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Encyclopedia > Saka
A cataphract-style parade armour of a Saka royal from the Issyk kurgan.
A cataphract-style parade armour of a Saka royal from the Issyk kurgan.

The Sakas were the Scythians who lived in the eastern part of Central Asia. They are considered to be of north-eastern Iranian people by modern scholars.[1][2][3] They lived in what is now Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Pakistan,parts of India and parts of Iran, western part of China in Khotan, Ukraine, and Altay Mountains and Siberia in Russia, in the centuries before 300. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 226 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (283 × 751 pixel, file size: 50 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Kazakhstan Saka Cataphract Issyk Metadata This... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 226 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (283 × 751 pixel, file size: 50 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Kazakhstan Saka Cataphract Issyk Metadata This... A cataphract (from the Greek κατάφρακτος katafraktos, plural katafraktoi) was a form of heavy cavalry used by nomadic eastern Iranian tribes and dynasties and later Greeks and Latin-speaking peoples. ... drawing of the Issyk inscription The Issyk kurgan, in south-eastern Kazakhstan, less than 20 km east from the Talgar alluvial fan, near Issyk, was discovered in 1969. ... The Scythians (also Scyths, from Greek ), a nation of horse-riding nomadic pastoralists who spoke an Iranian language[1], dominated the Pontic steppe throughout Classical Antiquity. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... This article is about the group of peoples who speak Iranian languages. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... “Siberian” redirects here. ...


Saka is the usual Persian term, while Scythian is a Greek term. Some of their neighbours included the Sarmatians, Issedones and Massagetae. Their language is poorly known, but seems to have originally been a member of the Iranian family (though some question whether this applied to all strata of their society, or only the ruling class at various times). They were known to the Chinese as the Sai (Chinese: 塞, Old Sinitic *sək). Persian (Local names: فارسی Fârsi or پارسی Pârsi)* is an Indo-European language spoken in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan as well as by minorities in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, India, Pakistan, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ... Sarmatia Europea in Scythia map 1697 AD Sarmatia Europæa separated from Sarmatia Asiatica by the Tanais (the River Don), based on Greek literary sources, in a map printed in London, ca 1770 Great steppe in early spring. ... The Issedones were an ancient people of Central Asia at the end of the trade route leading north-east from Scythia, described by Herodotus in Book Four of his History. ... The Massagetae were an Iranian people[1][2][3][4] of antiquity known primarily from the writings of Herodotus. ... The Seal script characters for harvest (later year) and person. ...


In Akkadian, the Saka were called the Ashkuza and were closely associated with the Gimirri, who were the Cimmerians known to the ancient Greeks. In ancient Hebrew texts, the Ashkuz (Ashkenaz) are even considered to be a direct offshoot from the Gimirri (Gomer). Akkadian (lišānum akkadÄ«tum) was a Semitic language (part of the greater Afro-Asiatic language family) spoken in ancient Mesopotamia, particularly by the Assyrians and Babylonians. ... The Cimmerians (Greek: , Kimmerioi) were ancient equestrian nomads who, according to Herodotus, originally inhabited the region north of the Caucasus and the Black Sea, in what is now Russia and Ukraine, in the 8th and 7th century BC. Assyrian records, however, first place them in the region of what is... The Temple of Athena, the Parthenon Ancient Greece is a period in Greek history that lasted for around nine hundred years. ... The word Hebrew most likely means to cross over, referring to the Semitic people crossing over the Euphrates River. ... Ashkenazi (אַשְׁכֲּנָזִי, Standard Hebrew Aškanazi, Tiberian Hebrew ʾAškănāzî) Jews or Ashkenazic Jews, also called Ashkenazim (אַשְׁכֲּנָזִי&#1501...

Contents

Scythians and Sakas in classical sources

Modern historical accounts of the Indo-Scythian wars often assume that the Scythian protagonists were a single tribe called the Saka (Sakai or Sakas). But earlier Greek and Latin texts suggest that the term Scythians referred to a much more widespread grouping of Central Asian peoples. Scythia was an area in Eurasia inhabited in ancient times by an Indo-Aryans known as the Scythians. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ...


To Herodotus (484-425 BC), the Sakai were the 'Amurgioi Skuthai' (i.e. Scythians from Ammyurgia).[4] Strabo (Gaius Julius Caesar Strabo, 63 BC-AD 24 circa) suggests that the term Skuthais (Scythians) referred to the Sakai and several other tribes.[5] Arrian (Lucius Flavius Arrianus 'Xenophon' , c92-175 AD), refers to the Sakai as Skuthon (a Scythian people) or the Skuthai (the Scythians) who inhabit Asia.[6] This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Greek geographer Strabo in a 16th century engraving. ... http://www. ... Alexander the Great Lucius Flavius Arrianus Xenophon (c. ... World map showing the location of Asia. ...


It is clear that the Greek and Latin scholars cited here believed, all Sakai were Scythians, but not all Scythians were Sakai.[7] It seems likely that modern confusion about the identity of the Scythians is partly due to the Persians. According to Herodotus, the Persians called all Scythians by the name Sakas.[8] Pliny the Elder (Gaius Plinius Secundus, 23–79 AD) provides a more detailed explanation, stating that the Persians gave the name Sakai to the Scythian tribes: "nearest to them".[9] This likely explains why the Scythians began to be called Sakai. The Persians of Iran (officially named Persia by West until 1935 while still referred to as Persia by some) are an Iranian people who speak Persian (locally named Fârsi by native speakers) and often refer to themselves as ethnic Iranians as well. ... Pliny the Elder: an imaginative 19th Century portrait. ...


Another clue to the true identity of the Scythians is the widespread area in which classical scholars thought they lived. The ancient Greeks wrote that the homelands of the Scythian peoples included Central Asia east of the Caspian Sea, north of Hindukush/Karakoram and west of China extending as far as Siberia. This suggests Scythia was a generic term that was loosely applied to a vast area of Central Asia spanning numerous groups and diverse ethnicities. Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... The Caspian Sea (Russian: Каспийское море; Kazakh: Каспий теңізі; Turkmen: Hazar deňizi; Azeri: XÉ™zÉ™r dÉ™nizi; Persian: دریای خزر Daryā-ye Khazar) is the largest lake on Earth by area[2], with a surface area of 371,000 square kilometers (143,244 sq mi) and a volume of 78,200 cubic kilometers (18... The Hindu Kush or Hindukush (هندوکش in Persian) is a mountain range in Afghanistan as well as in the Northern Areas of Pakistan. ... Karakoram is a mountain range spanning the borders between Pakistan, China, and India, located in the regions of Gilgit, Ladakh and Baltistan. ... “Siberian” redirects here. ...

Approximate extent of Scythia and Sarmatia in the 1st century BC.
Approximate extent of Scythia and Sarmatia in the 1st century BC.

Strabo defined all the Central Asian clans inhabiting the area east of the Caspian Sea as Scythian in culture.[10] Diodorus (Diodorus Siculus, c90–30 BC) said that Mt Hemodos was the dividing line between Scythia and India,[11] ancient Greek sources used a variety of names for this mountain, including Himaos, Imaos and Paropamisos but generally place it in the Himalayas.[12] Image File history File links Scythia-Parthia_100_BC.png historical spread of Iranian peoples/languages: Scythia, Sarmatia, Bactria and the Parthian Empire in ca. ... Image File history File links Scythia-Parthia_100_BC.png historical spread of Iranian peoples/languages: Scythia, Sarmatia, Bactria and the Parthian Empire in ca. ... Sarmatian horseman Sarmatians, Sarmatae or Sauromatae (the second form is mostly used by the earlier Greek writers, the other by the later Greeks and the Romans) were a people whom Herodotus (4. ... The Greek geographer Strabo in a 16th century engraving. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... The Caspian Sea (Russian: Каспийское море; Kazakh: Каспий теңізі; Turkmen: Hazar deňizi; Azeri: XÉ™zÉ™r dÉ™nizi; Persian: دریای خزر Daryā-ye Khazar) is the largest lake on Earth by area[2], with a surface area of 371,000 square kilometers (143,244 sq mi) and a volume of 78,200 cubic kilometers (18... Diodorus Siculus was a Greek historian, born at Agyrium in Sicily (now called Agira, in the province of Enna). ...


Ptolemy (Claudius Ptolemaeus, c90-168) writes that Skuthia was not only "within the Imaos" (the Himalayas) and "beyond the Imaos" (north of the Himalayas), but also speaks of a separate "land of the Sakais" within Scythia [13]. Both Solinus and Pliny report that the Ganges was one of the greatest rivers of India and has its source in the Scythian mountains [14]. A medieval artists rendition of Claudius Ptolemaeus Claudius Ptolemaeus (Greek: ; ca. ... Gaius Julius Solinus, Latin grammarian and compiler, probably flourished during the first half of the 3rd century. ... “Ganga” redirects here. ...


When ancient texts refer to the Sakai living in the Mt. Hemodos area or the Himalayan region, they are also talking about a much wider area than the modern Himalayas. Greek texts refer to Mt. Hemodos as Kaukasos, the Caucasus, which is the Greek word for the entire Hindukush region.[15] In the ancient Sanskrit/Pali texts, the Himalayas spanned the eastern and western oceans and so included the Hindukush and Karakoram ranges.[16] This article does not cite any references or sources. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ... The Hindu Kush or Hindukush (هندوکش in Persian) is a mountain range in Afghanistan as well as in the Northern Areas of Pakistan. ... The Sanskrit language ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Pāli is a Middle Indo-Aryan dialect or prakrit. ... Karakoram is a mountain range spanning the borders between Pakistan, China, and India, located in the regions of Gilgit, Ladakh and Baltistan. ...


Ptolemy meanwhile says that the Scythian tribes living in the Hindukush ranges were only at the southern fringe of the Scythian world. By this definition, the Parama Kambojas tribe who lived in the far off Transoxiana territory as distant as the Fargana and Zeravshan valleys were also Scythians. Ancient Sanskrit literature reveals that like the Madras/Uttara Madras and the Kurus/Uttara Kurus, the ancient Kambojas also had, at least two settlements. ... Map showing modern Transoxiana. ... Fergana Ferghana (Uzbek: Fargona or Farghana, Russian: Фарғона, the land between two rivers ) is a city (1994 population: 191,000) and the capital of Fergana Province in eastern Uzbekistan, at the southern edge of the Fergana Valley in southern Central Asia, cutting across the borders of Kyrgyzstan, Tadjikistan, and Uzbekistan. ... The Zeravshan or Zarafshan river, whilst smaller and less well-known than the two great rivers of Central Asia, the Oxus or Amu-Darya and the Jaxartes or Syr-Darya, is if anything more valuable as a source of irrigation in the region. ...


With Scythia covering such a wide area, it is no wonder classical scholars like Strabo and the Historiae Philippcae writings of 1st century BC Roman historian Pompeius Trogus (Gnaeus Pompeius Trogus), classified any Asio/Asii or Asiani and Kambojan clans connected with horse culture as Scythic races. The Greek geographer Strabo in a 16th century engraving. ... Gnaeus Pompeius Trogus, 1st century BC Roman historian, of the Celtic tribe of the Vocontii in Gallia Narbonensis, flourished during the age of Augustus, nearly contemporary with Livy. ... Asii, Asio, Osii, Asiani etc is the name of a people, believed to be followers of Scythian culture, a section of whom had moved out from Alai valley during second century BCE under pressure from Ta Yuezhi, and in association with Pasiani and Sacarauloi (Sacae) tribes, they had wrested Sogdiana... Asii, Asio, Osii, Asiani etc is the name of a people, believed to be followers of Scythian culture, a section of whom had moved out from Alai valley during second century BCE under pressure from Ta Yuezhi, and in association with Pasiani and Sacarauloi (Sacae) tribes, they had wrested Sogdiana... Asii, Asio, Osii, Asiani etc is the name of a people, believed to be followers of Scythian culture, a section of whom had moved out from Alai valley during second century BCE under pressure from Ta Yuezhi, and in association with Pasiani and Sacarauloi (Sacae) tribes, they had wrested Sogdiana... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Scythians (also Scyths, from Greek ), a nation of horse-riding nomadic pastoralists who spoke an Iranian language[1], dominated the Pontic steppe throughout Classical Antiquity. ...


Strabo’s evidence

According to Greek chronicler Strabo [17], Bactriana was taken by nomads like Asii/Asio, Pasianoi, Tokhario and Sakarauloi who had originally come from country from other side of Jaxartes (Central Asia) [18]. The prologus XLI of Historiae Philippcae also refers to the Scythian invasion of the Greek kingdom of Bactria and Sogdiana---the invaders are described as Saraucae and Asiani [19]. The Saraucae are Sacarauli and Asiani are Asii or Asio of Strabo [20]. These references conceal the information that after being turned out from Issyk-Kul lake and in their movements to Bactria via Sogdiana and Fargana, under pressure from Ta Yue-chih, the Issyk-kul Sakas (Sakaraulois) had been joined on the way by sections of other Scythian tribes of the intervening regions during their southerly or south-westerly movements to Bactria. The term Asio (or Asii) obviously refers to horse People [21]and undoubtedly refers to the Kambojas of the Parama Kamboja domain whose Aswas or horses too have been glorified by Mahabharata [22] as being of excellent quality. In fact, Asio, Asi/Asii, Asva/Aswa, Ari-aspi, Aspasios, Aspasii (or Hippasii) are variant names the Classical writers have given to the horse-clans of the Kambojas of Scythian domain [23]. The Tokharios are assumed by some scholars to be Rishikas. But the Rishikas were a closely affiliated to the Parama-Kambojas as per Mahabharata evidence [24]. Similarly, the Pasianois were another Scythian tribe from Central Asia. Saraucae or Sakarauloi obviously refers to the Saka proper from Issyk-kul Lake. Some scholars tend to link the Rishikas with Tukharas and later with the Ta Yue-chis themselves. If one accepts this connection, then the Tukharas (==> Rishikas ==> Yue-chihs) had controlled the eastern parts of Bactria country (Ta-hia) while the combined forces of the Sakarauloi, 'Asio' (horse people = Parama Kambojas) and the 'Pasinoi' of Strabo etc had occupied its western parts after being displaced from the original home in Fargana/Alai valley by the Ta-Yuechis. As stated earlier, Ta-hia is taken to mean Tukhara/Tokhara which also included Badakshan, Chitral, Kafirstan and Wakhan which are said to have formed eastern parts of Bactria [25] According to other scholars, it were the Saka hordes alone who had put an end to the Greek kingdom of Bactria [26]. The Greek geographer Strabo in a 16th century engraving. ... Bactria, about 320 BC Bactria (Bactriana, Bākhtar in Persian, also Bhalika in Arabic and Indian languages, and Ta-Hia in Chinese) was the ancient Greek name of the country between the range of the Hindu Kush and the Amu Darya (Oxus); its capital, Bactra or Balhika or Bokhdi (now... Kazakh nomads in the steppes of the Russian Empire, ca. ... Asii, Asio, Osii, Asiani etc is the name of a people, believed to be followers of Scythian culture, a section of whom had moved out from Alai valley during second century BCE under pressure from Ta Yuezhi, and in association with Pasiani and Sacarauloi (Sacae) tribes, they had wrested Sogdiana... ASIO is an acronym for: The Australian Security Intelligence Organisation Audio stream input output, a protocol for low-latency digital audio specified by Steinberg See also Asio (disambiguation) This page about a 4-letter acronym or initialism is a disambiguation page—a list of articles associated with the same title. ... Bactria, about 320 BC Bactria (Bactriana, Bākhtar in Persian, also Bhalika in Arabic and Indian languages, and Ta-Hia in Chinese) was the ancient Greek name of the country between the range of the Hindu Kush and the Amu Darya (Oxus); its capital, Bactra or Balhika or Bokhdi (now... Sogdiana, ca. ... Asii, Asio, Osii, Asiani etc is the name of a people, believed to be followers of Scythian culture, a section of whom had moved out from Alai valley during second century BCE under pressure from Ta Yuezhi, and in association with Pasiani and Sacarauloi (Sacae) tribes, they had wrested Sogdiana... Issyk Kul from space, September 1992 Issyk Kul at sundown (2002) Issyk Kul beach (2002) Issyk Kul (also Ysyk Köl, Issyk-kol) (located at 42°30′N 77°30′E) is an endorheic lake in the northern Tian Shan mountains in northwestern Kyrgyzstan. ... Bactria, about 320 BC Bactria (Bactriana, Bākhtar in Persian, also Bhalika in Arabic and Indian languages, and Ta-Hia in Chinese) was the ancient Greek name of the country between the range of the Hindu Kush and the Amu Darya (Oxus); its capital, Bactra or Balhika or Bokhdi (now... http://www. ... Bactria, about 320 BC Bactria (Bactriana, Bākhtar in Persian, also Bhalika in Arabic and Indian languages, and Ta-Hia in Chinese) was the ancient Greek name of the country between the range of the Hindu Kush and the Amu Darya (Oxus); its capital, Bactra or Balhika or Bokhdi (now... Kambojas are a very ancient Kshatriya tribe of the north-western parts of the Indian subcontinent and what is now Afghanistan, frequently mentioned in ancient texts, although not in the Rig Veda. ... Ancient Sanskrit literature reveals that like the Madras/Uttara Madras and the Kurus/Uttara Kurus, the ancient Kambojas also had, at least two settlements. ... For the film by Peter Brook, see The Mahabharata (1989 film). ... Scythia was an area in Eurasia inhabited in ancient times by an Indo-Aryans known as the Scythians. ... Rshikas were an ancient tribe living in the northern division of ancient India. ... Ancient Sanskrit literature reveals that like the Madras/Uttara Madras and the Kurus/Uttara Kurus, the ancient Kambojas also had, at least two settlements. ... http://www. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... Rshikas were an ancient tribe living in the northern division of ancient India. ... The Tocharians were the easternmost speakers of an Indo-European language in antiquity, inhabiting the Tarim basin in what is now Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, northwestern Peoples Republic of China. ... The Greek geographer Strabo in a 16th century engraving. ... Afghanistan and of Tajikistan. ... Chitral Valley and Tirich Mir, 7,708 m (25,289 ft) Chitral, or Chatrāl (Urdu: چترال),in native language kalasha its pronounced chetrar(chetr meaning field) is the name of a town , valley, river, district, and former princely state in the former Malakand Division of the Northwest Frontier Province of... The term Kafirs in reference to the Hindukush Kafirs is usually taken to mean infidels or idolators and the term Kafirstan as The Land of the Infidels. ... Wakhan is a very mountainous and rugged part of the Pamir region. ... Bactria, about 320 BC Bactria (Bactriana, Bākhtar in Persian, also Bhalika in Arabic and Indian languages, and Ta-Hia in Chinese) was the ancient Greek name of the country between the range of the Hindu Kush and the Amu Darya (Oxus); its capital, Bactra or Balhika or Bokhdi (now... Look up Horde in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Location of the Sakas

Physical map of Central Asia from the Caucasus in the northwest, to Mongolia in the northeast.

It is proven in 3. century Sacaes had an own empire in west China in Khotan (in Kashgar) therefore sometimes Sacaes are as well called as Khotan-Sacaes. Because of the huns who pushed the Kushans out from their living areas Sacaes had to flee to south where they migrated in Sistan. The Sakas had at least three major settlements, Saka Haumavarka, Saka Tigrakhauda and Saka Taradarya, according to inscriptions left by King Achaemenid Darius I (522-486 BC) in the city of Hamadan and his royal seat of Perspolis. [27] However, scholars think these three settlements may be merely remnants of a much greater civilization left by the waves of Scythian migrations back to the middle of the 8th century BC.[28] This image is a physical map of Central Asia. ... This image is a physical map of Central Asia. ... A physical map, in genetics, tells you how much DNA separates two genes and is measured in basepairs, as opposed to a genetic map which tells you the positions of genes in relation to each other based on the frequency of crossing overs. ... Achaemenid Empire The Achaemenid Dynasty was a dynasty in the ancient Persian Empire, including Cyrus II the Great, Darius I and Xerxes I. At the height of their power, the Achaemenid rulers of Persia ruled over territories roughly emcompassing some parts of todays Iraq, Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Israel, Lebanon... Seal of Darius I, showing the king hunting on his chariot, and the symbol of Ahuramazda Darius the Great (Pers. ... Avicennas tomb in Hamedan Hamadan or Hamedan ( Persian: همدان ) is the capital city of Hamadan Province of Iran. ... Alternate meanings: Persepolis (football), Persepolis (graphic novel) Persepolis was an ancient capital of the Persian Empire, situated some 70 km northeast of Shiraz, not far from where the small river Pulwar flows into the Kur (Kyrus). ... The Scythians (also Scyths, from Greek ), a nation of horse-riding nomadic pastoralists who spoke an Iranian language[1], dominated the Pontic steppe throughout Classical Antiquity. ...


The Darian inscriptions say that the Sakas Haumavarka lived 'beyond Sogdiana' (para-Sugudam) which when seen from Perspolis, seems to point to Tashkant, Fargana, Kashgar and nearby regions.[29] The Sakas Tigrakhauda lived near the Arals in the lower valleys of the Jaxartes as well as the plains north of the Jaxartes. The third Sakas settlement,Sakas Taradarya, was located north of the Black Sea in the Russian Steppes.[30] Sogdiana, ca. ... Alternate meanings: Persepolis (football), Persepolis (graphic novel) Persepolis was an ancient capital of the Persian Empire, situated some 70 km northeast of Shiraz, not far from where the small river Pulwar flows into the Kur (Kyrus). ... Fergana Ferghana (Uzbek: Fargona or Farghana, Russian: Фарғона, the land between two rivers ) is a city (1994 population: 191,000) and the capital of Fergana Province in eastern Uzbekistan, at the southern edge of the Fergana Valley in southern Central Asia, cutting across the borders of Kyrgyzstan, Tadjikistan, and Uzbekistan. ... Location of Kashgar Kashgars Sunday market Kashgar (also spelled Cascar[1]) (Uyghur: /; Chinese: ; pinyin: , ), is an oasis city in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Former harbor area in downtown Aral Aral, also known as Aralsk or Aralsk, (Kazakh: Арал, Russian: Аральск) is a small city in south-western Kazakhstan, located in the oblast of Qyzylorda. ... Syr Darya (also known as Syrdarya or Sirdaryo) is a river in Central Asia. ... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ... The steppe of Western Kazakhstan in early spring In physical geography, steppe (from Slavic step) is a plain without trees (apart from those near rivers and lakes); it is similar to a prairie, although a prairie is generally reckoned as being dominated by tall grasses, while short grasses are said...


There are also references to the Saka Haumavarka in ancient Indian texts. It seems likely that it was these Sakas Haumavarka and other allied tribes such as the Lohas, Parama Kambojas, Rishikas, etc that lived in, and north of the Pamir mountains as far as Kashgar, Fargana and Issyk-Kul Lake, that entered into conflict with the Ta Yue-chi or Great Yue-chi and migrated into northern India. [31] According to the evidence furnished by Mahabharata, the Transoxian Pamir mountains and regions to the north as far as Fargana were known as the lands of the allied Lohas, Parama Kambojas, Rishikas, etc tribes [32]. All these peoples living in the Scythia of the classical writers or the Shakadvipa of Indian texts, were lumped together and given the general name Sacae by Greeks and Sakas by the Iranians. They were known as Shakas in Indian texts [33]. Located in Central Asia, the Pamir Mountains are formed by the junction of the worlds greatest mountain ranges, a geologic structural knot from which the great Tian Shan, Karakoram, Kunlun, and Hindu Kush mountain systems radiate. ... Location of Kashgar Kashgars Sunday market Kashgar (also spelled Cascar[1]) (Uyghur: /; Chinese: ; pinyin: , ), is an oasis city in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Fergana Ferghana (Uzbek: Fargona or Farghana, Russian: Фарғона, the land between two rivers ) is a city (1994 population: 191,000) and the capital of Fergana Province in eastern Uzbekistan, at the southern edge of the Fergana Valley in southern Central Asia, cutting across the borders of Kyrgyzstan, Tadjikistan, and Uzbekistan. ... Issyk Kul from space, September 1992 Issyk Kul at sundown (2002) Issyk Kul beach (2002) Issyk Kul (also Ysyk Köl, Issyk-kol) (located at 42°30′N 77°30′E) is an endorheic lake in the northern Tian Shan mountains in northwestern Kyrgyzstan. ... Map showing modern Transoxiana. ... Located in Central Asia, the Pamir Mountains are formed by the junction of the worlds greatest mountain ranges, a geologic structural knot from which the great Tian Shan, Karakoram, Kunlun, and Hindu Kush mountain systems radiate. ... Fergana Ferghana (Uzbek: Fargona or Farghana, Russian: Фарғона, the land between two rivers ) is a city (1994 population: 191,000) and the capital of Fergana Province in eastern Uzbekistan, at the southern edge of the Fergana Valley in southern Central Asia, cutting across the borders of Kyrgyzstan, Tadjikistan, and Uzbekistan. ... Rshikas were an ancient tribe living in the northern division of ancient India. ... http://www. ... Approximate extent of Scythia and Sarmatia in the 1st century BC (the orange background shows the spread of Eastern Iranian languages, among them Scytho-Sarmatian). ... Saka is also the name of a town in Hiroshima, Japan; for information on this town, see Saka, Hiroshima. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


Connection theories

The following sections deal mostly with popular traditions of Saka descent found among numerous Asian and European peoples. World map showing the location of Europe. ...


Scythian origins

The Scythian language is considered by mainstream historians and linguists as one of the Iranian languages. Scythian and Sarmatian are the names of the East Iranian dialects spoken by the Scythian/Sarmatian tribes of cattlebreeders in Southern Russia between 8th century BC and 5th century AD. The two branches are divided mainly chronologically, rather than geographically: Scythian - archaic version; mainly during classic antiquity Sarmatian Sometimes, the... The Iranian languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family. ...


The Saka speakers were gradually conquered and acculturated by the Turkic expansion to Central Asia beginning in the 4th century. The present distribution of Turkic languages bears witness to the Early Medieval westward expansion of Turkic tribes. ...

Saka (Scythian) horseman from Pazyryk in Central Asia, c. 300 BC.
Saka (Scythian) horseman from Pazyryk in Central Asia, c. 300 BC.

Ashkanian is the dynasty name of the Parthian empire and sources indicate that the Parthian revolt against Greek dominance over Persia started in the Semnan region. Download high resolution version (480x640, 148 KB)Pazyrik horseman. ... Download high resolution version (480x640, 148 KB)Pazyrik horseman. ... Horseman, Pazyryk felt artifact, c. ... Parthia[1] (Middle Persian: اشکانیان Ashkâniân) was a civilization situated in the northeast of modern Iran, but at its height covering all of Iran proper, as well as regions of the modern countries of Armenia, Iraq, Georgia, eastern Turkey, eastern Syria, Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Pakistan, Kuwait, the Persian Gulf... Semnan may refer to: Semnan province Semnan (city) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


Ashkanian means "Sakan people" or "Saka descendants". An Arab source names Sagsar as the place from which Ashkanians originated.


Sagsar, or according to varies sources, "Saka sar" or "Sagasar", is now modern Sangsar, a city in the mountainous region of Semnan Province, in the north of Iran. Sangsar is a city in Semnan Province, Iran. ... Semnan is one of the 30 provinces of Iran. ...


Semnan is also derived from Sakestan, which during the Parthian empire was one of the largest provinces connecting the northern Alborz mountains to eastern Iran bordering the Kushan empire, now Pakistan and Afghanistan. Moreover, many of the legends recorded in the national Persian epic, Shahnameh are believed to be a mixture of Persian, Sogdian and Saka legends. Sagsar and Semnan are mentioned in Firdosi's Shahnameh, particularly honoring the brave people of Sagsar and their couragous uprising against injustice. Sangsaris are still famous for being a sensitive people, proud of their culture and language, one of oldest and best preserved of ancient Iranian languages. Semnan may refer to: Semnan province Semnan (city) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Alborz Mountains Mount Damavand, Irans tallest mountain is located in Alborz mountain range. ... Boundary of the Kushan empire, c. ... Persian literature (in Persian: ‎ ) spans two and a half millennia, though much of the pre-Islamic material has been lost. ... Shâhnameh Shāhnāmé, or Shāhnāma (Persian: )(alternative spellings are Shahnama, Shahnameh, Shahname, Shah-Nama, etc. ... Persian literature (in Persian: ‎ ) spans two and a half millennia, though much of the pre-Islamic material has been lost. ... The Sogdians were an ancient people of Central Asia, who inhabited the region known to the West as Sogdiana. ... Shâhnameh Shāhnāmé, or Shāhnāma (Persian: )(alternative spellings are Shahnama, Shahnameh, Shahname, Shah-Nama, etc. ...


There is a Sangsari dictionary containing 18000 words which is published in Persian, English and French and an investigation of the language may help find valuable clues, keys concerning the Sakas. Persian (Local names: فارسی Fârsi or پارسی Pârsi)* is an Indo-European language spoken in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan as well as by minorities in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, India, Pakistan, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


Asian peoples

Gold artifacts of the Scythians in Bactria, at the site of Tillia tepe.
Gold artifacts of the Scythians in Bactria, at the site of Tillia tepe.

The most notable Saka burial to date, whose occupant is referred to as the "Golden Man", was found in Kazakhstan. The silver dish found with the "Golden Man" is of a type common to other Germanic finds and is inscribed with a form of runic writing related to that found in Germanic and Scandinavian runic writing. See Issyk Kurgan. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1190x904, 980 KB) Kings with dragons. Tillia tepe, 1st century BCE. Musee Guimet. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1190x904, 980 KB) Kings with dragons. Tillia tepe, 1st century BCE. Musee Guimet. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Bactrian Gold. ... Technical note: Due to technical limitations, some web browsers may not display some special characters in this article. ... drawing of the Issyk inscription The Issyk kurgan, in south-eastern Kazakhstan, less than 20 km east from the Talgar alluvial fan, near Issyk, was discovered in 1969. ...


Archeological evidence and histographies shows a worldview of Sakas, similar to that of ancient German and Scandinavian traditions and closely related to that of present-day Kazakhs and Mongols[citation needed]. It is theorized that they believed Man was a part of the Universe, Cosmos, Heaven, Sun, mountains, river, in total nature, and shows close affinities with Shamanism and Tengriism which are still practiced today, from Kazakhstan to Siberia which conceive of God as related to Cosmic laws and forces. However, modern Kazakhs are Muslim, most modern Mongols are Buddhists, and Siberian shamanism is not known to be directly connected to Indo-European religion. The Universe is defined as the summation of all particles and energy that exist and the space-time in which all events occur. ... The Ancient and Medieval cosmos as depicted in Peter Apians Cosmographia (Antwerp, 1539). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Sun (Latin: ) is the star at the center of the Solar System. ... A shaman doctor of Kyzyl. ... Tengri is the god of the old Turkic, Mongolian and Altaic religion named Tengriism. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... The name Mongols (Mongolian: Mongol) specifies one or several ethnic groups. ... A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by... A shaman doctor of Kyzyl. ...


Language of Sacaes

Today we know the Sacaes spoke a north-east iranic language. Actually we know just they had spoken first Old-Sacai(Avestan) and New-Sakai, a north-eastern dialect of Bactrians.


Saka era

Main article: Shalivahana era Saka era, is used with Hindu calendars, the Indian national calendar, and the Cambodian Buddhist calendar. ...


The Sakas were also one of several tribes that conquered India from the northwest, where they established the rule of the Indo-Scythians. The Saka Era is used by the Indian national calendar, a few other Hindu calendars, and the Cambodian Buddhist calendar—its year zero begins near the vernal equinox of 78. See Kushan Empire article for more complex description of Kushan-Scythian dating. The Indo-Scythians are a branch of the Indo-Iranian Sakas (Scythians), who migrated from southern Siberia into Bactria, Sogdiana, Arachosia, Gandhara, Kashmir, Punjab, and into parts of Western and Central India, Gujarat and Rajasthan, from the middle of the 2nd century BCE to the 1st century BCE. The first... The Indian national calendar (sometimes called Saka calendar) is the official civil calendar in use in India. ... A page from the Hindu calendar 1871-72. ... The Buddhist calendar is used on mainland southeast Asia in the countries of Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, and Myanmar (formerly Burma) in several related forms. ... For other uses, see number 78. ... Boundary of the Kushan empire, c. ...


There has been no strong genetic link discovered between the Kazakhs and peoples of India; however, the marker R1a1 accounts for more than 50% of Altay, Slavic and NW Indian/Pakistani males.


It is likely that by about 600 BC, Central Asia was occupied by a number of ethnic groups, all nomadic equestrians sharing simple cultural traits. Communities of nomadic people move from place to place, rather than settling down in one location. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Eurasian nomads. ...


Speculations about Celtic and Germanic connections

Golden plaques representing the resurrection of a dead hero (Saka culture, 5th century BC, Hermitage Museum).
Golden plaques representing the resurrection of a dead hero (Saka culture, 5th century BC, Hermitage Museum).

Some researchers have argued that both the Celtic and Germanic people came from an area southeast of the Black Sea and migrated westward to the coast of Europe, starting with the reign of the Persian king Cyrus the Great when they declined to help him in his conquest of the Babylonian empire. Herodotus (440 BC) mentions a division of Persians known as Germanioi (Hist. 1.125). However, this is probably an imprecise rendering of the name Kerman (later Greek sources have Karmanioi), and thus, according to some sources, may have nothing to do with the Latin name of the Germanic people. Image File history File links Scythian_resurrection. ... Image File history File links Scythian_resurrection. ... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 5th century BC started on January 1, 500 BC and ended on December 31, 401 BC. // The Parthenon of Athens seen from the hill of the Pnyx to the west. ... The State Hermitage Museum (Russian: ) in Saint Petersburg, Russia is one of the largest museums in the world, with 3 million works of art (not all on display at once), [1] and one of the oldest art galleries and museums of human history and culture in the world. ... “Celts” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ... World map showing the location of Europe. ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... Cyrus the Great (Old Persian: Kūruš,[1] modern Persian: کوروش بزرگ, Kurosh-e Bozorg) (c. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Kerman (in Persian: کرمان Kermān) is a city in Iran. ...


The adherents of the Saka theory point out that the burial customs of the Scythians and the Vikings show certain similarities. Furthermore, the Old English chroniclers write that when the Saxons invaded England ca. 400 AD together with the Angli, they "sent back to Scythia for reinforcements". The implication is that the Saxons considered themselves to be Scythians -- the name having traveled with them even though they were far away from the region the Greeks had labelled "Scythia". However, the chroniclers have most probably taken over the name Scythia and its somewhat imprecise usage from the Latin literature; Scythia was identified with Sweden because of a superficial similarity of the two names (due to the fact that Scythia was pronounced [sitia] in Medieval Latin). Viking also called Norseman or Northman, a member of the Scandinavian seafaring warriors who raided and colonized wide areas of Europe from the 9th to the 11th century[1] and reached east to Russia and Constantinople, (referred to as Varangians by the Byzantine sources and by the Russian Primary Chronicle. ... Old English (also called Anglo-Saxon[1], Old English: ) is an early form of the English language that was spoken in parts of what is now England and southern Scotland between the mid-fifth century and the mid-twelfth century. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Angles (disambiguation). ...


According to some traditions, the Saka race, with an affiliated tribe under a different name, migrated to the area of the Baltic Sea, and supposedly gave rise to the Saxon tribe in the area of present day Germany. This claim was cited in favour of Nazi claims that Germans were "original descendants of the Aryan race". However, contemporary philologists have rejected this notion, questioning the archaeological evidence for major cultural contacts between anyone in Uzbekistan or Iran, and the Baltic area. Nevertheless, many Germans believe that there was a connection between people in Central Asia and their own ancestors who were migrants from the East. The Baltic Sea is located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N latitude and from 20°E to 26°E longitude. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... National Socialism redirects here. ... Philology, etymologically, is the love of words. ... This July 2007 does not cite any references or sources. ...


Paul Pezon supports this theory, claiming that the Saka Scythians and the seemingly related Cimmerians were ultimately ancestors to the Celts and Germans, and that the Germans fled the Baltic area when it was flooded by the rising sea level after the Ice age. He believes that the German tribe Cimbri have descended from a branch of the Cimmerians. The Cimmerians (Greek: , Kimmerioi) were ancient equestrian nomads who, according to Herodotus, originally inhabited the region north of the Caucasus and the Black Sea, in what is now Russia and Ukraine, in the 8th and 7th century BC. Assyrian records, however, first place them in the region of what is... Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 400 000 years For the animated movie, see Ice Age (movie). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Cimbrian War. ... The Cimmerians (Greek: , Kimmerioi) were ancient equestrian nomads who, according to Herodotus, originally inhabited the region north of the Caucasus and the Black Sea, in what is now Russia and Ukraine, in the 8th and 7th century BC. Assyrian records, however, first place them in the region of what is...


Some philologists studying the Germanic languages disagree with this hypothesis. There is a distant relationship between the Iranic Saka and the Germanic people due to the fact that both speak Indo-European languages. Their common forefathers which gave rise to Germanic and Iranian probably lived somewhere near the Black Sea. However, the two languages don't have too much in common in addition to their common origin, and therefore the contact between them must have terminated at a relatively early stage.


Parama Kambojas and Saka connection

According to scholars, term Kamboja may be explained as Kam+boja. Boja is the Iranian equivalent of the Sanskrit Bhoja which means Lord or King or Master [34]. Thus, Kambojas may be explained as Lords or Masters or Rulers of Kam country. The Sanskrit language ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ...


The root Kam implying place or region is reflected in the Kama valley, a region lying between the Khyber Pass and Jalalabad. It is also reflected in the place names Kama-daka, Kamma-Shilman, Kama-bela of Kabol; in the Kamdesh or Kambrom, Kamich, Kama and Kamu & Kamatol of the Kunar and Bashgul valleys. It is further reflected in the vast expanses of the region called Kazal-kam and Kara-kam lying on either side of the Oxus north of Hindukush in parts of Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. There is also a river named Kama in the Russian Steppes. Kambah is also said to be name of an ancient town some destinations north-west of Samarkhand in Uzbekistan[35]. Fljótsdalur in East Iceland, a rather flat valley In geology, a valley is a depression with predominant extent in one direction. ... Mountain passes of Afghanistan The Khyber Pass, also referred to as The Khyber (also spelt the Khaiber Pass or Khaybar Pass) (Urdu: درہ خیبر) (el. ... For the city in Kyrgyzstan, see Jalal-Abad. ... Kabul (Kâbl, in Persian کابل) is the capital and largest city of Afghanistan with a population variously estimated at 2 to 4 million. ... Kunar province is one of the thirty-four provinces of Afghanistan, located in the northeastern part of the country and on the border with Pakistan. ... The Amu Darya (in Persian آمودریا; Darya means river in Persian) rises in the Pamirs and flows mainly north-west through the Hindu Kush, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan to join the Aral Sea in a large river delta. ... The Hindu Kush or Hindukush (هندوکش in Persian) is a mountain range in Afghanistan as well as in the Northern Areas of Pakistan. ... The steppe of Western Kazakhstan in early spring In physical geography, steppe (from Slavic step) is a plain without trees (apart from those near rivers and lakes); it is similar to a prairie, although a prairie is generally reckoned as being dominated by tall grasses, while short grasses are said...


The Ptolemian term Kamoi also refers to a people of the region falling in the Oxus/Jaxartes doab. According to Dr Seth, it seems highly likely that the ancient Kambojas had their habitats in the doab of the river Vamksu (Oxus) and Syr (Jaxartes) (ancient Suguda) and beyond in the hilly regions of Syr. The territory is watered by numerous tributaries of the Oxus and Jaxartes and was referred to as Komdei by Ptolemy. Roman historian Ammianus Marcellinus (325 AD‑330 AD) labelled the mountainous region of Suguda as Komedas [36]. A medieval artists rendition of Claudius Ptolemaeus Claudius Ptolemaeus (Greek: ; ca. ... A Doab, meaning two waters in Persian, is a term used in India and Pakistan for a tract of land between two confluent rivers. ... The Amu Darya (in Persian آمودریا; Darya means river in Persian) rises in the Pamirs and flows mainly north-west through the Hindu Kush, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan to join the Aral Sea in a large river delta. ... Syr Darya (also known as Syrdarya or Sirdaryo) is a river in Central Asia. ... The Amu Darya (in Persian آمودریا; Darya means river in Persian) rises in the Pamirs and flows mainly north-west through the Hindu Kush, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan to join the Aral Sea in a large river delta. ... Syr Darya (also known as Syrdarya or Sirdaryo) is a river in Central Asia. ... A medieval artists rendition of Claudius Ptolemaeus Claudius Ptolemaeus (Greek: ; ca. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... Ammianus Marcellinus (325/330-after 391) was a Roman historian who wrote during Late Antiquity. ...


These names seem to point towards 'Komdesh' (Kambojdesh ?) which was the original home of the Kambojas [37]. Ptolemy has also stated that there is a tribe variously called Komroi, Komedei or Komoi which occupies the highlands of Bactriaa and Sogdiana countries [38]. A medieval artists rendition of Claudius Ptolemaeus Claudius Ptolemaeus (Greek: ; ca. ... http://www. ... Bactria, about 320 BC Bactria (Bactriana, Bākhtar in Persian, also Bhalika in Arabic and Indian languages, and Ta-Hia in Chinese) was the ancient Greek name of the country between the range of the Hindu Kush and the Amu Darya (Oxus); its capital, Bactra or Balhika or Bokhdi (now...


Al-Maqidisi in his book Al-Muqhni calls the people of this territory Kumiji a name that apparently points to the Sanskrit Kamboja. The Komdei of Ptolemy has been identified with the Kiumito of Hiun Tsang [39]. Scholars have identified this Kiumito as the habitat of Iranian Kambojas [40]. The Kumuda-dvipa of the Puranas is said to lie to north of Pamirs in the Tartary region and is equivalent to the Komdei of Ptolemy and the Kumadas of Ammianus Marcellinus. The Sanskrit language ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Xuanzang, Dunhuang cave, 9th century. ... Purana (Sanskrit: , meaning tales of ancient times) is the name of an ancient Indian genre (or a group of related genres) of Hindu or Jain literature (as distinct from oral tradition). ... Located in Central Asia, the Pamir Mountains are formed by the junction of the worlds greatest mountain ranges, a geologic structural knot from which the great Tian Shan, Karakoram, Kunlun, and Hindu Kush mountain systems radiate. ... Tatary or Great Tatary (Latin: Tataria or Tataria Magna) was a name used by Europeans from the Middle Ages until the twentieth century to designate a great tract of northern and central Asia stretching from the Caspian Sea and the Ural Mountains to the Pacific Ocean inhabited by Turkic and...


The fifth century Sanskrit poet Kalidasa attests that the Hunas and Kambojas lived as neighbors in their respective west and east Oxus valleys [41]. Rajatarangini of Kalhana also refers to Tukharas and Kambojas living respectively in the west and east Oxus valleys, during the 8th century AD[42]. The Sanskrit language ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Billon drachm of the Hephthalite King Napki Malka (Afghanistan/ Gandhara, c. ... Rajtarangini (River of Kings), a book written in Sanskrit by Kalhana, contains an account of the life and history of Kashmir. ... Kalhana (c. ... The Tocharians were the easternmost speakers of an Indo-European language in antiquity, inhabiting the Tarim basin in what is now Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, northwestern Peoples Republic of China. ... Kambojas are a very ancient Kshatriya tribe of the north-western parts of the Indian subcontinent and what is now Afghanistan, frequently mentioned in ancient texts, although not in the Rig Veda. ... The Amu Darya (in Persian آمودریا; Darya means river in Persian) rises in the Pamirs and flows mainly north-west through the Hindu Kush, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan to join the Aral Sea in a large river delta. ...


Scholars believe that the Kiumito of Hiun Tsang is same as the Kamboja of Raghuvamsa and of Rajatarangini and represents the Iranian section of the Kambojas [43]. The Kumuda or Kumuda-dvipa of Indian texts and the Komdei of Ptolemy lay in the Shaka-dvipa per Mahabharata and Puranic texts [44]. Komdei apparently refers to the region which has been called Parama Kamboja in Mahabharata [45]. This was the region where the Rishikas, Parama Kambojas, Lohas and other allied people dwelt. Xuanzang, Dunhuang cave, 9th century. ... For the film by Peter Brook, see The Mahabharata (1989 film). ... ...


Needless to say that all these people including the Parama Kambojas were Scythians by culture for obvious reasons. Writing on the Rishikas, Dr V. S. Aggarwala observes: “The name Rishika occurs in Mahabharata as a part of 'Shakadvipa'. Arjuna had conquered Rishikas across the Vakshu (Oxus) which flowed through the Shaka country.” As the Parama Kambojas, Lohas and the Rishikas were all neighborly tribes and were allied in their fight against Arjuna [46], this strongly suggests that the Transoxian Lohas and Parama Kambojas were also located in Shakadvipa or Scythia. There is mention of Rishikas in the Mahabharata, Brhat Samhita, Markendeya Purana and Ramayana etc. ... For other uses, please see Arjun. ... Map showing modern Transoxiana. ...


Dr Bailey lists several breeds of Kamboja horses and states that their haya- and javana- breeds ( 'swift horse') refer to the famous horses of the Farghana breed [47]. Praja Bhata, a Kashmiri Sanskrit poet and author of the fourth Rajatarangini while writing about the history of Moghul dynasty in India, addresses emperor Babur as a Yavana king hailing from Kambhoja [48]. Since Vabur (Babur) was native of Fargana (in Kyrgyzstan of Central Asia), this Indian reference seems to extend the Kamboja i.e the Parama Kamboja domain almost as far as to Fargana. Farghana, more commonly known as Fargana, was part of medieval Turkistan in the southern part of Central Asia. ... Kashmir (or Cashmere) may refer to: Kashmir region, the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent India, Kashmir conflict, the territorial dispute between India, Pakistan, and the China over the Kashmir region. ... The Sanskrit language ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... The Mughal Empire (alternative spelling Mogul, which is the origin of the word Mogul) of India was founded by Babur in 1526, when he defeated Ibrahim Lodi, the last of the Delhi Sultans at the First Battle of Panipat. ... // For other uses, see Dynasty (disambiguation). ... An emperor is a (male) monarch, usually the sovereign ruler of an empire or another type of imperial realm. ... Zāhir ud-Dīn Mohammad, commonly known as Bābur (February 14, 1483 – December 26, 1530) (Chaghatay/Persian: ; also spelled ), was a Muslim Emperor from Central Asia who founded the Mughal dynasty of India. ... Yona, Yonaka or Yavana is a Pali word used in ancient India to designate Greeks. ... Kamboja is ancient name of a country and the tribe settled therein. ... Fergana Ferghana (Uzbek: Fargona or Farghana, Russian: Фарғона, the land between two rivers ) is a city (1994 population: 191,000) and the capital of Fergana Province in eastern Uzbekistan, at the southern edge of the Fergana Valley in southern Central Asia, cutting across the borders of Kyrgyzstan, Tadjikistan, and Uzbekistan. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ...


Thus the foregoing discussion sufficiently proves that the territory of the Parama Kambojas lay in a region beyond Imaos or Himalaya/Hindukush, the region that ancient Sanskrit texts such as Mahabharata labelled Shakadvipa and classical writers Strabo and Diodorus define as part of Scythia (see above). This allows the conclusion that the Parama Kambojas, the Rishikas and Lohas were Scythians [49]. Perspective view of the Himalaya and Mount Everest as seen from space looking south-south-east from over the Tibetan Plateau. ... The Hindu Kush or Hindukush (هندوکش in Persian) is a mountain range in Afghanistan as well as in the Northern Areas of Pakistan. ... The Sanskrit language ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... For the film by Peter Brook, see The Mahabharata (1989 film). ... Approximate extent of Scythia and Sarmatia in the 1st century BC (the orange background shows the spread of Eastern Iranian languages, among them Scytho-Sarmatian). ...


According to Serge Thion: “It seems from some inscriptions that the Kambojas were a royal clan of the Sakas better known under the Greek name of Scyths” [50] . Serge Thion (born 1942) is a French sociologist mainly known for his Holocaust denial. ...


Sakas in Ancient Indian Literature

The Indo-Scythians were named "Shaka" in India, an extension on the name Saca used by the Persians to designate Scythians. Shakas receive numerous mentions in texts like the Puranas, the Manusmriti, the Ramayana, the Mahabharata, the Mahabhasya of Patanjali, the Brhat Samhita of Varaha Mihira, the Kavyamimamsa, the Brihat-Katha-Manjari, the Katha-Saritsagara and several other old texts. The Shakas are described as part of an amalgam of other war-like tribes from the northwest. For the Shaka era, see Hindu Calendar. ... The Puranas are part of Hindu Smriti; these religious scriptures discuss devotion and mythology. ... The Manu Smriti or Laws of Manu, is one of the eighteen Smritis of the Dharma Sastra (or laws of righteous conduct), written c. ... For the television series by Ramanand Sagar, see Ramayan (TV series). ... For the film by Peter Brook, see The Mahabharata (1989 film). ... Patañjali, is the compiler of the Yoga Sutra, a major work containing aphorisms on the practical and philosophical wisdom regarding practice of Raja yoga. ...


The Buddha Gotama was recorded of being of the tribe of the Sakas, his father being a king of the Kshatriya caste. His title Sakyamuni means "sage of the Sakas". But this is a common misconception. The Buddha belonged to an Indo-Aryan tribe called "Sakya"(not "Saka") Media:Example. ... Media:Example. ...


"Degraded Kshatriyas" from the northwest

The Manusmriti, written about 200, groups the Shakas with the Yavanas, Kambojas, Paradas, Pahlavas, Kiratas and the Daradas, etc., and addresses them all as "degraded warriors" or Kshatriyas" (X/43-44). Anushasanaparva of the Mahabharata also views the Shakas, Kambojas, Yavanas etc... in the same light. Patanjali in his Mahabhashya regards the Shakas and Yavanas as pure Shudras (II.4.10). The Manu Smriti or Laws of Manu, is one of the eighteen Smritis of the Dharma Sastra (or laws of righteous conduct), written c. ... For other uses, see number 200. ... ... Kambojas are a very ancient Kshatriya tribe of the north-western parts of the Indian subcontinent and what is now Afghanistan, frequently mentioned in ancient texts, although not in the Rig Veda. ... Coin of Gondophares (20-50 CE), first and greatest king of the Indo-Parthian Kingdom. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... For the film by Peter Brook, see The Mahabharata (1989 film). ... Patañjali, is the compiler of the Yoga Sutra, a major work containing aphorisms on the practical and philosophical wisdom regarding practice of Raja yoga. ... The Mahābhāṣya (great commentary), attributed to Patañjali, is a commentary on the celebrated Ashtadhyayi of Panini is one of the three most famous works in Sanskrit grammar. ... Shudra (IAST: ) is the fourth Varna in the traditional four-section division in historic Hindu society. ...


The Vartika of the Katyayana informs us that the kings of the Shakas and the Yavanas, like those of the Kambojas, may also be addressed by their respective tribal names. Kātyāyana (c. ... Kambojas are a very ancient Kshatriya tribe of the north-western parts of the Indian subcontinent and what is now Afghanistan, frequently mentioned in ancient texts, although not in the Rig Veda. ... http://www. ...


The Mahabharata also associates the Shakas with the Yavanas, Gandharas, Kambojas, Pahlavas, Tusharas, Sabaras, Barbaras, etc. and addresses them all as the Barbaric tribes of Uttarapatha. In another verse, the same epic groups the Shakas and Kambojas and Khashas and addresses them as the tribes from Udichya i.e north division (5/169/20). Also, the Kishkindha Kanda of the Ramayana locates the Shakas, Kambojas, Yavanas and Paradas in the extreme north-west beyond the Himavat (i.e. Hindukush) (43/12). For the film by Peter Brook, see The Mahabharata (1989 film). ... ... Gandhāra (Sanskrit: गन्धार, Persian; Gandara, Waihind) (Urdu: گندھارا) is the name of an ancient Indian Mahajanapada, currently in northern Pakistan (the North-West Frontier Province and parts of northern Punjab and Kashmir) and eastern Afghanistan. ... Kambojas are a very ancient Kshatriya tribe of the north-western parts of the Indian subcontinent and what is now Afghanistan, frequently mentioned in ancient texts, although not in the Rig Veda. ... Coin of Gondophares (20-50 CE), first and greatest king of the Indo-Parthian Kingdom. ... ... Barbarian was originally a Greek term applied to any foreigner, one not sharing a recognized culture or degree of polish with the speaker or writer employing the term. ... http://www. ... Ancient Buddhist and Brahmanical texts reveal that Uttarapatha was the name of northern division of Jambudvipa of ancient Indian traditions. ... Kamboja (Sanskrit: कम्बोज) was the ancient name of a country, and the Indo-Iranian Kshatriya tribe, the Kambojas, settled therein. ... The Khasas are an ancient people, believed to be a section of the Iranians who originally belonged to Central Asia from where they had penetrated, in remote antiquity, the Himalayas from Central Asia through Kashgar and Kashmir and dominated the whole hilly region. ... For the television series by Ramanand Sagar, see Ramayan (TV series). ... Perspective view of the Himalaya and Mount Everest as seen from space looking south-south-east from over the Tibetan Plateau. ... The Hindu Kush or Hindukush (هندوکش in Persian) is a mountain range in Afghanistan as well as in the Northern Areas of Pakistan. ...


Military actions

Ancient wars (1500-500 BC)

According to numerous Puranas, the military corporations of the Shakas, Yavanas, Kambojas, Pahlavas and Paradas, known as "five hordes" (pānca-ganah), had militarily supported the Haihaya and Talajunga Kshatriyas in depriving Ikshvaku king Bahu (the 7th king in descent from Harishchandra), of his Ayodhya kingdom. The Puranas are part of Hindu Smriti; these religious scriptures discuss devotion and mythology. ... Yona, Yonaka or Yavana is a Pali word used in ancient India to designate Greeks. ... Kamboja (Sanskrit: कम्बोज) was the ancient name of a country, and the Indo-Iranian Kshatriya tribe, the Kambojas, settled therein. ... Coin of Gondophares (20-50 CE), first and greatest king of the Indo-Parthian Kingdom. ... Look up Horde in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Ayodhya   (Hindi: अयोध्या, Urdu: ایودھیا IAST Ayodhyā) is an ancient city of India, the old capital of Awadh, in the Faizabad district of Uttar Pradesh. ... For the comic series, see Monarchy (comics). ...


A generation later, Bahu's son Sagara managed to recapture Ayodhya after defeating these foreign hordes. Sagara punished them by meting out to them weird punishments. He made the Shakas shave half of their heads, the Kambojas and the Yavanas the totality, the Pahlavas to keep their beards and the Paradas to let their hair go free.


The Kalika Purana, one of the Upa-Puranas of the Hindus, refers to a war between Brahmanical king Kalika (supposed to be Pusyamitra Sunga) and Buddhist king Kali (supposed to be Maurya king Brihadratha (187-180 BC)) and states the Shakas, Kambojas, Khasas, etc. as a powerful military allies of king Kali. The Purana further states that these Barbarians take the orders from their women (Ref: Kalika Purana, III(6), 22-40). The Kalika Purana is one of the eighteen Upapuranas. ... A Hindu ( , Devanagari: हिन्दु), as per modern definition, is an adherent of the philosophies and scriptures of Hinduism, and the religious, philosophical and cultural system that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... Young Indian brahmachari Brahmin A Brahmin (less often Brahman) is a member of the Hindu priestly caste. ... Pusyamitra Sunga (also Pushyamitra Shunga) was the founder of the Indian Sunga dynasty (185-78 BCE). ... A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by... Chandragupta Maurya (ruled 322–298 BC), known to the Greeks as Sandracottus, was the first emperor of the Mauryan empire. ... Brhadrata was the last ruler of the Indian Mauryan dynasty. ... Look up Barbarian in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


The Balakanda of the Ramayana also groups the Shakas with the Kambojas, Yavanas, Pahlavas and Mlechhas and refers to them as military allies of sage Vashistha against Vedic king Vishwamitra (55/2-3). For the television series by Ramanand Sagar, see Ramayan (TV series). ... A wise old man: Philosopher in Meditation by Rembrandt The wise old man (or Senex) is an archetype as described by Carl Jung. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Brahmarishi Viswamitra is one of the seven venerated sages of Hindu mythology. ...


The Udyogaparva of the Mahabharata (5/19/21-23) tells us that the composite army of the Kambojas, Yavanas and Shakas had participated in the Mahabharata war under the supreme command of Kamboja king Sudakshina. The epic repeatedly applauds this composite army as being very fierce and wrathful. For the film by Peter Brook, see The Mahabharata (1989 film). ... Sudakshina Kamboja is the third king of the Kambojas referred to in the Mahabharata. ... The epic is a broadly defined genre of narrative poetry, characterized by great length, multiple settings, large numbers of characters, or long span of time involved. ...


Military alliance with Chandragupta (circa 320 BC)

The Buddhist drama Mudrarakshas by Visakhadutta and the Jaina works Parisishtaparvan refer to Chandragupta's alliance with Himalayan king Parvataka. JAIN is an activity within the Java Community Process, developing APIs for the creation of telephony (voice and data) services. ... This article deals with the fourth century BC founder of the Maurya dynasty. ... Himalayan can refer to: Himalaya, the mountains: Himalayan (cat), the type of cat Himalayan, the breed of rabbit This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ...


This Himalayan alliance gave Chandragupta a powerful composite army made up of the frontier martial tribes of the Shakas, Kambojas, Yavanas, Parasikas, Bahlikas etc which he utilised to defeat the Nanda rulers of Magadha, and thus establishing his Mauryan Empire in northern India (See: Mudrarakshas, II). Perspective view of the Himalaya and Mount Everest as seen from space looking south-south-east from over the Tibetan Plateau. ... For the Shaka era, see Hindu Calendar. ... Kambojas are a very ancient Kshatriya tribe of the north-western parts of the Indian subcontinent and what is now Afghanistan, frequently mentioned in ancient texts, although not in the Rig Veda. ... ... Bactria (Bactriana, also Bhalika in Indian languages) was the ancient Greek name of the country between the range of the Hindu Kush (Caucasus Indicus) and the Amu Darya (Oxus); its capital, Bactra (now Balkh), was located in what is now northern Afghanistan, southern Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan. ... The Nanda Empire at its greatest extent under Dhana Nanda circa 323 BC. The Nanda dynasty ruled Magadha during the 5th and 4th centuries BC. It is said to have been established by an illegitimate son of the king Mahanandin of the previous Shishunaga dynasty. ... Magadha was an ancient kingdom of India, mentioned in both the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. ... The Mauryan empire (321 to 185 BCE), at its largest extent around 230 BCE. The Lion Capital of Asoka, erected around 250 BCE. It is the emblem of India. ...


Invasion of India (circa 180 BC)

Main article: Indo-Scythians
The Orlat plaque, found in Uzbekistan, depicts a battle of warriors in cataphract, thought to be Sakas or Sogdians.

The Vanaparva of the Mahabharata contains verses in the form of prophecy that the kings of the Shakas, Yavanas, Kambojas, Bahlikas and Abhiras etc shall rule unrighteously in Kaliyuga (MBH 3/188/34-36). The Indo-Scythians are a branch of the Indo-Iranian Sakas (Scythians), who migrated from southern Siberia into Bactria, Sogdiana, Arachosia, Gandhara, Kashmir, Punjab, and into parts of Western and Central India, Gujarat and Rajasthan, from the middle of the 2nd century BCE to the 1st century BCE. The first... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 761 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1264 × 996 pixel, file size: 664 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Uzbekistan Sogdiana Saka User:PHG Indo... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 761 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1264 × 996 pixel, file size: 664 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Uzbekistan Sogdiana Saka User:PHG Indo... This Orlat plaque, found in Uzbekistan, depicts a battle of warriors in cataphract, thought to be Sakas or Sogdians. ... A cataphract (from the Greek κατάφρακτος katafraktos, plural katafraktoi) was a form of heavy cavalry used by nomadic eastern Iranian tribes and dynasties and later Greeks and Latin-speaking peoples. ... The Sogdians were an ancient people of Central Asia, who inhabited the region known to the West as Sogdiana. ... For the Shaka era, see Hindu Calendar. ... Yona, Yonaka or Yavana is a Pali word used in ancient India to designate Greeks. ... Kamboja (Sanskrit: कम्बोज) was the ancient name of a country, and the Indo-Iranian Kshatriya tribe, the Kambojas, settled therein. ... Bactria (Bactriana, also Bhalika in Indian languages) was the ancient Greek name of the country between the range of the Hindu Kush (Caucasus Indicus) and the Amu Darya (Oxus); its capital, Bactra (now Balkh), was located in what is now northern Afghanistan, southern Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan. ... Ahir (a corruption of the word Abhir, fearless) is a subgroup of the Yadav caste of India. ... According to most inrepretations of Hindu scriptures, the Kali Yuga (Iron Age) began at the end of Krishnas bodily lifespan (approximately 5100 years ago, 3102 BC) and will last exactly 432,000 years — placing its conclusion in the year AD 428,899 (it began with a year 0). ...


This reference apparently alludes to the precarious political scenario following the collapse of Mauryan and Sunga dynasties in northern India and its occupation by foreign hordes of the Shakas, Yavanas, Kambojas and Pahlavas. The Mauryan empire (321 to 185 BCE), at its largest extent around 230 BCE. The Mauryan empire was Indias first great unified empire. ... Approximate greatest extent of the Sunga empire (185 BCE-73 BCE) For other uses of the term Sunga see Sunga (disambiguation) The Sunga empire (or Shunga empire) controlled the eastern part of India from around 185 to 73 BCE. It was established after the fall of the Indian Mauryan empire. ... // For other uses, see Dynasty (disambiguation). ...


Extinction

The Brihat-Katha-Manjari of the Kshemendra (10/1/285-86) relates that around 400 AD, the Gupta king Vikramaditya (Chandragupta II) had "unburdened the sacred earth of the barbarians" like the Shakas, Mlecchas, Kambojas, Yavanas, Tusharas, Parasikas, Hunas, etc., by annihilating these "sinners" completely. Events First invasion of Italy by Alaric (probable date). ... The Gupta Empire under Chandragupta II (ruled 375-415) The Gupta Empire was one of the largest political and military empires in ancient India. ... The period of prominence of the Gupta dynasty is very often referred to as the Golden Age of India. ... Coins of Chandragupta II. The period of prominence of the Gupta dynasty is very often referred to as the Golden Age of India. ... Look up Barbarian in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For the Shaka era, see Hindu Calendar. ... Kambojas are a very ancient Kshatriya tribe of the north-western parts of the Indian subcontinent and what is now Afghanistan, frequently mentioned in ancient texts, although not in the Rig Veda. ... Yona, Yonaka or Yavana is a Pali word used in ancient India to designate Greeks. ... Billon drachm of the Hephthalite King Napki Malka (Afghanistan/ Gandhara, c. ...


The 10th century Kavyamimamsa of Raj Shekhar (Ch. 17) still lists the Sakas, Tusharas, Vokanas, Hunas, Kambojas, Bahlikas, Pahlavas, Tangana, Turukshas, etc. together, and states them as the tribes located in the Uttarapatha division. Ancient Buddhist and Brahmanical texts reveal that Uttarapatha was the name of northern division of Jambudvipa of ancient Indian traditions. ...


Sakas Today

Many communities in Asia are the descendants of the Sakas. These include:

It is unparable historically and linguistically Afghans (Pashtuns) are descends of Sacaes. Afghans either speak a north-eastern iranian language nor a bactrian dialect and nor they have any connections to Sacaes by terms or ethnic. Afghans are descends of the nomadic Ashvakas who belong to the greater Kambojas and were the first Aryan people who lived in the area of the sulaiman ranges. The same with the Nuristanis who belong to the Ashvas, too. Plus today many scholars are not sure if they shall count Pashto to the iranic languages or to a third branch of the indo-aryan languages in the group of the so-called Kafir-Languages. Another reason is Sacaes were driven further into India (into Rajastan) by Kushans where they became assimilated and became to a Kishatria-Clan for what Rajastan was for centuries famous of it´s rulers and nomadic warriors. Look up Kamboh in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Jat people (IAST: , Hindi: , Punjabi: , Urdu: ‎) of Northern India and Pakistan, are descendants of Indo-Aryan/Indo-Scythian tribes. ... Gujjar or Gurjar is a group or caste of the Indian subcontinent. ... A caste found in Northern India who are traditionally Blacksmiths. ... The Dards are an Aryan people living in a few scattered villages in a remote region of Ladakh district, itself a remote region of the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir. ... A Rajput (possibly from Sanskrit rāja-putra, son of a king) is a member of a prominent caste who live throughout northern and central India, primarily in the northwestern state of Rajasthan. ... The Tarkhan tribe inhabits the Punjab area of Northern India. ...


See also

Kambojas are a very ancient Kshatriya tribe of the north-western parts of the Indian subcontinent and what is now Afghanistan, frequently mentioned in ancient texts, although not in the Rig Veda. ... For the village on Guam, see Yona Yona is a Pali word used in ancient India to designate Greek speakers. ... The Jats are a prominent people caste/jati settled in and occupying a prominent position in Punjab, Western Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, Delhi and Rajasthan in India. ... The Tarkhan tribe inhabits the Punjab area of Northern India. ...

References

  1. ^ Andrew Dalby, Dictionary of Languages: the definitive reference to more than 400 languages, Columbia University Press, 2004, pg 278
  2. ^ Sarah Iles Johnston, Religions of the Ancient World: A Guide, Harvard University Press, 2004. pg 197
  3. ^ Edward A Allworth,Central Asia: A Historical Overview,Duke University Press, 1994. pp 86.
  4. ^ History, VII, 64
  5. ^ Strabo, XI, 8, 2
  6. ^ Ambaseos Alexandrou, III, 8, 3
  7. ^ Dr B. N. Mukerjee, Political History of Ancient India, 1996, p 690-91.
  8. ^ Herodotus Book VII, 64
  9. ^ Naturalis Historia, VI, 19, 50
  10. ^ See: Lib.xi, p 254; See also: Annals and Antiquities, I, p 49, fn 6, James Tod
  11. ^ See: Indika, Fragment 1, Diodorus II.35; See also: Annals and Antiquities, I, p 49, fn 6, James Tod.
  12. ^ Qv: Nonnos Dionysiaca 40.260; Political History of Ancient India, 1996, p 692, Dr H. C. Raychaudhury, Dr B. N. Mukerjee; See also: India as Known to Panini, p 70, Dr V. S. Aggarwala etc.
  13. ^ Geography VI, 12, 1f; VI, 13; 1f, VI, 15, 1f
  14. ^ Megasthenes, Indika, FRAGM.XX.B.; FRAGM. LVI.; FRAGM. LVI. B., J. W. McCrindle's; Pliny. Hist. Nat. V1. 21.9-22. 1.; Plin. Hist. Nat. VI. 21. 8-23. 11.; Solinnus. 52. 6-17. See: http://www.mssu.edu/projectsouthasia/history/primarydocs/Foreign_Views/GreekRoman/Megasthenes-Indika.htm
  15. ^ Qv: Fragment IV, Strabo XV.i. II, p 689
  16. ^ Ref: Sumangavilasini, I.1; Geographical Data in Early Puranas, 1972, p 65
  17. ^ XI.8.2.
  18. ^ History and Culture of Indian People, The Age of Imperial Unity, p 11, Ed Dr R. C. Majumdar, Dr A. D. Pusalkar; Political History of Ancient India, 1996, pp 692,717, Dr H. C. Raychaudhury, Dr B. N. Mukerjee
  19. ^ Aseni, Osii(=Asii) and Asoi clans are also referenced by Pliny (Pliny: Hist Nat., VI.21.8-23.11, List of Indian races) and he locates them all in southern side of Hindukush. Bucephala was the capital of Aseni which stood on Hydaspes (Jhelum) (See: Alexander the Great, Sources and Studies, p 236, Dr W. W. Tarn; Political History of Indian People, 1996, p 232, Dr H. C. Raychaudhury, Dr B. N. Mukerjee). Alexander had named this city after his horse Becephalus when it had died sometime in June of 326 BC after being fatally wounded at the Battle of Hydaspes with king Porus (Paurava) of Punjab
  20. ^ History and Culture of Indian People, Age of Imperial Unity, p 111; Political History of Ancient India, 1996, p 692.
  21. ^ For Asii = Aswa = Horse-people, see: Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, reprint (2002), pp 53-54, 64 fn 1 etc
  22. ^ MBH 8.38.13-14, 10.13.1-2; 7.23.42-43 etc.
  23. ^ For Asii/Aswa/Assaceni/Aspasio connection with horse, refer to Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Reprint (2002), James Tod. E.g: "In Aswa, we have ancient race peopled on both sides of Indus and probable etymon of Asia. The Assaceni, the Ari-aspii, the Aspasians and (the Asii) whom Strabo describes as Scythic race have same origin. Hence Asi-gurh (Hasi/Hansi) and Asii-gard, the first settlements of Scythic Asii in Scandinavia" (See: Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Reprint (2002), Vol I, p 64 fn 1. Also see: pp 51-54, 87, 95; Vol-2, P 2, James Tod. For nomenclature Aspasii, Hipasii, see: The Pathans, 1958, pp 37, 55-56, Olaf Caroe. Pliny also refers to horse clans like Aseni, Osii, Asoi living in north-west of India (which were none-else than the Ashvayana and Ashvakayana Kambojas of Indian texts). See: Hist. Nat. VI 21.8-23.11; See Ancient India as Described by Megasthenes and Arrian, Trans. and edited by Dr J. W. McCrindle, Calcutta and Bombay,: Thacker, Spink, 1877, 30-174.
  24. ^ Lohan. ParamaKambojan.Rishikan.uttaranapi:MBH 2.27.25; Kambojarishika ye cha MBH 5.5.15 etc.
  25. ^ Political History of Ancient India, 19996, Commentary, p 719, Dr B. N. Mukerjee. Cf: “It appears likely that like the Yue-chis, the Scythians had also occupied a part of Transoxiana before conquering Bactria. If the Tokhario, who were the same as or affiliated with Yue-chihs, and who were mistaken as Scythian people, particiapated in the same series of invasions of Bactria of the Greeks, then it may be inferred that eastern Bactria was conquered by Yue-chis and the western by other nomadic people in about the same period. In other words, the Greek rule in Bactria was put to end in c 130/29 BC due to invasion by the Great Yue-chis and the Scythians Sakas nomads (Commentary: Political History of Ancient India, 1996, p 692-93, Dr B.N. Mukerjee). It is notable that before its occupation by Tukhara Yue-chis, Badakashan formed a part of ancient Kamboja i.e. Parama Kamboja country. But after its occupation by the Tukharas in second century BC, it became a part of Tukharistan. Around 4th-5th century, when the fortunes of the Tukharas finally died down, the original population of Kambojas re-asserted itself and the region again started to be called by its ancient name Kamboja (See: Bhartya Itihaas ki Ruprekha, p 534, Dr J.C. Vidyalankar; Ancient Kamboja, People and the Country, 1981, pp 129, 300 Dr J.L. Kamboj; Kambojas Through the Ages, 2005, p 159, S Kirpal Singh). There are several later-time references to this Kamboja of Pamirs/Badakshan. Raghuvamsha, a 5th c Sanskrit play by Kalidasa, attests their presence on river Vamkshu (Oxus) as neighbors to the Hunas (4.68-70). They have also been attested as Kiumito by 7th c Chinese pilgrim Hiun Tsang. Eighth century king of Kashmir, king Lalitadiya had invaded the Oxian Kambojas as is attested by Rajatarangini of Kalhana (See: Rajatarangini 4.163-65). Here they are mentined as living in the eastern parts of the Oxus valley as neighbors to the Tukharas who were living in western parts of Oxus valley (See: The Land of the Kambojas, Purana, Vol V, No, July 1962, p 250, Dr D. C. Sircar). These Kambojas apparently were descendants of that section of the Kambojas who, instead of leaving their ancestral land during second c BC under assault from Ta Yue-chi, had compromised with the invaders and had decided to stay put in their ancestral land instead of moving to Helmond valley or to the Kabol valley. There are other references which equate Kamboja= Tokhara. A Buddhist Sanskrit Vinaya text (Dr N. Dutt, Gilgit Manuscripts, III, 3, 136, quoted in B.S.O.A.S XIII, 404) has the expression satam Kambojikanam kanayanam i.e a hunderd maidens from Kamboja. This has been rendered in Tibetan as Tho-gar yul-gyi bu-mo brgya and in Mongolian as Togar ulus-un yagun ükin. Thus Kamboja has been rendered as Tho-gar or Togar. And Tho-gar/Togar is Tibetan/Mongolian names for Tokhar/Tukhar. See refs: Irano-Indica III, H. W. Bailey Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, Vol. 13, No. 2, 1950 , pp. 389-409; see also: Ancient Kamboja, Iran and Islam, 1971, p 66, Dr H. W. Bailey.
  26. ^ Cambridge History of India, Vol I, p 510; Taxila, Vol I, p 24, Marshal, Early History of North India, p 50, Dr S. Chattopadhyava.
  27. ^ Select Inscriptions bearing on the Indian History and Civilization, Vol I, p 10; Ancient Kamboja, People and the Country, 1981, p 297, Dr J. L. Kamboj
  28. ^ Cambridge History of India, Vol I, p 510, E. J. Rapson (Ed); Geographical Data in Early Puranas, 1972, p 46, Dr M. R. Singh.
  29. ^ Some writers interpret the Darian inscription as locating Sakas Haumavarka north of Suguda (Sogdiana), in the plains of Jaxartes in the Issyk-Kul Lake area. Para-Sugudma seems a more reasonable location for Saka Haumavarka because there was a different Sakas settlement near Suguda to the north of Jaxartes in the lower valleys near Aral. Further, in reference to the Transoxiana Sakas, Arrian mentions the Sakas living not far from Bactria and Sugada, likely an allusion to Haumavarka Sakas living in Tashkant, Fargana and Kashgar (See: History and Culture of Indian People, Vol II, p 120).
  30. ^ See discussion in 'Ancient Kamboja, People and the Country', 1981, p 296 sqq., Dr J. L. Kamboj.
  31. ^ Ancient Kamboja, People and the Country, 1981, p 297, Dr J. L. Kamboj; cf also: Political History of Ancient India, 1996, pp 381, 691-92, Dr H. C. Raychaudhury and Dr B. N. Murkerjee
  32. ^ Lohan paramakambojanrishikan uttaranpi...Mahabharata 2.27.25. See Ganguli's Trans: http://www.sacred-texts.com/hin/m02/m02026.htm. But it may be noted that Mr Ganguli has erroneously translated the expression Parama Kambojas as Eastern Kambojas which designation for Parama Kambojas is not correct and is misleading. Therefore see: Geographical Data in Early Puranas, pp 167-68, Dr M. R. Singh; Problems of Ancient India, 2000, p 1-8, K. D. Sethna; cf: A Geographical Text of Puranas: A Further Critical Study, Purana Vol VI, No 1, Feb 1962, pp 112- sqq.; Purana, Vol VI, No 1, pp 207-14 etc
  33. ^ Dr Robert Shafer has recently reported that the Shakas, Kambojas, Pahlavas, Sugudas, etc were the left-over population of the Indo-Iranian Aryans after Aryans latter had moved from their original home in Central Asia to Iran and India (See Report: Ethnography of Ancient India, p 43, Robert Shafer)
  34. ^ Pirart 1998:542; Linguistic aspects of the Aryan non-invasion theory, section 3.5. (Pre-IE substratum in Indo-Aryan: language X), Dr. Koenraad ELST, see link: http://koenraadelst.bharatvani.org/articles/aid/keaitlin1.html; Central Asiatic Provinces of Maurya Empire, p 403, Dr H. C. Seth; Ancient Kamboja, People and the Country, 1981, p 48-49, Dr J. L. Kamboj, Ancient Kamboja in Iran and Islam, p 66-70, Dr H. W. Bailey etc.
  35. ^ See: Alam-shahir, p 18; Kamboj Itihaas, 1971, H. S. Thind.
  36. ^ J. W. McCrindle, Ancient India, Trans & edited Dr R. C. Majumdar, 1927, p 275, 325; Central Asiatic Provinces of the Maurya Empire, p 403, Dr H. C. Seth; Ancient Kamboja, People and the Country, 1981, p 48-49, Dr J. L. Kamboj; The Kambojas Through the Ages, 2005, p 92, S Kirpal Singh.
  37. ^ Central Asiatic Provinces of the Maurya Empire, p 403, Dr H. C. Seth; Ancient Kamboja, People and the Country, 1981, p 48-49, Dr J. L. Kamboj; The Kambojas Through the Ages, 2005, p 92, S Kirpal Singh.
  38. ^ op cit., 1927, p 268, 278, Dr J. W. McCrindle, Dr R. C. Majumdar
  39. ^ op cit., 1927, p 284, McCrindle, Majumdar
  40. ^ H. C. Seth, P. C. Baghchi, Buddha Prakash, Dr J. L. Kamboj, S Kirpal Singh
  41. ^ Raghuvamsa 4.68-71.
  42. ^ Rajatarangini 4.163-165
  43. ^ See: Studies in Indian History and Civilization, Agra, p 351; India and the World, 1964, p 71, Dr Buddha Prakash; The Kambojas Through the Ages, 2005, pp 91-92, S Kirpal Singh ; On Kamboja-Kumuda and Komdei connection, see detailed discussion in Ancient Kamboja, People and the Country, 1981, pp 48-49, 155, 299-300, Dr J. L. Kamboj.
  44. ^ India as Known to Panini, p 70, Dr V. S. Aggarwala, The Kambojas Through the Ages, 2005, S. Kirpal Singh.
  45. ^ See: The Kambojas Through the Ages, 2005, pp 59, 92, 159, S Kipral Singh
  46. ^ Lohan. ParamaKambojan.Rishikanuttaranpi
  47. ^ Ancient Kamboja, in Iran and Islam, 1971, p 65, H. W. Bailey
  48. ^
    Kaambhoja.yavaneshen Vabhore.n vipatitah |
    tadaiva hastinapuryamebhrahemo nripeshavra || 223 ||
    (Raghu Nath Sinha, Shukarjatrangini tatha Rajatarangini Sangraha: p 110).
  49. ^ Dr Michael Witzel asserts that name Kamboja has also been transmitted as Ambautai by Ptolemy without the typical prefix K. Ptolemy (Geography 6.18.3) reports a section of people called Ambautai who were located on southern side of Paropamisus (Hindukush) towards Kabol valley. Dr Michael and some other scholars asserts that Ambaurai = (K)ambautai = Kamboja. It is also asserted that –tai in Ambautai is a Scythian suffix (Italo Ronca, Ostiran und Zentralasien bei Ptolemeios, Diss. Mainz 1968., p 121; cf also Bulitai]”; Hydronomy of Nepal, Dr Michael Witzel, p 40, fn 98.). The Ambautai here apparently refers to the cis- Hindukush branch of Kambojas if the interpretation of Dr Michael is to be believed. And Geography implies they were Scythians people. Thus the Kambojas lying on the southern side of Hindukush were also included in the Scythian category of Classical writers.
  50. ^ See link http://www.nectec.or.th/thai-yunnan/20.html#r49, Serge quotes the following references: Foucher, La vieille route de l'Inde, p. 271; Also - Rock Edict 13, 30 (See Bloch). Some one knowing French language needs to check these references quoted by Serge.

There are two famous persons named Pliny: Pliny the Elder, a Roman nobleman, scientist and historian who died in the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 79 AD The great-nephew of the former, Pliny the Younger, a statesman, orator, and writer who lived between 62 AD and 113 AD. This... The Hindu Kush or Hindukush (هندوکش in Persian) is a mountain range in Afghanistan as well as in the Northern Areas of Pakistan. ... A goldeneye can be: A duck belonging to the genus Bucephala, which includes Bucephala clangula, the Common Goldeneye Bucephala islandica, Barrows Goldeneye Bucephala albeola, Bufflehead These are small seaducks. ... The Jhelum River is the largest and most western of the five rivers of the Punjab province of Pakistan, and passes through Jhelum City. ... The battle of the Hydaspes River was a battle fought by Alexander the Great in 326 BC against the Indian king Purushotthama (better known as Porus) on the Hydaspes River (now the Jhelum) in present-day Pakistan. ... King Porus (also Raja Puru), was the King of Pauravaa, a Kingdom in Punjab located between the Jhelum and the Chenab (in Greek, the Hydaspes and the Acesines) rivers in the Punjab and dominions extending to Hyphasis[1]. Its capital may have been near the current city of Lahore [2... Punjab, 1903 Punjab Province, 1909 Punjab (Persian: ‎, meaning Land of the five Rivers) (c. ... Asii, Asio, Osii, Asiani etc is the name of a people, believed to be followers of Scythian culture, a section of whom had moved out from Alai valley during second century BCE under pressure from Ta Yuezhi, and in association with Pasiani and Sacarauloi (Sacae) tribes, they had wrested Sogdiana... Asii, Asio, Osii, Asiani etc is the name of a people, believed to be followers of Scythian culture, a section of whom had moved out from Alai valley during second century BCE under pressure from Ta Yuezhi, and in association with Pasiani and Sacarauloi (Sacae) tribes, they had wrested Sogdiana... For other uses, see Race (disambiguation). ... The Indus is a river; the Indus River. ... Etymology is the study of the origins of words. ... World map showing the location of Asia. ... The Ashvakas are very ancient people of north-east Afghanistan. ... The Ashvakas are very ancient people of north-east Afghanistan. ... Asii, Asio, Osii, Asiani etc is the name of a people, believed to be followers of Scythian culture, a section of whom had moved out from Alai valley during second century BCE under pressure from Ta Yuezhi, and in association with Pasiani and Sacarauloi (Sacae) tribes, they had wrested Sogdiana... The Greek geographer Strabo in a 16th century engraving. ... Scythia was an area in Eurasia inhabited in ancient times by an Indo-Aryans known as the Scythians. ... Scandinavia is a historical and geographical region centered on the Scandinavian Peninsula in Northern Europe which includes the three kingdoms of Denmark, Norway and Sweden. ... There are two famous persons named Pliny: Pliny the Elder, a Roman nobleman, scientist and historian who died in the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 79 AD The great-nephew of the former, Pliny the Younger, a statesman, orator, and writer who lived between 62 AD and 113 AD. This... The Ashvakas are very ancient people of north-east Afghanistan. ... The Ashvakas or Ashvakans are very ancient people of north-east Afghanistan (Nuristan), modern Pakistan, including the Chitral-Valley and north-west India . ... Scythia was an area in Eurasia inhabited in ancient times by an Indo-Aryans known as the Scythians. ... Communities of nomadic people move from place to place, rather than settling down in one location. ... Bactria, about 320 BC Bactria (Bactriana, Bākhtar in Persian, also Bhalika in Arabic and Indian languages, and Ta-Hia in Chinese) was the ancient Greek name of the country between the range of the Hindu Kush and the Amu Darya (Oxus); its capital, Bactra or Balhika or Bokhdi (now... Tokharistan is a name which was given to Bactria, following its settlement by various Central Asian people in the 2nd century BCE. The first literary mentions of Tokharistan appear at the end of the 4th century CE in Chinese Buddhist sources (the Vibhasa-sastra). ... Kalidasas Raghuvamsha tells of the family of Rama and his descendents, including the conqueror Raghu. ... The Sanskrit language ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Amu Darya (in Persian آمودریا; Darya means river in Persian) rises in the Pamirs and flows mainly north-west through the Hindu Kush, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan to join the Aral Sea in a large river delta. ... Billon drachm of the Hephthalite King Napki Malka (Afghanistan/ Gandhara, c. ... Monument to pilgrims in Burgos, Spain This article is on religious pilgrims. ... Xuanzang, Dunhuang cave, 9th century. ... Kashmir (or Cashmere) may refer to: Kashmir region, the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent India, Kashmir conflict, the territorial dispute between India, Pakistan, and the China over the Kashmir region. ... Rajtarangini (River of Kings), a book written in Sanskrit by Kalhana, contains an account of the life and history of Kashmir. ... Kalhana (c. ... The Amu Darya (in Persian آمودریا; Darya means river in Persian) rises in the Pamirs and flows mainly north-west through the Hindu Kush, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan to join the Aral Sea in a large river delta. ... A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by... 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Bactria, about 320 BC Bactria (Bactriana, Bākhtar in Persian, also Bhalika in Arabic and Indian languages, and Ta-Hia in Chinese) was the ancient Greek name of the country between the range of the Hindu Kush and the Amu Darya (Oxus); its capital, Bactra or Balhika or Bokhdi (now... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Kambojas are a very ancient Kshatriya tribe of the north-western parts of the Indian subcontinent and what is now Afghanistan, frequently mentioned in ancient texts, although not in the Rig Veda. ... ... Indo-Iranian can refer to: The Indo-Iranian languages The prehistoric Indo-Iranian people, see Aryan This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Aryan (/eÉ™rjÉ™n/ or /ɑːrjÉ™n/, Sanskrit: ) is a Sanskrit and Avestan word meaning noble/spiritual one. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... Michael E. J. Witzel (born 1943) is Wales Professor of Sanskrit and Chair of the Committee on South Asian Studies at Harvard University. ... Kamboja (Sanskrit: कम्बोज) was the ancient name of a country, and the Indo-Iranian Kshatriya tribe, the Kambojas, settled therein. ... A medieval artists rendition of Claudius Ptolemaeus Claudius Ptolemaeus (Greek: ; ca. ... The Paropamisadae, also called Paropamisus, is an ancient area of the Hindu-Kush, in the Eastern part of Afghanistan. ... The Hindu Kush or Hindukush (هندوکش in Persian) is a mountain range in Afghanistan as well as in the Northern Areas of Pakistan. ... Kabul (Kâbl, in Persian کابل) is the capital and largest city of Afghanistan with a population variously estimated at 2 to 4 million. ...

Books and Articles

  • Bailey, H. W. 1958. "Languages of the Saka." Handbuch der Orientalistik, I. Abt., 4. Bd., I. Absch., Leiden-Köln. 1958.
  • Davis-Kimball, Jeannine. 2002. Warrior Women: An Archaeologist's Search for History's Hidden Heroines. Warner Books, New York. 1st Trade printing, 2003. ISBN 0-446-67983-6 (pbk).
  • Bulletin of the Asia Institute: The Archaeology and Art of Central Asia. Studies From the Former Soviet Union. New Series. Edited by B. A. Litvinskii and Carol Altman Bromberg. Translation directed by Mary Fleming Zirin. Vol. 8, (1994), pp. 37-46.
  • Hill, John E. 2004. The Western Regions according to the Hou Hanshu. Draft annotated English translation.[1]
  • Hill, John E. 2004. The Peoples of the West from the Weilue 魏略 by Yu Huan 魚豢: A Third Century Chinese Account Composed between 239 and 265 CE. Draft annotated English translation. [2]
  • Pulleyblank, Edwin G. 1970. "The Wu-sun and Sakas and the Yüeh-chih Migration." Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 33 (1970), pp. 154-160.
  • Puri, B. N. 1994. "The Sakas and Indo-Parthians." In: History of civilizations of Central Asia, Volume II. The development of sedentary and nomadic civilizations: 700 B.C. to A.D. 250. Harmatta, János, ed., 1994. Paris: UNESCO Publishing, pp. 191-207.
  • Thomas, F. W. 1906. "Sakastana." Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society (1906), pp. 181-216.
  • Yu, Taishan. 1998. A Study of Saka History. Sino-Platonic Papers No. 80. July, 1998. Dept. of Asian and Middle Eastern Studies, University of Pennsylvania.
  • Yu, Taishan. 2000. A Hypothesis about the Source of the Sai Tribes. Sino-Platonic Papers No. 106. September, 2000. Dept. of Asian and Middle Eastern Studies, University of Pennsylvania.

External links


Provinces of the Achaemenid Empire (Behistun and Daiva inscriptions)
Persia | Elam | Babylonia | Media | Sacae | Yauna | Macedon | Pamphylia | Paphlagonia | Cappadocia | Caria | Lydia | Thrace | Armenia | Cilicia | Taxila | Egypt | Gandara | Sattagydia | Gedrosia | Carmania | Maka | Drangiana | Arachosia | Bactria | Parthia | Aria | Chorasmia | Sogdia | Kush | Arabia | Hyrcania | Margu | Dahae | Libya | Eber-Nari
By district (Herodotus)
District I | District II | District III | District IV | District V | District VI | District VII | District VIII | District IX | District X | District XI | District XII | District XIII | District XIV | District XV | District XVI | District XVII | District XVIII | District XIX | District XX
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  Results from FactBites:
 
Saka - definition of Saka in Encyclopedia (264 words)
According to some, then, this Saka race with an affiliated tribe under a different name emigrated to northern Europe, into the area of the Baltic Sea (Sakas are considered to be the ancestors of Scythians by many scholars).
This Saka race and especially their affiliated tribe whose name is more correlated to the word Saxon, gave rise (supposedly) to the Saxons tribe in the area of present day Germany.
The Sakas were also one of several tribes that conquered India from the northwest.
Saka - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2346 words)
Mainstream historians and linguists consider Sakas as speakers of northern sub-branch of the Iranian branch of the Indo-Iranian family of the Indo-European languages.
The Saka Era is used by the Indian national calendar, a few other Hindu calendars, and the Cambodian Buddhist calendar—its year zero begins near the vernal equinox of 78.
Paul Pezon supports this theory, claiming that the Saka Scythians and the seemingly related Cimmerians were ultimately ancestors to the Celts and Germans, and that the Germans fled the Baltic area when it was flooded by the rising sea level after the Ice age.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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