Europe, second to Bilbao.
La Muy Noble y Muy Leal e Invicta (The most noble and most loyal and undefeated) Location Location of Bilbao in Spain and Biscay Coordinates : , Time zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer : CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Bilbao (Basque) Spanish name Bilbao Nickname El Botxo (the hole) Founded 15...


Town twinning

Image File history File links Flag_of_Portugal. ... Location    - Country  Portugal  - Region Centro  - Subregion Baixo Mondego  - District or A.R. Coimbra Mayor Carlos Encarnação  - Party PSD Area 319. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Nîmes is a city and commune of southern France, préfecture (capital) of the Gard département. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... For the German World War II radar system of the same name, see Würzburg radar. ...

Gallery

See also

  • Salmantinos (Latin for 'people/things from Salamanca'; several specific uses)
  • Salmanticenses (Is another denomination for the 'people/things from Salamanca'; it is less used than the one above.)

The School of Salamanca is the renaissance of thought in diverse intellectual areas by Spanish theologians, rooted in the intellectual and pedagogical work of Francisco de Vitoria. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Museums (among many other without a webpage): Image File history File links Commons-logo. ...

Electronic editions of local newspapers:

Coordinates: 40°58′N, 5°39′W Image File history File links Flag_of_Spain. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Salamanca Study Abroad, Spain (555 words)
Salamanca has a sizable population (about 180,000), which allows it to offer students the advantages of a city.
Salamanca also tends to be off the beaten track for tourists so there are less of the influences associated with tourism and modern development that have affected many of the other cities in Spain.
All in all, Salamanca provides some unparalleled benefits for the student who wants to study abroad in Spain with the comfortable feeling of a university town and the convenience of a city that could have been designed for students.
Learn Spanish in Salamanca. Salamanca Spanish School (451 words)
Salamanca is large enough to be able to offer the advantages of a big city but, at the same time, it has the friendly atmosphere of a small town.
Salamanca was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site and is known as “La Dorada” -the golden city- because of the golden glow of its sandstone buildings.
Salamanca is normally cold in the winter, with the sun breaking through for a few hours a day.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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