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Encyclopedia > Saladin
Yusuf Salah ad-Din Ibn Ayyub
Sultan of Egypt and Syria
caption
Artistic representation of Saladin
Reign 1174–1193
Coronation 1174
Full name Salah ad-Din Yusuf Ibn Ayyub
Born c. 1137–1138
Birthplace Tikrit, Iraq
Died March 4 1193 CE
Place of death Damascus, Syria
Buried Umayyad Mosque, Damascus, Syria
Predecessor Nur ad-Din
Successor Al-Aziz
Dynasty Ayyubid
Father Najm ad-Din Ayyub

Ṣalāḥ ad-Dīn Yūsuf ibn Ayyūb (Arabic: صلاح الدين يوسف ابن أيوب‎), known in English as Saladin, was a 12th-century Kurd who became Sultan of Egypt and Syria, and a major Muslim political and military leader. At the height of his power the Ayyubid dynasty, which he founded, ruled over Egypt, Syria, Iraq, Hejaz, and Yemen. For other uses, see Sultan (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Saladin2. ... Looking north along the Tigris towards Saddams Presidential palace in April 2003 Tikrit (تكريت, TikrÄ«t also transliterated as Takrit or Tekrit) is a town in Iraq, located 140 km northwest of Baghdad on the Tigris river (at 34. ... is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Damascus (disambiguation). ... The Umayyad Mosque in the center of Damascus by night St Johns Shrine inside the Mosque The courtyard of the Mosque with the ancient Treasury (Beit al Mal) The Grand Mosque of Damascus, also known as the Umayyad Mosque (Arabic: جامع بني أمية الكبير, transl. ... For other uses, see Damascus (disambiguation). ... al-Malik al-Adil Nur ad-Din Abu al-Qasim Mahmud Ibn Imad ad-Din Zangi (1118 – May 15, 1174), also known as Nur ed-Din, Nur al-Din, etc. ... Al-Malik Al-Aziz Osman bin Salahadin Yusuf (b. ... The Ayyubid or Ayyoubid Dynasty was a Muslim dynasty of Kurdish[1] origins which ruled Egypt, Syria, Yemen (except for the Northern Mountains), Diyar Bakr, Mecca, Hejaz and northern Iraq in the 12th and 13th centuries. ... Najm ad-Din Ayyub ibn Shadhi (Arabic: ‎ , died August 9, 1173) was a Kurdish soldier and politician from Dvin, and the father of Saladin. ... Arabic redirects here. ... Languages Kurdish Religions Predominantly Sunni Muslim also some Shia, Yazidism, Yarsan, Judaism, Christianity Related ethnic groups other Iranian peoples (Talysh Baluch Gilak Bakhtiari Persians) The Kurds are an ethnic group who consider themselves to be indigenous to a region often referred to as Kurdistan, an area which includes adjacent parts... Sultan of Egypt was the title used for the leader of a number of Muslim dynasties that ruled over Egypt. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... The Ayyubid or Ayyoubid Dynasty was a Muslim dynasty of Kurdish[1] origins which ruled Egypt, Syria, Yemen (except for the Northern Mountains), Diyar Bakr, Mecca, Hejaz and northern Iraq in the 12th and 13th centuries. ... Map with the region outlined in red and the 1923 Kingdom in green “Hedjaz” redirects here. ...


He was born in the castle of Tikrit in 532 AH (1137—1138 AD) and died just after dawn on 27 Safar 589 AH (4 March 1193 AD) in Damascus.[1] He is best-known for uniting and also leading the Muslim armies during the Crusades and recapturing Jerusalem. Looking north along the Tigris towards Saddams Presidential palace in April 2003 Tikrit (تكريت, TikrÄ«t also transliterated as Takrit or Tekrit) is a town in Iraq, located 140 km northwest of Baghdad on the Tigris river (at 34. ... is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Damascus (disambiguation). ... This article is about the medieval crusades. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Early life

Saladin was born Yusuf Salah ad-Din Ayyub in AD 1138 to a Kurdish family in Tikrit, Iraq.[2][3] His father, Najm ad-Din Ayyub was banned from Tikrit and moved to Mosul where he met Imad ed-Din Zengi, the Turkish Atabeg (governor) of Mosul and the founder of the Zengid dynasty, who was leading Muslim forces against the Crusaders in Edessa. Imad ed-Din Zengi appointed Najm ad-Din as the commander of his fortress in Baalbek. After the death of Imad ed-Din Zengi in 1146, his son, Nur ad-Din Zengi became the Atabeg of Mosul. Saladin received his name from Nur ad-Din and was sent to Damascus to continue his education.[4] Languages Kurdish Religions Predominantly Sunni Muslim also some Shia, Yazidism, Yarsan, Judaism, Christianity Related ethnic groups other Iranian peoples (Talysh Baluch Gilak Bakhtiari Persians) The Kurds are an ethnic group who consider themselves to be indigenous to a region often referred to as Kurdistan, an area which includes adjacent parts... Looking north along the Tigris towards Saddams Presidential palace in April 2003 Tikrit (تكريت, Tikrīt also transliterated as Takrit or Tekrit) is a town in Iraq, located 140 km northwest of Baghdad on the Tigris river (at 34. ... Najm ad-Din Ayyub ibn Shadhi (Arabic: ‎ , died August 9, 1173) was a Kurdish soldier and politician from Dvin, and the father of Saladin. ... Mosul (Arabic: , Kurdish: موصل Mûsil, Syriac: Nîněwâ, Turkish: Musul) is a city in northern Iraq and the capital of the Ninawa Governorate. ... Imad ad-Din Atabeg Zengi (al-Malik al-Mansur) (also Zangi, Zengui, Zenki, or Zanki; in Turkish İmadeddin Zengi, in Arabic: عماد الدین زنكي) (c. ... Atabeg is a title of nobility of Turkic origin, indicating a governor of a nation or province who was subordinate to a king or Emperor but senior to a Khan. ... The Zengid Dynasty was a Muslim dynasty of Seljuk Turkish origin, which ruled parts of Northern Iraq and Syria during the 12th and 13th centuries. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... This article is about the medieval crusades. ... The County of Edessa was one of the Crusader states in the 12th century, based around a city with an ancient history and an early tradition of Christianity (see Edessa). ... Imad ad-Din Atabeg Zengi (al-Malik al-Mansur) (also Zangi, Zengui, Zenki, or Zanki; in Turkish İmadeddin Zengi, in Arabic: عماد الدین زنكي) (c. ... Temple of Bacchus Details inside Temple of Bacchus Baalbek (Arabic: ‎) is a town in the Bekaa Valley of Lebanon, altitude 1,170 m (3,850 ft), situated east of the Litani River. ... Imad ad-Din Atabeg Zengi (al-Malik al-Mansur) (also Zangi, Zengui, Zenki, or Zanki; in Turkish İmadeddin Zengi, in Arabic: عماد الدین زنكي) (c. ... al-Malik al-Adil Nur ad-Din Abu al-Qasim Mahmud Ibn Imad ad-Din Zangi (1118 – May 15, 1174), also known as Nur ed-Din, Nur al-Din, etc. ... Imad ad-Din Atabeg Zengi (al-Malik al-Mansur) (also Zangi, Zengui, Zenki, or Zanki; in Turkish İmadeddin Zengi, in Arabic: عماد الدین زنكي) (c. ... For other uses, see Damascus (disambiguation). ...


Muslim leader

Sultan of Egypt

"Saladin, king of Egypt" from a fifteenth century illuminated manuscript; the "globus" in his left hand is a European symbol of kingly power
"Saladin, king of Egypt" from a fifteenth century illuminated manuscript; the "globus" in his left hand is a European symbol of kingly power

He received his initial military education from his uncle, Shirkuh, Nur ad-Din's lieutenant who was representing him on campaigns against a faction of the Fatimid Caliphate of Egypt in the 1160s. Saladin eventually defeated the Fatimid faction and succeeded his uncle as vizier in 1169. There, he inherited a difficult role defending Egypt against the incursions of the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem under Amalric I (see Crusader invasion of Egypt). His position was tenuous at first; he was not expected to last long in Egypt where there had been many changes of government in previous years due to a long line of child caliphs fought over by competing viziers. With a Sunni Syrian base he had little control over the Egyptian army, which had been dominated by Shias since the rise of the Fatimids, and which was led in the name of the now otherwise powerless caliph al-Adid.[4] Download high resolution version (461x700, 108 KB)Saladin rex Aegypti from a 15th century manuscript The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Download high resolution version (461x700, 108 KB)Saladin rex Aegypti from a 15th century manuscript The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... In the strictest definition of illuminated manuscript, only manuscripts decorated with gold or silver, like this miniature of Christ in Majesty from the Aberdeen Bestiary (folio 4v), would be considered illuminated. ... Queen Elizabeth II held a globus cruciger, called the Sovereigns Orb, for her coronation portrait in 1953. ... Asad ad-Din Shirkuh bin Shadhi (also Shirguh or Sherko) (died 1169) was an important Muslim military commander, and uncle of Saladin. ... The Fatimids, Fatimid Caliphate or al-Fātimiyyūn (Arabic الفاطميون) is the Shia dynasty that ruled over varying areas of the Maghreb, Egypt, and the Levant from 5 January 910 to 1171. ... ik ben jaaapie A Vizier (Persian,وزير - wazīr) (sometimes also spelled Vazir, Vizir, Vasir, Wazir, Vesir, or Vezir - grammatical vowel changes are common in many oriental languages), literally burden-bearer or helper, is a term, originally Persian, for a high-ranking political (and sometimes religious) advisor or minister, often to... The kingdom of Jerusalem and the other Crusader states (in shades of green) in the context of the Near East in 1135. ... Amalric I (also Amaury or Aimery) (1136 – July 11, 1174) was King of Jerusalem 1162–1174, and Count of Jaffa and Ascalon before his accession. ... For main article see: Caliphate The Caliph (pronounced khaleef in Arabic) is the head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, an Islamic community ruled by the Sharia. ... ik ben jaaapie A Vizier (Persian,وزير - wazīr) (sometimes also spelled Vazir, Vizir, Vasir, Wazir, Vesir, or Vezir - grammatical vowel changes are common in many oriental languages), literally burden-bearer or helper, is a term, originally Persian, for a high-ranking political (and sometimes religious) advisor or minister, often to... Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Al-Adid (b. ...


When the caliph died, in September 1171, Saladin had the ulema pronounced the name of Al-Mustadi, the Sunni and, more importantly, Abbassid caliph in Baghdad, at sermon before Friday prayers; authority simply deposed the old line. Saladin ruled Egypt, but officially as the representative of the Turkish Seljuk ruler Nur ad-Din, who himself conventionally recognized the Abbassid caliph.[4] Saladin revitalized the economy of Egypt, reorganized the military forces and, following his father's advice, stayed away from any conflicts with Nur ad-Din, his formal lord, after he had become the real ruler of Egypt. He waited until Nur ad-Din's death before starting serious military actions: at first against smaller Muslim states, then directing them against the Crusaders. Ulema (, transliteration: , singular: , transliteration: , scholar) (The people of Islamic Knowledge) refers to the educated class of Muslim legal scholars engaged in the several fields of Islamic studies. ... Al-Mustadi (d. ... Abbasid provinces during the caliphate of Harun al-Rashid Abbasid was the dynastic name generally given to the caliphs of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Muslim empire. ... Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      A sermon is an oration by... Deposition is a word used in many fields to describe different processes: In law, deposition is the taking of testimony outside of court. ... Seljuk Prince with Mongoloid features. ...


With Nur ad-Din's death (1174), he assumed the title of Sultan in Egypt founding the Ayyubid dynasty and restoring Sunnism in Egypt. He extended his territory westwards in the Maghreb, and when his uncle was sent up the Nile to pacify some resistance of the former Fatimid supporters, he continued on down the Red Sea to conquer Yemen. Events Vietnam is given the official name of Annam by China. ... For other uses, see Sultan (disambiguation). ... The Ayyubid or Ayyoubid Dynasty was a Muslim dynasty of Kurdish[1] origins which ruled Egypt, Syria, Yemen (except for the Northern Mountains), Diyar Bakr, Mecca, Hejaz and northern Iraq in the 12th and 13th centuries. ... Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam. ... This article is about the region. ... For other uses, see Nile (disambiguation). ... Peace is generally defined as a state of quiet or tranquillity, as an absence of disturbance or agitation (Latin derivation Pax = Absentia Belli). ... Location of the Red Sea The Red Sea is an inlet of the Indian Ocean between Africa and Asia. ...


Sultan of Syria

On two occasions, in 1170 and 1172, Saladin retreated from an invasion of the Kingdom of Jerusalem. These had been launched by Nur ad-Din, and Saladin hoped that the Crusader kingdom would remain intact, as a buffer state between Egypt and Syria, until Saladin could gain control of Syria as well. Nur ad-Din and Saladin were headed towards open war on these counts when Nur ad-Din died in 1174. Nur ad-Din's heir, as-Salih Ismail al-Malik, was a mere boy, in the hands of court eunuchs, and died in 1181. The kingdom of Jerusalem and the other Crusader states (in shades of green) in the context of the Near East in 1135. ... al-Malik al-Adil Nur ad-Din Abu al-Qasim Mahmud Ibn Imad ad-Din Zangi (1118 – May 15, 1174), also known as Nur ed-Din, Nur al-Din, etc. ... A buffer state is a country lying between two rival or potentially hostile greater powers, which by its sheer existence is thought to prevent conflict between them. ... As-Salih Ismail al-Malik (1163-1181) was the son of Nur ad-Din, and was only eleven years old when his father died in 1174. ... European illustration of a Eunuch (1749) Chief Eunuch of Ottoman Sultan Abdul Hamid II at the Imperial Palace, 1912. ...


Immediately after Nur ad-Din's death, Saladin marched on Damascus and was welcomed into the city. He reinforced his legitimacy there in the time-honored way, by marrying Nur ad-Din's widow Ismat ad-Din Khatun. Aleppo and Mosul, on the other hand, the two other largest cities that Nur ad-Din had ruled, were never taken, but Saladin managed to impose his influence and authority on them in 1176 and 1186 respectively. While he was occupied in besieging Aleppo, on May 22, 1176, the shadowy Ismaili assassin group, the Hashshashin, attempted to murder him. They made two attempts on his life, the second time coming close enough to inflict wounds. For other uses, see Damascus (disambiguation). ... Aleppo (Arabic: ‎ [ħalab], ) is a city in northern Syria, capital of the Aleppo Governorate; the Governate extends around the city for over 16,000 km² and has a population of 4,393,000, making it the largest Governate in Syria (followed by Damascus). ... Mosul (Arabic: , Kurdish: موصل Mûsil, Syriac: Nîněwâ, Turkish: Musul) is a city in northern Iraq and the capital of the Ninawa Governorate. ... A siege is a military blockade of a city or fortress with the intent of conquering by force or attrition, often accompanied by an assault. ... Aleppo (Arabic: ‎ [ħalab], ) is a city in northern Syria, capital of the Aleppo Governorate; the Governate extends around the city for over 16,000 km² and has a population of 4,393,000, making it the largest Governate in Syria (followed by Damascus). ... is the 142nd day of the year (143rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events May 22 - Murder attempt by the Hashshashin on Saladin near Aleppo Raynald of Chatillon released from prison in Aleppo May 29 - Frederick Barbarossa is defeated in the Battle of Legnano by the Lombard League leading to the pactum Anagninum (the Agreement of Anagni) September 17 - Seljuk Turks defeat Manuel... The Ismāʿīlī (Urdu: اسماعیلی Ismāʿīlī, Arabic: الإسماعيليون al-Ismāʿīliyyūn; Persian: اسماعیلیان Esmāʿīliyān) branch of Islam is the second largest part of the Shīa community, after the Twelvers (Ithnāʿashariyya). ... Hashshashin fortress of Alamut. ...


While Saladin was consolidating his power in Syria, he usually left the Crusader kingdom alone, although he was generally victorious whenever he did meet the Crusaders in battle. One exception was the Battle of Montgisard on November 25, 1177. He was defeated by the combined forces of Baldwin IV of Jerusalem, Raynald of Chatillon and the Knights Templar. Only one tenth of his army made it back to Egypt. Combatants Kingdom of Jerusalem Ayyubids Commanders Baldwin IV, Raynald of Chatillon, Knights Templar Saladin Strength 375 knights, 80 Templars, Several thousand infantry About 30,000 Casualties 1100 killed 750 wounded About 27,000 The Battle of Montgisard was fought between Saladin and the Kingdom of Jerusalem on November 25, 1177. ... is the 329th day of the year (330th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events November 25 - Baldwin IV of Jerusalem and Raynald of Chatillon defeat Saladin at the Battle of Montgisard. ... William of Tyre discovers Baldwins first symptoms of leprosy (MS of LEstoire dEracles (French translation of William of Tyres Historia), painted in France, 1250s. ... Raynald of Châtillon (also Reynaud, Renaud, Reynald, Reynold, Renald or Reginald of Chastillon) (c. ... For other uses, see Knights Templar (disambiguation). ...


Battles against Crusaders

Saladin spent the subsequent year recovering from his defeat and rebuilding his army, renewing his attacks in 1179 when he defeated the Crusaders at the Battle of Jacob's Ford .[5] after which a truce was declared between Saladin and the Crusader States in 1180.[citation needed] However crusader counter-attacks provoked further responses by Saladin. Raynald of Chatillon, in particular, harassed Muslim trading and pilgrimage routes with a fleet on the Red Sea, a water route that Saladin needed to keep open. In response, Saladin built a fleet of 30 galleys to attack Beirut in 1182. Raynald threatened to attack the holy cities of Mecca and Medina. In retaliation, Saladin twice besieged Kerak, Raynald's fortress in Oultrejordain, in 1183 and 1184. Raynald responded by looting a caravan of pilgrims on the Hajj in 1185. According to the later thirteenth-century Old French Continuation of William of Tyre, Raynald captured Saladin's sister in a raid on a caravan, although this claim is not attested in contemporary sources, Muslim or Frankish. In fact, Raynald had attacked a preceding caravan, and Saladin set guards to ensure the safety of his sister and her son, who came to no harm. Combatants Kingdom of Jerusalem Ayyubids Commanders Baldwin IV of Jerusalem Saladin Strength About 1500 unknown Casualties 700 killed, 800 captive unknown The Battle of Jacobs Ford was fought in 1179 between the Kingdom of Jerusalem and the forces of Saladin. ... This article is about economic exchange. ... This article is about the religious or spiritual journey. ... Location of the Red Sea The Red Sea is an inlet of the Indian Ocean between Africa and Asia. ... This article is about the Lebanese city. ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... Combatants Kingdom of Jerusalem Ayyubids Commanders Raynald of Chatillon, King Baldwin IV of Jerusalem Saladin Strength 8,000 22,000 Casualties Unknown Unknown The Siege of Kerak took place in 1183 between the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem and Saladin at Kerak Castle, stronghold of Raynald of Chatillon. ... Oultrejordain or Oultrejourdain (French for beyond the Jordan) was the name used during the Crusades for an extensive and partly undefined region to the east of the Jordan river, an area known in ancient times as Edom and Moab. ... A supplicating pilgrim at Masjid Al Haram, the mosque which was built around the Kaaba (the cubical building at center). ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ...


Following the failure of his Kerak sieges, Saladin temporarily turned his attention back to another long-term project and resumed attacks on the territory of 'Izz al-Din (Mas'ud ibn Mawd'ud ibn Zangi), around Mosul, which he had begun with some success in 1182. However, since then, Mas'ud had allied himself with the powerful governor of Azerbaijan and Jibal, who in 1185 began moving his troops across the Zagros Mountains, causing Saladin to hesitate in his attacks. The defenders of Mosul, when they became aware that help was on the way, increased their efforts, and Saladin subsequently fell ill, so in March 1186 a peace treaty was signed.[6] Mosul (Arabic: , Kurdish: موصل Mûsil, Syriac: Nîněwâ, Turkish: Musul) is a city in northern Iraq and the capital of the Ninawa Governorate. ... Under the Caliphate, Jibal was a province located in northwestern Iran. ... The Zagros Mountains (Kurdish: زنجیره‌ چیاکانی زاگروس), make up Irans and Iraqs largest mountain range. ...


In July 1187, Saladin captured most of the Kingdom of Jerusalem. On July 4, 1187, he faced at the Battle of Hattin the combined forces Guy of Lusignan, King Consort of Jerusalem, and Raymond III of Tripoli. In this battle alone the Crusader army was largely annihilated by the motivated army of Saladin in what was a major disaster for the Crusaders and a turning point in the history of the Crusades. Saladin captured Raynald de Chatillon and was personally responsible for his execution in retaliation for previously attacking Muslim pilgrim caravans.[7] Guy of Lusignan was also captured but his life was spared. is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events May 1 - Battle of Cresson - Saladin defeats the crusaders July 4 - Saladin defeats Guy of Lusignan, King of Jerusalem, at the Battle of Hattin. ... Belligerents Kingdom of Jerusalem Knights Templar Ayyubids Commanders Guy of Lusignan # Raymond III of Tripoli # Gerard de Rideford # Balian of Ibelin Saladin Strength Est. ... Imaginary portrait of Guy of Lusignan by François-Edouard Picot, c. ... King consort is a title given in some monarchies to the husband of a Queen regnant. ... Raymond III of Tripoli (1140 – 1187) was Count of Tripoli from 1152 to 1187 and Prince of Galilee and Tiberias in right of his wife Eschiva. ... Execution is a synonym for the actioning of something, of putting something into effect. ...


That night, "with uncharacteristic coldbloodedness", Saladin ordered the execution of the "hundred or so" Templar and Hospitaller knights among the prisoners.[8] Because of their religious "devotion and rigorous training", they were the "most feared" of the Christian soldiers.[8] Seated on a dais before his army, Saladin watched as "the band of scholars, sufis and ascetics ... carried out the ceremonial killing".[8]

The statue of Saladin at the entrance of the citadel in Damascus.
The statue of Saladin at the entrance of the citadel in Damascus.

Download high resolution version (1024x748, 178 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Saladin Categories: Public domain images ... Download high resolution version (1024x748, 178 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Saladin Categories: Public domain images ... For other uses, see Damascus (disambiguation). ...

Capture of Jerusalem

Saladin had almost captured every Crusader city. Jerusalem capitulated to his forces on October 2, 1187, after a siege. Before the siege, Saladin had offered generous terms of surrender, which were rejected. After the siege had started, he was unwilling to promise terms of quarter to the European occupants of Jerusalem until Balian of Ibelin threatened to kill every Muslim in the city, estimated between 3,000 to 5,000, and to destroy Islam’s holy shrines of the Dome of the Rock and the al-Aqsa Mosque if quarter was not given. Saladin consulted his council and these terms were accepted. Ransom was to be paid for each Frank in the city whether man, woman, or child. Saladin allowed many to leave without having the required amount for ransom for others.[9][10] For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... is the 275th day of the year (276th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events May 1 - Battle of Cresson - Saladin defeats the crusaders July 4 - Saladin defeats Guy of Lusignan, King of Jerusalem, at the Battle of Hattin. ... Combatants Ayyubids Kingdom of Jerusalem Commanders Saladin Balian of Ibelin The Siege of Jerusalem took place from September 20 to October 2, 1187. ... Drawing of Balian of Ibelins seal, from The Crusades: The Story of the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem, by T. A. Archer and Charles Lethbridge Kingsford (London & NY, 1894). ... The Dome of the Rock in the center of the Temple Mount The Dome of the Rock, (Arabic: مسجد قبة الصخرة, translit. ... For other uses, see al-Aqsa. ...


Tyre, on the coast of modern-day Lebanon was the last major Crusader city that was not captured by Muslim forces (strategically, it would have made more sense for Saladin to capture Tyre before Jerusalem--however, Saladin chose to pursue Jerusalem first because of the importance of the city to Islam). The city was now commanded by Conrad of Montferrat, who strengthened Tyre's defences and withstood two sieges by Saladin. In 1188, at Tortosa, Saladin released Guy of Lusignan and returned him to his wife, Queen Sibylla of Jerusalem. They went first to Tripoli, then to Antioch. In 1189, they sought to reclaim Tyre for their kingdom, but were refused admission by Conrad, who did not recognize Guy as king. Guy then set about besieging Acre. The Triumphal Arch Tyre (Arabic , Phoenician , Hebrew Tzor, Tiberian Hebrew , Akkadian , Greek Týros) is a city in the South Governorate of Lebanon. ... Imaginary portrait of Conrad by François-Édouard Picot, c. ... Top: Baldwin IV betrothes Sibylla to Guy; Bottom: Sibylla and Guy are married. ... For other places with the same name, see Antioch (disambiguation). ... The Siege of Acre was the most important event of the Third Crusade, lasting from August 28, 1189 until July 12, 1191, and the first time in the history of the crusades that the king was compelled to personally see to the defense of the Holy Land. ...


Battles with Richard the Lionheart

Hattin and the fall of Jerusalem prompted the Third Crusade, financed in England by a special "Saladin tithe". Richard I of England led Guy's siege of Acre, conquered the city and executed 3,000 Muslim prisoners including women and children. Saladin retaliated by killing all Franks captured from August 28 - September 10. Bahā' al-Dīn writes: "Whilst we were there they brought two Franks to the Sultan (Saladin) who had been made prisoners by the advance guard. He had them beheaded on the spot."[11] The Third Crusade (1189–1192), also known as the Kings Crusade, was an attempt by European leaders to reconquer the Holy Land from Saladin. ... The Saladin tithe, or the Aid of 1188, was a tax, or more specifically a tallage, levied in England and to some extent in France in 1188, in response to the capture of Jerusalem by Saladin in 1187. ... Richard I (September 8, 1157 – April 6, 1199) was King of England and ruler of the Angevin Empire from July 6, 1189 until his death. ... For other uses, see Akko (disambiguation). ...


The armies of Saladin engaged in combat with the rival armies of King Richard I of England at the Battle of Arsuf on September 7, 1191, at which Saladin was defeated. Saladin's relationship with Richard was one of chivalrous mutual respect as well as military rivalry; both were celebrated in courtly romances. When Richard became ill with fever, Saladin offered the services of his personal physician. Saladin also sent him fresh fruit with snow, to chill the drink, as treatment. At Arsuf, when Richard lost his horse, Saladin sent him two replacements. Richard had suggested to Saladin that his sister could marry Saladin's brother - and Jerusalem could be their wedding gift. However, the two never met face to face; communication between the two was either written or by messenger. Richard I (September 8, 1157 – April 6, 1199) was King of England and ruler of the Angevin Empire from July 6, 1189 until his death. ... The Battle of Arsuf was a battle of the Third Crusade in which Richard I of England defeated Saladin at Arsuf. ... is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events May 12 - Richard I of England marries Berengaria of Navarre. ... The courtly romance or roman courteois was a genre of aristocratic entertainment in narrative verse popular in the Middle ages. ...


The two came to an agreement over Jerusalem in the Treaty of Ramla in 1192, whereby the city would remain in Muslim hands but would be open to Christian pilgrimages; the treaty reduced the Latin Kingdom to a strip along the coast from Tyre to Jaffa. This treaty was supposed to last 3 years. Muslims and Christians now were living in harmony in the Holy Land, the place which matters in both religions. The Treaty of Ramla was signed by Saladin and Richard the Lionheart in June 1192 after the Battle of Arsuf. ... This article is about the religious or spiritual journey. ... For other uses, see Jaffa (disambiguation). ...


Death

The tomb of sultan Saladin near the northwestern corner of the Umayyad Mosque, Damascus, Syria.
The tomb of sultan Saladin near the northwestern corner of the Umayyad Mosque, Damascus, Syria.
View of the interior of the tomb of Sultan Saladin
View of the interior of the tomb of Sultan Saladin

Saladin died on March 4, 1193, at Damascus, not long after Richard's departure. When they opened Saladin's treasury they found there was not enough money to pay for his funeral; he had given most of his money away in charity.[12] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1536x2048, 661 KB) en: Damascus, Syria - the tomb of Saladin near the northwestern corner of the Umayyad Mosque sl: Damask, Sirija - Saladinova grobnica ob severozahodnem vogalu mošeje Omajadov I took the photo myself. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1536x2048, 661 KB) en: Damascus, Syria - the tomb of Saladin near the northwestern corner of the Umayyad Mosque sl: Damask, Sirija - Saladinova grobnica ob severozahodnem vogalu mošeje Omajadov I took the photo myself. ... For other uses, see Damascus (disambiguation). ... is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Saladin dies, and the lands of the Kurdish Ayyubid dynasty of Egypt and Syria are split among his descendants. ... For other uses, see Damascus (disambiguation). ...


Saladin is buried in a mausoleum in the garden outside the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, Syria. Emperor Wilhelm II of Germany donated a new marble sarcophagus to the mausoleum. Saladin was, however, not placed in it. Instead the mausoleum, which is open to visitors, now has two sarcophagi: one empty in marble and one in wood containing the body of Saladin. St. ... The Umayyad Mosque in the center of Damascus by night St Johns Shrine inside the Mosque The courtyard of the Mosque with the ancient Treasury (Beit al Mal) The Grand Mosque of Damascus, also known as the Umayyad Mosque (Arabic: جامع بني أمية الكبير, transl. ... For other uses, see Damascus (disambiguation). ... William II (German: ) (born Prince Frederick William Victor Albert of Prussia; German: ) (27 January 1859 – 4 June 1941) was the last German Emperor and King of Prussia (German: Deutscher Kaiser und König von Preußen), ruling both the German Empire and the Kingdom of Prussia from 15 June 1888... -1... The Etruscan Sarcophagus of the Spouses, at the National Etruscan Museum. ...


Recognition

Saladin depicted on a Dirham coin (c. 1190)
Saladin depicted on a Dirham coin (c. 1190)

Despite his fierce struggle against the crusades, Saladin achieved a great reputation in Europe as a chivalrous knight, so much so that there existed by the fourteenth century an epic poem about his exploits, and Dante included him among the virtuous pagan souls in Limbo. Saladin appears in a sympathetic light in Sir Walter Scott's The Talisman (1825). Despite the Crusaders' slaughter when they originally conquered Jerusalem in 1099, Saladin granted amnesty and free passage to all common Catholics and even to the defeated Christian army, as long as they were able to pay the aforementioned ransom (the Greek Orthodox Christians were treated even better, because they often opposed the western Crusaders). An interesting view of Saladin and the world in which he lived is provided by Tariq Ali's novel The Book of Saladin.[13] Image File history File links Dirham_Saladin. ... Image File history File links Dirham_Saladin. ... Dirham is a unit of currency in several Arabic-speaking nations, including: Islamic Dirham The Moroccan dirham The United Arab Emirates dirham 1/1000 of the Libyan dinar 1/100 of the Qatari riyal 1/10 of the Jordanian dinar The dirham, spelt diram, is 1/100 of the Tajikistani... For other uses, see Chivalry (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Knight (disambiguation) or Knights (disambiguation). ... In mathematics, see epic morphism. ... Dante redirects here. ... Pagan and heathen redirect here. ... For other uses, see Soul (disambiguation). ... This article is about the theological concept. ... Raeburns portrait of Sir Walter Scott in 1822. ... The Roman Catholic Church is the largest religious denomination of Christianity with over one billion members. ... Orthodox icon of Pentecost. ...


Notwithstanding the differences in beliefs, the Muslim Saladin was respected by Christian lords, Richard especially. Richard once praised Saladin as a great prince, saying that he was without doubt the greatest and most powerful leader in the Islamic world.[14] Saladin in turn stated that there was not a more honorable Christian lord than Richard. After the treaty, Saladin and Richard sent each other many gifts as tokens of respect, but never met face to face.


In April 1191, a Frankish woman's three month old baby had been stolen from her camp and had been sold on the market. The Franks urged her to approach Saladin herself with her grievance. After Saladin used his own money to buy the child, "he gave it to the mother and she took it; with tears streaming down her face, and hugged it to her breast. The people were watching her and weeping and I (Ibn Shaddad) was standing amongst them. She suckled it for some time and then Saladin ordered a horse to be fetched for her and she went back to camp."[15]


The name Salah ad-Din means "Righteousness of Faith," and through the ages Saladin has been an inspiration for Muslims in many respects. Modern Muslim rulers have sought to capitalize on the reputation of Saladin. A governorate centered around Tikrit and Samarra in modern-day Iraq, Salah ad Din Governorate, is named after him, as is Salahaddin University in Arbil. A suburb community of Arbil, Masif Salahaddin, is also named after him. Iraq is divided into 18 governorates or provinces (muhafazah): The current set of governorates were established in 1976. ... Map showing Samarra near Baghdad Sāmarrā (سامراء) is a town in Iraq ( ). It stands on the east bank of the Tigris in the Salah ad Din Governorate, 125 km north of Baghdad and, in 2002, had an estimated population of 201,700. ... Salah ad Din or Salâh-ad-Dîn (Arabic: صلاح الدين) is a governorate in Iraq, north of Baghdad. ... The Salahaddin University (Zankoy Selaheddîn in Kurdish) is located in Arbil (Hewler), capital of the Iraqi Kurdistan region. ... Arbil (also written Erbil or Irbil; BGN: Arbīl; Arabic: , Arbīl; Kurdish: , Hewlêr; Syriac: ܐܪܒܝܠ, Arbela, Turkish: Erbil) is believed by many to be one of the oldest continuously-inhabited cities in the world and is one of the larger cities in Iraq [1] [2] [3]. The city lies... Arbil (also written Erbil or Irbil; BGN: Arbīl; Arabic: , Arbīl; Kurdish: , Hewlêr; Syriac: ܐܪܒܝܠ, Arbela, Turkish: Erbil) is believed by many to be one of the oldest continuously-inhabited cities in the world and is one of the larger cities in Iraq [1] [2] [3]. The city lies...


Few structures associated with Saladin survive within modern cities. Saladin first fortified the Citadel of Cairo (1175 - 1183), which had been a domed pleasure pavilion with a fine view in more peaceful times. In Syria, even the smallest city is centred on a defensible citadel, and Saladin introduced this essential feature to Egypt. The Saladin Citadel of Cairo (Arabic: قلعة صلاح الدين) is one of the most popular tourist attractions of Cairo. ... This article is about a type of fortification. ...


Among the forts he built was Qalaat Al-Gindi, a mountaintop fortress and caravanserai in the Sinai. The fortress overlooks a large wadi which was the convergence of several caravan routes that linked Egypt and the Middle East. Inside the structure are a number of large vaulted rooms hewn out of rock, including the remains of shops and a water cistern. A notable archaeological site, it was investigated in 1909 by a French team under Jules Barthoux.[16] A sample floorplan of a Safavid caravanserai. ... Sinai Peninsula, Gulf of Suez (west), Gulf of Aqaba (east) from Space Shuttle STS-40 For other uses, see Sinai (disambiguation). ... Wadi alMujib, Jordan A wadi (Arabic: ) is traditionally a valley. ...


According to the French writer René Grousset,


"It is equally true that his generosity, his piety, devoid of fanaticism, that flower of liberality and courtesy which had been the model of our old chroniclers, won him no less popularity in Frankish Syria than in the lands of Islam".[17]


When German Kaiser Wilhelm the Second went to Syria he laid a wreath at the tomb of Saladin in Damascus with the inscription, German Emperor Wilhelm (born Friedrich Wilhelm Viktor Albrecht, Prince of Prussia 27 January 1859–4 June 1941), was the last German Emperor and King of Prussia (de: Deutscher Kaiser und König von Preußen), ruling from 15 June 1888 to 9 November 1918. ... Look up wreath in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Damascus (disambiguation). ...


"A Knight without fear or blame who often had to teach his opponents the right way to practice chivalry".[17]


Legacy

The Eagle of Saladin as it appears in the Egyptian coat of arms.
The Eagle of Saladin as it appears in the Egyptian coat of arms.
The Eagle of Saladin as it appears in the Palestinian coat of arms.
The Eagle of Saladin as it appears in the Palestinian coat of arms.
The Eagle of Saladin as it appears in the Iraqi coat of arms.
The Eagle of Saladin as it appears in the Iraqi coat of arms.
The Eagle of Saladin as it appears in the Yemeni coat of arms.

Although the Ayyubid dynasty he founded would only outlive him by fifty-seven years, the legacy of Saladin within the Arab World continues to this day. With the rise of Arab nationalism in the Twentieth Century, particularly with regard to the Arab-Israeli conflict, Saladin's heroism and leadership gained a new significance. Saladin's liberation of Palestine from the European Crusaders was taken as the inspiration for the modern-day Arabs' struggle against Zionism. Moreover, the glory and comparative unity of the Arab World under Saladin was seen as the perfect symbol for the new unity sought by Arab nationalists, such as Gamal Abdel Nasser. For this reason, the Eagle of Saladin became the symbol of revolutionary Egypt, and was subsequently adopted by several other Arab states (Iraq, Palestine, and Yemen). The Egyptian coat of arms is a golden eagle looking towards the left. ... Image File history File links Palestinian_National_Authority_COA.svg‎ Based on Image:Palestine COA (alternative). ... Image File history File links Palestinian_National_Authority_COA.svg‎ Based on Image:Palestine COA (alternative). ... The Coat of Arms of Palestine is the coat of arms used by the Palestinian National Authority. ... The Coat of arms of Iraq includes the golden Eagle of Saladin associated with 20th-century pan-Arabism, with a shield of the Iraqi flag, and holding a scroll below with the Arabic words الجمهورية العراقية (al-Jumhuriya al-`Iraqiya or The Iraqi Republic). Coat of arms of Egypt      Coats of arms... Image File history File links Coat_of_Arm_of_Yemen. ... Image File history File links Coat_of_Arm_of_Yemen. ... The Coat of Arms of Yemen depict a golden eagle with a scroll between its claws. ... The Ayyubid or Ayyoubid Dynasty was a Muslim dynasty of Kurdish[1] origins which ruled Egypt, Syria, Yemen (except for the Northern Mountains), Diyar Bakr, Mecca, Hejaz and northern Iraq in the 12th and 13th centuries. ... Arab States redirects here. ... Arab nationalism refers to a common nationalist ideology in wider Arab world. ... Belligerents Arab nations Israel Arab-Israeli conflict series History of the Arab-Israeli conflict Views of the Arab-Israeli conflict International law and the Arab-Israeli conflict Arab-Israeli conflict facts, figures, and statistics Participants Israeli-Palestinian conflict · Israel-Lebanon conflict · Arab League · Soviet Union / Russia · Israel, Palestine and the... The Crusaders (formerly the Canterbury Crusaders) are a New Zealand Rugby Union team based in Christchurch, New Zealand that competes in the Super 14 (formerly the Super 12). ... This article is about Zionism as a movement, not the History of Israel. ... Nasser redirects here. ... The Egyptian coat of arms is a golden eagle looking towards the left. ... The Coat of Arms of Palestine is the coat of arms used by the Palestinian National Authority. ...


Saladin in film

In 1963 an Egyptian movie about Saladin was released, titled Al Nasser Salah Ad-Din. In the 1965 Doctor Who serial The Crusade he was played by Bernard Kay. 2005's Kingdom of Heaven, directed by Ridley Scott, has Saladin portrayed by Syrian actor Ghassan Massoud. In the 2007 Swedish film Arn – The Knight Templar (Arn – Tempelriddaren), Saladin is portrayed by Indian actor and supermodel Milind Soman. Al Nasser Salah Ad-Din الناصر صلاج الدين is a movie that was released on 1963, written by Youssef El Sebai, based on the novel by Naguib Mahfouz directed by Youssef Chahine, and starring Ahmed Mazhar, Mohamed Abdel Gawad, Tewfik El Dekn, Omar El-Hariri, Mahmoud El-Meliguy, Leila Fawzi, Hamdi Geiss, Ahmed... This article is about the television series. ... The Crusade is a serial in the British science fiction television series Doctor Who, which was first broadcast in four weekly parts from March 27 to April 17, 1965. ... Kay as Wolf in Foyles War: The White Feather (2002). ... The year 2005 in film involved some significant events. ... This article is about the film. ... Sir Ridley Scott (born November 30, 1937 in South Shields, South Tyneside) is a British film director and producer. ... Ghassan Massoud (Arabic: ‎) (born September 20, 1958 in Damascus) is a Syrian actor and filmmaker. ... 2007 has been referred to, by film and media critics, as the year of the threequels, a nickname referring to both the 2004 summer movie season and several film franchises which premiered or had installments released in 2004, which appear again this year: Spider-Man 3, Shrek the Third, Ocean... Swedish cinema is one of the most widely-known national cinemas in the world, and certainly the most prominent of Scandinavia. ... Milind Soman is an Indian supermodel and actor. ...


See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Saladin
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Al-'Āḍid
Fatimid Caliph of Egypt
Sultan of Egypt
1171–1193
Succeeded by
Al-Aziz Uthman
Preceded by
As-Salih Ismail al-Malik
Emir of Damascus
1174–1186
Succeeded by
Al-Afdal ibn Salah al-din

During the initial Islamic invasion in 639 AD, Egypt was ruled at first by governors acting in the name of the Ummayad Caliphs in Damascus but, in 747, the Ummayads were overthrown and the power of the Arabs slowly began to weaken. ... The Saladin (FV601) was a six-wheeled armoured car built by Alvis and used by the British Army. ... The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. ... Recha Welcoming Her Father, 1877 illustration by Maurycy Gottlieb Nathan the Wise (original German title Nathan der Weise) is a play by Gotthold Ephraim Lessing, published in 1779. ... Al-Āḍid (b. ... The Fatimids, Fatimid Caliphate or al-Fātimiyyūn (Arabic الفاطميون) is the Shia dynasty that ruled over varying areas of the Maghreb, Egypt, and the Levant from 5 January 910 to 1171. ... Al-Malik Al-Aziz Osman bin Salahadin Yusuf (b. ... As-Salih Ismail al-Malik (1163-1181) was the son of Nur ad-Din, and was only eleven years old when his father died in 1174. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Bahā' al-Dīn (2002), pp 17 & 243–244.
  2. ^ Bahā' al-Dīn (2002), p 17.
  3. ^ "The medieval historian Ibn Athir relates a passage from another commander: ...both you and Saladin are Kurds and you will not let power pass into the hands of..." Minorsky (1957).
  4. ^ a b c Reston (2001), pp 3–8.
  5. ^ also "Bait al-Ahazon"
  6. ^ C. Bosworth et al. Encyclopaedia of Islam, page 781 Brill (1989) ISBN 9004092390, via Google Books accessed 2008-05-18
  7. ^ Runciman, Volume 2, Book 10, Chapter II
  8. ^ a b c Hindley (2007), p. 132.
  9. ^ Runciman
  10. ^ E. J. Brill's First Encyclopaedia of Islam, 1913-1936
  11. ^ Bahā' al-Dīn (2002) pp 169-170
  12. ^ Bahā' al-Dīn (2002) pp 25 & 244.
  13. ^ (London: Verso, 1998)
  14. ^ Lyons & Jackson (1982), pg 357.
  15. ^ Bahā' al-Dīn (2002), pp 147–148; Lyons & Jackson (1982), pp 325-326.
  16. ^ Schreurs, J. (February 2001). Saladin. Retrieved on 2007-03-17.
  17. ^ a b Grousset (1970).

Ibn Athir is the family name of three brothers, all famous in Arabian literature, born at JazIrat ibn Umar in Kurdistan. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 76th day of the year (77th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • Bahā' al-Dīn Ibn Shaddād (trans. Richards, D.S.) (2002). The Rare and Excellent History of Saladin. Ashgate. ISBN 978-0-7546-3381-6
  • Bowman, Alan K. (1986). Egypt After the Pharaohs.
  • Gabrieli, Francesco (trans. Costello, E.J.) (1984). Arab Historians of the Crusades. Routledge & Kegan Paul. ISBN 978-0-710-20235-2
  • Gibb, H. A. R. (1973). The Life of Saladin: From the Works of Imad ad-Din and Baha ad-Din. Clarendon Press. ISBN 978-0-86356-928-9
  • Gillingham, John (1999). "Richard I", Yale English Monarchs, Yale University Press.
  • Grousset, Rene (1970). The Epic of the Crusades. New York: Orion Press.
  • Hindley, Geoffrey (2007). Saladin: Hero of Islam. Pen & Sword. ISBN 1-84415-499-8
  • Imad ad-Din al-Isfahani (ed. Landberg, C.). (1888). Conquête de la Syrie et de la Palestine par Salâh ed-dîn. Brill.
  • Lane-Poole, Stanley. (1898). Saladin and the Fall of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, Putnam.
  • Lyons, M. C. & Jackson, D. E. P. (1982) Saladin: the Politics of the Holy War. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-31739-9
  • Minorsky, V. (1957). Studies in Caucasian history, Cambridge University Press.
  • Reston, James (2001). Warriors of God: Richard the Lionhearted and Saladin in the Third Crusade. New York: Anchor Books. ISBN 0-385-49562-5
  • Runciman, Steven. A History of the Crusades: Volume 2, The Kingdom of Jerusalem and the Frankish East. Cambridge University Press.

Oxford University Press (OUP) is a highly-respected publishing house and a department of the University of Oxford in England. ... The headquarters of the Cambridge University Press, in Trumpington Street, Cambridge. ...

External links

  • Saladin
  • Richard and Saladin: Warriors of the Third Crusade
  • De expugnatione terrae sanctae per Saladinum A European account of Saladin's conquests of the Crusader states. (Latin)


  Results from FactBites:
 
This Date in History: Saladin Arrives at Jerusalem (262 words)
September 20, 1187: Saladin and his forces arrive outside of Jerusalem and prepare to assault the city.
Defense of Jerusalem is led by Balian of Ibelin.
Balian not only gains Saladin's permission to stay, but Saladin also ensures that his wife and children are given safe conduct out of the city and taken to safety in Tyre.
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Saladin, the Western name for the ruler Salah al-Din ibn Ayyub, was the great Muslim general who confronted the Crusaders in the Near East.
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Saladin waited to take possession of the city until October 2, because the date corresponded with the anniversary of the Prophet's miraculous ascension to heaven, according to the Muslim calendar.
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