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Encyclopedia > Saint Valentine
Saint Valentine

Saint Valentine of Terni oversees the construction of his basilica at Terni, from a 14th century French manuscript (BN, Mss fr. 185)
Bishop and Martyr
Born unknown
Died ca. 269[1]
Venerated in Roman Catholic Church
Eastern Orthodox Church
Lutheran Church - Missouri Synod
Feast 14 February
Attributes birds; roses; bishop with a crippled or epileptic child at his feet; bishop with a rooster nearby; bishop refusing to adore an idol; bishop being beheaded; priest bearing a sword; priest holding a sun; priest giving sight to a blind girl[1]
Patronage affianced couples, against fainting, bee keepers, greeting card manufacturers, happy marriages, love, plague, travellers, young people[1]
Saints Portal

Saint Valentine (also Valentinus) refers to one of several martyred saints of ancient Rome. The feast of Saint Valentine was formerly celebrated on February 14 by the Roman Catholic Church until a revised calendar was issued in 1969, pursuant to the Second Vatican Council.[2] His feast day is July 30 in the Eastern Orthodox Church. Image File history File linksMetadata Valentineanddisciples. ... St. ... Terni, (Latin: Interamna Nahars) an ancient town of Italy, capital of Terni province in southern Umbria, 42°33N, 12°39E, at 130 meters (427 ft) above sea-level in the plain of the Nera river. ... This 14th-century statue from south India depicts the gods Shiva (on the left) and Uma (on the right). ... The new buildings of the library. ... Events Felix I is elected pope. ... The Roman Catholic Church or Catholic Church (see terminology below) is the Christian church in full communion with the Bishop of Rome, currently Pope Benedict XVI. It traces its origins to the original Christian community founded by Jesus Christ and led by the Twelve Apostles, in particular Saint Peter. ... The Eastern Orthodox Church is a Christian body that views itself as: the historical continuation of the original Christian community established by Jesus Christ and the Twelve Apostles, having maintained unbroken the link between its clergy and the Apostles by means of Apostolic Succession. ... LCMS redirects here. ... The calendar of saints is a traditional Christian method of organising a liturgical year on the level of days by associating each day with one or more saints, and referring to the day as that saints day. ... February 14 is the 45th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Saint symbology was important to people who couldnt read because they can figure out what symbols mean. ... “Aves” redirects here. ... Species Between 100 and 150, see list Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Rosa A rose is a flowering shrub of the genus Rosa, and the flower of this shrub. ... This article is about a title or office in religious bodies. ... See also: Handicap (competition) Handicapped is an adjective used to refer to a person or animal who is partially disabled or unable to use a limb or limbs. ... Epileptic redirects here. ... A rooster or cock is a male chicken, (Gallus gallus) the female being a hen. ... Idolatry is a major sin in the Abrahamic religions regarding image. ... Decapitation (from Latin, caput, capitis, meaning head), or beheading, is the removal of a living organisms head. ... . ... Swiss longsword, 15th or 16th century Look up Sword in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System. ... Blind can refer to: Look up blind on Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Saint Quentin is the patron saint of locksmiths and is also invoked against coughs and sneezes. ... An engagement is an agreement to marry, and also refers to the time between proposal and marriage. ... Fainting (IPA: or ) is a sudden (and generally momentary) loss of consciousness, or blacking out due to the Central Ischaemic Response, because of a lack of sufficient blood and oxygen reaching the brain. ... It has been suggested that Honey flow be merged into this article or section. ... Greeting cards on display at retail. ... This article or section needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling. ... Love is any of a number of emotions and experiences related to a sense of strong affection or profound oneness. ... Bubonic plague is the best-known variant of the deadly infectious disease, plague, which is caused by the enterobacteria Yersinia pestis. ... Statue dedicated to the traveller. ... For other uses, see Youth (disambiguation) Youth is defined by Websters New World Dictionary as, The time of life when one is young; especially: a: the period between childhood and maturity b: the early period of existence, growth, or development. ... Image File history File links Gloriole. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... In traditional Christian iconography, Saints are often depicted as having halos. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... February 14 is the 45th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Roman Catholic Church or Catholic Church (see terminology below) is the Christian church in full communion with the Bishop of Rome, currently Pope Benedict XVI. It traces its origins to the original Christian community founded by Jesus Christ and led by the Twelve Apostles, in particular Saint Peter. ... For the Stargate SG-1 episode, see 1969 (Stargate SG-1). ... The Second Ecumenical Council of the Vatican, or Vatican II, was an Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church opened under Pope John XXIII in 1962 and closed under Pope Paul VI in 1965. ... The Eastern Orthodox Church is a Christian body that views itself as: the historical continuation of the original Christian community established by Jesus Christ and the Twelve Apostles, having maintained unbroken the link between its clergy and the Apostles by means of Apostolic Succession. ...


His birth date and birthplace are unknown. Valentine's name does not occur in the earliest list of Roman martyrs, which was compiled by the Chronographer of 354. A martyrology is a catalogue or list of martyrs (or, more precisely, of saints), arranged in the calendar order of their anniversaries or feasts. ... Events Gallus deposed, executed at Antioch. ...


The feast of St. Valentine was first decreed in 496 by Pope Gelasius I, who included Valentine among those "... whose names are justly reverenced among men, but whose acts are known only to God." As Gelasius implied, nothing is known about the lives of any of these martyrs. Gelasius I was Pope (492 - 496). ...


According to the Catholic Encyclopedia, the saint whose feast was celebrated on the day now known as St. Valentine's Day was possibly one of three martyred men named Valentinus[3] who lived in the late third century, during the reign of Emperor Claudius II (died 270): The Catholic Encyclopedia, also referred to today as the Old Catholic Encyclopedia, is an English-language encyclopedia published in 1913 by The Encyclopedia Press. ... St. ... Claudius Gothicus on a coin celebrating his equity (AEQUITAS AUGUSTI). ...

Various dates are given for their martyrdoms: 269, 270, or 273.[4] The name was a popular one in late antiquity and is derived from valens,(worthy).[5] Several emperors and a pope bore the name,[6] not to mention a powerful gnostic teacher of the second century, Valentinius, for a time drawing a threateningly large following. . ... Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5... This article is about a title or office in religious bodies. ... Terni, (Latin: Interamna Nahars) an ancient town of Italy, capital of Terni province in southern Umbria, 42°33N, 12°39E, at 130 meters (427 ft) above sea-level in the plain of the Nera river. ... Valentinus, or Valentine, pope for thirty or forty days in 827, was a Roman by birth, and, according to the Liber Pontificalis, was first made a deacon by Paschal I (817-824). ... -Quevedo Valentinius, also called Valentinus (c. ...


That the creation of the feast for such dimly conceived figures may have been an attempt to supersede the pagan holiday of Lupercalia that was still being celebrated in fifth-century Rome, on February 15 is apparently a figment of the English eighteenth-century antiquarian Alban Butler, embellished by Francis Douce, as Jack Oruch conclusively demonstrated in 1981.[7] Many of the current legends that characterise Saint Valentine were invented in the fourteenth century in England, notably by Geoffrey Chaucer and his circle, when the feast day of February 14 first became associated with romantic love. The Lupercalia was an annual very ancient, possibly pre-Roman pastoral festival, held on February 15 to honour Faunus, god of fertility and forests. ... February 15 is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Alban Butler (October 24 NS, 1710 - St-Omer, France May 15, 1773), English Roman Catholic priest and hagiographer, was born at Appletree Northamptonshire. ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem God Save the King (Queen) England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto) Government Constitutional monarchy  -  Queen Queen Elizabeth II  -  Prime Minister Tony Blair MP Unification  -  by Athelstan 967  Area... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... February 14 is the 45th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Romantic love is a form of love that is often regarded as different from mere needs driven by sexual desire, or lust. ...

Contents

Earliest church dedications

It is believed that the priest of Rome and the bishop Valentinus are each buried along the Via Flaminia outside Rome, at different distances from the city. Their calendar days of martyrdom have been made to coincide.[8] In the Middle Ages, two Roman churches were dedicated to Saint Valentinus. One was the tenth-century church Sancti Valentini de Balneo Miccine or de Piscina, which was rededicated by Pope Urban III in 1186. The other, on the Via Flaminia, was the ancient basilica S. Valentini extra Portam founded by Pope Julius I (337‑352), though not under this dedication.[9] Though the basilica is quae apellantur Valentini, "which is called of Valentinus", early basilicas were as often called by the name of their former patron as by the saint to whom they were dedicated: see titulus. The Via Flaminia was a Roman road leading from Rome to Ariminum (Rimini), and was the most important route to the north. ... Julius I, pope from 337 to 352, was a native of Rome and was chosen as successor of Marcus after the Roman see had been vacant four months. ... Titulus of Pyramus, the cubicularius Lucius Vitellius the elder Titulus (Latin title) describes the conventional inscriptions on stone that listed the honours of an individual [1] or that identified boundaries in the Roman Empire, or that identified the subsections in, for example, Justinians Pandects. ...


This, the earlier and by far more important of the churches, is dedicated to the less prominent of the two saints, Valentinus, presbyter of Rome;[10] this was the Basilica S. Valentini extra Portam, the "Basilica of Saint Valentinus beyond the Gate" which was situated beyond the Porta Flaminia (the Porta del Popolo, which was the Porta S. Valentini when William of Malmesbury visited Rome). It stood on the right hand side at the second milestone on the Via Flaminia.[11] It had its origins in a funerary chapel on the site of a catacombs, which Liber Pontificalis attributes to a foundation by Pope Julius I, who served 337-352: the dedications of two basilicas dedicated by Julius are not specified in Liber Pontificalis, however. It was restored or largely rebuilt by Pope Theodore (642‑649) and Leo III (795‑816), enriched with an altar cloth by Benedict II (683‑685) and by gifts of Pope Hadrian I (772‑795), Leo III and Gregory IV (827‑844), so that it had become ecclesia mirifice ornata., "a church marvelously enriched". The monastery of San Silverstro in Capite was annexed to it, and in the surviving epitome of a lost catalogue of the churches of Rome, compiled by Giraldus Cambrense about 1200, it was hospitale S. Valentini extra urbem, the "hospital of Saint Valentinus outside the city". But in the thirteenth century the martyr's relics were transferred to San Prassede, and the ancient basilica decayed: in Signorili's catalogue, made about 1425 it was Ecclesia sancti Valentini extra portam sine muris non habet sacerdotem, "the church of Saint Valentinus beyond the gate without [enclosing] walls, has no priest".[12] The Piazza del Popolo, looking west from the Pincio. ... William of Malmesbury (c. ... The Via Flaminia was a Roman road leading from Rome to Ariminum (Rimini), and was the most important route to the north. ... The word catacomb comes from Greek kata kumbas (L. ad catacumbas), near the low place and originally it meant a certain burial district in Rome. ... The Book of the Popes or the Liber Pontificalis is a major source for early medieval history but was also met with intense critical scrutiny. ... Julius I, pope from 337 to 352, was a native of Rome and was chosen as successor of Marcus after the Roman see had been vacant four months. ... Pope Theodore could refer to: Pope Theodore I Pope Theodore II Categories: | ... Leo III (died June 12, 816) was Pope from 795 to 816. ... Pope Benedict II was pope from 684 to 685. ... Charlemagne comes to the aid of Pope Adrian I Adrian, or Hadrian I, (died December 25, 795) was pope from 772 to 795. ... Leo III (died June 12, 816) was Pope from 795 to 816. ... Gregory IV, pope (827-844), was chosen to succeed Valentinus in December 827, on which occasion he recognized the supremacy of the Frankish emperor Louis the Pious in the most unequivocal manner. ...


In the catacombs connected with the basilica of Valentinus, outside the Porta del Popolo, nineteenth-century excavations unearthed two hundred Christian inscriptions.[13] Lanciani reported, from the chronicle of the monastery of S. Michael ad Mosam, an account of a pilgrim of the eleventh century who obtained relics of saints "'from the keeper of a certain cemetery, in which lamps are always burning.'" He refers to the basilica of S. Valentine and the small hypogaeum attached to it (discovered in 1887)"[14] Catacombs Paris Catacombs Rome - entrance Catacombs Rome - entrance (detail) The original catacombs are a network of underground burial galleries near San Sebastiano fuori le mura, in Rome. ... The Holy of Holies, Hypogeum, Malta The Hypogeum in Hal-Saflieni, Paola, Malta, is an subterranean structure excavated c. ...


The earliest written Acta for Saint Valentinus were written in the sixth or seventh century, when the hagiographical genre was well established, with pious accounts of magic and torture shared among many texts and applied to many martyr-saints. The longer of the two is that written of the martyr Valentinus of Terni and his magical cure, through faith alone, of a crippled child. Bede, in the eighth century, knew of both hagiographies and included rescripts of both under 14 February in his martyrology.[15] Look up Acta in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Hagiography is the study of saints. ... Bede (IPA: ) (also Saint Bede, the Venerable Bede, or (from Latin) Beda (IPA: )), (ca. ...


In the Golden Legend

The Legenda Aurea of Jacobus de Voragine, compiled about 1260 and one of the most-read books of the High Middle Ages, gives sufficient details of the saints and for each day of the liturgical year to inspire a homily on each occasion. The very brief vita of St Valentine has him refusing to deny Christ before the "Emperor Claudius"[16] in the year 280. Before his head was cut off, this Valentine restored sight and hearing to the daughter of his jailer. Jacobus makes a play with the etymology of "Valentine", "as containing valour". The Golden Legend by Jacobus de Voragine is a collection of fanciful hagiographies, lives of the saints, that became a late mediæval best seller. ... Jacobus de Voragine (c. ...


The Legenda Aurea does not contain anything about hearts and last notes signed "from your Valentine", as is sometimes suggested in modern works of sentimental piety [1]. Many of the current legends surrounding them appear in the late Middle Ages in France and England, when the feast day of February 14 became associated with romantic love. The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem God Save the King (Queen) England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto) Government Constitutional monarchy  -  Queen Queen Elizabeth II  -  Prime Minister Tony Blair MP Unification  -  by Athelstan 967  Area... February 14 is the 45th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Romantic love is a form of love that is often regarded as different from mere needs driven by sexual desire, or lust. ...


Feasts and relics

St. Valentine's Day

For more details on this topic, see Valentine's Day.

Until 1969, the Catholic Church formally recognized a total of eleven Valentine's days. Besides February 14, these include January 7, May 2, July 16, August 31, September 2, October 25, November 1 and November 3, November 11, November 13, and December 16. Valentin Faustino Berri Ochoa, whose saint's day is November 1, lived in the nineteenth century. The Orthodox Church recognizes a somewhat different list of Valentine's days[2]. Saint Valentines Day or Valentines Day is on February 14. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Jack Oruch has made a well-supported case[17] that the traditions associated with "Valentine's Day", well-documented in Geoffrey Chaucer's Parliament of Foules, and generally set in a supposed context of an old tradition, in fact had no such tradition before Chaucer. The speculative explanation of sentimental customs, posing as historical fact, had their origins among eighteenth-century antiquaries, notably Alban Butler, the author of Butler's Lives of Saints, and have been perpetuated even by respectable modern scholars. Most notably, "the idea that Valentine's Day customs perpetuated those of the Roman Lupercalia has been accepted uncritically and repeated, in various forms, up to the present."[18] In the French fourteenth-century manuscript illumination from a a Vies des Saints[19] (illustration above), Saint Valentine, bishop of Terni, oversees the construction of his basilica at Terni; there is no suggestion here yet that the bishop was a patron of lovers. This article does not cite its references or sources. ... An antiquarian is one concerned with antiquities or things of the past. ... Alban Butler (October 24 NS, 1710 - St-Omer, France May 15, 1773), English Roman Catholic priest and hagiographer, was born at Appletree Northamptonshire. ... The Lupercalia was an annual very ancient, possibly pre-Roman pastoral festival, held on February 15 to honour Faunus, god of fertility and forests. ... Terni, (Latin: Interamna Nahars) an ancient town of Italy, capital of Terni province in southern Umbria, 42°33N, 12°39E, at 130 meters (427 ft) above sea-level in the plain of the Nera river. ...


In 1836, relics that were exhumed from the catacombs of Saint Hippolytus on the Via Tiburtina, then near Rome, were identified with St Valentine; placed in a gilded casket, they were transported to the Whitefriar Street Carmelite Church in Dublin, Ireland, to which they were donated by Pope Gregory XVI. Many tourists visit the saintly remains on St. Valentine's Day, when the casket is carried in solemn procession to the high altar for a special Mass dedicated to young people and all those in love. Alleged relics of St Valentine also lie at the reliquary of Roquemaure in France, in the Stephansdom in Vienna and also in Blessed St. John Duns Scotus church in the Gorbals area of Glasgow, Scotland.[20] A relic is an object, especially a piece of the body or a personal item of someone of religious significance, carefully preserved with an air of veneration as a tangible memorial, Relics are an important aspect of Buddhism, some denominations of Christianity, Hinduism, shamanism, and many other personal belief systems. ... Catacombs Paris Catacombs Rome - entrance Catacombs Rome - entrance (detail) The original catacombs are a network of underground burial galleries near San Sebastiano fuori le mura, in Rome. ... Via Tiburtina, an ancient road of Italy, leading east northeast from Rome to Tibur, a distance of about 18 miles. ... The Whitefriar Street Carmelite Church is a church in Dublin, Ireland maintained by the Carmelite order. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: 53. ... Pope Gregory XVI (September 18, 1765 – June 1, 1846), born Bartolomeo Alberto Cappellari, named Mauro as a member of the religious order of the Camaldolese, was Pope of the Roman Catholic Church from 1831 to 1846. ... Roquemaure is a commune located in southeastern France, in the département of Gard. ... // The Stephansdom (Cathedral of Saint Stephen), in Vienna, Austria, is the seat of a Roman Catholic Archbishop, a beloved symbol of Vienna, and the site of many important events in Austrias national life. ... Vienna (German: , see also other names) is the capital of Austria, and also one of the nine States of Austria. ... The Gorbals is a predominantly working-class area on the south bank of the river Clyde in the city of Glasgow, Scotland. ... Motto (Latin) No one provokes me with impunity Cha togar mfhearg gun dioladh (Scottish Gaelic)1 Wha daur meddle wi me?(Scots)1 Anthem (Multiple unofficial anthems) Scotlands location in Europe Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow Official languages English, Gaelic, Scots Government Constitutional monarchy  -  Queen Queen Elizabeth II...


The saint's feast day was removed from the Church calendar in 1969 as part of a broader effort to remove saints viewed by some as being of purely legendary origin.[citation needed] The feast day is still celebrated within the Church on local calendars such as in Balzan and in Malta where relics of the saint are claimed to be found, and also throughout the world by Traditionalist Catholics who follow the older, pre-Vatican II calendar. Prior to the creation of the new calendar, the church in Rome that had been dedicated to him observed his feast day by, among other things, displaying his reputed skull surrounded by roses. For the Stargate SG-1 episode, see 1969 (Stargate SG-1). ... Look up Legend in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For the international Balzan prize and its donator, Eugenio Balzan, see Balzan Prize Balzan (or Ħal Balzan) is the name of a small village found towards the centre of the Maltese Islands in the Mediterranean sea. ... Traditionalist Catholic and Traditional Catholic are broad terms used to denote Roman Catholics who reject some or all of the reforms that were instituted after the Second Vatican Council, in particular the revised rite of Mass, which was promulgated in 1969 by Pope Paul VI as part of the process... The Second Vatican Council, or Vatican II, was an Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church opened under Pope John XXIII in 1962 and closed under Pope Paul VI in 1965. ...


The canonized bishop of Terni continues to be celebrated by the Eastern Orthodox Church on July 6. The Eastern Orthodox Church is a Christian body that views itself as: the historical continuation of the original Christian community established by Jesus Christ and the Twelve Apostles, having maintained unbroken the link between its clergy and the Apostles by means of Apostolic Succession. ... July 6 is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 178 days remaining. ...


See also

Saint Valentines Day or Valentines Day is on February 14. ... La Fête du Baiser is a well-known kissing festival, celebrated the Saturday after St. ...

Notes

  1. ^ a b c Jones, Terry. Valentine of Rome. Patron Saints Index. Retrieved on 2007-02-14.
  2. ^ "In 1969 the Vatican cast a critical eye on more than 40 saints and dropped them from the official catalog, or liturgical calendar. Removed were such well-known saints as Saint Christopher... and Saint Valentine." Lo Bello, Nino (1998). The Incredible Book of Vatican Facts and Papal Curiosities. New York: Barnes and Noble Books, 195. 
  3. ^ Valentine, Catholic Encyclopedia
  4. ^ Jack Oruch, "St. Valentine, Chaucer, and Spring in February", Speculum 56.3 (July 1981 pp 534-565) p 535.
  5. ^ IOL, article dated February 09 2001
  6. ^ Oruch 1981:535.
  7. ^ Jack Oruch identified the inception of this fabled connection in Butler's Lives of the... Saints, 1756, and Douce's Illustrations of Shakespeare, and of Ancient Manner. See Oruch, "St. Valentine, Chaucer, and Spring in February", Speculum 56.3 (July 1981), pp 534-565.
  8. ^ René Aigrain, Hagiographie: Ses sources, ses méthodes, son histoire, (Paris 1953, pp 268-69; Agostino S. Amore, "S. Valentino di Roma o di Terni?", Antonianum 41.(1966), pp 260-77.
  9. ^ Christian Hülsen, Chiese di Roma nel Medio Evo (Florence: Olschki, (On-line text).
  10. ^ He figures only in the account of the martyrdom of Marius and Martha and their company, Passio SS. Marii, Marthae et socc. §§ 6-10, 15. (University of Manchester).
  11. ^ The later church also dedicated to a Valentinus— the more prominent bishop of Terni, the only Valentinus mentioned in Martyrologium Hieronymianum— was further along, at milestone 64 (Encyclopaedia Britannica 1911; Handlist of Roman martyrs).
  12. ^ Christian Hülsen, Le Chiese di Roma nel Medio Evo (Florence: Olschki) 1927. (on-line text).
  13. ^ Rodolfo Lanciani, Pagan and Christian Rome (English translation, 1892 ([outside the Porta del Popolo On-line text])
  14. ^ R. Lanciani, op. cit.
  15. ^ Oruch 1981:538.
  16. ^ Under the circumstances, the "Emperor Claudius" was a detail meant to enhance verisimilitude. Attempts to identify him with the only third-century Claudius, Claudius Gothicus, who spent his brief reign (268-270) away from Rome winning his cognomen, are illusions in pursuit of a literary phantom: "No evidence outside several late saints' legends suggests that Claudius II reversed the policy of toleration established by the policy of his predecessor Gallienus", Jack Oruch states, in "St. Valentine, Chaucer, and Spring in February", Speculum 56.3 (July 1981),p 536, referencing William H.C. Frend, Martyrdom and Persecution in the Early Church (New York, 1967, p 326.
  17. ^ Oruch 1981:534-565.
  18. ^ Oruch 1981:539.
  19. ^ BN, Mss fr. 185. The book of Lives of the Saints, with illuminations by Richard de Montbaston and collaborators, was among the manuscripts that Cardinal Richelieu bequeathed to the King of France. (Further illuminations on-line.)
  20. ^ "Irish Historical Mysteries: St. Valentine in Dublin".

2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the CE era. ... February 14 is the 45th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The so-called Martyrologium Hieronymianum, the martyrology of Jerome, was the most widely used and influential of the medieval lists of martyrs. ... Marcus Aurelius Claudius Gothicus (May 10, 213/214 - January, 270) , more often referred to as Claudius II, ruled the Roman Empire for less than two years (268 - 270), but during that brief time, he was so successful and beloved by the people of Rome that he attained divine status. ... The cognomen (name known by in English) was originally the third name of a Roman in the Roman naming convention. ... Gallienus depicted on a lead seal Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus (218-268) ruled the Roman Empire as co-emperor with his father Valerian from 253 to 260, and then as the sole Roman Emperor from 260 to 268. ... The new buildings of the library. ... An illuminated manuscript is a manuscript, often of a religious nature, in which the text is supplemented by the addition of colourful ornamentation, such as decorated initials, borders and the like. ... Cardinal Richelieu was the French chief minister from 1624 until his death. ...

References


  Results from FactBites:
 
Saint Valentine - definition of Saint Valentine in Encyclopedia (336 words)
Saint Valentine or Saint Valentinus refers to one of a number of martyred saints who lived in Ancient Rome.
The feast of Saint Valentine was formally celebrated on February 14 by the Roman Catholic Church until 1969.
The saint's feast day was removed from the Church calendar in 1969 as part of a broader effort to remove saints of possibly legendary origin.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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