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Encyclopedia > Salafi
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This article is on the beliefs of the followers of the Salaf. For the article on the group of early Muslims, see Salaf

Salafism (Arabic: سلفي "predecessors" or "early generations"), is an adherent of a contemporary movement in Sunni Islam ascribing his understanding and practice of Islam to the 'Salaf'. Salafism is derogatorily named by outsiders as Wahhabism. Salafis insist that their beliefs are simply pure Islam as practiced by the first three generations of Muslims praised by Prophet Muhammad in hadiths, and that they should not be regarded as a sect. Saudi Arabian Salafis do not like to be called Wahhabis.[citation needed] This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... Sunni Muslims are the largest denomination of Islam. ... Wahhabism (Arabic: الوهابية, Wahabism, Wahabbism) is a Sunni fundamentalist Islamic movement, named after Muhammad ibn Abd al Wahhab (1703–1792). ... For other uses, including people named Islam, see Islam (disambiguation). ...


The word Salaf means predecessors (or ancestors) and refers to the Companions of the Prophet Muhammad (the Sahaba), the early Muslims who followed them, and the scholars of the first three generations of Muslims. They are also called Al-Salaf Al-Salih or "the Righteous Predecessors". This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... For other persons named Muhammad, see Muhammad (disambiguation). ... In Islam, the Sahāba (الصحابة) were the companions of the prophet Muhammad. ...


Salafis view the first three generations of Muslims, who are the prophet Muhammad's companions, and the two succeeding generations after them, the Tabi'een and the tabi'it Tabi'een as perfect examples of how Islam should be practiced in everyday life. These three generations are often referred to as the pious generations. This principle of law is derived from the following hadith (tradition) by Prophet Muhammad: "The people of my generation are the best, then those who follow them, and then whose who follow the latter (i.e. the first three generations of Muslims)." (Bukhari 3:48:819 and 820 [1] and Muslim 31:6150 and 6151 [2]. A Muslim is a believer in or follower of Islam. ... In Islam, the Sahāba (الصحابة) were the companions of the prophet Muhammad. ... The Tābiʕīn Followers (Arabic: are the generation of Muslims that came after the Ṣahāba Companions. As such they played an important part in the development of Islamic thought and philosophy, and in the political development of the early Caliphate. ... For other uses, including people named Islam, see Islam (disambiguation). ... Hadith (Arabic: ‎ translit: ) are traditions relating to the words and deeds of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. ... For other persons named Muhammad, see Muhammad (disambiguation). ...


One tenet of Salafism is that Islam was perfect and complete at the days of Muhammad and his Sahaba, but that much undesirable innovation (bid`a) was added to Islam afterwards due to materialist and cultural influences over the later centuries. Salafism seeks to revive the original practice of Islam [3]. For other uses, including people named Islam, see Islam (disambiguation). ... In Islam, the Sahāba (الصحابة) were the companions of the prophet Muhammad. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...

Contents

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Distinctive beliefs and practices

Salafis claim to preach a purified Islamic monotheism, or tawhid that strictly prohibits shirk (a comprehensive term which is commonly translated as polytheism), or bid`a (innovation, i.e. practices not followed by early Muslims). Salafis believe that widespread Muslim practices such as venerating the graves of Islamic prophets and saints are shirk. Photographs of any living being that possesses a soul are forbidden. Celebration of Muhammad's birthday (Mawlid) is bid`a.[4] Salafis in general are opposed to both Sufism and Shi'a Islam, which they regard as deviations. In theology, monotheism (in Greek μόνος = single and θεός = God) is the belief in the existence of one deity or God, or in the oneness of God. ... Tawīd (also Tawheed,Tauheed and other spellings; Arabic: ‎ ; Turkish: Tevhid) is the Islamic concept of monotheism In Islam, Tawhīd means to assert the unity of God. ... Shirk is the Islamic concept of the sin of idolatry. ... Polytheism is belief in, or worship of, multiple gods or divinities. ... The Quran identifies a number of men as prophets of Islam. ... A saint is a term used to refer to someone who is a holy person. ... The soul, according to many religious and philosophical traditions, is a self-aware ethereal substance particular to a unique living being. ... Mawlid, Mawlid an-Nabi or Milad al-Nabi (Arabic: ) is the celebration of the birthday of Muhammad, the final prophet of Islam; also known as The Seal of the Prophets. Sunni Muslims celebrate this day on the 12th of Rabi-ul-Awwal in the Islamic calendar; whereas Twelver Shia... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Shia Islam, also Shiite Islam, Shiite or Shiism (Arabic: ‎ , translit: ) is the second largest denomination of the religion based on Islam. ...


Salafis place great emphasis on ritual not only in prayer but in every activity in life -- three fingers should always be used when eating, water is to be drunk in three pauses with the right hand while sitting [1] -- so as to follow the example of the Prophet and his companions and make religion part of every activity in life.


Salafism differs from the earlier contemporary Islamic revival movements of Islamism of the 1970s and 1980s, in that (at least many) Salafis reject not only Western ideologies such as socialism and capitalism, but also common Western concepts like economics, constitutions, political parties, revolution and social justice. Muslims should not engage in Western activities like politics, "even by giving them an Islamic slant." [2] Instead, Muslims should stick to Islamic activities, particularly dawah and jihad. Salafis promote sharia rather than an Islamic political program or state. It has been suggested that Islamic fundamentalism be merged into this article or section. ...


Salafis reject dogmatic theology (kalam). They consider this to be based on classical Greek philosophy (Plato and Aristotle) and an import foreign to the original practice of Islam. Kalam (علم الكلم)is one of the religious sciences of Islam. ... For other uses, see Plato (disambiguation). ... Aristotle (Greek: Aristotélēs) (384 BC – March 7, 322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher, a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. ...


Salafis are divided on the question of adherence to the four recognized schools of traditional legal interpretation (madhhabs). Madhhab (Arabic مذهب pl. ...

  • Some Salafis wish to base their jurisprudence directly on the Qu'ran and Sunnah. They believe that literal readings of the Qur'an and the hadith (or oral traditions) are sufficient guidance for the believing Muslim. One scholar who supported this position was Albaanee.
  • Some Salafis follow the teachings of the 14th century Syrian scholar Ibn Taymiya, and his students Ibn al-Qayyim and Ibn Kathir.
  • Some Salafis rely on the jurisprudence of one of the four famous madhabs. For example, Ibn Taymiya followed the Hanbali madhhab. Some of his students (such as Ibn Kathir and Al-Dhahabi) followed the Shafi madhhab. Other students (such as Ibn Abu al-Iz) follow the Hanafi madhhab.

Because Salafis see themselves as practicing "pure" Islam, Salafi teachers and adherents will not necessarily identify themselves as Salafi. They can be identified as part of a particular current of contemporary Islam by their characteristic beliefs, by their use of terms like "the Salaf" or "Qur'an and sunnah." They also tend to use a more rigorous style of transliteration of Arabic into English: long vowels are indicated by doubling, emphatic consonants are doubled, and words that end with a ta marbuta in Arabic are rendered with a terminal h. The Qurān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also called The Noble Quran; also transliterated as Quran, Koran (the traditional term in English), and Al-Quran), is the central religious text of Islam. ... Hadith (Arabic: ‎ translit: ) are traditions relating to the words and deeds of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. ... This article is in need of attention. ... Taqi Ad-din Abu Al-abbas Ahmad Ibn abd As-salam Ibn abd Allah Ibn Muhammad Ibn Taymiya (Arabic: أبو عباس تقي الدين أحمد بن عبد السلام بن عبد الله ابن تيمية الحراني) (January 22, 1263 - 1328), was an Islamic scholar born in Harran, located in what is now Turkey, close to the Syrian border. ... Ibn al-Qayyim is the salafi Imam of Ahl Al-Sunna Wal-Jamaa, the haafidh (preserver of hadith), the scholar of tafseer (Quranic exegesis), usool (fundamentals of jurisprudence and law) and Fiqh (jurisprudence), Aboo ’Abdullaah Shamsud-Deen Muhammad Ibn Abee Bakr - better known as Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah (or... Ibn Kathir (Arabic : بن كثير ) was an Islamic scholar born in Busra, Syria in 1301 CE. He was taught by the Islamic scholar Ibn Taymiyya in Damascus, Syria. ... Madhhab(مذهب) (Madhahib, pl) is an Islamic term that refers to a school of thought or religious jurisprudence (fiqh) within Sunni Islam. ... Taqi Ad-din Abu Al-abbas Ahmad Ibn abd As-salam Ibn abd Allah Ibn Muhammad Ibn Taymiya (Arabic: أبو عباس تقي الدين أحمد بن عبد السلام بن عبد الله ابن تيمية الحراني) (January 22, 1263 - 1328), was an Islamic scholar born in Harran, located in what is now Turkey, close to the Syrian border. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Ibn Kathir (Arabic : بن كثير ) was an Islamic scholar born in Busra, Syria in 1301 CE. He was taught by the Islamic scholar Ibn Taymiyya in Damascus, Syria. ... Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn Uthman ibn Qaymaz, Abu Abdullah Shams al-Din al-Dhahabi, ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺃﺣﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺜﻤﺎﻥ ﺑﻦ ﻗﻴﻤﺰ ﺍﺑﻮ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺷﻤﺲ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺬﻫﺒﻲ the great Shafii hadith master (hafiz) and historian of Islam, born in Damascus in 673/1274. ... Shafii is one of the four schools of Fiqh or religious law within Sunni Islam. ... Ibn Abu al-Iz (731-792 A.H) (Arabic: ابن أبي العز) Imam Sadru-Deen Ali ibn Abu al-Iz - Hanafi scholar. ... Hanafi (Arabic: حنفى ) is one of the four schools (madhabs) of jurisprudence (Fiqh) or religious law within Sunni Islam. ... The word emphasis, in addition to its main dictionary meaning, may have the following techincal meanings. ...

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History of Salafism

From the perspective of the Salafis themselves, their history starts with the Prophet himself. They consider themselves direct followers of his teachings, and wish to emulate the piety of the earliest followers of Islam (the salaf al-salih). All later scholars are merely revivers (not 'founders'). Modern scholars may only come to teach (or remind) us of the instructions of the original Salaf.

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Contemporary Salafis

Salafism is a movement within Sunni Islam. It includes many groups and shades of belief. It is strongest in the Middle East, in Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Palestine, Syria, Jordan, etc. It is also found in most other Muslim-majority countries (see Islam by country and Demographics of Islam). It is increasingly important to diasporic Muslims in Europe, Canada, and the United States. A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Palestine (from Latin: ; Hebrew: Pleshet, פלשתינה Palestina; Arabic: ‎ Filastīn, Falastīn) is one of several names for the geographic region between the Mediterranean Sea and the banks of the Jordan River with various adjoining lands. ... Distribution of Islam per country. ... Distribution of Islam per country. ... Look up Diaspora in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... World map showing Europe Political map (neighboring countries in Asia and Africa also shown) Europe is one of the seven traditional continents of the Earth. ...


Salafis tend to differentiate themselves not so much by matters of Islamic practice, such as prescriptions for prayer (salat) or Islamic dress (hijab), but by their attitude towards the state. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Hijab or ħijāb (Arabic: حجاب) is the Arabic term for barrier. ...

  • Some Salafis urge believers to support or endure the state under which they live. Believers are encouraged to spread Salafism non-violently, by missionary activity, social work, and political organization. Above all, they should help each other lead lives of true Islamic piety. (Rabe' al-Madkhali)
  • Some Salafis believe that violent jihad is permissible against foreign, non-Muslim, occupation, but not against governments that claim to be Islamic. Those governments are to be reformed, not violently overthrown. Civil war (fitna) is to be avoided. (Salman al-Auda)
  • Other Salafis believe that it is permissible, even required, for believers to engage in violent jihad to overthrow oppressive regimes, even if they claim to be Islamic. One of the strongest proponents for violence was Sayyed Qutb, an Egyptian member of the Muslim Brotherhood. After the Egyptian Brotherhood assassinated the Egyptian leader, the Brotherhood was suppressed and Qutb went to jail. There he wrote a long treatise on political Islam called Milestones. This book, along with his Tafsir, were widely read, and had a strong influence on various Islamist or jihadi movements. Hence these Muslims are sometimes called Qutbis. Dr. Abdullah Azzam is also said to be a proponent of violent jihad.
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Jihad, sometimes spelled Jahad, Jehad, Jihaad, Djehad or Cihad, (Arabic: ‎ ) is an Islamic term, from the Arabic root (to exert utmost effort, to strive, struggle), which connotes a wide range of meanings: anything from an inward spiritual struggle to attain perfect faith to a political or military struggle. ... Fitna is an Arabic word for civil war, disagreement, division within Islam. ... Jihad, sometimes spelled Jahad, Jehad, Jihaad, Djehad or Cihad, (Arabic: ‎ ) is an Islamic term, from the Arabic root (to exert utmost effort, to strive, struggle), which connotes a wide range of meanings: anything from an inward spiritual struggle to attain perfect faith to a political or military struggle. ... Categories: Islam-related stubs | 1906 births | 1966 deaths | Muslim philosophers ... Muslim Brotherhood symbol. ... It has been suggested that Islamic fundamentalism be merged into this article or section. ... Jihadi is a political neologism referring to an individual who participates in advancing Jihad politically or militarily, most often referring to the people directly engaged in Islamic terrorism or supporting it. ... Qutbism is the Islamic strain of thought and activism, or ideology, based on the thought and writings of Sayyid Qutb. ... Dr. Abdullah Yusuf Azzam (1941-1989) also known as Shaikh Azzam or the “Godfather of Jihad”, was a central figure in the global development of the militant Islamist movement. ...

Saudi Arabia

Some Salafis support the government; others distance themselves from it, or oppose it.

  • Prominent pro-government Saudi scholars include Ibn Baz, Ibn Uthaymeen (both now deceased), Ibn Humaid, and Rabi' al-Madkhali.
  • Some Salafis believe that most majority-Muslim countries, including Saudi Arabia, have strayed and that the only answer to the plight of Muslims today is Jihad. Osama bin Laden is a prominent example of a Salafi Saudi Muslim who has gone from supporting the Saudi regime to violently opposing it.

However, whether the platform is peaceful or requires force, the Muslim ascribing himself to the Manhaj (methodology) of salafiyyah, refers his affair back to the Qur'an first, then the statements of the Prophet Muhammad. After looking at those two foundations, they will then review how the community of Muslims who lived during the Prophet and Messenger Muhammad practiced those verses. Then they will look at each generation, that followed to see their various opinions and deducement to look for similarities to the current circumstances prior to applying force, or anything else that's indicative of the practices of Islam. This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Muhammad ibn Saalih al-Uthaymeen was one of the most prominent Islamic scholars of the latter half of the twentieth century. ... Abdullah IBN HUMAID sucks and was the former Chief Justice of Saudi Arabia and Imam of the Grand Mosque of Makkah. ... Jihad, sometimes spelled Jahad, Jehad, Jihaad, Djehad or Cihad, (Arabic: ‎ ) is an Islamic term, from the Arabic root (to exert utmost effort, to strive, struggle), which connotes a wide range of meanings: anything from an inward spiritual struggle to attain perfect faith to a political or military struggle. ... Osama bin Muhammad bin Awad bin Laden (Arabic: ‎; born March 10, 1957 [1]), most commonly known as Osama bin Laden is a militant Islamist and one of the founders of al-Qaeda. ...

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Notable modern Salafi Scholars

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Saudi Arabia

  • Advocate of a return to a puritanical view of Islamic theology
  • Author of Kitab at-Tawheed (Book on Islamic Monotheism) that explains Islamic Monotheism and those things that contradict it
  • Former Grand Mufti of Saudi Arabia
  • Scholar of fiqh and authored over fifty books on the subject
  • Wrote an explanation of ibn Taymiyyah's al-Aqeedat Al-Hamawiyyah and al-Aqeedat Al-Waasittiyah
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Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab al-Tamimi (1703 C.E. – 1792 C.E.) (Arabic:محمد بن عبد الوهاب التميمى) was an Arab theologian born in the Najd, in present-day Saudi Arabia and the most famous scholar of the movement within Islam known as the Wahhabi movement. ... Abdul Azeez ibn Abdullaah ibn Baaz (also Shaikh Abdulaziz bin Baz or Sheikh Abdulaziz bin Baz) was the Grand Mufti of Saudi Arabia from 1993 until his death in 1999. ... A Mufti (Arabic: مفتى ) is an Islamic scholar who is an interpreter or expounder of Islamic law (Sharia), capable of issuing fataawa (plural of fatwa). // Role of a Mufti in governments In theocracies like Saudi Arabia and Iran, and in some countries where the constitution is based on sharia law, such... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

Palestine

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Dr. Abdullah Yusuf Azzam (1941-1989) also known as Shaikh Azzam or the “Godfather of Jihad”, was a central figure in the global development of the militant Islamist movement. ... Liberty Leading the People by Eugène Delacroix Nationalism is an ideology [1] that holds that a nation is the fundamental unit for human social life, and takes precedence over any other social and political principles. ... Socialism refers to a broad array of doctrines or political movements that envisage a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to social control. ... (Clockwise from upper left) Time magazine covers from May 7, 1945; July 25, 1969; December 31, 1999; September 14, 2001; and April 21, 2003. ...

Albania

  • Muhammad Naasiruddeen al-Albaanee (1914 C.E. - 1999 C.E.)
  • Resided primarily in Syria and Jordan
  • Specialized in the science of hadith
  • Commented on authenticity of the hadiths in the books of Sunan, including Sunan Abu Dawood, Sunan at-Tirmidhi, and Sunan ibn Majah
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This article is in need of attention. ... Hadith (Arabic: ‎ translit: ) are traditions relating to the words and deeds of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. ... Sunan Abi Daud is the one of Sunni Islams six canonical hadith collections, compiled by Abu Daud. ... Sunan al-Tirmidhi is one of the six most authentic canonical hadith collections of the Sunnis, collected by al-Tirmidhi. ... Sunan Ibn Maja is the last compiled of Sunni Islams six canonical hadith collections, compiled by Ibn Maja. ...

Egypt

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Sayyid Qutb Sayyid Qutb (Arabic: ‎; 9 October 1906 – 29 August 1966) was an Egyptian intellectual author, and Islamist associated with the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood. ...

Older authorities accepted by modern Salafis as Salafi Imams

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Greater Khorasan

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Nader Afshars tomb in Mashad. ... Muhammad Ibn Ismail Ibn Ibrahim Ibn al-Mughirah Ibn Bardizbah al-Bukhari محمد بن اسماعيل بن ابراهيم بن المغيرة بن بردز&#1576... Sahih Bukhari is one of the Sunni six major Hadith collections (Hadith are oral traditions recounting events in the lives of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and his followers). ... Imam Ahmed ibn Hanbal (Arabic: ‏‎‎‎‎‎‎‎‎أحمد بن حنبل‏‎‎‎‏‎‎‎ ‎‎‎‎‎‎‎ Ahmad bin Hanbal ) (780 [164 AH] - 855 [241 AH] ) was an important Muslim scholar and theologian. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ...

Egypt

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Tahawi (239-321 A.H) (Arabic: أبو جعفر الطحاوي) Imam Abu Jafar al-Tahawi is a famous Hanafi scholar. ... Ibn Hajar Asqalani is a Sunni Scholar. ... Fath al-Bari fi Sharh Sahih al-Bukhari, the most valued Sunni commentary of Sahih Bukhari, writen by Ibn Hajr Asqalani. ...

Syria

  • Author of al-Aqeedat Al-Hamawiyyah and al-Aqeedat Al-Waasittiyah which are concise explanations of the creed of Ahlus-Sunnah (People of the Sunnah)
  • Scholar of fiqh, having issued many fatawa on different issues
  • Ibn al-Qayyim al-Jawziyya (1292 C.E. - 1350 C.E.)
  • Al-Dhahabi (1274 C.E. - 1348 C.E.)
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Abu al-Abbas Taqi al-Din Ahmad ibn Abd al-Salaam ibn Abdullah ibn Taymiya al-Harrani (أبو عباس تقي الدين أحمد بن عبد السلام بن &#1593... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... A fatwa (Arabic: ) plural fatāwa (فتاوى), is a legal pronouncement in Islam, issued by a religious law specialist on a specific issue. ... Ibn al-Qayyim is the salafi Imam of Ahl Al-Sunna Wal-Jamaa, the haafidh (preserver of hadith), the scholar of tafseer (Quranic exegesis), usool (fundamentals of jurisprudence and law) and Fiqh (jurisprudence), Aboo ’Abdullaah Shamsud-Deen Muhammad Ibn Abee Bakr - better known as Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah (or... Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn Uthman ibn Qaymaz, Abu Abdullah Shams al-Din al-Dhahabi, ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺃﺣﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺜﻤﺎﻥ ﺑﻦ ﻗﻴﻤﺰ ﺍﺑﻮ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺷﻤﺲ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺬﻫﺒﻲ the great Shafii hadith master (hafiz) and historian of Islam, born in Damascus in 673/1274. ...

See also

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This page is a list of Muslims in various professions and fields. ... Wahhabism (Arabic: الوهابية, Wahabism, Wahabbism) is a Sunni fundamentalist Islamic movement, named after Muhammad ibn Abd al Wahhab (1703–1792). ... Ahl-e-Hadeeth is the main Salafist Islamic movement in South Asia, especially Pakistan and India. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Shirk is the Islamic concept of the sin of idolatry. ... In the Arabic language, Bidah means innovation. ... Tawīd (also Tawheed,Tauheed and other spellings; Arabic: ‎ ; Turkish: Tevhid) is the Islamic concept of monotheism In Islam, Tawhīd means to assert the unity of God. ...

References

  1. ^ Six Points of Tabligh, Its chapter on `Desired Manners of Eating and Drinking`, includes 26 norms on the etiquette of eating and drinking. From: Globalized Islam : the Search for a New Ummah, by Olivier Roy, Columbia University Press, 2004
  2. ^ Globalized Islam : the Search for a New Ummah, by Olivier Roy, Columbia University Press, 2004 (p.245)
  3. ^ Interview with Dr Salah Khalidi
  4. ^ Manhaj al-Asha'ira (Arabic), By Dr Safar Al-Hawali
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This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...

External links

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Pro-Salafi

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Anti-Salafi


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Salafi - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1685 words)
Salafis themselves insist that their beliefs are simply pure Islam as practiced by the first three generations of Muslims and that they should not be regarded as a sect.
The Salafis view the first three generations of Muslims, who are the prophet Muhammad's companions, and the two succeeding generations after them, the Taba'een and the taba Tabe'een as perfect examples of how Islam should be practiced in everyday life.
Salafis believe that widespread Muslim practices such as venerating the graves of Islamic prophets and saints are wrong.
Salafi Islam (743 words)
Salafi is a term often used to describe fundamentalist islamic thought.
The description "Salafi" is the name of a group of Muslims who try as hard as they can to imitate the Blessed Prophet in every aspect of life.
A true Salafi values Tawhid, singling out Allah in all acts of worship: in supplication, in seeking aid, in seeking refuge in times of ease and hardship, in sacrifice, in making vows, in fearing and hoping and total reliance, and so on.
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