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Encyclopedia > Sakhalin
Sakhalin
Native name: Сахалин
Geography
Location Russian Far East, Pacific Ocean
Coordinates 45°50' 54°24' N
Total islands 1
Area 78,000 km²
Highest point Lopatin (1609m)
Administration
  Russia
Largest city Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk (174,203)
Demographics
Population 673,100 (as of 2005)
Density 8.62/sq km
Indigenous people Russians, Koreans, Nivkhs, Oroks, venks and Yakuts.


Sakhalin (Russian: Сахали́н, IPA: [səxʌˈlʲin]; Japanese: 樺太 (karafuto?) or サハリン (saharin?)); Chinese: 庫頁; also Saghalien, is a large elongated island in the North Pacific, lying between 45°50' and 54°24' N. It is part of Russia and is its largest island, administered as part of Sakhalin Oblast. Southern Sakhalin, the Kuril Islands, and northern Japan were the indigenous lands of the Ainu peoples before they were displaced by force. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1000x913, 407 KB) This is a map showing the location of the Sea of Okhotsk. ... Far Eastern Federal District (highlighted in red) Russian Far East (Russian: Д́альний Вост́ок Росс́ии; English transliteration: Dalny Vostok Rossii) is an informal term that refers to the Russian part of the Far East, i. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia_(bordered). ... Not to be confused with the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... For other meanings of Pacific, see Pacific (disambiguation). ... Sakhalin Oblast on the map of Russia Flag of Sakhalin Oblast Sakhalin Oblast (Russian: , Sakhalinskaya Oblast) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast). ... Location of Kuril Islands in the Western Pacific. ... Ainu IPA: /ʔáınu/) are an ethnic group indigenous to Hokkaidō, northern HonshÅ«, the Kuril Islands, much of Sakhalin, and the southernmost third of the Kamchatka peninsula. ...


The European names derived from misinterpretation of a Manchu name sahaliyan ula angga hada (peak of the mouth of Amur River). Sahaliyan means black in Manchu and refers to Amur River (sahaliyan ula). Its Japanese name, Karafuto (樺太) comes from Ainu Kamuy-Kara-Puto-Ya-Mosir (Kara Puto), which means "God of mouth of water land". The name was restored to the island by the Japanese during their possession of its southern part (1905-1945). The Manchu language is a Tungusic language spoken by Manchus in Manchuria; it is the language of the Manchu, though now most Manchus speak Mandarin Chinese and there are fewer than 70 native speakers of Manchu out of a total of nearly 10 million ethnic Manchus. ... The Amur (Russian: Амур) (Simplified Chinese: 黑龙江; Traditional Chinese: 黑龍江; Hēilóng Jiāng, literally meaning Black Dragon River) (Mongolian: Хара-Мурэн, Khara-Muren or Black River) (Manchu: Sahaliyan Ula, literal meaning Black... Karafuto (樺太) is the Japanese name for the southern part of the island of Sakhalin or the entire island of Sakhalin. ... The Ainu language (Ainu: , aynu itak; Japanese: ainu-go) is spoken by the Ainu ethnic group on the northern Japanese island of Hokkaidō. It was once spoken in the Kurile Islands, the northern part of HonshÅ«, and the southern half of Sakhalin. ...

Contents

History

Sakhalin was inhabited in the Neolithic Stone Age. Flint implements, like those found in Siberia, have been found at Dui and Kusunai in great numbers, as well as polished stone hatchets, like European examples, primitive pottery with decorations like those of the Olonets, and stone weights for nets. Afterwards a population to whom bronze was known left traces in earthen walls and kitchen-middens on the Aniva Bay. An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ... Stone Age fishing hook. ... A flint nodule from the Onondaga limestone layer, Buffalo, New York. ... Siberian Federal District (darker red) and the broadest definition of Siberia (red) arctic northeast Siberia Udachnaya pipe Siberia (Russian: , Sibir; Tatar: ) is a vast region of Russia constituting almost all of Northern Asia and comprising a large part of the Euro-Asian Steppe. ... Kusunai (or Kushunnai) is a Japanese settlement in Sakhalin which was attacked by the Soviet Union and since then has been occupied by Russia. ... The towns coat of arms was promulgated by Catherine the Great in 1781. ... Assorted ancient Bronze castings found as part of a cache, probably intended for recycling. ... Aniva Bay (Zaliv Aniva, Aniwa Bay, or Aniva Gulf) is located at the sourthern end of Sakhalin Island, Russia, north of the island of Hokkaido, Japan. ...


Among the indigenous people of Sakhalin are the Ainu and the Nivkh, as well as others. Chinese chronicled the Xianbei[citation needed] and Hezhe tribes, who had a way of life based on fishing. The Chinese in the Ming dynasty knew the island as Kuyi (Chinese: 苦夷; pinyin: Kŭyí; literally "miserable barbarians"), and later as Kuye (Chinese: 庫頁; pinyin: Kùyè). For a short period (1409-1435) Kuye was under the administration of Nurkal Command Post set up by the Ming dynasty and a Ming boundary stone still exists on the island[citation needed]. According to Wei Yuan's work Military history of the Qing Dynasty (Chinese: 圣武記; pinyin: Shèngwǔ Jì), the Later Jin sent 400 troops to Sakhalin in 1616, after a newfound interest because of northern Japanese contacts with the area, but later withdrew as it was considered there was no threat from the island. Indigenous peoples are: Peoples living in an area prior to colonization by a state Peoples living in an area within a nation-state, prior to the formation of a nation-state, but who do not identify with the dominant nation. ... Ainu IPA: /ʔáınu/) are an ethnic group indigenous to Hokkaidō, northern HonshÅ«, the Kuril Islands, much of Sakhalin, and the southernmost third of the Kamchatka peninsula. ... Nivkh or Gilyak (ethnonym: Nivxi) (language, нивхгу - Nivxgu) is a language spoken in Outer Manchuria, in the basin of the Amgun, a tributary of the Amur, along the lower reaches of the Amur and on the northern half of Sakhalin. ... The Xianbei (Simplified Chinese: 鲜卑; Traditional Chinese: 鮮卑; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Hsien-pei) were a significant nomadic people residing in modern Manchuria and eastern Mongolia, or Xianbei Shan, a historic term for Greater Khingan, before migrating into areas of the modern Chinese provinces of Shanxi, Shaanxi, Gansu, Qinghai, Hebei, Inner Mongolia... The Nanai people (self name нани; tr. ... For other uses, see Ming. ... Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), commonly called Pinyin, is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), commonly called Pinyin, is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... For other uses, see Ming. ... Wei Yuan (魏源, 1794-1856). ... Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), commonly called Pinyin, is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... The Qing Dynasty (Manchu: daicing gurun; Chinese: 清朝; pinyin: qīng cháo; Wade-Giles: ching chao), sometimes known as the Manchu Dynasty, was founded by the Manchu clan Aisin Gioro, in what is today northeast China expanded into China proper and the surrounding territories of...


A Japanese settlement in the southern end of Sakhalin of Ootomari was established in 1679 in a colonialization attempt. Cartographers of the Matsumae clan created a map of the island and called it "Kita-Ezo" (Northern Ezo, Ezo is the old name of Hokkaidō). The 1686 Nerchinsk Treaty between Russia and China, which defined the Stanovoy Mountains as the border, made no explicit mention of the island. Nevertheless Russia started occupying the island, with an army made up of convicts, from the 18th century onwards. The Qing Empire also claimed sovereignty over the island[citation needed]. However, as the Chinese governments did not have a military presence on the island, people from both Japan and Russia attempted to colonise the island, albeit from different ends. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Matsumae. ... Hokkaidō   (北海道, literal meaning: North Sea Route, Ainu: Mosir), formerly known as Ezo and Yesso, is the second largest island and largest prefecture of Japan. ... Nerchinsk Treaty was the first treaty between Russia and China. ... The Stanovoi Range (Russian: Станово́й хребе́т), also spelled as Stanovoy Range, is a mountain range located in southeastern parts of the Russian Far East. ... The Qing Dynasty (Manchu: daicing gurun; Chinese: 清朝; pinyin: qīng cháo; Wade-Giles: ching chao), sometimes known as the Manchu Dynasty, was founded by the Manchu clan Aisin Gioro, in what is today northeast China expanded into China proper and the surrounding territories of... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Sakhalin became known to Europeans from the travels of Ivan Moskvitin and Martin Gerritz de Vries in the 17th century, and still better from those of Jean-François de La Pérouse (1787) and Ivan Krusenstern (1805). Both, however, regarded it as a peninsula, and were unaware of the existence of the Mamiya Strait or Strait of Tartary, which was discovered in 1809 by Mamiya Rinzo. Ivan Yuryevich Moskvitin (Russian: Иван Юрьевич Москвитин) (? - ?) was a Russian explorer, a Tomsk Cossack. ... Lapérouse by François Rude (1784-1855), in 1828 Lapérouse Jean François Galaup, count (comte) de La Pérouse (August 23, 1741 - 1788) was a French naval officer and explorer whose expedition vanished in Oceania. ... Adam Johann Ritter von Krusenstern was an Estonian Baltic German who became a Russian admiral and explorer. ... Strait of Tartary (Gulf of Tartary, Gulf of Tatary, Tatar Strait, Tartar Strait, Strait of Tartar, also Mamiya Strait and Strait of Nevelskoi) strait in the Pacific Ocean dividing the Russian island of Sakhalin from mainland Asia (South-East Russia), connecting the Sea of Okhotsk on the north with the... Strait of Tartary (Gulf of Tartary, Gulf of Tatary, Tatar Strait, Tartar Strait, Strait of Tartar, also Chinese: 韃靼海峽 , Japanese: , Mamiya Strait and Strait of Nevelskoi) is a strait in the Pacific Ocean dividing the Russian island of Sakhalin from mainland Asia (South-East Russia), connecting the Sea of Okhotsk on... Mamiya Rinzo (間宮林蔵 Mamiya Rinzō, c. ...

Sakhalin Island
Sakhalin Island

On the basis of it being an extension of Hokkaidō, geographically and culturally, Japan unilaterally proclaimed sovereignty over the whole island in 1845, as well as the Kuril Islands, as there were competing claims from Russia. However, the Russian navigator Gennady Nevelskoy in 1849 definitively recorded the existence and navigability of this strait and - in defiance of the Qing and Japanese claims; Russian settlers established coal mines, administration facilities, schools, prisons, churches on the island. Download high resolution version (424x712, 15 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Sakhalin ... Download high resolution version (424x712, 15 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Sakhalin ... Hokkaidō   (北海道, literal meaning: North Sea Route, Ainu: Mosir), formerly known as Ezo and Yesso, is the second largest island and largest prefecture of Japan. ... Location of Kuril Islands in the Western Pacific. ... Gennadi Nevelskoi (November 23 (O.S.) = December 5 (N.S.), 1813, Drakino, Soligalichsky District, Kostroma Oblast – April 17 (O.S.) = April 29 (N.S.), 1876, St. ... A family of Russian settlers in the Caucasus region, ca. ...


In 1855, Russia and Japan signed the Treaty of Shimoda, which declared that both nationals could inhabit the island: Russians in the north, and Japanese in the south, without a clear boundary between. Russia also agreed to dismantle its military base at Ootomari. Following the Opium War, Russia forced the Qing to sign the unequal Treaty of Aigun and Convention of Peking, under which China lost claim to all territories north of Heilongjiang (Amur) and east of Ussuri, including Sakhalin, to Russia. A katorga (penal colony) was established by Russia on Sakhalin in 1857, but the southern part of the island was held by the Japanese until the 1875 Treaty of Saint Petersburg (1875), when they ceded it to Russia in exchange for the Kuril Islands. After the Russo-Japanese War, Russia and Japan signed the Treaty of Portsmouth of 1905, which resulted in the southern part of the island below 50° N reverting to Japan; the Russians retained the other three-fifths of the area. South Sakhalin was administrated by Japan as Karafuto-chō (樺太庁), with the capital Toyohara, today's Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, and had quite a large number of migrants from Japan and Korea. The Treaty of Shimoda was signed between the Russian Admiral Efimii Vasilevich Putiatin and Toshiakira Kawaji of Japan in the city of Shimoda, Japan, on February 7th, 1855. ... There were two Opium Wars between Britain and China. ... The Treaty of Aigun was the Russian-Chinese treaty that established the modern borders of the Russian Far East. ... The Convention of Peking (October 18, 1860), also known as the First Convention of Peking, was a treaty between the Qing Government of China and the British Empire, and between China and France, and China and Russia. ... Heilongjiang (Simplified Chinese: 黑龙江省; Traditional Chinese: 黑龍江省; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Postal System Pinyin: Heilungkiang) is a province of the Peoples Republic of China located in the northeastern part of the country. ... The Amur River (Russian: Амур; Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: , or Black Dragon River; Mayan; Mongolian: Хара-Мурэн, Khara-Muren or Black River; Manchu: Sahaliyan Ula, literal meaning Black River) is Earths eighth longest river, forming the border between the Russian Far East and Manchuria in China. ... The Ussuri River (Chinese: Wūsūlǐ Jīang 乌苏里江, Russian: река Уссури) is a river in south east Russia, flowing north, forming part of the Chinese border, to the Amur River. ... Katorga (ка́торга, from Greek: katergon (galley)) was a system of penal servitude in Imperial Russia. ... A Penal Colony is a colony used to detain prisoners and generally use them for penal labor in an economically underdeveloped part of the states (usually colonial) territories, and on a far larger scale than the prison farm. ... The Treaty of Saint Petersburg ) was signed in 7 May 1875 between the Empire of Japan and Empire of Russia. ... Combatants Russian Empire Empire of Japan Commanders Emperor Nicholas II Aleksey Kuropatkin Stepan Makarov† Emperor Meiji Oyama Iwao Heihachiro Togo Strength 500,000 Soldiers 400,000 Soldiers Casualties 24,844 killed; 146,519 wounded; 59,218 POW; unknown Chinese civilians 47,387 killed; 173,425 woundedï¼› unknown Chinese civilians Greater... The Russian and Japanese delegates around the negotiating table at the Portsmouth Navy Yard St The Treaty of Portsmouth formally ended the 1904-1905 Russo-Japanese War. ... Karafuto (樺太) is the Japanese name for the southern part of the island of Sakhalin or the entire island of Sakhalin. ... Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk (Ю́жно-Сахали́нск) is a city in Sakhalin, Russia, administrative center of the Sakhalin Oblast. ... Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk (Ю́жно-Сахали́нск) is a city in Sakhalin, Russia, administrative center of the Sakhalin Oblast. ...


In August 1945, according to Yalta Conference agreements, the Soviet Union took over the control of Sakhalin. The Soviet attack on South Sakhalin started on 11 August 1945, as a part of Operation August Storm, four days before the Surrender of Japan, after the bombing of Hiroshima. The 56th Rifle Corps consisting of the 79th Rifle Division, the 2nd Rifle Brigade, the 5th Rifle Brigade and the 214 Armored Brigade attacked the Japanese 88th Division. Although the Red Army outnumbered the Japanese by a factor of three, they were unable to advance due to strong Japanese resistance. (Japan had quite a presence here, and developed much infrastructure.) It was not until the 113th Rifle Brigade and the 365th Independent Naval Infantry Rifle Battalion from Sovietskaya Gavan (Советская гавань) landed on Tōrō (�"路), a seashore village of western Sakhalin on 16 August, that the Soviets broke the Japanese defence line. Japanese resistance grew weaker after this landing. Actual fighting, mostly petty skirmishes, continued until 21 August. From 22 August to 23 August, most of the remaining Japanese units announced a truce. The Soviets completed the conquest of Sakhalin on 25 August 1945 by occupying the capital, Toyohara. Japanese sources claim that 20,000 civilians were killed during the invasion[citation needed]. The Big Three at the Yalta Conference, Winston Churchill, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Joseph Stalin. ... August 11 is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday. ... Combatants Soviet Union Japan Commanders Alexandr Vasilevskij Otsuzo Yamada Strength Soviet Union 1,577,225 men, 26,137 artillery, 1,852 sup. ... The surrender of Japan in August 1945 brought World War II to a close. ... For other uses, see Hiroshima (disambiguation). ... August 16 is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... August 21 is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... August 22 is the 234th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (235th in leap years), with 131 days remaining. ... August 23 is the 235th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (236th in leap years), with 130 days remaining. ... August 25 is the 237th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (238th in leap years), with 128 days remaining. ... 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday. ...


No final peace treaty has been signed and the status of four neighbouring islands remains disputed. Japan renounced its claims of sovereignty over southern Sakhalin and the Kuril Islands in the Treaty of San Francisco (1951), but claims that four islands currently administered by Russia were not subject to this renunciation. However, Japan has granted mutual exchange visas for Japanese and Ainu families divided due to Russian occupation. Recently, economic and political cooperation has gradually improved between the two nations in spite of it. Prime Minister Yoshida Shigeru gives a speech on reconciliation and rapport ) at the San Francisco Peace conference. ...


Korean Air Flight 007, a South Korean civilian airliner, flew over Sakhalin and was shot down just west of the island by the Soviet Union on 1 September 1983. The airplane flew into Soviet airspace illegally and without permission, it also did not respond to repeated attempts to contact it by Soviet authorities who claim they thought it was a spy plane. All 269 passengers and crew died. Korean Air Lines Flight 007, also known as KAL 007 or KE007, was a Korean Air Lines civilian airliner shot down by Soviet jet interceptors on September 1, 1983 just west of Sakhalin island. ... Motto: None (Unofficial: Broadly benefit humankind also translated as Devotion to the welfare of humanity) Anthem: Aegukga (Patriotic Hymn) Capital (and largest city) Seoul Official languages Korean Government Semi-presidential republic  -  President Roh Moo-hyun  -  Prime Minister Han Duck-soo Establishment  -  Gojoseon October 3, 2333 BCb   -  Liberation declared March 1... In times of armed conflict a civilian is any person who is not a combatant. ... An Airbus A340 airliner operated by Air Jamaica An airliner is a large fixed-wing aircraft with the primary function of transporting paying passengers. ... September 1 is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


On May 28, 1995, an earthquake measuring 7.5 on the Richter scale occurred, killing 2,000 people in the town of Neftegorsk. May 28 is the 148th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (149th in leap years). ... 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... An earthquake is a natural phenomenon that results from the sudden release of stored energy in the Earths crust that creates seismic waves. ... The Richter magnitude test scale (or more correctly local magnitude ML scale) assigns a single number to quantify the size of an earthquake. ... Main street in Bastrop, Texas, a small town A town is a residential community of people ranging from a few hundred to several thousands, although it may be applied loosely even to huge metropolitan areas. ... Neftegorsk (Нефтего́рск) was an oil-producing town in eastern Russia devastated on May 28, 1995, by an earthquake measuring 7. ...


Geography

Sakhalin is separated from the mainland by the narrow and shallow Mamiya Strait or Strait of Tartary, which often freezes in winter in its narrower part, and from Hokkaidō (Japan) by the Soya Strait or Strait of La Pérouse. Sakhalin is the largest island of Russia, being 948 km (589 miles) long, and 25 to 170 km (16 to 105 miles) wide, with an area of 78,000 km² (30,100 mi²). Strait of Tartary (Gulf of Tartary, Gulf of Tatary, Tatar Strait, Tartar Strait, Strait of Tartar, also Mamiya Strait and Strait of Nevelskoi) strait in the Pacific Ocean dividing the Russian island of Sakhalin from mainland Asia (South-East Russia), connecting the Sea of Okhotsk on the north with the... Strait of Tartary (Gulf of Tartary, Gulf of Tatary, Tatar Strait, Tartar Strait, Strait of Tartar, also Chinese: 韃靼海峽 , Japanese: , Mamiya Strait and Strait of Nevelskoi) is a strait in the Pacific Ocean dividing the Russian island of Sakhalin from mainland Asia (South-East Russia), connecting the Sea of Okhotsk on... Hokkaidō   (北海道, literal meaning: North Sea Route, Ainu: Mosir), formerly known as Ezo and Yesso, is the second largest island and largest prefecture of Japan. ... La Pérouse Strait (Japanese: Soya Strait) is a strait dividing the southern part of the Russian island of Sakhalin from the northern part of the Japanese island of Hokkaido, and connecting the Sea of Japan on the west with the Sea of Okhotsk on the east. ... La Pérouse Strait (Japanese: Soya Strait 宗谷海峡) is a strait dividing the southern part of the Russian island of Sakhalin from the northern part of the Japanese island of Hokkaido, and connecting the Sea of Japan on the west with the Sea of Okhotsk on the east. ... km redirects here. ... A mile is a unit of length, usually used to measure distance, in a number of different systems, including Imperial units, United States customary units and Norwegian/Swedish mil. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different geographical regions, we list here areas between 10,000 km² and 100,000 km². See also areas of other orders of magnitude. ...


Its orography and geological structure are imperfectly known. Nearly two-thirds of Sakhalin is mountainous. Two parallel ranges of mountains traverse it from north to south, reaching 600–1500 m (2000–5000 ft). The Western Sakhalin Mountains peak in Mount Ichara, 1481 m (4860 ft), while the Eastern Sakhalin Mountains's highest peak is Mount Lopatin 1609 m (5279 ft) is also the island's highest mountain. Tym-Poronaiskaya Valley separates the two ranges. Susuanaisky and Tonino-Anivsky ranges traverse the island in the south, while the swampy Northern-Sakhalin plain occupies most of its north. Orography is the average height of land, measured in geopotential meters, over a certain domain. ... This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... The metre, or meter (U.S.), is a measure of length. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ...


Crystalline rocks crop out at several capes; Cretaceous limestones, containing an abundant and specific fauna of gigantic ammonites, occur at Dui on the west coast, and Tertiary conglomerates, sandstones, marls and clays, folded by subsequent upheavals, in many parts of the island. The clays, which contain layers of good coal and an abundant fossil vegetation, show that during the Miocene period Sakhalin formed part of a continent which comprised north Asia, Alaska and Japan, and enjoyed a comparatively warm climate. The Pliocene deposits contain a mollusc fauna more arctic than that which exists at the present time, indicating probably that the connection between the Pacific and Arctic Oceans was broader than it is now. The Cretaceous Period is one of the major divisions of the geologic timescale, reaching from the end of the Jurassic Period (i. ... Limey shale overlaid by limestone. ... For other uses, see Ammonite (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Tertiary (disambiguation). ... A conglomerate with iron oxide cementing material Conglomerate, Submarine Landslide located at Point Reyes, Marin County California. ... Red sandstone interior of Lower Antelope Canyon, Arizona, worn smooth due to erosion by flash flooding over millions of years Sandstone is a sedimentary rock composed mainly of sand-size mineral or rock grains. ... Marls are calcium carbonate or lime rich muds or mudstones which contain variable amounts of clays and calcite or aragonite. ... The Gay Head cliffs in Marthas Vineyard are made almost entirely of clay. ... World map showing the location of Asia. ... Official language(s) English Capital Juneau Largest city Anchorage Area  Ranked 1st  - Total 663,267 sq mi (1,717,855 km²)  - Width 808 miles (1,300 km)  - Length 1,479 miles (2,380 km)  - % water 13. ... The Pliocene epoch (spelled Pleiocene in some older texts) is the period in the geologic timescale that extends from 5. ... Classes Caudofoveata Aplacophora Polyplacophora - Chitons Monoplacophora Bivalvia - Bivalves Scaphopoda - Tusk shells Gastropoda - Snails and Slugs Cephalopoda - Squids, Octopuses, etc. ... Fauna is a collective term for animal life. ... For other meanings of Pacific, see Pacific (disambiguation). ...


Main rivers: the Tym, 400 km (250 miles) long and navigable by rafts and light boats for 80 km (50 miles), flows north and north-east with numerous rapids and shallows, and enters the Sea of Okhotsk. The Poronai flows south-south-east to the Gulf of Patience or Shichiro Bay, on the south-east coast. Three other small streams enter the wide semicircular Gulf of Aniva or Higashifushimi Bay at the southern extremity of the island. Río Peralonso - El Zulia (Norte de Santander), Colombia River Gambia flowing through Niokolokoba National Park Nevėžis River in Lithuania A river is a natural waterway usually formed by water derived from either precipitation or glacial meltwater, and flows from higher ground to lower ground. ... Map of the Sea of Okhotsk. ... Gulf of Patience (Zaliv Terpeniya, Russian: ) is a large body of water off the southeastern coast of Sakhalin, Russia, located at . ... Aniva Bay (Zaliv Aniva, Aniwa Bay, or Aniva Gulf) is located at the southern end of Sakhalin Island, Russia, north of the island of Hokkaidō, Japan. ...


Demographics

At the beginning of the 20th century, some 32,000 Russians (of whom over 22,150 were convicts) inhabited Sakhalin along with several thousand native inhabitants. The island's population has grown to 673,100 today, 83 percent of whom are ethnic Russians and followed by Koreans at about 30,000 (5.5%). The native inhabitants consist of some 2,000 Nivkhs, 750 Oroks, 200 Evenks and some Yakuts. The Nivkhs in the north support themselves by fishing and hunting. The Nivkhs (also Nivkh or Gilyak; ethnonym: Nivxi; language, нивхгу - Nivxgu) are an indigenous people inhabiting the region of the region of the Amur River estuary and on nearby Sakhalin Island. ... Oroks (Ороки in Russian; self designation: ульта, or ulta) are a people in the Sakhalin Oblast (mainly, eastern part of the island) in Russia. ... The Evenks or Evenki (obsolete: Tungus or Tunguz, autonym: Эвэнки, Evenki) are a nomadic Tungusic people of Northern Asia. ... Yakuts, self-designation: Sakha, are a Turkic people associated with the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic. ...


The capital Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, a city of about 200,000, has a large Korean minority, typically referred to as Sakhalin Koreans, who were forcibly brought by the Japanese during World War II to work in the coal mines. Most of the population lives in the southern half of the island, centered mainly around Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk and two ports, Kholmsk and Korsakov (population 50,000 each). Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk (Ю́жно-Сахали́нск) is a city in Sakhalin, Russia, administrative center of the Sakhalin Oblast. ... Sakhalin Koreans trace their roots back to immigrants from Gyeongsang and Jeolla provinces in the late 1930s and early 1940s. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Kholmsk is a city in Sakhalin, Russia, administrative center of the Sakhalin Oblast. ... Aleksandr Mikhaylovich Rimsky-Korsakov (1753-1840) — infantry general Petr Aleksandrovich Korsakov (1790-1844) — writer Aleksandr Mikhaylovich Dondukov-Korsakov (1820-1893) — knyaz, cavalry general, Russian administrator (Imperial Commissioner) in Bulgaria Dmitry Aleksandrovich Korsakov (1843-1920) — professor of history Nikolay Andreyevich Rimsky-Korsakov (1844-1908) — composer Sergei Sergeyevich Korsakov (1854—1900) — psychiatrist...


The 400,000 Japanese inhabitants of Sakhalin were deported following the conquest of the southern portion of the island by the Soviet Union in 1945 at the end of World War II.


Climate

Owing to the influence of the raw, foggy Sea of Okhotsk, the climate is very cold. At Dui the average yearly temperature is only 0.5 °C (January -15.9 °C; July 16.1 °C), 1.7 °C at Kusunai and 3.1 °C at Aniva (January, −12.5 °C; July, 15.7 °C). At Alexandrovsk-Sakhalinsky near Dui the annual range is from 27 °C in July to −39 °C in January, while at Rykovsk in the interior the minimum is −45 °C. The rainfall averages 570 mm. Thick clouds for the most part shut out the sun; while the cold current from the Sea of Okhotsk, aided by north-east winds, brings immense ice-floes to the east coast in summer. Map of the Sea of Okhotsk. ... Alexandrovsk-Sakhalinsky (Russian: ) is a town in Sakhalin Oblast, Russia, located near the Tatar Strait on the western shores of Northern Sakhalin at the foot of the Western Sakhalin Mountains. ... Map of the Sea of Okhotsk. ...


Flora and fauna

The whole of the island is covered with dense forests, mostly coniferous. The Yezo (or Yeddo) spruce (Picea jezoensis), the Sakhalin fir (Abies sachalinsis) and the Dahurian larch (Larix gmelinii) are the chief trees; on the upper parts of the mountains are the Siberian dwarf pine (Pinus pumila) and the Kurile bamboo (Sasa kurilensis). Birches, both Siberian silver birch (Betula platyphylla) and Erman's birch (B. ermanii), poplar, elm, Bird cherry (Prunus padus), Japanese yew (Taxus cuspidata) and several willows are mixed with the conifers; while farther south the maple, rowan and oak, as also the Japanese Panax ricinifolium, the Amur cork tree (Phellodendron amurense), the Spindle (Euonymus macropterus) and the vine (Vitis thunbergii) make their appearance. The underwoods abound in berry-bearing plants (e.g. cloudberry, cranberry, crowberry, red whortleberry), Red-berried elder (Sambucus racemosa), wild raspberry and Spiraea. This article is about a community of trees. ... Orders & Families Cordaitales † Pinales   Pinaceae - Pine family   Araucariaceae - Araucaria family   Podocarpaceae - Yellow-wood family   Sciadopityaceae - Umbrella-pine family   Cupressaceae - Cypress family   Cephalotaxaceae - Plum-yew family   Taxaceae - Yew family Vojnovskyales † Voltziales † The conifers, division Pinophyta, are one of 13 or 14 division level taxa within the Kingdom Plantae. ... Binomial name Larix gmelinii (Rupr. ... Binomial name Pinus pumila (Pall. ... Species Many species; see text and classification Birch is the name of any tree of the genus Betula, in the family Betulaceae, closely related to the beech/oak family, Fagaceae. ... This article is about woody plants of the genus Populus. ... Species See text. ... Species See text. ... Binomial name Taxus cuspidata Siebold & Zucc. ... Distribution Species See List of Acer species Maples are trees or shrubs in the genus Acer. ... Species Sorbus subgenus Sorbus Sorbus aucuparia - European Rowan Sorbus americana - American mountain ash Sorbus cashmeriana - Kashmir Rowan Sorbus commixta - Japanese Rowan Sorbus decora - Showy mountain ash Sorbus glabrescens - White-fruited Rowan Sorbus hupehensis - Hubei Rowan Sorbus matsumurana Sorbus sargentiana - Sargents Rowan Sorbus scalaris - Ladder Rowan Sorbus sitchensis - Sitka mountain... Species See List of Quercus species The term oak can be used as part of the common name of any of several hundred species of trees and shrubs in the genus Quercus, and some related genera, notably Cyclobalanopsis and Lithocarpus. ... Species About 10 species, including: Phellodendron amurense Phellodendron chinense Phellodendron japonicum Phellodendron lavallei Phellodendron sachalinense Phellodendron wilsonii Phellodendron or Cork-tree, is a genus of deciduous trees in the family Rutaceae, native to east and northeast Asia. ... Species Euonymus alatus - Winged Spindle Euonymus americanus - Strawberry-bush Spindle Euonymus atropurpureus - Eastern Burning-bush Euonymus europaeus - European Spindle Euonymus fortunei - Fortunes Spindle Euonymus japonicus - Japanese Spindle Euonymus obovatus - Euonymus occidentalis - Western Burning-bush The spindles, genus Euonymus, comprise about 170-180 species of deciduous and evergreen shrubs and... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Binomial name Rubus chamaemorus L. The Cloudberry (Rubus chamaemorus) is a slow-growing species of Rubus, producing edible fruit. ... Species Vaccinium erythrocarpum Vaccinium macrocarpon Vaccinium microcarpum Vaccinium oxycoccus Approximate ranges of the cranberries in sect. ... Species Empetrum nigrum Empetrum eamesii The crowberries (Empetrum L.) are a small genus of dwarf evergreen shrubs that bear edible fruits. ... Species See text Elder or Elderberry (Sambucus) is a genus of between 5-30 species of fast-growing shrubs or small trees (two species herbaceous), formerly treated in the honeysuckle family Caprifoliaceae, but now shown by genetic evidence to be correctly classified in the moschatel family Adoxaceae. ... Binomial name Rubus idaeus L. The Raspberry or Red Raspberry (Rubus idaeus) is a plant that produces a tart, sweet, red composite fruit in summer or early autumn. ...


Bears, foxes, otters and sables are numerous, as also the reindeer in the north, and the musk deer, hares, squirrels, rats and mice everywhere. The bird fauna is mostly the common east Siberian, but there are some endemic or near-endemic breeding species, notably the endangered Spotted Greenshank (Tringa guttifer) and the Sakhalin Leaf Warbler (Phylloscopus borealoides). The rivers swarm with fish, especially species of salmon (Oncorhynchus). Numerous whales visit the sea coast, including the critically endangered Western Pacific Gray Whale, for which the coast of Sakhalin is the only known feeding ground. Genera Ailuropoda Helarctos Melursus Ursus Tremarctos Arctodus (extinct) A bear is a large mammal in the family Ursidae of the order Carnivora. ... This article is about the animal. ... Genera Amblonyx Aonyx Enhydra Lontra Lutra Lutrogale Pteronura The otter (lutrinae) is a carnivorous aquatic or marine mammal part of the family Mustelidae, which also includes weasels, polecats, badgers, as well as others. ... Binomial name Martes zibellina Linnaeus, 1758 The sable (Martes zibellina) is a small mammal, closely akin to the martens, living in northern Asia from the Ural Mountains through Siberia and Mongolia to Hokkaido in Japan. ... Binomial name Rangifer tarandus (Linnaeus, 1758) Reindeer map The reindeer, known as caribou when wild in North America, is an Arctic and Subarctic-dwelling deer (Rangifer tarandus). ... “Aves” redirects here. ... In biology and ecology endemic means exclusively native to a place or biota, in contrast to cosmopolitan or introduced. ... The conservation status of a species is an indicator of the likelihood of that species continuing to survive either in the present day or the future. ... Binomial name Tringa guttifer ( Nordmann, 1835) The Spotted Greenshank or Nordmanns Greenshank, Tringa guttifer, is a wader in the large family Scolopacidae, the typical waders. ... Illustration of a male Coho Salmon The Chinook or King Salmon is the largest salmon in North America and can grow to 1. ...


Transport

Transport, especially by sea, is an important segment of the economy. Nearly all the cargo arriving for Sakhalin (and the Kuril Islands) is delivered by cargo boats, or by ferries, in railway wagons, through a sea ferry passage at Vanino-Kholmsk. The ports of Korsakov and Kholmsk are the largest and handle all kinds of goods, while coal and timber shipments often go through other ports. In 1999, a ferry service was opened between the ports of Korsakov and Wakkanai, Japan. Location of Kuril Islands in the Western Pacific. ... Kholmsk is a city in Sakhalin, Russia, administrative center of the Sakhalin Oblast. ... Aleksandr Mikhaylovich Rimsky-Korsakov (1753-1840) — infantry general Petr Aleksandrovich Korsakov (1790-1844) — writer Aleksandr Mikhaylovich Dondukov-Korsakov (1820-1893) — knyaz, cavalry general, Russian administrator (Imperial Commissioner) in Bulgaria Dmitry Aleksandrovich Korsakov (1843-1920) — professor of history Nikolay Andreyevich Rimsky-Korsakov (1844-1908) — composer Sergei Sergeyevich Korsakov (1854—1900) — psychiatrist... Kholmsk is a city in Sakhalin, Russia, administrative center of the Sakhalin Oblast. ... Coal Coal (IPA: ) is a fossil fuel formed in swamp ecosystems where plant remains were saved by water and mud from oxidization and biodegradation. ... Timber in storage for later processing at a sawmill Timber is a term used to describe wood, either standing or that has been processed for use—from the time trees are felled, to its end product as a material suitable for industrial use—as structural material for construction or wood... Wakkanai (Japanese: 稚内市; -shi, Ainu: Yam Wakka Nay) is a city located in Soya, Hokkaido. ...


About 30% of all inland transport volume is realized through railways. Sakhalin has railway lines stretching from Nogliki in the north to Korsakov in the south. There is also a departmental narrow-gauge line at Nogliki-Okha, extending 228 km. With the existence of a ferry serving Vanino-Kholmsk, Sakhalin has railway connection with the railway network of the rest of Russia. Okha (Russian: ) is a town in Sakhalin Oblast, Russia. ...


Sakhalin is connected by regular flights to Moscow, Khabarovsk, Vladivostok, and other cities of Russia. The airport of Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk has regularly scheduled international flights to Hakodate, Japan and Seoul and Busan, Korea. There are also charter flights to the Japanese cities of Tokyo, Niigata, and Sapporo and the Chinese cities of Shanghai, Dalian, and Harbin. The city was formerly served by Alaska Airlines from Anchorage, Petropavlovsk and Magadan. Location Position of Moscow in Europe Government Country District Subdivision Russia Central Federal District Federal City Mayor Yuriy Luzhkov Geographical characteristics Area  - City 1,081 km² Population  - City (2007)    - Density 10,469,000   9684. ... Government Country District Krai Russia Far Eastern Federal District Khabarovsk Krai Established 1858 Mayor Alexandr Sokolov Geographical characteristics Area  - City 372 km² Population  - City (2005) 579,000 Coordinates Other Information Postal Code 680xxx Dialing Code +7 4212 Website: www. ... Vladivostok (Russian: ) is the administrative center of Primorsky Krai, Russia, situated close to the Russo-Sino border and North Korea. ... View of Hakodate from Mountain Hakodate (函館市; -shi) is a city and port located in Oshima, Hokkaido, Japan. ... Seoul   is the capital of South Korea and is located on the Han River in the countrys northwest. ... Busan Metropolitan City, also known as Pusan, is the largest port city in the Republic of Korea. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Niigata is the name of several places, times and things: Niigata City Niigata Prefecture This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Sapporo redirects here. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Dalian (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Dàlián; Japanese: Dairen; Russian: Далянь, Dalian or Дальний, Dalny) is the governing sub-provincial city in the eastern Liaoning Province of Northeast China. ... Harbin on a map of China For other meanings of Harbin, see Harbin (disambiguation). ... Alaska Airlines (IATA: AS, ICAO: ASA, and Callsign: Alaska), (NYSE: ALK), based in Seattle, Washington, USA, has grown from a small regional airline to one carrying more than 12 million customers per year. ... Nickname: The City of Lights and Flowers Motto: BIG WILD LIFE Location in the state of Alaska Coordinates: Borough Municipality of Anchorage Government  - Mayor Mark Begich (D) Area  - City 5,079. ... Petropavlovsk, as seen from Avacha Bay Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky (Russian: ) is the administrative, industrial, scientific, and cultural center of Kamchatka Oblast, Russia. ... Magadan vicinity from the US Defense Mapping Agency (1978) Orthographic projection centred over Magadan Magadan, Russia city flag. ...


The idea of building a fixed link between Sakhalin and the Russian mainland was first mooted in the 1930s. In the 1940s, an abortive attempt was made to link the island via a 10 km long undersea tunnel[citation needed]. The workers supposedly made it almost to the half-way point before the project was abandoned under Nikita Khrushchev[citation needed]. In 2000, the Russian government revived the idea, adding a suggestion that a 40 km long bridge could be constructed between Sakhalin and the Japanese island of Hokkaidō, providing Japan with a direct connection to the Euro-Asian railway network. It was claimed that construction work could begin as early as 2001. The idea was received skeptically by the Japanese government and appears to have been shelved, probably permanently, after the cost was estimated at as much as US$50 billion. A log bridge in the French Alps near Vallorcine. ... A disused railway tunnel now converted to pedestrian and bicycle use, near Houyet, Belgium A tunnel is an underground passage. ... Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev (Russian: , Nikita Sergeevič Chruščëv; IPA: , in English, , or , occasionally ); surname more accurately romanized as Khrushchyov; April 17 [O.S. April 5] 1894[1]–September 11, 1971) was the leader of the Soviet Union after the death of Joseph Stalin. ...


Economy

Sakhalin is a classic "resource economy" relying on oil and gas exports, coal mining, forestry, and fishing. There are also some coal deposits and limited quantities of rye, wheat, oats, barley and vegetables are grown, although the growing season averages less than 100 days. Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Lubbock, Texas Ignacy Łukasiewicz - inventor of the refining of kerosene from crude oil. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Coal Coal (IPA: ) is a fossil fuel formed in swamp ecosystems where plant remains were saved by water and mud from oxidization and biodegradation. ... A decidous beech forest in Slovenia. ... Fishing is the activity of hunting for fish by hooking, trapping, or gathering animals not classifiable as insects which breathe in water or pass their lives in water. ... Binomial name Secale cereale M.Bieb. ... Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. compactum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum T. timopheevii References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 For the indie rock group see: Wheat (band). ... Binomial name Avena sativa Carolus Linnaeus (1753) The Oat (Avena sativa) is a species of cereal grain, and the seeds of this plant. ... Binomial name Hordeum vulgare L. Barley (Hordeum vulgare) is a major food and animal feed crop, a member of the grass family Poaceae. ... A plate of vegetables Tomatoes growing in a vegetable garden Vegetable is a culinary term. ... In agriculture, the growing season is the period of each year when crops can be grown. ...


Following the collapse of the Soviet Union and economic liberalization, Sakhalin has experienced an oil boom with extensive petroleum exploration and mining by most large oil multinationals. The oil and natural gas reserves contain an estimated 14 billion barrels (2.2 km³) of oil and 96 trillion cubic feet (2,700 km³) of gas and are being developed under production-sharing agreement contracts involving international oil companies like ExxonMobil and Shell. The word multinational can refer to: A Multinational corporation A Multinational State This is a disambiguation page, a list of pages that otherwise might share the same title. ... One thousand million (1,000,000,000) is the natural number following 999,999,999 and preceding 1,000,000,001. ... The barrel is the name of several units of measurement. ... The numeral trillion refers to one of two number values, depending on the context of where and how it is being used. ... Exxon Mobil Corporation or ExxonMobil (NYSE: XOM), headquartered in Irving, Texas, a suburb of Dallas, USA, is the largest publicly traded integrated oil and gas company in the world, formed on November 30, 1999, by the merger of Exxon and Mobil. ... Royal Dutch Shell PLC is a multinational oil company (oil major) of Anglo Dutch origin. ...


In 1996, two large consortiums signed contracts to explore for oil and gas off the northeast coast of the island, Sakhalin-I and Sakhalin-II. The two consortia were estimated to spend a combined $21 billion U.S. dollars on the two projects which almost doubled to $37 billion as of September 2006, triggering Russian governmental opposition. This will include an estimated $1 billion (US) to upgrade the island's infrastructure: roads, bridges, waste management sites, airports, railways, communications systems, and ports. In addition, Sakhalin-III-through-VI are in various early stages of development. Sakhalin Offshore Fields The Sakhalin-I project, like its sister project Sakhalin-II, is a consortium to locate and produce oil and gas on Sakhalin Island and immediately offshore, in the Sea of Okhotsk, from three fields: Chayvo, Odoptu and Arkutun-Dagi. ... Sakhalin Offshore Fields The Sakhalin-II project, like its sister project Sakhalin-I, is a consortium to locate and produce oil and gas on Sakhalin Island and immediately offshore, in the Sea of Okhotsk, from two fields: Piltun-Astokhskoye and Lunskoye. ... ISO 4217 Code USD User(s) the United States, the British Indian Ocean Territory,[1] the British Virgin Islands, Cambodia, East Timor, Ecuador, El Salvador, the Marshall Islands, Micronesia, Palau, Panama, Turks and Caicos Islands, and the insular areas of the United States Inflation 2. ...


The Sakhalin I project, managed by Exxon Neftgas Limited (ENL), completed a production-sharing agreement (PSA) between the Sakhalin I consortium, the Russian Federation, and the Sakhalin government. Russia is in the process of building a 136 mile (219 km) pipeline across the Tatar Strait from Sakhalin Island to De-Kastri on the Russian mainland. From De-Kastri it will be loaded onto tankers for transport to East Asian markets, namely Japan, South Korea, and China.


The second consortium, Sakhalin Energy Investment Company Ltd. (Sakhalin Energy) is managing the Sakhalin II project. They completed the first ever production-sharing agreement (PSA) with the Russian Federation. Sakhalin Energy will build two 800 km pipelines running from the northeast of the island to Prigorodnoye (Prigorodnoe) in Aniva Bay at the southern end. The consortium will also build, at Prigorodnoye, the first ever liquefied natural gas (LNG) plant to be built in Russia. The oil and gas is also bound for East Asian markets.


Sakhalin II has come under fire from environmental groups, namely Sakhalin Environment Watch, for dumping dredging material in Aniva Bay. The groups were also worried about the offshore pipelines interfering with the migration of whales off the island. The consortium has (as of Jan 2006) re-routed the pipeline to avoid the whale migration. After a doubling in the projected cost, the Russian government threatened to halt the project for environmental reasons. [1] There have been suggestions that the Russian government is using the environmental issues as a pretext for obtaining a greater share of revenues from the project and/or forcing involvement by the state-controlled Gazprom. The cost overruns (at least partly due to Shell's response to environmental concerns), are reducing the share of profits flowing to the Russian treasury. [2][3][4][5] Gazprom (LSE: OGZD; Russian: , sometimes transcribed as Gasprom) is the largest Russian company and the biggest extractor of natural gas in the world. ...


In 2000, the oil and gas industry accounted for 57.5% of Sakhalin's industrial output. By 2006, it is expected to account for 80% of the island's industrial output. Sakhalin's economy is growing rapidly thanks to its oil and gas industry. By 2005, the island had become the largest recipient of foreign investment in Russia, followed by Moscow. Unemployment in 2002 was only 2%. However, all of the oil and gas is for export and none is available to the island's population. Location Position of Moscow in Europe Government Country District Subdivision Russia Central Federal District Federal City Mayor Yuriy Luzhkov Geographical characteristics Area  - City 1,081 km² Population  - City (2007)    - Density 10,469,000   9684. ...


See also

Far Eastern Federal District (highlighted in red) Russian Far East (Russian: Д́альний Вост́ок Росс́ии; English transliteration: Dalny Vostok Rossii) is an informal term that refers to the Russian part of the Far East, i. ... Bronisław Piotr Piłsudski Bronisław Piotr Piłsudski ( November 2, 1866– May 17, 1918), brother of Jozef Pilsudski, was a Polish cultural anthropologist who conducted outstanding research on the Ainu ethnic group, which at the time inhabited Sakhalin Island, but now live mostly... The Sakhalin Husky, also known as the Karafuto-Ken, is a breed of dog used as a sled dog. ... Gig Harbor is a city located in Pierce County, Washington. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ...

References

  • C. H. Hawes, In the Uttermost East (London, 1903). (P. A. K.; J. T. BE.)
  • A Journey to Sakhalin (1895), by Anton Chekhov, including:
    • Saghalien [or Sakhalin] Island (1891-1895)
    • Across Siberia
  • Sakhalin Unplugged (Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, 2006) by Ajay Kamalakaran

Coordinates: 51°00′N, 143°00′E 1895 (MDCCCXCV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Anton Pavlovich Chekhov (Russian: IPA: ) was a Russian physician, short story writer, and playwright. ... Year 1891 (MDCCCXCI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1895 (MDCCCXCV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Sakhalin - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2915 words)
Sakhalin, GOST transliteration Sahalin, (Russian: Сахали́н /səxʌˈlʲin/, Korean: 사할린 Traditional Chinese: 庫頁島; Simplified Chinese: 库页岛; pinyin: kùyèdǎo Japanese: 樺太 romaji: karafuto), also Saghalien, is a large elongated island in the North Pacific, lying between 45° 50' and 54° 24' N. It is part of the Russian Federation and is its largest island.
Sakhalin is separated from the mainland by the narrow and shallow Mamiya Strait or Strait of Tartary, which often freezes in winter in its narrower part, and from Hokkaido (Japan) by the Soya Strait or Strait of La Pérouse.
The Yezo (or Yeddo) spruce (Picea jezoensis), the Sakhalin fir (Abies sachalinsis) and the Dahurian larch (Larix gmelinii) are the chief trees; on the upper parts of the mountains are the Siberian dwarf pine (Pinus pumila) and the Kurile bamboo (Arundinaria kurilei).
Encyclopedia4U - Sakhalin - Encyclopedia Article (1356 words)
Sakhalin, whose natives made contact with the Manchu Empire until the 19th century, became known to Europeans from the travels of Martin Gerritz de Vries in the 17th century, and still better from those of La Pérouse (1787) and Krusenstern (1805).
Sakhalin is separated from the mainland by the narrow and shallow Strait of Tartary or Mamiya Strait, which often freezes in winter in its narrower part, and from Yezo (Japan) by the Strait of La Pérouse.
Sakhalin is the largest island of the Russian Federation, being 948 km (589 miles) long, and 25 to 170 km (16 to 105 miles) wide, with an area of 78,000 km²; (24,560 sq.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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