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Encyclopedia > Saint Zephyrinus
Zephyrinus
Birth name Zephyrinus
Papacy began 199
Papacy ended December 20, 217
Predecessor Victor I
Successor Callixtus I
Born  ???
Rome, Italy
Died December 20, 217
Rome, Italy
Styles of
Pope Zephyrinus
Reference style His Holiness
Spoken style Your Holiness
Religious style Holy Father
Posthumous style Saint

Pope Saint Zephyrinus was pope from 199 to 217. Image File history File links Saintz05. ... Events Pope Zephyrinus succeeds Pope Victor I Geodeung succeeds Suro as king of the Korean kingdom of Gaya. ... is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Macrinus becomes Roman Emperor on the death of Caracalla. ... Pope Saint Victor I was an African Bishop of Rome (controversially called Pope) from 189 to 199 (the Vatican cites 186 or 189 to 197 or 201). ... Callixtus I (also Callistus I) was pope from about 217 to 222, during the reigns of the Roman Emperors Elagabalus and Alexander Severus. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Macrinus becomes Roman Emperor on the death of Caracalla. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Emblem_of_the_Papacy. ... A style of office, or honorific, is a form of address which by tradition or law precedes a reference to a person who holds a title or post, or to the political office itself. ... For other uses, see Saint (disambiguation). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Pope (from Latin... Events Pope Zephyrinus succeeds Pope Victor I Geodeung succeeds Suro as king of the Korean kingdom of Gaya. ... Events Macrinus becomes Roman Emperor on the death of Caracalla. ...


He was a Roman who had ruled as head bishop for close to 20 years, and was elected to the Papacy upon the death of the previous pope, Victor. Zephyrinus was succeeded, upon his death on December 20, 217, by his principal advisor, Callixtus. In the Roman Republic and later in the Roman Empire, all men could be very roughly divided into three classes. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      This article... Pope Saint Victor I was an African Bishop of Rome (controversially called Pope) from 189 to 199 (the Vatican cites 186 or 189 to 197 or 201). ... is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Callixtus I (also Callistus I) was pope from about 217 to 222, during the reigns of the Roman Emperors Elagabalus and Alexander Severus. ...

Contents

Papacy

Decrees

Zephyrinus decreed that sinners who had been excommunicated could be received back into the Church after completing a penance prescribed by Church officials.


He also decreed that the Holy Communion only be received by those 14 and older, a rule which remained unchanged until Pope Pius X lowered it to seven years of age, which he had called "the age of reason". Pope St. ...


Conflicts

Under the papal rule of Zephyrinus, the persecution of Christians by the Roman government worsened markedly. Some of this is tied to the fact that three years into his rule, in the year 203, the Roman Emperor Septimius Severus held a celebration to mark his tenth anniversary as emperor. Christians did not attend the event. Later in the year, Septimus Severus issued an edict which forbade conversion to Christianity under the severest penalties. This was part of an effort by Septimus to create a single Roman religion. Events Roman Emperor Septimius Severus rebuilds Byzantium. ... Lucius Septimius Severus (b. ...


A second major incident during the rule of Zephyrinus led to the first major division of the Church. The Monarchianism movement, a movement which had been declared heretical by the Church, was growing rapidly. In response to this, Zephyrinus did little. He denounced the Monarchaists on the advice of Callixtus, but took no other action. The renowned theologian Hippolytus heavily criticised him, accusing him of favouring the Christological heresies of the Monarchians, and, of subverting the discipline of the Church by receiving sinners back into the Church who had been found guilty of grave sins. He also claimed that Zephyrinus was too heavily influenced by his advisor. Hippolytus wanted the pope to issue a decree which condemned the heretical beliefs of the Monarchians and Patripassians, and created distinct dogma which represented the Person of Christ as actually different from that of the Father. [1] Upon the death of the pope, and the election of Callixtus, Hippolytus and a number of his scholars left the Church, and the Church entered into its first division. For over ten years Hippolytus, stood at the head of a separate congregation, possibly as bishop, and is sometimes considered the first Antipope. Monarchianism, or Monarchism as it is sometimes called, is a set of beliefs that emphasize God as being one, that God is the single and only ruler. ... Heresy, according to the Oxford English Dictionary, is a theological or religious opinion or doctrine maintained in opposition, or held to be contrary, to the ‘catholic’ or orthodox doctrine of the Christian Church, or, by extension, to that of any church, creed, or religious system, considered as orthodox. ... Pope Callixtus I (also Callistus I) was pope for a period of five years, from about 217 to about 222, during the reigns of the Roman Emperors Elagabalus and Alexander Severus. ... Statue of Hippolytus, 3rd century. ... Heresy, according to the Oxford English Dictionary, is a theological or religious opinion or doctrine maintained in opposition, or held to be contrary, to the ‘catholic’ or orthodox doctrine of the Christian Church, or, by extension, to that of any church, creed, or religious system, considered as orthodox. ... Monarchianism, or Monarchism as it is sometimes called, is a set of beliefs that emphasize God as being one, that God is the single and only ruler. ...


Antipope Natalius[1], who was the bishop of a rival sect of Christianity in Rome, supposedly tearfully submitted to Pope Zephyrinus, covered in ash, dressed in sackcloth, after being "scourged all night by the holy angels". For the book by Robert Rankin, see The Antipope. ... Hairshirt is also a 1998 movie. ... A scourge (from the Italian scoriada, ultimately from the Latin excoriare = to flay and corium = skin) is a whip or lash, especially a multi-tong type used in order to inflict severe corporal punishment or self-mortification on the back. ...


The feast of Pope Zephyrinus is held on August 26. is the 238th day of the year (239th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


References

  • Catholic Encyclopedia: "Pope St. Zephyrinus" (1913)
  • Rendina, Claudio, The Popes Histories and Secrets (2002)

See also

Wikisource has an original article from the 1913 Catholic Encyclopedia about:
Pope Saint Zephyrinus
Saints Portal
Catholic Church titles
Preceded by
Victor I
Bishop of Rome
Pope

199–217
Succeeded by
Callixtus I

  Results from FactBites:
 
CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Pope St. Zephyrinus (943 words)
This is evidently to be understood as meaning that Zephyrinus had not taken the higher studies and had devoted himself to the practical administration of the Church and not to theological learning.
Pope Zephyrinus did not interpose authoritatively in the dispute between the two schools.
Zephyrinus said simply that he acknowledged only one God, and this was the Lord Jesus Christ, but it was the Son, not the Father, Who had died.
Pope St. Zephyrinus (1030 words)
The result was that Hippolytus grew constantly more irritated and angry against he pope and particularly against the deacon Callistus whom, as the councillor of the pope, he made responsible for the position of the latter.
When after the death of Zephyrinus Callistus was elected Roman bishop, Hippolytus withdrew from the Church with his scholars, caused a schism, and made himself a rival bishop.
Zephyrinus was buried in a separate sepulchral chamber over the cemetery of Calistus on the Via Appia (cf.
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