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DeobandiBarelwi
Salafism The religion of Islam has many divisions, sects, schools, traditions, and related faiths. ... The Deobandi (Urdu: دیو بندی devbandī) is an Sunni Islamic revivalist movement which started in South Asia and has more recently spread to other countries, such as Afghanistan, South Africa and the United Kingdom. ... Barelwi (Hindi: बरैल्वि, Urdu: بریلوی) is a movement of Sunni Islam in South Asia that was founded by Ahmed Raza Khan of Bareilly, India (hence the term Barelwi). ...

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The authentic collection (Arabic: الجامع الصحيح, al-Jaami al-Sahih [1]) or popularly al-Bukharis authentic (Arabic: صحيح البخاري, Sahih al-Bukhari) is one of the Sunni six major Hadith collections (Hadith are oral traditions recounting events in the lives of the Islamic prophet Muhammad ). Sunni view this as their most trusted collection. ... Sahih Muslim (Arabic: صحيح مسلم, ṣaḥīḥ muslim) is one of the Sunni Six Major Hadith collections, collected by Imam Muslim. ... as-Sunan as-Sughra (Arabic: السنن الصغرى), also known as Sunan an-Nasai (Arabic: سنن النسائي) is one of the Sunni Six Major Hadith collections, and was collected by Al-Nasai. ... Sunan Abu Daud (Arabic: ) is one of the Sunni Six Major Hadith collections , collected by Abu Daud. ... Sunan al-Tirmidhi is one of the six most authentic canonical hadith collections of the Sunnis, collected by al-Tirmidhi. ... Sunan Ibn Maja is the last compiled of Sunni Islams six canonical hadith collections, compiled by Ibn Maja. ... The Muwatta is a collection of hadith of the Muhammad that form the basis for the jurisprudence of the Maliki school. ... Sunan al-Darami is a Hadith collection consider by some Sunnis to be the sixth of the Six major Hadith collections. ...

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This article is on an Islamic movement. For the article on the group of early Muslims, see Salaf

Salafism (Arabic: سلفي "predecessors" or "early generations"), is a Sunni Islamic school of thought that takes the pious ancestors (Salaf) of the patristic period of early Islam as exemplary models[1]. Salafis view the first three generations of Muslims, who are Muhammad's companions, and the two succeeding generations after them, the Tabi‘in and the Taba‘ at-Tabi‘in, as examples of how Islam should be practiced. This principle is derived from the following hadith by Muhammad: This article is on the group of early Muslims. ... The Arabic alphabet is the script used for writing languages such as Arabic, Persian, Urdu, and others. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... This article is on the group of early Muslims. ... The Church Fathers or Fathers of the Church are the early and influential theologians and writers in the Christian Church, particularly those of the first five centuries of Christian history. ... The Tābi‘īn (Arabic: ‎ Followers) are the generation of Muslims who were born after the death of Muhammad but who were contemporary of the Sahaba Companions. As such they played an important part in the development of Islamic thought and philosophy, and in the political development of the early... Tāba‘ at-Tābi‘īn (Arabic: ‎) is the generation after the Tabieen in Islam. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...

The people of my generation are the best, then those who follow them, and then whose who follow the latter (i.e. the first three generations of Muslims).[2]

The principal tenet of Salafism is that Islam was perfect and complete during the days of Muhammad and his companions, but that undesirable innovations have been added over the later centuries due to materialist and cultural influences. Salafism seeks to revive a practice of Islam that more closely resembles the religion during the time of Muhammad. [3] Salafism has also been described as a simplified version of Islam, in which adherents follow a few commands and practices.[4]


Salafism is often used interchangeably with "Wahhabism". Adherents usually reject this term because it is considered derogatory and because none of the adherents of Salafism in the past ever referred to themselves as such. Typically, they used terms like "Muwahidoon," "Ahle Hadith,"[5] or "Ahl at-Tawheed." [6] Wahhabism (Arabic: Al-Wahhābīyya الوهابية, Wahabism) is a branch of Sunni Islam practised by those who follow the teachings of Muhammad ibn Abd-al-Wahhab, after whom the movement is named. ... Ahl Hadith (Urdu: اہل حدیث, ahl-e hadīs) is a Hanbali school of jurisprudence in Pakistan. ...

Contents

Etymology

The word "Salaf" is short for "Salaf al-Ṣāliḥ" (Arabic: السلف الصالح), meaning "(righteous) predecessors" or "(pious) ancestors." In Islamic terminology, it is generally used to refer to the first three generations of Muslims: the Sahabah, the Tabi‘in and the Taba‘ at-Tabi‘in. These three generations are looked upon as examples of how Islam should be practiced. This article is on the group of early Muslims. ... “Arabic” redirects here. ... Islam (Arabic: ; ( â–¶ (help· info)), the submission to God) is a monotheistic faith, one of the Abrahamic religions and the worlds second-largest religion. ... In the Islamic religion, the Sahaba (Asahaaba,الصحابه) are the companions of the Prophet Muhammad. ... The Tābi‘īn (Arabic: ‎ Followers) are the generation of Muslims who were born after the death of Muhammad but who were contemporary of the Sahaba Companions. As such they played an important part in the development of Islamic thought and philosophy, and in the political development of the early... Tāba‘ at-Tābi‘īn (Arabic: ‎) is the generation after the Tabieen in Islam. ...


Distinctive beliefs and practices

Just who, or what groups and movements, qualify as salafi is disputed.

  • Some define the term broadly, including the Muslim Brotherhood (who include the term salafi in the min nahnu (about us) section of their website[7]), and Deobandi[7]
  • In general however, the term excludes the Muslim Brotherhood [8][9]and Deobandi [10][11] since they believe these groups commit religious innovations (bid'ah), or worse.

Whichever definition is used, Salafis idealize an uncorrupted, pure Islamic religious community. They believe that Islam's decline after the early generations is the result of religious innovations (bid‘ah) and that an Islamic revival will result through the emulation of the three early generations and the purging of foreign influences from the religion. Particular emphasis is given to monotheism - (tawhid); many Muslim practices which have now become common are condemned as polytheism (shirk). Salafis believe that widespread Muslim practices such as venerating the graves of Islamic prophets and saints to be shirk. Salafis in general are opposed to both Sufi and Shi'a doctrines, which Salafis regard as having many aspects of shirk and bid`ah. The Muslim Brothers (Arabic: الإخوان المسلمون al-ikhwān al-muslimÅ«n, full title The Society of the Muslim Brothers, often simply الإخوان al-ikhwān, the Brotherhood or MB) is a world-wide Sunni Islamist movement and the worlds largest, most influential Islamist group[1]. The MB is the largest political... The Deobandi (Urdu: دیو بندی devbandÄ«) is an Sunni Islamic revivalist movement which started in South Asia and has more recently spread to other countries, such as Afghanistan, South Africa and the United Kingdom. ... Bidah (Arabic: بدعة ) is an Islamic term meaning (improper) innovation of religious beliefs or worship. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... The Quran identifies a number of men as prophets of Islam. ... In traditional Christian iconography, Saints are often depicted as having halos. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... Sufism is a mystic tradition within Islam which encompasses a diverse range of beliefs and practices dedicated to divine love and the cultivation of the heart. ... Shia Islam ( Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite or Shiite) is the second largest Islamic denomination; some 20-25% of all Muslims are said to follow a Shia tradition. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... This article is about the Arabic term. ...


Salafis reject dogmatic theology (kalam). They consider this to be based on classical Greek philosophy (such as Plato and Aristotle) and an import foreign to the original practice of Islam. Kalam (علم الكلم)is one of the religious sciences of Islam. ... Greek philosophy focused on the role of reason and inquiry. ... PLATO was one of the first generalized Computer assisted instruction systems, originally built by the University of Illinois (U of I) and later taken over by Control Data Corporation (CDC), who provided the machines it ran on. ... Aristotle (Greek: Aristotélēs) (384 BC – 322 BC) was a Greek philosopher, a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ...


Salafis place great emphasis on ritual not only in prayer but in every activity in life -- many are careful to always use three fingers when eating, drink water in three pauses with the right hand while sitting [12], make sure their galabea or other garment worn by them does not extend below the ankle[13] -- so as to follow the example of Muhammad and the companions and make religion part of every activity in life. Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ...


Salafism differs from the earlier contemporary Islamic revival movements of the 1970s and 1980s commonly referred to as Islamism, in that (at least many) Salafis reject not only Western ideologies such as Socialism and Capitalism, but also common Western concepts like economics, constitutions, political parties, revolution and social justice. Muslims should not engage in Western activities like politics, "even by giving them an Islamic slant." [14] Instead, Muslims should stick to traditional activities, particularly Dawah. Salafis promote Sharia rather than an Islamic political program or state. For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, also called The Seventies. ... The 1980s refers to the years from 1980 to 1989. ... For the religion of Islam, see Islam. ... For this articles equivalent regarding the East, see Eastern culture. ... Socialism refers to a broad array of doctrines or political movements that envisage a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subjfuck grapesect to control by the community[1] for the purposes of increasing social and economic equality and cooperation. ... For other uses, see Capitalism (disambiguation). ... For this articles equivalent regarding the East, see Eastern culture. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... For this articles equivalent regarding the East, see Eastern culture. ... A Muslim is a believer in or follower of Islam. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Sharia (Arabic: transliteration: ) is the dynamic body of Islamic religious law. ... Islam (Arabic: ; ( ▶ (help· info)), the submission to God) is a monotheistic faith, one of the Abrahamic religions and the worlds second-largest religion. ...


Salafism is a movement, and like the Sufis, Salafis can come from the Maliki, the Shafi, the Hanbali, or the Hanafi[6]. Salafis are divided on the question of adherence to the four recognized schools of legal interpretation (madh'habs). Sufism (Arabic تصوف taṣawwuf) is a system of esoteric philosophy commonly associated with Islam. ... This page deals with Islamic thought. ... Shafii is one of the four schools of Fiqh or religious law within Sunni Islam. ... Hanbali (Arabic: حنبلى ) is one of the four schools (Madhhabs) of Fiqh or religious law within Sunni Islam. ... The Hanafi (Arabic حنفي) school is the oldest of the four schools of thought (Madhhabs) or jurisprudence (Fiqh) within Sunni Islam. ... Madhhab or Mazhab (Arabic مذهب pl. ...

  • Salafis must base their jurisprudence directly on the Qu'ran and Sunnah and the first three generations of Muslims. They believe that literal readings of the Qur'an and the Hadith and the Ijma (consensus) of the Ulema, are sufficient guidance for the believing Muslim. Virtually all Salafi scholars support this position.
  • Some Salafis rely on the jurisprudence of one of the four famous madh'habs. For example, Ibn Taymiya followed the Hanbali madhhab. Some of his students (such as Ibn Kathir and Al-Dhahabi) followed the Shafi madhhab. Other students (such as Ibn Abu al-Iz) follow the Hanafi madhhab. However none of the madh'habs are to be followed blindly, and in some cases Salafis may choose opinions that differ from any of them.

The Quran ( Arabic al-qurʾān أَلْقُرآن; its literal meaning is the recitation and is often called Al Quran Al Karim: The Noble Quran, also transliterated as Quran, Koran, and less commonly Alcoran) is the holy book... Sunnah(t) () literally means “trodden path”, and therefore, the sunnah of the prophet means “the way of the prophet”. Terminologically, the word ‘Sunnah’ in Sunni Islam means those religious actions that were instituted by Muhammad(PBUH) during the 23 years of his ministry and which Muslims initially received through consensus... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: ;, literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Ijmāʿ (إجماع) is an Arabic tern referring to the consensus of the ummah, the community of Muslims, those practicing Islam, or of the ulema, those learned in the relevant topic. ... Ulema (, transliteration: , singular: , transliteration: , scholar) (The people of Islamic Knowledge) refers to the educated class of Muslim legal scholars engaged in the several fields of Islamic studies. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... This 14th-century statue from south India depicts the gods Shiva (on the left) and Uma (on the right). ... Taqi Ad-din Abu Al-abbas Ahmad Ibn abd As-salam Ibn abd Allah Ibn Muhammad Ibn Taymiya (Arabic: أبو عباس تقي الدين أحمد بن عبد السلام بن عبد الله ابن تيمية الحراني) (January 22, 1263 - 1328), was an Islamic scholar born in Harran, located in what is now Turkey, close to the Syrian border. ... Ibn al-Qayyim is the salafi Imam of Ahl Al-Sunna Wal-Jamaa, the haafidh (preserver of hadith), the scholar of tafseer (Quranic exegesis), usool (fundamentals of jurisprudence and law) and Fiqh (jurisprudence), Aboo ’Abdullaah Shamsud-Deen Muhammad Ibn Abee Bakr - better known as Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah (or... Ibn Kathir (Arabic : بن كثير ) was an Islamic scholar born in Busra, Syria in 1301 CE. He was taught by the Islamic scholar Ibn Taymiyya in Damascus, Syria. ... Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab at-Tamimi (1703AD – 1792AD) (Arabic:محمد بن عبد الوهاب التميمي) was an Arab theologian born in Najd, in present-day Saudi Arabia and an influential scholar among modern Salafis; it is from him that the term Wahhabism is derived. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... Madhhab or Mazhab (Arabic مذهب pl. ... Taqi Ad-din Abu Al-abbas Ahmad Ibn abd As-salam Ibn abd Allah Ibn Muhammad Ibn Taymiya (Arabic: أبو عباس تقي الدين أحمد بن عبد السلام بن عبد الله ابن تيمية الحراني) (January 22, 1263 - 1328), was an Islamic scholar born in Harran, located in what is now Turkey, close to the Syrian border. ... Hanbali (Arabic: حنبلى ) is one of the four schools (Madhhabs) of Fiqh or religious law within Sunni Islam. ... Ibn Kathir (Arabic : بن كثير ) was an Islamic scholar born in Busra, Syria in 1301 CE. He was taught by the Islamic scholar Ibn Taymiyya in Damascus, Syria. ... Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn Uthman ibn Qaymaz, Abu Abdullah Shams al-Din al-Dhahabi, ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺃﺣﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺜﻤﺎﻥ ﺑﻦ ﻗﻴﻤﺰ ﺍﺑﻮ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺷﻤﺲ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺬﻫﺒﻲ the great Shafii hadith master (hafiz) and historian of Islam, born in Damascus in 673/1274. ... Shafii is one of the four schools of Fiqh or religious law within Sunni Islam. ... Ibn Abu al-Iz (731-792 A.H) (Arabic: ابن أبي العز) Imam Sadru-Deen Ali ibn Abu al-Iz - Hanafi scholar. ... The Hanafi (Arabic حنفي) school is the oldest of the four schools of thought (Madhhabs) or jurisprudence (Fiqh) within Sunni Islam. ... Madhhab or Mazhab (Arabic مذهب pl. ...

History of Salafism

From the perspective of the Salafis themselves, their history starts with Muhammad himself. They consider themselves direct followers of his teachings, and wish to emulate the piety of the first three generations of Islam (the Salaf). All later scholars are merely revivers (not 'founders'). Modern scholars may only come to teach (or remind) us of the instructions of the original followers of Islam. From the perspective of some others, however, the history of Salafism started a few hundred years ago, the exact time and place still being a matter of discussion. Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... This article is on the group of early Muslims. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ...


From a perspective widely shared by scholars of Islam, the history of Salafism started in Egypt in the mid 19th century among intellectuals at al-Azhar University, the preeminent center of Islamic learning, located in Cairo. Prominent among them were Muhammad Abduh (1849-1905), Jamal al-Din al-Afghani (1839-1897) and Rashid Rida (1865-1935).[15][16][17][18][19] These early reformers recognized the need for an Islamic revival, noticing the changing fortunes in the Islamic world following the Enlightenment in Europe. Al-Afghani was a political activist, whereas Abduh, an educator, and head of Egypt's religious law courts, sought gradual social reform and legal reform "to make sharia relevant to modern problems." Abduh Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Al-Azhar Mosque in Cairo Egypt Al-Azhar University (Arabic: الأزهر الشريف; al-Azhar al-Shareef, the Noble Azhar), is a premier Egyptian institution of higher learning, world-renowned for its position as a center of Islamic scholarship and education. ... Nickname: Egypt: Site of Cairo (top center) Coordinates: , Government  - Governor Dr. Abdul Azim Wazir Area  - City 214 km²  (82. ... Mohammed Abduh Muhammad Abduh (or Muhammad Abduh) (Arabic: محمد عبده ) (Nile Delta, 1849 - Alexandria, July 11, 1905, ) was an Egyptian jurist, religious scholar and liberal reformer known as the founder of Islamic Modernism. ... Jamāl al-DÄ«n al-AfghānÄ«, also known as Sayyid JamāluddÄ«n AsadābādÄ« and Sayyid Muhammad Ibn Safdar al-Husayn (1838[1]-1897), was one of the founders of Islamic modernism,[2] and a political activist and Islamic nationalist in Afghanistan, Iran (then Persia), Egypt... Rashid Rida (1865-1935) was a Syrian intellectual of the Islamic modernist tradition pioneered by Jamal al-Din al-Afghani and Muhammad Abduh. ... Renaissance Party (Hizb al-Nahda/Parti de la Renaissance) is an illegal opposition political party in Tunisia. ... The Enlightenment (French: ; German: ) was an eighteenth-century movement in European and American philosophy, or the longer period including the Age of Reason. ...

argued that the early generations of Muslims (the salaf al-salihin, hence the name Salafiyya, which is given to Abduh and his disciples) had produced a vibrant civilization because they had creatively interpreted the Quran and hadith to answer the needs of their times. [20]

Other self-described Salafi disavow these early figures. One prominent Salafi website, for example, describing itself as promoting "the creed and manhaj of the salaf us-saalih - pure and clear," [21], includes among its publications one claiming al-Afghani and Muhammad ‘Abduh were "known freemasons and ... also upon great misguidance in their ideologies." It alleges they were interested in an "anti-colonial political movement" rather than "orthodox Islaam" or "the way of the Salaf," but their

call was deceptively surrounded with slogans of `returning back to the way of the forefathers.` It is for this reason that you see the mistaken notion amongst western writers that `Salafiyyah` began at the hands of Jamaal ud-Deen al-Afghaani, and Muhammad Abduh, and also the mistaken notion that Hassan al-Bannah was upon `Salafiyyah`, due to the influence of Muhammad Rasheed Ridhaa upon him. [22][23]

Many self-described Salafi today point instead to Muhammad ibn Abd-al-Wahhab as the first figure in the modern era to push for a return to the religious practices of the salaf as-salih or "righteous predecessors". [24] His evangelizing in 18th century Saudi Arabia was a call to return to what he believed were the practices of the early generations of Muslims. His works (especially Kitab at-Tawhid) are still widely read by Salafis around the world today, and the majority of Salafi scholars still reference his works frequently.[25] After his death, his views flourished under the generous financing of the House of Saud and initiated the current worldwide Salafi movement. Regardless, it should still be pointed out that the terms "Salafi" and Wahhabi are not necessarily synonymous. Wahhabism has been variously described as a subset of Salafism,[6] a derogatory synonym for Salafism, [26] or a formerly separate current of Islamic thought that appropriated "language and symbolism of Salafism" until the two became "practically indistinguishable" in the 1970s.[27] Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab at-Tamimi (1703AD – 1792AD) (Arabic:محمد بن عبد الوهاب التميمي) was an Arab theologian born in Najd, in present-day Saudi Arabia and an influential scholar among modern Salafis; it is from him that the term Wahhabism is derived. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... The House of Saud ( transliteration: ) is the royal family of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. ... Wahhabism (sometimes spelled Wahabbism or Wahabism) is a movement of Islam named after Muhammad ibn Abd al Wahhab (1703–1792). ... Wahhabism (sometimes spelled Wahabbism or Wahabism) is a movement of Islam named after Muhammad ibn Abd al Wahhab (1703–1792). ...


In recent years considerable publicity has been given to the self-described Salafism of Al-Qaeda, and related groups calling for the killing of civilians, and opposed many Muslim groups and governments, including the Saudi government and Muslim Brotherhood.[28] Debate continues today over the appropriate method of reform, ranging from violent political Islamism to less politicized evangelism. Despite some similarities, the different modern groups that claim to be part of Salafism often strongly disapprove of each other and deny their Salafi character. Al-Qaeda (Arabic: القاعدة, the foundation or the base) is the name given to a worldwide network of militant Islamist organizations under the leadership of Osama bin Laden. ... The Muslim Brothers (Arabic: الإخوان المسلمون al-ikhwān al-muslimÅ«n, full title The Society of the Muslim Brothers, often simply الإخوان al-ikhwān, the Brotherhood or MB) is a world-wide Sunni Islamist movement and the worlds largest, most influential Islamist group[1]. The MB is the largest political... For the religion of Islam, see Islam. ...


Contemporary Salafis

Spread and effect

Salafism is a movement within Sunni Islam. It includes many groups and shades of belief. It is strongest in the Middle East, but it is also found in most other Muslim-majority countries (see Islam by country and Demographics of Islam). It is increasingly important to diasporic Muslims in Europe, Canada, and the United States. A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Muslim percentage of population by country Distribution of Islam per country. ... The following table analyzes the Demographics of Islam as of mid-year 2005. ... For other uses, see Diaspora (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...


For rootless immigrants and disaffected second-generation youths in Europe, salafism provides the attraction of the authentic. For those living in the squalid metropolises of the Middle East, it offers an emotionally rich alternative to the slogans of Arab nationalism. Salafism appeals to younger Muslims as a way to differentiate themselves from their parents and grandparents because it is seen as pure, stripped of the local, superstitious, and customary usages of their families' countries of origin. It confers a sense of moral superiority. Salafism has a potent appeal because it underscores Islam's universality[29]. Arab nationalism refers to a common nationalist ideology in wider Arab world. ...


Salafism insists on the inerrancy of Muslim scripture and what might be called a strict constructionist brand of sharia or religious law[29]. The Salafis transmitted from the traditionalists, and the secularists from the modernists. Salafism was able to outdo secularism by taking over its traditional role of defending the weak against the powerful[30]. The impulse of Salafism has forced political leaders in the Middle East to accommodate a greater role for religion in public policy[31].


Political affiliation

The various Salafi groups tend to differ not so much in matters of Islamic practice, such as prescriptions for prayer (salat) or Islamic dress (hijab) as in their attitude towards the state. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... “Higab” redirects here. ...

  • Some Salafis urge believers to support or endure the state under which they live. Believers are encouraged to spread Salafism non-violently, by missionary activity, social work, and political organization. Above all, they should help each other lead lives of true Islamic piety. (Rabee Al-Madkhali)
  • Some Salafis believe that jihad is permissible against foreign, non-Muslim, occupation, but not against governments that claim to be Islamic. Those governments are to be reformed, not violently overthrown. Civil war (fitna) is to be avoided. (Salman al-Auda)
  • Some Salafis (sometimes called Jihadist-Salafists) believe that it is permissible, even required, for believers to engage in jihad against regimes that claim to be Islamic, because they do not follow Sharia law and thus are not Islamic. These Salafis have generated the most publicity in the non-Muslim world because of their global jihad network which has attracted Muslims from around the world to fight in such places as Iraq, Kashmir, Bosnia, Chechnya, Afghanistan, and the Philippines. Organizations that have been dubbed salafi-jihadist include Jaish-e-Mohammed, Sipah-e-Sahaba of Pakistan, [32] and Al-Qaeda. One of the most famous proponents for violence, (or "physical power and Jihaad for abolishing the organizations and authorities of the Jahili system") [33] was Sayyed Qutb, an Egyptian member of the Muslim Brotherhood who wrote a short manifesto on political Islam called Ma'alim fi-l-Tariq or Milestones. Hence these Muslims are sometimes called Qutbis and/or Ikhwanis. Not all jihadists are part of a global network. In Central Asia and the Caucasus the salafi-jihadist movement is more localized -- an expression of identity in areas such as Ferghana, villages in Daghestan, and upper Gharm valley. In Central Asia, the term "Wahabi" refers not to the Saudis but generally to Islamic religious movements outside the states' control, and also to fundamentalists hailing from Pakistan or Afghanistan, whether or not these Muslims belong to a political movement. [6]

Despite some similarities, the different tendencies often strongly disapprove of each other and deny their Salafi character. Dr. Rabee Ibn Haadee Umayr al-Madkhalee (ربيع بن هادي عمير المدخلي) is a university professor, a well-known Muslim scholar, and a proponent of Salafism. ... Fitna (فتنة) is an Arabic word, generally regarded as very difficult to translate but at the same time is considered to be an all encompassing word referring to schism, secession, upheaval and anarchy at once. ... Sharia (Arabic: transliteration: ) is the dynamic body of Islamic religious law. ... For other uses, see Jihad (disambiguation). ... Kashmir (or Cashmere) may refer to: Kashmir region, the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent India, Kashmir conflict, the territorial dispute between India, Pakistan, and the China over the Kashmir region. ... This article is about the country of Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... The Chechen Republic (IPA: ; Russian: , Chechenskaya Respublika; Chechen: , Noxçiyn Respublika), or, informally, Chechnya (; Russian: ; Chechen: , Noxçiyçö), sometimes referred to as Ichkeria, Chechnia, Chechenia or Noxçiyn, is a federal subject of Russia. ... Jaish-e-Mohammed (Arabic:جيش محمد, literally The Army of Muhammad, transliterated as Jaish-e-Muhammed, Jaish-e-Mohammad or Jaish-e-Muhammad, often abbreviated as JEM) is a major Islamic militant organization in South Asia. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Al-Qaeda (Arabic: القاعدة, the foundation or the base) is the name given to a worldwide network of militant Islamist organizations under the leadership of Osama bin Laden. ... Categories: Islam-related stubs | 1906 births | 1966 deaths | Muslim philosophers ... The Muslim Brothers (Arabic: الإخوان المسلمون al-ikhwān al-muslimÅ«n, full title The Society of the Muslim Brothers, often simply الإخوان al-ikhwān, the Brotherhood or MB) is a world-wide Sunni Islamist movement and the worlds largest, most influential Islamist group[1]. The MB is the largest political... Maalim fi-l-Tariq or Milestones (Arabic: معالم في الطريق), first published in 1964, is a book by Egyptian Islamist author Sayyid Qutb in which he lays out a plan and makes a call to action to re-create the Muslim world on strictly Quranic grounds, casting off what Qutb calls... Qutbism is the Islamic strain of thought and activism, or ideology, based on the thought and writings of Sayyid Qutb. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ... Fergana is a city in the Fergana Valley, capital of the Fargona Viloyati of Uzbekistan. ... The Republic of Dagestan (Russian: Респу́блика Дагеста́н) is a federal subject of the Russian Federation (a republic). ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ...


Notable modern Salafi scholars

Saudi Arabia

  • Advocate of reviving the religion as it was practiced by Muhammad
  • Author of Thalatha Usool (Three Fundamental Principles) this book explains the questions that everyone will be asked in the afterlife
  • Author of Kitab at-Tawheed (Book on Islamic Monotheism) that explains Islamic Monotheism and those things that contradict it
  • Former Grand Mufti of Saudi Arabia
  • Allowed United States' land and air forces to enter Saudia Arabia in order to liberate Kuwait and repel the Iraqi Army in the early 1990s.
  • Scholar of fiqh and authored over fifty books on the subject
  • Wrote an explanation of ibn Taymiyyah's al-Aqeedat Al-Hamawiyyah and al-Aqeedat Al-Waasittiyah
  • Saalih bin Al Fawzan (1935 C.E. - Present)
  • Has obtained a PhD in Islamic Jurisprudence.
  • Author of more than sixty published works covering Muslim Creed, Islamic Jurisprudence and Muslim's Conduct.
  • Member of many academic institutions including the Board of Senior Ulema, the Permanent Committee for Fatwa and Research, the Islamic Academy of Muslim World League, the Committee of Supervising Du'ah, and many other scholastic bodies.
  • Rabee Al-Madkhali (1931 C.E. - Present)
  • Scholar of Haadith
  • Specialist in the field of Jarh wa Ta'dil
  • Obtained Phd from Ummul-Qurra University in 1980
  • Obtained Masters Degree in 1961
  • Abdul-Azeez ibn Abdullaah Aal ash-Shaikh (1941 C.E. - Present)
  • Current Grand Mufti of Saudi Arabia

Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab al-Tamimi (1703 C.E. – 1792 C.E.) (Arabic:محمد بن عبد الوهاب التميمى) was an Arab theologian born in the Najd, in present-day Saudi Arabia and the most famous scholar of the movement within Islam known as the Wahhabi movement. ... Abdul Azeez ibn Abdullaah ibn Baaz (also Shaikh Abdulaziz bin Baz or Sheikh Abdulaziz bin Baz) was the Grand Mufti of Saudi Arabia from 1993 until his death in 1999. ... A Mufti (Arabic: مفتى ) is an Islamic scholar who is an interpreter or expounder of Islamic law (Sharia), capable of issuing fataawa (plural of fatwa). // Role of a Mufti in governments In theocracies like Saudi Arabia and Iran, and in some countries where the constitution is based on sharia law, such... Muhammad ibn Saalih al-Uthaymeen (1925-2001 CE) was one of the most prominent Islamic scholars of the latter half of the twentieth century. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Dr. Rabee Ibn Haadee Umayr al-Madkhalee (ربيع بن هادي عمير المدخلي) is a university professor, a well-known Muslim scholar, and a proponent of Salafism. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Albania

  • Muhammad Naasiruddeen al-Albaanee (1914 C.E. - 1999 C.E.)
  • Resided primarily in Syria and Jordan
  • Specialized in the science of hadith
  • Commented on authenticity of the hadiths in the books of Sunan, including Sunan Abu Dawood, Sunan at-Tirmidhi, and Sunan ibn Majah
  • He is also author of Silsila Ahaadeeth us Saheeha and Silsila Ahaadeeth ud Dhaeefa.
  • He is also the author of "The Prophet's Prayers Described" a book on how to perform the obligatory prayers.

See Albani for other uses of that name. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Sunan Abi Daud is the one of Sunni Islams six canonical hadith collections, compiled by Abu Daud. ... Sunan al-Tirmidhi is one of the six most authentic canonical hadith collections of the Sunnis, collected by al-Tirmidhi. ... Sunan Ibn Maja is the last compiled of Sunni Islams six canonical hadith collections, compiled by Ibn Maja. ...

Jordan

  • Saleem Al Hilaali (1957 C.E. - Present)
  • Ali Hasan al-Halabi (1960 C.E. - Present)
  • Mashhoor Bin Hasan Aal Salmaan (1960 C.E. - Present)

Yemen

  • Muhammad b. Ismaa'il al-Sana'aani (d. 1769)
  • Muhammad b. 'Ali al Shawkani (d. 1834)
  • Muqbil bin Haadi al-Waadi'ee (Died 2001)
  • Yahya al-Hajuuree

Shaikh Muqbil bin Haadee Al-Waadi’ee (19??-2001) ( مقبل بن هادي الواديعي) was a renowned Muslim scholar and a proponent of Salafism. ...

Pakistan

  • Badee'ud-Deen Shah As-Sindhee

Older authorities accepted by modern Salafis as Salafi Imams

Greater Khorasan

  • Imam Bukhari, Compiler of the authentic hadiths of the Prophet Muhammad known as Sahih Bukhari and Khalq Af'aal al-Ibad (The Creation of the acts of Servants) which shows the Salaf's creed regarding many issues.

Friday Mosque in Herat, a city which is known as The Pearl of Khorasan Greater Khorasan is a modern term for eastern territories of ancient Persia. ... Muhammad Ibn Ismail Ibn Ibrahim Ibn al-Mughirah Ibn Bardizbah al-Bukhari محمد بن اسماعيل بن ابراهيم بن المغيرة بن بردز&#1576... The authentic collection (Arabic: الجامع الصحيح, al-Jaami al-Sahih [1]) or popularly al-Bukharis authentic (Arabic: صحيح البخاري, Sahih al-Bukhari) is one of the Sunni six major Hadith collections (Hadith are oral traditions recounting events in the lives of the Islamic prophet Muhammad ). Sunni view this as their most trusted collection. ...

Iraq

  • al-Barbahaaree (died 940 C.E.)
  • Well known for his candid yet authoritative writing style.
  • Author of many books, most notably, Explanation of the Creed which sets forth the aqeedah of Sunni Islam.

Al-Barbaharee was a Sunni Islamic theologian from Iraq. ... Aqidah is an Islamic creed. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Imam Ahmed ibn Hanbal (780 - 855) was an important Muslim scholar and theologian. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ...

Syria

  • Author of al-Aqeedat Al-Hamawiyyah and al-Aqeedat Al-Waasittiyah which are concise explanations of the creed of Ahlus-Sunnah (People of the Sunnah)
  • Scholar of fiqh, having issued many fatawa on different issues
  • Ibn al-Qayyim al-Jawziyya (1292 C.E. - 1350 C.E.)
  • Al-Dhahabi (1274 C.E. - 1348 C.E.)

Taqi al-Din Ahmad Ibn Taymiyyah (Arabic: )(January 22, 1263 - 1328), was a Sunni Islamic scholar born in Harran, located in what is now Turkey, close to the Syrian border. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... A fatwa (Arabic: ) plural fatāwa (فتاوى), is a legal pronouncement in Islam, issued by a religious law specialist on a specific issue. ... Ibn al-Qayyim is the salafi Imam of Ahl Al-Sunna Wal-Jamaa, the haafidh (preserver of hadith), the scholar of tafseer (Quranic exegesis), usool (fundamentals of jurisprudence and law) and Fiqh (jurisprudence), Aboo ’Abdullaah Shamsud-Deen Muhammad Ibn Abee Bakr - better known as Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah (or... Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn Uthman ibn Qaymaz, Abu Abdullah Shams al-Din al-Dhahabi, ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺃﺣﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺜﻤﺎﻥ ﺑﻦ ﻗﻴﻤﺰ ﺍﺑﻮ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺷﻤﺲ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺬﻫﺒﻲ the great Shafii hadith master (hafiz) and historian of Islam, born in Damascus in 673/1274. ...

Yemen

  • Ibrahim b. al-Wazir (d. 1436)
  • Saalih b. Mahdi al-Maqbali (d. 1696)

References

  1. ^ Ghazali And The Poetics Of Imagination, by Ebrahim Moosa ISBN 0807856126 - Page 21
  2. ^ Bukhari 3:48:819 and 820 [1] and Muslim 31:6150 and 6151 [2].
  3. ^ [3]
  4. ^ The Idea of Pakistan, By Stephen P. Cohen ISBN 0815715021 - Page 183
  5. ^ The Muslim World After 9/11 By Angel M. Rabasa, pg. 275
  6. ^ a b c d GlobalSecurity.org Salafi Islam
  7. ^ Pape, Dying to Win Random House, 2005, p.106
  8. ^ Al-Ikhwan Al-Muslimoon [4]".... they accommodate every kind of religious innovator in their ranks ...."
  9. ^ Hasan al-Banna and the Ways and Means of Da'wah Hasan al-Banna, the founder of the Muslim Bortherhood, "... is the imaam of this crooked path/way which makes permissible for itself every single way or means for the sake of actualising what they call the 'the benefit of the da'wah' but [in reality] it is nothing but the 'benefits of dejected hizbiyyah (party-spirit)' ..."
  10. ^ Some Famous Readings of exposition from GREAT MUJADDITH's OF Deoband "...each one of the misguided views is a well-established belief of the Deobandis ..."
  11. ^ Tableegh Jamaat: Teachings of Shirk .... "... And this is the trodden path of Salaf, so let the School of Deobandh and the generality of Tabligh beware that Allaah love not the spreaders of mischief and corruption upon the earth and that the oppression of Shirk (that they promote in their books) is great indeed ...."
  12. ^ Six Points of Tabligh, Its chapter on `Desired Manners of Eating and Drinking`, includes 26 norms on the etiquette of eating and drinking. From: Globalized Islam : the Search for a New Ummah, by Olivier Roy, Columbia University Press, 2004
  13. ^ Isbal: Wearing your garment below the ankles
  14. ^ Globalized Islam : the Search for a New Ummah, by Olivier Roy, Columbia University Press, 2004 (p.245)
  15. ^ Encyclopedia of Islam and the Muslim World, Macmillan Reference, 2004, v.2, p.609
  16. ^ The New Encyclopedia of Islam by Cyril Glasse, Rowman and Littlefield, 2001, p.19
  17. ^ The Oxford Dictionary of Islam by John L. Esposito, OUP, 2003, p.275
  18. ^ Historical Dictionary of Islam by Ludwig W. Wadamed, Scarecrow Press, 2001, p.233
  19. ^ see discussion section
  20. ^ Encyclopedia of Islam and the Muslim World, Macmillan Reference, 2004, p.7
  21. ^ salafipublications.com
  22. ^ "Historical Development of the Methodologies of al-Ikhwaan al-Muslimeen And Their Effect and Influence Upon Contemporary Salafee Dawah: Part 8 Updated. accessed 12 May 2007.p.5
  23. ^ Another example of how contemporary Salafi do not consider Muhammad ‘Abduh a Salafi or for that matter a Muslim to be emulated is [5] which sarcastically refers to Muhammad ‘Abduh as "the ‘great imaam’" for making complementary remarks about Europe.
  24. ^ The Principles of Salafiyyah
  25. ^ Shaikh Muhammad Ibn Abdul-Wahhab: His Salafi Creed, Reformist Movement and Scholars' Praise of Him, 4th ed. by Judge Ahmad Ibn 'Hajar Ibn Muhammad al-Butami al-Bin Ali, Ad-Dar as-Salafiyyah, Kuwait, 1983, p.108-164
  26. ^ What is a Salafi and What is Salafism?
  27. ^ Abou El Fadl, Khaled M., The Great Theft, HarperSanFrancisco, 2005, p.79
  28. ^ PBS Frontline, interview with Dr. Mamoun Fandy [6]
  29. ^ a b The Next Attack, By Daniel Benjamin, Steven Simon, ISBN 0805079416 - Page 55
  30. ^ Brief History of Islam, Hassan Hanafi, ISBN 1405109009 - Page 258-259
  31. ^ The Next Attack, By Daniel Benjamin, Steven Simon, ISBN 0805079416 - Page 274
  32. ^ Roy, Olivier, Globalized Islam, Columbia University Press, 2004, p.234
  33. ^ Qutb, Sayyid, Milestones, p.55

Olivier Roy (born 1949) is the research director at the French National Center for Scientific Research (CNRS) and a lecturer for both the School for Advanced Studies in the Social Sciences (EHESS) and the Institut dEtudes Politiques de Paris (IEP). ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion, because: If you disagree with its speedy deletion, please explain why on its talk page or at Wikipedia:Speedy deletions. ... Olivier Roy (born 1949) is the research director at the French National Center for Scientific Research (CNRS) and a lecturer for both the School for Advanced Studies in the Social Sciences (EHESS) and the Institut dEtudes Politiques de Paris (IEP). ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion, because: If you disagree with its speedy deletion, please explain why on its talk page or at Wikipedia:Speedy deletions. ... Daniel Benjamin (born 1961) is a journalist and scholar on international security. ... Daniel Benjamin (born 1961) is a journalist and scholar on international security. ... A milestone A milestone is one of a series of numbered markers placed along a road at regular intervals, typically at the side of the road or in a median. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
The Hindu : Radical Salafism (1339 words)
Salafism is a minoritarian tendency within Islam that dates back to the 9th century - under the name of Ahl al-Hadith - and whose central features were crystallised in the teachings of a 14th century scholar, Taqi al-Din Ahmad Ibn Taymiyya (d.
Salafism's hallmark is a call to modern Muslims to revert back to the pure Islam of Prophet Muhammad's generation and the two generations that followed his.
Salafism's message is utopian, its adherents seeking to transform completely the Muslim community and to ensure that Islam, as a system of belief and governance, eventually dominates the globe (Osama bin Laden quote?).
Salafism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1522 words)
Salafism (Arabic: سلفي‎ ​ "predecessors" or "early generations") is an orthodox fundamentalist movement within Islam, originating in the mid 19th century.
The sources of Salafism are said to be the Qur'an and the sunnah.
Salafism differs from the earlier contemporary Islamic revival movements of Islamism of the 1970s and 1980s, in that (at least many) Salafis reject not only Western ideologies such as socialism and capitalism, but also common Western concepts like economics, constitutions, political parties, revolution and social justice.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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