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Encyclopedia > Saint Thomas Christians

This article deals with Saint Thomas Christians and the various churches and denominations that form the Nasrani people The Syrian Kuriz also known as Nasrani Menorah or the Mar Thoma sliva The Syrian Malabar Nasrani people are an ethnic group from Kerala, South India. ...

The Persian Cross [1] Syrian Kurishu also known as Nasrani Menorah [2] or the Mar Thoma sleeba or as St. Thomas Cross
The Persian Cross [1] Syrian Kurishu also known as Nasrani Menorah [2] or the Mar Thoma sleeba or as St. Thomas Cross
Part of a series on
Christianity
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Background

Christianity
Malankara Church
Syrian Malabar Nasrani
Saint Thomas Christians
Holy Apostolic Throne of St. Thomas
Malankara Metropolitans
Knanaya
Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3072x2304, 2082 KB) One of the Crosses which Apostle Thomas is believed to have erected in Kerala. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3072x2304, 2082 KB) One of the Crosses which Apostle Thomas is believed to have erected in Kerala. ... Distribution of Christian population in different Indian states [1] Christianity is Indias third-largest religion, following Hinduism and Islam. ... Topics in Christianity Preaching Prayer Ecumenism Relation to other religions Movements Music Liturgy Calendar Symbols Art Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... The Syrian Kuriz also known as Nasrani Menorah or the Mar Thoma sliva The Syrian Malabar Nasrani people are an ethnic group from Kerala, South India. ... The Throne of St. ... The Nasrani Menorah also known as the Mar Thoma sliba Knanaya (Heb:קנאים, Ar:قينان), literally meaning Knai people, are an endagamous Jewish people from Kerala, India. ...

Events

Synod of Diamper
Coonan Cross Oath
Goa Inquisition
Synod of Diamper - Wikipedia /**/ @import /w/skins-1. ... // The Coonan Cross Oath was taken in 1653,[1] by a group of Saint Thomas Christians, enraged by the persecution of their Church by the Portuguese colonials and Jesuit missionaries who sought to bring it under Portuguese Padroado or Propaganda Fide , swore the Coonan Cross Oath, vowing that neither they... St. ...

People

St Thomas
St Francis Xavier
Mother Teresa
Reginald Heber
Blessed Kuriakose Chavara
Henry Martyn‎
Bishop Cotton‎
William Carey
Anthony Norris Groves
Hugh Findlay
Charles Freer Andrews
Blessed Alphonsa
Parumala Thirumeni
Saint Thomas the Apostle, Judas Thomas or Didymus, was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus. ... Saint Francis Xavier (Basque: San Frantzisko Xabierkoa; Spanish: San Francisco Javier; Portuguese: São Francisco Xavier; Chinese: 聖方濟各沙勿略) (7 April 1506 - 2 December 1552) was a Spanish pioneering Roman Catholic Christian missionary and co-founder of the Society of Jesus (Jesuit Order). ... Mother Teresa (born Agnes Gonxha Bojaxhiu IPA: ) (August 26, 1910 – September 5, 1997) was a Roman Catholic nun who founded the Missionaries of Charity and won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1979 for her humanitarian work. ... Reginald Heber Reginald Heber (April 21, 1783 - April 3, 1826) was an Church of England bishop, now remembered chiefly as a hymn-writer. ... Blessed Kuriakose Elias Chavara was the co-founder and first prior-general of the Congregation of the Carmelites of Mary Immaculate and of the Congregation of the Sisters of the Mother of Carmel. ... Henry Martyn (February 18, 1781 - October 6, 1812), English missionary to India, was born at Truro, Cornwall. ... George Edward Lynch Cotton (October 29, 1813–October 6, 1866) was an English educator and churchman. ... William Carey (August 17, 1761 – June 9, 1834) was an English missionary and Baptist minister, known as the father of modern missions. ... Anthony Norris Groves (February 1, 1795 - May 20, 1853), has been described as the father of faith missions. He launched the first Protestant mission to Arabic-speaking Muslims, and settled in Baghdad, now the capital of Iraq, and later in southern India. ... Hugh Findlay, born in 1822 in New Milns, Ayrshire, Scotland, was one of the first two Mormon missionaries to enter India. ... Charles Freer Andrews (1871 - 1940) was an English priest who admired the philosophy of Mohandas Gandhi and worked with him in the Indian civil rights struggle in South Africa and in the Indian Independence Movement. ... Blessed Alphonsa Muttathupadathu Blessed Alphonsa Muttathupadathu (August 19, 1910–July 28, 1946) was born Anna Muttathupadathu in Kudamaloor, a rural village near Kottayam (Kerala, India) to Joseph and Mary Muttathupadathu. ... St. ...

Churches

Chaldean Syrian Church
Church of North India
Church of South India
Indian Brethren
Indian Pentecostal Church
Jacobite Syrian Church
Malabar Independent Church
Mar Thoma Church
Orthodox Syrian Church
Roman Catholic Church
St. Thomas Evangelical Church
Syro-Malankara Catholic Church
Syro-Malabar Catholic Church
Advent Christian Conference Anglican Church of India Apatani Christian Fellowship Apostolic Christian Assembly Apostolic Church of Pentecost Apostolic Fellowship Tabernacle Apostolic Pentecostal Church Armenian Apostolic Church Asia Evangelistic Fellowship Assam Baptist Convention Assemblies of Christ Church Assemblies of God Assemblies of Jesus Christ Assembly Hall Churches Association of Vineyard Churches... Chaldean Syrian Church is the name used for the Assyrian Church of the East in India. ... The Church of North India has united various denominations and missions and orders in India. ... CSI St. ... The Indian Brethren is a Christian religious movement, a constituent of the larger group known as the Plymouth Brethren. ... The Indian Pentecostal Church of God (IPC) is the largest indigenous Pentecostal movement in India, with its headquarters at Hebron, Kumbanad, Kerala-689547 India. ... The Malabar Independent Syrian Church (Thozhiyur Sabha) is a Church of Syriac Orthodox tradition in South India. ... On the south western coast of India, lies a small state known as Kerala. ... The Indian Orthodox Church (also known as the Malankara Orthodox Church, Orthodox Church of the East, Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church, Orthodox Syrian Church of the East), is a prominent member of the Oriental Orthodox Church family. ... The Roman Catholic Church in India is part of the worldwide Roman Catholic Church, under the leadership of the Pope and curia in Rome. ... St. ... Major Archbishop Catholicos Moran Mor Baselios Cleemis The Syro-Malankara Catholic Church (also known as Malankara Catholic Syrian Church, Malankara Syriac Catholic Church) is an Antiochian Rite, Major Archiepiscopal sui iuris Eastern Catholic Church in the Catholic Communion in union with the Pope of Rome, historically linked to the Syrian... Syro-Malabar Church Official website The Syro-Malabar Catholic Church is a Major Archiepiscopal Church in communion with the Roman Catholic Church. ...

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The Saint Thomas Christians are a group of Christians based on the Malabar coast (now Kerala) in Southern India, who belong to different denominations of Syriac Christianity. [1] The different denominations within fold of St Thomas Christians together come under the common appellate of Nasrani people. [1] Their traditions go back to the very beginnings of first century Christian thought and the seven churches that are believed to have been established by St. Thomas the Apostle during his mission in Malabar. [1] They are popularly known as Syrian Christians in view of the Syriac (classical form of Aramaic) liturgy used in church services from the early days of Christianity in India. For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... [Land of uncivilised] Bekal Fort Beach, Kerala Malabar (Malayalam: മലബാര്‍ ) is a region of southern India, lying between the Western Ghats and the Arabian Sea, and derived from the Malayalam word Mala mean Hill and Persian word Bar means Kingdom, and is same as the word meaning of Malayalam. ... -1... South India is a geographic and linguistic-cultural region of India. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Syriac Christianity is a culturally and... The Syrian Kuriz also known as Nasrani Menorah or the Mar Thoma sliva The Syrian Malabar Nasrani people are an ethnic group from Kerala, South India. ... (1st century BC - 1st century - 2nd century - other centuries) The 1st century was that century which lasted from 1 to 99. ... Thomas was one of the 12 apostles of Jesus. ... Syriac is an Eastern Aramaic language that was once spoken across much of the Fertile Crescent. ... A liturgy is the customary public worship of a religious group, according to their particular traditions. ... Topics in Christianity Preaching Prayer Ecumenism Relation to other religions Movements Music Liturgy Calendar Symbols Art Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ...

Contents

Nasrani and Saint Thomas Christian tradition

St.Thomas

The Nasranis are an ethnic people, and a single community. [1] As a community with common cultural heritage and cultural tradition, they refer to themselves as Nasranis. [1] However, as a religious group, they refer to themselves as Mar Thoma Khristianis or in English as Saint Thomas Christians, based on their religious tradition flowing from the early Church of St.Thomas Christians or Saint Thomas tradition of Christianity. [1] The Syrian Kuriz also known as Nasrani Menorah or the Mar Thoma sliva The Syrian Malabar Nasrani people are an ethnic group from Kerala, South India. ... An ethnic group is a group of people who identify with one another, or are so identified by others, on the basis of a boundary that distinguishes them from other groups. ... Topics in Christianity Preaching Prayer Ecumenism Relation to other religions Movements Music Liturgy Calendar Symbols Art Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ...


According to tradition, Saint Thomas, whose missionary activities in South India spanned a couple of decades from AD 52 to 72, established seven churches in Malabar. These first century churches, according to tradition, were located, from north to south, at: Palayoor near Guruvayoor/Kunnankulam, Kodungalloor (believed to be the ancient Muziris of Pliny, and the Periplus, on the north bank of Periyar River today), Paravur on the south side of Periyar, Gokkamangalam or Kokkamangalam, Niranam, Chayal or Nilakkal (the only inland church) and the Lakes or Kaayals, and finally Kollam. The visit of the Apostle Thomas to these places and to Mylapore on the East coast of India can be read in the Ramban Song of Thomas Ramban, set into 'moc', 1500. [2] Palayoor/Palayur is a part of Thrissur district and is located on the west coast of Kerala, in India. ... Guruvayoor Temple Entrance Guruvayoor is a small town in the Trissur district of Kerala, south India. ... Kodungalloor is a well known tourist location in Kerala due to St. ... Periyar is one of the major river in Kerala. ... , This article is about a town in Ernakulam district. ... Kokkamangalam is a village in Alappuzha district of Kerala state, south India. ... Niranam is a small village in Southern part of Kerala in India. ... , For the district with the same name, see Kollam District. ... , Mylapore is one of the oldest areas within Chennai (formerly Madras), the capital of Tamil Nadu state in southern India. ... 1500 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


See also : Seven Churches of Saint Thomas Seven Churches of Saint Thomas denotes the tradition amongst Indian Christians about the first seven churches established by Saint Thomas, the Apostle during his evangilisation in India between 52 AD and 72 AD.[1][2] Several lists exists on this regard one of which Thoman Parvam, a 17th century ducument...


However, from a religious angle, the Nasrani's of today belong to various denominations as a result of a series of developments including Portuguese persecution [3] (a landmark split leading to an public Oath known as Coonen Cross Oath) , doctrines and missionary zeal influence (split of Marthoma Church (1845) and St. Thomas Evangelical Church (1962) ), Patriarch issue ( split of Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church (1912) ). Nestorianism is the Christian doctrine that Jesus existed as two persons, the man Jesus and the divine Son of God, rather than as a unified person. ... Look up Persecution in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Coonen Cross Oath was a turning point in the history of Indian Christian Church. ... Heritage The history of the Mar Thoma Church is divided into three main eras viz. ... St. ... The Indian Orthodox Church (also known as the Malankara Orthodox Church, Orthodox Church of the East, Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church, Orthodox Syrian Church of the East), is a prominent member of the Oriental Orthodox Church family. ...


Place in Indian culture

Throughout Kerala, one can find Christian families that claim their descent from ancestors who were baptized by Apostle Thomas. [4] St. Thomas Christians were classified into the caste system according to their professions, in accordance with the Hindu tradition, with special privileges for trade granted by the benevolent kings who ruled the area. After the eighth century when Hindu Kingdoms came to sway, Christians were expected to strictly abide by stringent rules pertaining to caste and religion. This became a matter of survival. This is why St. Thomas Christians had such a strong sense of caste and tradition, being the oldest order of Christianity in India. The Archdeacon was the head of the Church, and Palliyogams (Parish Councils) were in charge of temporal affairs. They had a liturgy-centered life with days of fasting and abstinence. Their devotion to the Mar Thoma Cross was absolute. Their churches were modelled after Jewish synagogues. [4]-1... Thomas was one of the 12 apostles of Jesus. ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... For the Major League Baseball player, see Maurice Archdeacon. ... A liturgy is the customary public worship of a religious group, according to their particular traditions. ... For other uses, see Jew (disambiguation). ... The synagogue Scolanova Trani in Italy. ...


In short, the St. Thomas Christians of Kerala had blended well with the ecclesiastical world of the Eastern Churches and with the changing socio-cultural environment of their homeland. [4] Thus, the Malabar Church was Hindu in culture, Christian in religion, and Judeo-Syro-Oriental in worship. [4]-1... For other uses, see Culture (disambiguation). ...


History of the Saint Thomas Christian tradition

Government of India issued a postal stamp in the year 1972 to commemorate the nineteenth centenary of the martyrdom of St Thomas. The inaugural release of the stamp was made jointly by the then Governor of Kerala state and the Cardinal Archbishop of the Syro Malabar Church

Modern developments in archaeology, anthropology, numismatics, toponymy, geography and trade route investigations have revealed evidence of maritime trade relationship with modern Kerala. Judiciary Supreme Court of India Chief Justice of India High Courts District Courts Elections Political Parties Local & State Govt. ... For other uses, see Governor (disambiguation). ... -1... For referencing in Wikipedia, see Wikipedia:Citing sources. ... This article is about the social science. ... Numismatics is the scientific study of currency and its history in all its varied forms. ... Toponymy is the taxonomic study of toponyms (place-names), their origins and their meanings. ... A trade route is the sequence of pathways and stopping places used for the commercial transport of cargo. ...


According to the first century annals of Pliny the Elder and the author of Periplus of the Erythraean sea, Muziris in Kerala could be reached in 40 days' time from the Egyptian coast purely depending on the South West Monsoon winds. The Sangam works Puranaooru and Akananooru have many lines which speak of the Roman vessels and the Roman gold that used to come to the Kerala ports of the great Chera kings in search of pepper and other spices, which had enormous demand in the West. [5] Pliny the Elder: an imaginative 19th Century portrait. ... Muziris is a lost port city in the southern Indian state of Kerala, locally known as Vanchi, which was a major center of trade, especially pepper and other spices, with the Roman Empire from the 1st or 2nd century BCE to probably as late as 6th century CE. Large hoards... For other uses of Sangam see Sangam (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Chera dynasty. ...


The lure of spices attracted traders from the Middle East and Europe to the many trading ports — Calicut, Cranganore, Cochin, Alleppey and Quilon — long before the time of Christ. [5] Alappuzha is a district of the state of Kerala in India. ...


According to tradition, it was on a trading vessel plying between Alexandria and the Malabar coast that St. Thomas the Apostle arrived in Cranganore in AD 52. Saint Thomas the Apostle is said to have begun preaching the gospel to the already existing Jewish settlers in the Malabar coast and other local peoples. Legend is that the Apostolate of St. Thomas arrived in Kerala in the First Century CE and converted some Brahmins in Palayur to Christianity. The early famlilies of Brahmin converts includes Kalli, Kallarakal, Kalliankal, Manki, Madathalan, Plavunkal, Mattamuk, Manavasri, Pakalomattom, Sankarapuri, Thayil. This article is about the city in Egypt. ... Thomas was one of the 12 apostles of Jesus. ... Cranganore (modern day Kodungallur) was a famous and prosperous sea-port in the southern Indian state of Kerala, about 38 km from the present day Cochin. ... Saint Thomas the Apostle, Judas Thomas or Didymus, was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus. ... A map of India, showing the main areas of Jewish concentration. ...



St. Thomas established seven Christian communities or churches in Kerala. They are in Cranganore, Paravur (Kottakavu), Palayoor, Kokkamangalam, Niranam, Chayal (Nilackal) and Kollam (Quilon). [2] St. ... Seven Churches of Saint Thomas denotes the tradition amongst Indian Christians about the first seven churches established by Saint Thomas, the Apostle during his evangilisation in India between 52 AD and 72 AD.[1][2] Several lists exists on this regard one of which Thoman Parvam, a 17th century ducument... -1... Cranganore (modern day Kodungallur) was a famous and prosperous sea-port in the southern Indian state of Kerala, about 38 km from the present day Cochin. ... Paravoor is a coastal resort town in the Quilon (renamed Kollam) district of India‘s southern state of Kerala. ... Palayoor/Palayur is a part of Thrissur district and is located on the west coast of Kerala, in India. ... Kokkamangalam is a village in Alappuzha district of Kerala state, south India. ... Niranam is a small village in Southern part of Kerala in India. ... , For the district with the same name, see Kollam District. ...


St. Thomas, it is believed, baptized also the Magi who adored the Infant Jesus and who were probably from Assyria or Persia. The Apostle preached also in other parts of India. In the year 72 he was martyred at Little Mount a little distance from St. Thomas Mount, and was buried at Mylapore, near the modern city of Madras.[6] St. ... For other uses, see Magi (disambiguation). ... This article is about the figure known by both Jesus of Nazareth and Jesus Christ. For other usages, see Jesus (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Assyria (disambiguation). ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... , Mylapore is one of the oldest areas within Chennai (formerly Madras), the capital of Tamil Nadu state in southern India. ... Madras refers to: the Indian city of Chennai, formerly known as Madras, the former Indian state, now known as Tamil Nadu (Plural of Madra): Ancient people of Iranian affinites, who lived in northwest Panjab in the Uttarapatha division of ancient India. ...


If the tradition be critically discussed it must be admitted that several ancient writers mention India as the scene of St. Thomas’ labours. Thus St. Ephraem, the Syrian (A.D. 300-378) in a hymn about the relics of St.Thomas at Edessa depicts Satan exclaiming, “The Apostle whom I killed in India comes to meet me in Edessa.” St. Gregory Nazianzen,(329-389), in a homily says; “What! were not the Apostles foreigners? Granting that Judea was the country of Peter, what had Saul to do with the Gentiles, Luke with Achaia, Andrew with Epirus, Thomas with India, Mark with Italy? St. Ambrose (340-397) writes “When the Lord Jesus said to the Apostles, go and teach all nations, even the kingdoms that had been shut off by the barbaric mountains lay open to them as India to Thomas, as Persia to Mathew.” Ephrem the Syrian (Syriac: , ; Greek: ; Latin: Ephraem Syrus; ca. ... Saint Thomas or St. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... A medieval representation of Saint Gregory of Nyssa Gregory of Nyssa ( 335 – after 394) was a Christian bishop and saint. ... Saint Ambrose, Latin Sanctus Ambrosius, Italian SantAmbrogio (circa 340 - April 4, 397), bishop of Milan, was one of the most eminent fathers of the Christian church in the 4th century. ...


Numerous other passages could be cited from various old liturgies and martyroligies which refer to the work of St. Thomas in India,and these passages at least show that the tradition that St. Thomas died in India was widespread among the early churches.[7] St. ... St. ...


Rough chronology

Following is a rough chronology of events associated with St.Thomas Christianity.[8]

  • 30 The Crucifixion.
  • 40s Apostle Thomas in the service of King Gondophares in Takshasila
  • 52 Nov 21 Apostle Thomas, landed at Cranganore (Kodungalloor, in the present Thrissur District)
  • 52-72 The Apostle builds 7 churches: Palayoor, Kodungaloor, Parur, Kokamangalam, Niranam, Nilackal, Kollam.
  • 72 Jul. 3 Martyrdom of St. Thomas in the vicinity of Mylapore, Madras.
  • 98-117 Mesopotamia and Assyria become Roman provinces.
  • 190 Pantaenus, probably the founder of the famous Catechetical School of Alexandria, visited India and the Nasranies.
  • 232 Sassanians become a major power.
  • 325 Archbishop John, of Persia and Great India, at the first Ecumenical Council of Nicea.
  • 345 Thomas of Cana from Persia landed at Cranganore with 72 families of immigrants.
  • 340-360 By the Thazhekad Sasanam the Nasranies granted special rights and privileges.
  • 345 Kuravilangad Church founded
  • 400 North Pudukkad church founded.
  • 480 St. Hormis church, Angamaly founded.
  • 500 Enammavu church founded.
  • 503 St. George church, Edappally founded.
  • 510 Udayamperore (Diamper) church built.
  • 522 Cosmas Indicopleustes visits South India.
  • 570 Birth of Mohammad, Prophet of Islam in Mecca.
  • 825 Mar Sabor and Mar Proth at Quilon.
  • 849 King Ayyanadikal of Venad, by the Tharisappalli copper plate grants reconfirms the 72 royal privileges of the Nazranies.
  • 883 King Alfred envoys Sighelm and Aethelstan conveys alms to St.Thomas in India.
  • 1293 Marco Polo, a Venetian traveller, visited the tomb of St. Thomas (at Mylapore), and Kerala.
  • 1324 Odoric of Pordenone the Italian Franciscan speaks about Mylapore.
  • 1329 Aug.9 Jordanus appointed first bishop of the diocese of Quilon created by Pope John XXII.
  • 1348 The Papal representative Giovanni de' Marignolli at Quilon.
  • 1439 Pope Eugene writes to Thomas, Emperor of the Indians.
  • 1490 Two Chaldean bishops John and Thomas in Kerala.
  • 1493 May 4 Division of the world and mission lands between Spain and Portugal by Pope Alexander VI.
  • 1498 May 20 Vasco de Gama lands at Kappad near Kozhikode.
  • 1499 Cabral at Kozhikode.
  • 1500 Nov 26 Franciscan Friars at Cochin.
  • 1502 Nov 7 Vasco de Gama at Cochin.
  • 1503 Dominican Priests at Kochi.
  • 1503 Mar Yabella, Mar Denaha and Mar Yakoob in Kerala.
  • 1503 Sep 27 Work commenced on Cochin Fort and the Santa Cruz church .
  • 1514 Portuguese Padroado begun.
  • 1514 Jewish migration from Kodungalloor to Kochi.
  • 1514 Jun 12 Portuguese Funchal rule over Christians in India.
  • 1524 Dec 24 Vasco de Gama buried at St. Francis Church, Fort Cochin.
  • 1534 Nov 3 Goa Diocese erected. The Parishes of Kannur, Cochin, Quilon, Colombo and Sao Tome (Madras) belonged to it.
  • 1540 The Franciscan Fr.Vincent De Lagos starts the Cranganore Seminary.
  • 1542 May 6 St. Francis Xavier, Apostolic Nuncio in the East, reaches Goa.
  • 1544-45 St. Francis Xavier in Travancore.
  • 1548 Dominican Monastery founded in Cochin.
  • 1549 Mar Abuna Jacob, A Chaldean Bishop, stayed at St. Antonio Monastery, Cochin.
Priests of Malankara Jacobite Syrian Orthodox Church celebrating Holy Qurbana at St.Marys Church, Manarcadu
  • 1550 First Jesuit House in Kochi.
  • 1552 Dec 3 Death of St. Francis Xavier.
  • 1555 Mattancherry Palace was built by Portuguese for the King of Cochin.
  • 1557 Pope Paul IV erects the Diocese of Cochin. Canonization process of Francis Xavier begun at Cochin.
  • 1565 Archdiocese of Angamaly erected.
  • 1567 Jews shifted Mattancherry.
  • 1568 Synagogue of White Jews built in Cochin.
  • 1577 Vaippicotta Seminary of the Jesuits started.
  • 1579 Augustinians reached Cochin.
  • 1583 Synod at Angamaly by Bishop Mar Abraham.
  • 1597 Bishop Mar Abraham, the last foreign Archbishop, died and was laid to rest at St. Hormis church, Angamaly.
  • 1599 Dec 20 Fr. Francis Roz was declared bishop of Angamaly.
  • 1599 Jun 20-26 Archbishop Alexis Menezes convenes the Synod of Diamper (Udayamperoor).
  • 1600 Aug 4 Padroado rule imposed on Nazranies.
  • 1601 Francis Roz was appointed as the first Latin bishop of the St. Thomas Christians.
  • 1609 Dec.3 Erection of the Diocese of Cranganore. The Archdiocese of Angamaly suppressed.
  • 1610 Dec 22 The Metropolitan of Goa limits the Pastoral Jurisdiction of Nazranies to Malabar.
  • 1624 Dominican Seminary at Kaduthuruthy.
  • 1626 Feb 5 Edappally Ashram started for the Religious Community of St. Thomas Christians
  • 1652 Aug 23 Mar Ahathalla in Madras, not allowed to enter Kerala.
  • 1653 Jan 3 Coonan Cross Oath at Mattancherry, Cochin.
  • 1653 May 22 Mar Thoma I ordained bishop at Alangad by the laying of hands by 12 priests.
  • 1657 Apostolic Commissary Joseph of St. Mary OCD (Sebastiani), a Carmelite, in Malabar.
  • 1659 Dec 3 The Vicariate of Malabar is erected by Pope Alexander VII.
  • 1659 Dec 24 Joseph Sebastini bishop and appointed the Vicar Apostolic of Malabar.
  • 1663 Jan 6 The Dutch conquer Cochin and destroy Catholic churches and institutions in Cochin, except the Cathedral and the church of St. Francis Assisi.
  • 1682 Seminary for Syrians at Verapoly.
  • 1686 Hortus Malabaricus in 12 volumes printed in 17 years.
  • 1709 Mar 13 Vicariate of Malabar is suppressed and the Vicariate of Verapoly is erected by Pope Clement XI.
  • 1772 First Malayalam book Sampskhepa Vedartham (Rome) by Clement Pianius.
  • 1773 Pope Clement XIV suppresses the Jesuit Order, except in Russia and Prussia.
  • 1782 Dec 16 Kariyattil Joseph elected Archbp. of Cranganore; Consecr. Lisbon 1783; Died Goa on the way back to Malabar,9th Sept. 1786.
  • 1785 Varthamanappusthakam, the first written travelogue in India by Paremakkal Thomma Kathanar.
  • 1795 Oct 20 Conquest of Cochin by the British.
  • 1818 C.M.S missionaries in Kerala.
  • 1838 Apr 24 Dioceses of Cochin and Crnaganore are annexed to the Vicariate of Verapoly.
  • 1838 The Queen of Portugal suppressed all religious Orders in Portugal and in her mission lands.
  • 1840 Apr 10 St.Thomas Christians came under the archdiocese of Verapoly.
  • 1861 May 20 Bishop Rocos sent by the Patriarch of Chaldea reaches Kerala.
  • 1867 May 7 Property donated by Syrians to the King of Portugal to start a Seminary at Aluva. It was administered by the Diocese of Cochin.
  • 1867 The Portuguese Missionaries start a seminary at Mangalapuzha for Syrian students.
  • 1874 Bishop Mar Elias Melus sent by the Patriarch of Chaldea reaches Kerala - Melus Schism.
  • 1876 The “Marthoma Church” comes into being — Palakkunnathu Mathews Mar Athanasious.
  • 1886 The Archdiocese of Cranganore is suppressed.
  • 1887 May 19 The St. Thomas Christians are totally segregated from the jurisdiction of the Archbishop of Verapoly and from the Padroado.
  • 1923 Dec 21 Establishment of the Syro-Malabar Hierarchy with Ernakulam as the Metropolitan See, and Trichur, Changanacherry and Kottayam as Sufragan Sees.
  • 1930 Sept 20 Reunion of the eminent Jacobite Archbishop Mar Ivanios, Bishop Mar Theophilus, Fr. John O.I.C., Bro. Aledxander and Mr. Chacko Kilileth with the Catholic Church. (Syro-Malankara Catholic Church)
  • 1932 June 11 The establishment of the Syro-Malankara Hierarchy by Pope Pius XI. Mar Ivanios becomes Archbishop of Trivandrum, and Mar Theophilus Bishop of Tiruvalla.
  • 1950 July 18 The Portuguese Padroado over the Diocese of Cochin (from 1557 Feb. 4 till 1950 July 18) suppressed and the Diocese of Cochin handed over to native clergy.
  • 1952 Dec 28-31 Jubilee Celebration of St. Thomas and St. Francis Xavier at Ernakulam.
  • 1956 Nov.1 The present ‘Kerala State’ is established.
  • 1972 Dec.27, The 19th Centenary of the Martydom of St. Thomas the Apostle is celebrated at Ernakulam under the auspices of Catholic, Jacobite, Marthoma and C.S.I. Churches.
  • 1973 July 3 The Governor of Kerala and the Cardinal release the St. Thomas Stamp and the T.En.II for sale.
  • 1986 Feb. 1-10 Visit of Pope John Paul II to India.
  • 1986 Feb. 8 Fr. Chavara Kuriakose Elias and Sr. Alphonsa are proclaimed blessed by Pope John Paul II.
  • 2005 Feb. 10 Pope John Paul II elevated the Archdiocese of Trivandrum to a Major Archdiocese, elevating the Archbishop to Major Archbishop (called Catholicos by Syro-Malankara Catholics)

Thomas was one of the 12 apostles of Jesus. ... Gondophares (Parthian: Vindapharna, lit. ... Thomas was one of the 12 apostles of Jesus. ... Cranganore (modern day Kodungallur) was a famous and prosperous sea-port in the southern Indian state of Kerala, about 38 km from the present day Cochin. ... Kodungalloor is a well known tourist location in Kerala due to St. ... , For the district with the same name, see Thrissur district. ... Palayoor/Palayur is a part of Thrissur district and is located on the west coast of Kerala, in India. ... Kodungallur (anglicised name: Cranganore ) is a city and a municipality in Thrissur district in the Indian state of Kerala. ... Paravoor is a coastal resort town in the Kollam district of India‘s southern state of Kerala. ... Niranam is a small village in Southern part of Kerala in India. ... , For the district with the same name, see Kollam District. ... St. ... , Mylapore is one of the oldest areas within Chennai (formerly Madras), the capital of Tamil Nadu state in southern India. ... Madras refers to: the Indian city of Chennai, formerly known as Madras, the former Indian state, now known as Tamil Nadu (Plural of Madra): Ancient people of Iranian affinites, who lived in northwest Panjab in the Uttarapatha division of ancient India. ... Mesopotamia was a cradle of civilization geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, largely corresponding to modern-day Iraq. ... For other uses, see Assyria (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Saint Pantaenus (d. ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... The First Council of Nicaea, convoked by the Roman Emperor Constantine the Great in AD 325, was the first ecumenical (from Greek oikumene, worldwide) conference of bishops of the Christian Church. ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... Cranganore (modern day Kodungallur) was a famous and prosperous sea-port in the southern Indian state of Kerala, about 38 km from the present day Cochin. ... Thazhekad, is the site of one of the earliest St Thomas Christian communities in Kerala. ... St. ... , Angamaly is a city and a municipality in Ernakulam district in the state of Kerala, India. ... Edappally is a fast growing town in the suburbs of Cochin City in Kerala state, south India. ... Cosmas Indicopleustes (literally Mr. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... Kollam, formerly known as Quilon, is a city in Kerala which is also the headquarters of a district by the same name. ... Venad was one of the thirteen kingdoms of the ancient Cheran empire. ... Alfred (849? – 26 October 899) (sometimes spelt Ælfred) was king of England from 871 to 899, though at no time did he rule over the whole of the land. ... Saint Thomas or St. ... Marco Polo (September 15, 1254[1] – January 9, 1324 at earliest but no later than June 1325[2]) was a Venetian trader and explorer who gained fame for his worldwide travels, recorded in the book Il Milione (The Million or The Travels of Marco Polo). ... St. ... , Mylapore is one of the oldest areas within Chennai (formerly Madras), the capital of Tamil Nadu state in southern India. ... -1... Odoric of Pordenone (c. ... , Mylapore is one of the oldest areas within Chennai (formerly Madras), the capital of Tamil Nadu state in southern India. ... Jordanus or Jordan Catalani (f. ... Kollam, formerly known as Quilon, is a city in Kerala which is also the headquarters of a district by the same name. ... Pope John XXII, born Jacques Duèze or dEuse (1249 – December 4, 1334), was the son of a shoemaker in Cahors. ... Giovanni de Marignolli, a notable traveller to the Far East in the 14th century, born probably before 1290, and sprung from a noble family in Florence. ... Kollam, formerly known as Quilon, is a city in Kerala which is also the headquarters of a district by the same name. ... Look up Chaldean in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... -1... The Syriac Orthodox Church is an autocephalous Oriental Orthodox church based in the Middle East with members spread throughout the world. ... Major Archbishop Catholicos Moran Mor Baselios Cleemis The Syro-Malankara Catholic Church (also known as Malankara Catholic Syrian Church, Malankara Syriac Catholic Church) is an Antiochian Rite, Major Archiepiscopal sui iuris Eastern Catholic Church in the Catholic Communion in union with the Pope of Rome, historically linked to the Syrian...

Historical references on St.Thomas

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There are many early Christian writings, which belong to centuries immediately following the first Ecumenical Council of 325 exist about St.Thomas mission.[9] Nestorianism is the Christian doctrine that Jesus existed as two persons, the man Jesus and the divine Son of God, rather than as a unified person. ... This photograph was taken by me in December 2004. ... Aramaic is a group of Semitic languages with a 3,000-year history. ... Saint Thomas or St. ...

  • The Acts of Judas Thomas : Century: 2nd/3rd (c. 180-230) [10]

Gist of Testimony : The Apostles cast lots as to where they should go, and to Thomas, twin brother of Jesus, fell India. Thomas was taken to king Gondophares as an architect and carpenter by Habban. The journey to India is described in detail.After a long residence in the court he ordained leaders for the Church, and left in a chariot for the kingdom of Mazdei. There, after performing many miracles, he dies a martyr. Gondophares (Parthian: Vindapharna, lit. ...

  • Clement of Alexandria- Century: 3rd (d.c. 235) Church represented: Alexandrian/Greek Biographical Note : Greek Theologian, b. Athens, 150. [9]

Gist of Testimony : Clement makes a passing reference to St. Thomas’ Apostolate in Parthia. This agrees with the testimony which Eusebius records about Pantaenus visit to India.[9] Clement is an adjective for clemency, and also the name of a number of notable figures: Saint Clement of Alexandria Saint Clement of Ohrid Any of several popes named Clement. ... Eusebius is the name of several significant historical people: Pope Eusebius - Pope in AD 309 - 310. ... Saint Pantaenus (d. ...

  • Doctrine of the Apostles-Century: 3rd Century, Church represented: Syrian [11]

Gist of testimony  : “After the death of the Apostles there were Guides and Rulers in the Churches…..They again at their deaths also committed and delivered to their disciples after them everything which they had received from the Apostles;…(also what) Judas Thomas (had written) from India”.


“India and all its own countries, and those bordering on it, even to the farther sea, received the Apostle’s hand of Priesthood from Judas Thomas, who was Guide and Ruler in the Church which he built and ministered there”. In what follows “the whole Persia of the Assyrians and Medes, and of the countries round about Babylon…. even to the borders of the Indians and even to the country of Gog and Magog” are said to have received the Apostles’ Hand of Priesthood from Aggaeus the disciple of Addaeus [12]

  • Origen Century : 3rd (185-254?) quoted in Eusebius,Church represented: Alexandrian/ Greek Biographical. Christian Philosopher, b-Egypt, Origen taught with great acclaim in Alexandria and then in Caesarea. [13]

Gist of Testimony : He is the first known writer to record the casting of lots by the Apostles. Origen original work has been lost; but his statement about Parthia falling to Thomas has been preserved by Eusebius. “Origen, in the third chapter of his Commentary on Genesis, says that, according to tradition, Thomas’s allotted field of labour was Parthia”.[14] Eusebius is the name of several significant historical people: Pope Eusebius - Pope in AD 309 - 310. ... Origen Origen (Greek: ÅŒrigénÄ“s, 185–ca. ... Origen Origen (Greek: ÅŒrigénÄ“s, 185–ca. ... Eusebius is the name of several significant historical people: Pope Eusebius - Pope in AD 309 - 310. ...

  • Eusebius of Caesarea Century : 4th (d. 340) Church Represented: Alexandrian/Greek Biographical [15]

Gist of Testimony : Quoting Origen, Eusebius says: “When the holy Apostles and disciples of our Saviour were scattered over all the world, Thomas, so the tradition has it, obtained as his portion Parthia….” [16] Origen Origen (Greek: ÅŒrigénÄ“s, 185–ca. ... Eusebius is the name of several significant historical people: Pope Eusebius - Pope in AD 309 - 310. ...

  • Ephrem Century : 4th Church Represented: Syrian Biographical [17]

Gist of Testimony : Many devotional hymns composed by St. Ephraem, bear witness to the Edessan Church’s strong conviction concerning St. Thomas’s Indian Apostolate. There the devil speaks of St. Thomas as “the Apostle I slew in India”. Also “The merchant brought the bones” to Edessa. Ephrem the Syrian (Syriac: , ; Greek: ; Latin: Ephraem Syrus; ca. ...


In another hymn apostrophising St. Thomas we read of “The bones the merchant hath brought”. “In his several journeyings to India, And thence on his return, All riches, which there he found, Dirt in his eyes he did repute when to thy sacred bones compared”. In yet another hymn Ephrem speaks of the mission of Thomas “The earth darkened with sacrifices’ fumes to illuminate”. “A land of people dark fell to thy lot”, “a tainted land Thomas has purified”; “India’s dark night” was “flooded with light” by Thomas. [18]

  • Gregory of Nazianzus Century : 4th (d. 389) Church Represented: Alexandrian/Greek Biographical Note : Gregory was born A. D. 330, consecrated bishop by his friend St. Basil in 372 his father, the Bishop of Nazianzus induced him to share his charge. In 379 the people of Constantinople called him to be their bishop. By the Greeks he is emphatically called “the theologian’.[19]

Gist of Testimony : “What? were not the Apostles strangers amidst the many nations and countries over which they spread themselves?…Peter indeed may have belonged to Judea; but what had Paul in common with the gentiles, Luke with Achaia, Andrew with Epirus, John with Ephesus, Thomas with India, Mark with Italy?” [20] Look up Gregory in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Basil (ca. ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ...

  • Ambrose of Milan Century : 4th (d. 397) Church Represented: Western Biographical Note : St. Ambrose was thoroughly acquainted with the Greek and Latin Classics, and had a good deal of information on India and Indians. He speaks of the Gymnosophists of India, the Indian Ocean, the river Ganges etc. a number of times. [21]

Gist of Testimony : “This admitted of the Apostles being sent without delay according to the saying of our Lord Jesus… Even those Kingdoms which were shut out by rugged mountains became accessible to them, as India to Thomas, Persia to Mathew..” [22] Saint Ambrose, Latin Sanctus Ambrosius, Italian SantAmbrogio (circa 340 - April 4, 397), bishop of Milan, was one of the most eminent fathers of the Christian church in the 4th century. ...

  • St. Jerome (342- 420)

St. Jerome testimony : “He (Christ) dwelt in all places: with Thomas in India, Peter at Rome, with Paul in Illyricum.” [9] For other uses see: Jerome (disambiguation) Jerome (about 340 - September 30, 420), (full name Eusebius Sophronius Hieronymus) is best known as the translator of the Bible from Greek and Hebrew into Latin. ...

  • St. Gaudentius ( Bishop of Brescia, before 427)

St. Gaudentius testimony : “John at Sebastena, Thomas among the Indians, Andrew and Luke at the city of Patras are found to have closed their careers.” [9] Saint Gaudentius was Bishop of Brescia from 387 until 410; he was the successor of the writer on heresies, Saint Philastrius. ...

  • St. Paulinus of Nola (d. 431)

St. Paulinus testimony :“Parthia receives Mathew, India Thomas, Libya Thaddeus, and Phrygia Philip”.[9] Paulinus/Paullinus is a Roman cognomen that can refer to: Gaius Suetonius Paullinus, general who defeated Boudica Marcus Iunius Caesonius Nicomachus Anicius Faustus Paulinus, consul in 298 Sextus Anicius Faustus Paulinus, consul in 325 Amnius Manius Caesonius Nicomachus Anicius Paulinus, consul in 334 St. ...

  • St. Gregory of Tours (d. 594)

St. Gregory of Tours testimony : “Thomas the Apostle, according to the narrative of his martyrdom is stated to have suffered in India. His holy remains (corpus), after a long interval of time, were removed to the city of Edessa in Syria and there interred. In that part of India where they first rested, stand a monastery and a church of striking dimensions, elaborately adorned and designed. This Theodore, who had been to the place, narrated to us.’ [9] St. ... Saint Thomas the Apostle, Judas Thomas or Didymus, was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus. ...

  • St. Isidore of Seville in Spain (d. c. 630)

St. Isidore of Seville testimony : “This Thomas preached the Gospel of Christ to the Parthians, the Medes, the Persians, the Hyrcanians and the Bactrians, and to the Indians of the Oriental region and penetrating the innermost regions and sealing his preaching by his passion he died transfixed with a lance at Calamina,a city of India, and there was buried with honour”. [9] Saint Isidore of Seville (Spanish: or ) (c. ...

  • St. Bede the Venerable (c. 673-735)

St. Bede testimony : “Peter receives Rome, Andrew Achaia; James Spain; Thomas India; John Asia" [9] Bede, commonly known as the Venerable Bede, (c. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ...


Early history

Icon depicting the Fathers of the First Council of Nicaea holding the Nicene Creed.
Icon depicting the Fathers of the First Council of Nicaea holding the Nicene Creed.

Doctrine of the Apostles states that, “India and all its countries . . . received the Apostle’s hand of priesthood from Judas Thomas….” There are no documentary proof early primates for Church of St. Thomas Christians. From an early period the Church of St. Thomas Christians came in to a life long relationship with the Church of Persia, which was also established by St. Thomas the apostle according to early Christian writings. Primate or Metropolitan of Persia consecrated bishops for the Indian Church, this Church was also brought indirectly under the control of Seleucia.[23] Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The First Council of Nicaea, held in Nicaea in Bithynia (present-day Iznik in Turkey), convoked by the Roman Emperor Constantine I in 325, was the first Ecumenical council[1] of the early Christian Church, and most significantly resulted in the first uniform Christian doctrine, called the Nicene Creed. ...


Church of the East traces its origins to the See of Seleucia-Ctesiphon, said to be founded by Saint Thomas the Apostle. Other founding figures are Saint Mari and Saint Addai as evidenced in the Doctrine of Addai and the Holy Qurbana of Addai and Mari. This is the original Christian church in what was once Parthia: eastern Iraq and Iran. Geographically it stretched in the medieval period to China and India. The See of Seleucia-Ctesiphon developing within the Persian Empire, at the east of the Christian world, rapidly took a different course from other Eastern Christians. The Patriarch of Babylon, also called the Assyrian Patriarch, is the leader of the Assyrian Church of the East. ... Saint Thomas the Apostle, Judas Thomas or Didymus, was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus. ... Saint Mari was converted by Saint Addai. ... Thaddeus was one of the Seventy Apostles of Christ, not to be confused with Thaddeus of the Twelve Apostles. ... The Doctrine of Addai is a controversial book about Saint Addai. ... The Holy Qurbana of Addai and Mari belongs to the East Syrian liturgical family (see Syriac Christians) and is in regular use in the Church of the East and the Chaldean Catholic Church. ... Parthia at its greatest extent under Mithridates II (123–88 BC) Capital Ctesiphon, Ecbatana Government Monarchy [[Category:Former monarchies}}|Parthia, 247 BC]] History  - Established 247 BC  - Disestablished 220 AD Parthian votive relief. ... The Patriarch of Babylon, also called the Assyrian Patriarch, is the leader of the Assyrian Church of the East. ...


The First Council of Nicaea, held in Nicaea in Bithynia (present-day İznik in Turkey), convoked by the Roman Emperor Constantine I in 325, was the first Ecumenical council of the Christian Church, and most significantly resulted in the first uniform Christian doctrine, called the Nicene Creed. It is documented that Mar John, the Bishop of Great India attended the council.The prelate signs himself as “John the Persian [presiding over] the Churches in the whole of Persia and Great India.” We have no proofs that Bishop John was the actual reigning prelate of Great India, and it is very improbable that a bishop could exercise direct and immediate jurisdiction over two such distant bishoprics as Persia and India. The signature of the bishop also merely implies the ultimate control he held over the Indian Church. The First Council of Nicaea, held in Nicaea in Bithynia (present-day Iznik in Turkey), convoked by the Roman Emperor Constantine I in 325, was the first Ecumenical council[1] of the early Christian Church, and most significantly resulted in the first uniform Christian doctrine, called the Nicene Creed. ... Iznik (formerly Nicaea) is a city in Anatolia (now part of Turkey) which is known primarily as the site of two major meetings (or Ecumenical councils) in the early history of the Christian church. ... Bithynia was an ancient region, kingdom and Roman province in the northwest of Asia Minor, adjoining the Propontis, the Thracian Bosporus and the Euxine (today Black Sea). ... Iznik ceramic pitcher with flower decoration from ca. ... Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus[2] (27 February c. ... Icon depicting the Holy Fathers of the First Council of Nicaea holding the Nicene Creed. ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ...


Some centuries following, the Persian Church suffered severe persecutions. The persecuted Christians and even Bishops, at least on two occasions, sought an asylum in Malabar.


The Rock crosses of Kerala found at St.Thomas Mount and through out Malabar coast has inscriptions in Pahlavi and Syriac. It is dated from 6th to 7th century. The Pahlavi script was used broadly in the Sasanid Persian Empire to write down Middle Persian for secular, as well as religious purposes. ... Syriac is an Eastern Aramaic language that was once spoken across much of the Fertile Crescent. ...


In 825 AD, the arrival of two bishops are documented , Mar Sapor and Mar Prodh. Le Quien says that “these bishops were Chaldaeans and had come to Quilon soon after its foundation. They were men illustrious for their sanctity, and their memory was held sacred in the Malabar Church. They constructed many churches and, during their lifetime, the Christian religion flourished especially in the kingdom of Diamper.”


Medieval period

Prior to the Portuguese arrival in India in 1498, See of Seleucia-Ctesiphon provided "Prelates" to the Saint Thomas Christians in India. This practise continued even after the arrival Portuguese till the Synod of Diamper (held in Udayamperur) at 1599. For additional context, see History of Portugal and Portuguese Empire. ... The Patriarch of Babylon, also called the Assyrian Patriarch, is the leader of the Assyrian Church of the East. ... Synod of Diamper - Wikipedia /**/ @import /w/skins-1. ...

Open Air Rock Cross also called Nazraney Sthambams in front of the Martha Mariam Catholic Church at Kuravilangadu, Kerala
Open Air Rock Cross also called Nazraney Sthambams in front of the Martha Mariam Catholic Church at Kuravilangadu, Kerala

There are many accounts of missionary activities before the arrival of Portuguese in and around Malabar.John of Monte Corvino, was a Franciscan sent to China to become prelate of Peking about the year l307.He traveled from Persia and moved down by sea to India, in 1291, to the Madras region or “Country of St. Thomas” .[23]There he preached for thirteen months and baptized about one hundred persons. From there Monte Corvino wrote home, in December 1291 (or 1292).That is one of the earliest noteworthy account of the Coromandel coast furnished by any Western European. Traveling by sea from Mailapur, he reached China in 1294, appearing in the capital “Cambaliech” (now Beijing) [24] [Land of uncivilised] Bekal Fort Beach, Kerala Malabar (Malayalam: മലബാര്‍ ) is a region of southern India, lying between the Western Ghats and the Arabian Sea, and derived from the Malayalam word Mala mean Hill and Persian word Bar means Kingdom, and is same as the word meaning of Malayalam. ... John of Montecorvino, or Giovanni Da/di Montecorvino in Italian, also spelled Monte Corvino (1246, Montecorvino, Southern Italy - 1328, Peking), was a Franciscan missionary, traveller and statesman, founder of the earliest Roman Catholic missions in India and China, and archbishop of Peking. ... The Order of Friars Minor and other Franciscan movements are disciples of Saint Francis of Assisi. ... Beijing (Chinese: 北京; pinyin: Běijīng; Wade-Giles: Pei-ching; Postal System Pinyin: Peking), is the capital city of the Peoples Republic of China. ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... Madras refers to: the Indian city of Chennai, formerly known as Madras, the former Indian state, now known as Tamil Nadu (Plural of Madra): Ancient people of Iranian affinites, who lived in northwest Panjab in the Uttarapatha division of ancient India. ... Peking redirects here. ...


Odoric of Pordenone who arrived in India in 1321. He visited Malabar, touching at Pandarani (20 m. north of Calicut), at Cranganore, and at Kulam or Quilon, proceeding thence, apparently, to Ceylon and to the shrine of St. Thomas at Mailapur near Madras. He writes he had found the place where Thomas was buried.[25] Odoric of Pordenone (c. ... [Land of uncivilised] Bekal Fort Beach, Kerala Malabar (Malayalam: മലബാര്‍ ) is a region of southern India, lying between the Western Ghats and the Arabian Sea, and derived from the Malayalam word Mala mean Hill and Persian word Bar means Kingdom, and is same as the word meaning of Malayalam. ... Kozhikode, also known as Calicut, is the third largest city (pop. ... Cranganore (modern day Kodungallur) was a famous and prosperous sea-port in the southern Indian state of Kerala, about 38 km from the present day Cochin. ... Kollam, formerly known as Quilon, is a city in Kerala which is also the headquarters of a district by the same name. ... The Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka (ශ්රී ලංකා in Sinhala / இலங்கை in Tamil) (known as Ceylon before 1972) is a tropical island nation off the southeast coast of the Indian subcontinent. ... St. ...


Father Jordanus, a Dominican, followed in 1321-22. He reported to Rome, apparently from somewhere on the west coast of India, that he had given Christian burial to four martyred monks.[23] Jordanus, between 1324 and 1328 (if not earlier), probably visited Kulam and selected it as the best centre for his future work; it would also appear that he revisited Europe about 1328, passing through Persia, and perhaps touching at the great Crimean port of Soidaia or Sudak. He was appointed a bishop in 1328 and nominated by Pope John XXII in his bull Venerabili Fratri Jordano to the see of Columbum or Kulam (Quilon) on 21 August 1329. This diocese was the first in the whole of the Indies, with juristriction over modern India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Burma, and Sri Lanka.[26] Jordanus or Jordan Catalani (f. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... Jordanus or Jordan Catalani (f. ... Sudak is city in the Crimea. ... Pope John XXII, born Jacques Duèze or dEuse (1249 – December 4, 1334), was the son of a shoemaker in Cahors. ... is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Antipope Nicholas V is excommunicated by Pope John XXII. Aimone of Savoy becomes Count of Savoy. ... The Indies, on the display globe of the Field Museum, Chicago, Illinois The Indies or East Indies (or East India) is a term used to describe lands of South and Southeast Asia, occupying all of the former British India, the present Indian Union, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, the Maldives...


Either before going out to Malabar as bishop, or during a later visit to the west, Jordanus probably wrote his Mirabilia, which from internal evidence can only be fixed within the period 1329-1338; in this work he furnished the best account of Indian regions, products, climate, manners, customs, fauna and flori given by any European in the Middle Ages - superior even to Marco Polo's. In his triple division of the Indies, India Major comprises the shorelands from Malabar to Cochin China; while India Minor stretches from Sind (or perhaps from Baluchistan) to Malabar; and India Tertia (evidently dominated by African conceptions in his mind) includes a vast undefined coast-region west of Baluchistan, reaching into the neighborhood of, but not including, Ethiopia and Prester John's domain. [27] [Land of uncivilised] Bekal Fort Beach, Kerala Malabar (Malayalam: മലബാര്‍ ) is a region of southern India, lying between the Western Ghats and the Arabian Sea, and derived from the Malayalam word Mala mean Hill and Persian word Bar means Kingdom, and is same as the word meaning of Malayalam. ... Marco Polo (September 15, 1254[1] – January 9, 1324 at earliest but no later than June 1325[2]) was a Venetian trader and explorer who gained fame for his worldwide travels, recorded in the book Il Milione (The Million or The Travels of Marco Polo). ... Cochin China (also known as Cochinchina or in French, Cochinchine) was the southernmost part of Vietnam beside Cambodia. ... Le de de Sind de ou de Sindh de (Sindhi: ‎, Urdu: ‎, Hindi: ) peut se rapporter : * Sindh de le Pakistan (de 1970), retitré du ** de province de Sind dedans 1990 * [[provinces de |Sind] de province de Sind (1936-1955)] de lInde britannique (1936-04-01 - 1947-08-13) ** de le... This article is about the wider Balochistan region. ... Preste enthroned on a map of East Africa in an atlas prepared for Queen Mary, 1558. ...


In 1347, Giovanni de' Marignolli visited the shrine of St Thomas near the modern Madras, and then proceeded to what he calls the kingdom of Saba, and identifies with the Sheba of Scripture, but which seems from various particulars to have been Java. Taking ship again for Malabar on his way to Europe, he encountered great storms. [28] Giovanni de Marignolli, a notable traveller to the Far East in the 14th century, born probably before 1290, and sprung from a noble family in Florence. ... Madras refers to: the Indian city of Chennai, formerly known as Madras, the former Indian state, now known as Tamil Nadu (Plural of Madra): Ancient people of Iranian affinites, who lived in northwest Panjab in the Uttarapatha division of ancient India. ...


Another prominent Indian traveler was Joseph, priest over Cranganore. He journeyed to Babylon in 1490 and then sailed to Europe and visited Portugal, Rome, and Venice before returning to India. He helped to write a book about his travels titled The Travels of Joseph the Indian which was widely disseminated across Europe.[23] Cranganore (modern day Kodungallur) was a famous and prosperous sea-port in the southern Indian state of Kerala, about 38 km from the present day Cochin. ... For other uses, see Babylon (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Venice (disambiguation). ...


When the Portuguese arrived on the Malabar Coast, the Christian communities that they found there had had longstanding traditional links with the See of Seleucia-Ctesiphonin Mesopotamia. [Land of uncivilised] Bekal Fort Beach, Kerala Malabar (Malayalam: മലബാര്‍ ) is a region of southern India, lying between the Western Ghats and the Arabian Sea, and derived from the Malayalam word Mala mean Hill and Persian word Bar means Kingdom, and is same as the word meaning of Malayalam. ... The Patriarch of Babylon, also called the Assyrian Patriarch, is the leader of the Assyrian Church of the East. ...


During the subsequent period, in 1552, a split occurred within the Church of the East. Part of it joined Rome, so that besides the Catholicosate of the East another, Chaldaean Patriarchate was founded, headed by the Patriarch Mar John Sulaqa (1553-1555). Both claim to be the rightful heir to the East Syrian tradition. It is very difficult to see the precise influence of this schism on the Church of Malabar as there was always overtones to Rome in earlier centuries. Apparently, both parties sent bishops to India. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Assyrian Church of the East... A patriarchate is the office or jurisdiction of a patriarch. ... [Land of uncivilised] Bekal Fort Beach, Kerala Malabar (Malayalam: മലബാര്‍ ) is a region of southern India, lying between the Western Ghats and the Arabian Sea, and derived from the Malayalam word Mala mean Hill and Persian word Bar means Kingdom, and is same as the word meaning of Malayalam. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ...


The last East Syrian Metropolitan before the schism, Mar Jacob (1504-1552), died in 1552. Catholicos Simeon VII Denkha sent a prelate to India, in the person of Mar Abraham, who was later to be the last Syrian Metropolitan of Malabar, after having gone over to the Chaldaean side. It is not known when he arrived in Malabar, but he must have been there already by 1556. Approximately at the same time, Chaldaean Patriarch Abdisho IV (1555-1567), the successor of John Sulaqa (murdered in 1555), sent the brother of John, Mar Joseph, to Malabar as a Chaldaean bishop; although consecrated in 1555 or 1556, Mar Joseph could not reach India before the end of 1556, nor Malabar before 1558. He was accompanied by another Chaldaean bishop, Mar Eliah. [Land of uncivilised] Bekal Fort Beach, Kerala Malabar (Malayalam: മലബാര്‍ ) is a region of southern India, lying between the Western Ghats and the Arabian Sea, and derived from the Malayalam word Mala mean Hill and Persian word Bar means Kingdom, and is same as the word meaning of Malayalam. ... For other senses, see Patriarch (disambiguation). ...


This development in the history of St. Thomas Christians happened at the advent of the Portuguese colonization of the Malabar Coast.


Colonialism and St Thomas Christians

The Portuguese erected a Latin diocese in Goa (1534) and another at Cochin (1558) in the hope of bringing the Thomas Christians under their jurisdiction. In a Goan Synod held in 1585 it was decided to introduce the Latin liturgy and practices among the Thomas Christians. For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Goa (disambiguation). ... Cochin may refer to: Cochin China Kingdom of Kochi, a former princely state of India, merged with Travancore to form the State of Kerala Cochin city, the former name of the city of Kochi, in Kerala Hôpital Cochin, a famous hospital in Paris, France Cochin font, from the Adobe...

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Alexis de Menezes, Archbishop of Goa from 1595 until his death in 1617 decided to bring the Kerala Christians to obedience after the death of Bishop Mar Abraham (the last Syrian Metropolitan of Malabar, laid to rest at St. Hormis church, Angamaly), an obedience that they conceived as complete conformity to the Roman or ‘Latin’ customs. This meant separating the Nazranies not only from the Catholicosate of Seleucia-Ctesiphon, but also from the Chaldaean Patriarchate of Babylon, and subjecting them directly to the Latin Archbishopric of Goa. For other uses, see Goa (disambiguation). ...


The Portuguese refused to accept the legitimate authority of the Indian hierarchy and its relation with the East Syrians, and in 1599 at the Synod of Diamper (held in Udayamperur), the Portuguese Archbishop of Goa imposed a large number of Latinizations. The Portuguese succeeded in appointing a Latin bishop to govern the Thomas Christians, and the local Christians’ customs were officially anathematised as heretical and their manuscripts were condemned to be either corrected or burnt. The Portuguese padroado (’patronage’) was extended over them. From 1599 up to 1896 these Christians were under the Latin Bishops who were appointed either by the Portuguese Padroado or by the Roman Congregation of Propaganda Fide. Every attempt to resist the latinization process was branded heretical by them. Under the indigenous leader, archdeacon, the Thomas Christians resisted, but the result was disastrous. Synod of Diamper - Wikipedia /**/ @import /w/skins-1. ... Udayamperoor is a small town situated in Kerala state in India. ... The headquarters of the Propaganda fide in Rome, housed by architects Borromini and Bernini: etching by Giuseppe Vasi, 1761 The Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples (Congregatio pro Gentium Evangelizatione) is the congregation of the Roman Curia responsibile for missionary work and related activities. ...


The oppressive rule of the Portuguese padroado provoked a violent reaction on the part of the indigenous Christian community. The first solemn protest took place in 1653, known as the Kunan Kurishu Satyam (Bent Cross Oath). Under the leadership of archdeacon Thoma a section of the Thomas Christians publicly took an oath in Matancherry, Cochin, that they would not obey the Portuguese bishops and the Jesuit missionaries. In the same year, in Alangad, Archdeacon Thomas was ordained, by the laying on of hands of twelve priests, as the first indigenous Metropolitan of Kerala, under the name Mar Thoma I. // Koonan/Coonan Cross Oath in English. ... The Society of Jesus (Latin: Societas Iesu), commonly known as the Jesuits, is a Roman Catholic religious order. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ...


Later, in 1665, an Antiochean Syriac Orthodox bishop called Mar Gregorios Abdul Jaleel arrived in India and the group under the leadership of the archdeacon Mar Thoma welcomed him. [29] The Bishop Mar Gregorios was sent by the Antiochian Syrian Orthodox Patriarch in a Dutch ship, this movement resulted in the Mar Thoma party claiming Spiritual authority of the Antiochean Patriarchate and gradually introduced the West Syrian liturgy, customs and script to the Malabar Coast. The Syriac Orthodox Church is an autocephalous Oriental Orthodox church based in the Middle East with members spread throughout the world. ... Mar Gregorios Abdul Jaleel Mar Gregorios Abdul Jaleel was born in Mosul, Iraq. ... Patriarch of Antioch is the traditional title carried by the Bishop of Antioch. ...


This was the starting point of division among the Syrian Christians in Kerala who till then were one Church. Though most of the Thomas Christians gradually relented in their strong opposition to the Western control, the arrival of Mar Gregorios in 1665 marked the beginning of a formal schism among the Thomas Christians. Those who accepted the West Syrian theological and liturgical tradition of Mar Gregorios became known as "Jacobites", and form the Malankara Jacobite Syrian Church within the Syriac Orthodox Church. Those who continued with East Syrian theological and liturgical tradition and stayed faithful to the Synod of Diamper and the latinization imposed by it are known as the Syro-Malabar Catholic Church in communion with the Catholic Church. The Saint Thomas Christians are a group of Christians from the Malabar coast (now Kerala) in South India, who follow Syriac Christianity. ... -1... HH Mor Ignatios Zakka I Iwas The Malankara Jacobite Syriac Orthodox Church, or sometimes called Jacobite Syrian Orthodox Church, an Orthodox church in Malankara (Kerala) is a branch and an integral part of the Syriac Orthodox Church with the Patriarch of Antioch, His Holiness Moran Mor Ignatius Zakka I Iwas... Syro-Malabar Church Official website The Syro-Malabar Catholic Church is a Major Archiepiscopal Church in communion with the Roman Catholic Church. ...


St. Thomas Christians by this process got divided in to East Syrians and West Syrians.


Further divisions

St. Joseph's Monastery, Mannanam,where mortal remains Blessed Chavara are kept. St. Thomas cross is seen in the picture on the top of church.

In 1772 the West Syrians under the leadership of Kattumangattu Abraham Mar Koorilose, Metropolitan of Malankara, formed the Malabar Independent Syrian Church (Thozhiyur Sabha).[29] Blessed Kuriakose Elias Chavara was the co-founder and first prior-general of the Congregation of the Carmelites of Mary Immaculate and of the Congregation of the Sisters of the Mother of Carmel. ... The Malabar Independent Syrian Church (Thozhiyur Sabha) is a Church of Syriac Orthodox tradition in South India. ...


In 1845, exposure to the doctrines of the Church of England inspired a reform movement led by Abraham Malpan in the West Syrian community. This led to the formation of the Mar Thoma Church. The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[3] in England, the Mother Church of the worldwide Anglican Communion and the oldest among the communions thirty-eight independent national churches. ... Abraham Malpan was one of the main reformers of the Malankara Church. ... On the south western coast of India, lies a small state known as Kerala. ...


In 1874 a section of Syro-Malabar Catholic Church from Thrissur came in to communion with Patriarch of the Church of the East in Qochanis as a result of schism followed after the arrival of Bishop Rocos ( 1861 ) Mar Elias Melus ( 1874) sent by the Patriarch of Chaldean. They follow the East Syrian tradition and are known as Chaldean Syrian Church. Syro-Malabar Church Official website The Syro-Malabar Catholic Church is a Major Archiepiscopal Church in communion with the Roman Catholic Church. ... , For the district with the same name, see Thrissur district. ... For other senses, see Patriarch (disambiguation). ... Church of the East related to those churches under the dominion of the first Patriarchate of Jerusalem which was first transferred from Jerusalem to Pella as following the 135CE Roman ban on Jews the city was given over to Antiochs jurisdiction. ... Qochanis, also Qudshanes or Kotchanes, a town to the North of Hakkari in the Southeastern corner of present Turkey, near the Greater Zab River, was the seat of the patriarchs of the Church of the East from the Seventeenth Century until 1915. ... Chaldean Syrian Church is the name used for the Assyrian Church of the East in India. ...


However, in 1912 due to attempts by the Antiochean Patriarch to gain temporal powers over the Malankara Church, there was another split in the West Syrian community when a section declared itself an autocephalous church and announced the re-establishment of the ancient Catholicosate of the East in India. This was not accepted by those who remained loyal to the Patriarch. The two sides were reconciled in 1958 but again differences developed in 1975. Today the West Syrian community is divided into Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church (in Oriental Orthodox Communion, autocephalous), Jacobite Syriac Orthodox Church (in Oriental Orthodox Communion, under Antioch). In hierarchical Christian churches, especially Eastern Orthodox and Oriental Orthodox churches, autocephaly is the status of a hierarchical church whose head bishop does not report to any higher-ranking bishop. ... Catholicos (plural Catholicoi) is a title used by the head/regional head bishop of any of certain Eastern churches. ... The Indian Orthodox Church (also known as the Malankara Orthodox Church, Orthodox Church of the East, Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church, Orthodox Syrian Church of the East), is a prominent member of the Oriental Orthodox Church family. ... HH Mor Ignatios Zakka I Iwas The Malankara Jacobite Syriac Orthodox Church, or sometimes called Jacobite Syrian Orthodox Church, an Orthodox church in Malankara (Kerala) is a branch and an integral part of the Syriac Orthodox Church with the Patriarch of Antioch, His Holiness Moran Mor Ignatius Zakka I Iwas...


In 1926 a section of West Syrians under the leadership of Mar Ivanios came into communion with the Catholic Church, retaining all of the Church’s rites, Liturgy, and autonomy. They are known as Syro-Malankara Catholic Church. In 1961 , saw the break away of St. Thomas Evangelical Church from the Marthoma Church . The name Catholic Church can mean a visible organization that refers to itself as Catholic, or the invisible Christian Church, viz. ... Major Archbishop Catholicos Moran Mor Baselios Cleemis The Syro-Malankara Catholic Church (also known as Malankara Catholic Syrian Church, Malankara Syriac Catholic Church) is an Antiochian Rite, Major Archiepiscopal sui iuris Eastern Catholic Church in the Catholic Communion in union with the Pope of Rome, historically linked to the Syrian... St. ... Heritage The history of the Mar Thoma Church is divided into three main eras viz. ...


Today the community is divided into Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church (in Oriental Orthodox Communion), Jacobite Syriac Orthodox Church (in Oriental Orthodox Communion), and Mar Thoma Church. The Indian Orthodox Church (also known as the Malankara Orthodox Church, Orthodox Church of the East, Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church, Orthodox Syrian Church of the East), is a prominent member of the Oriental Orthodox Church family. ... HH Mor Ignatios Zakka I Iwas The Malankara Jacobite Syriac Orthodox Church, or sometimes called Jacobite Syrian Orthodox Church, an Orthodox church in Malankara (Kerala) is a branch and an integral part of the Syriac Orthodox Church with the Patriarch of Antioch, His Holiness Moran Mor Ignatius Zakka I Iwas... On the south western coast of India, lies a small state known as Kerala. ...

St. Thomas Christian Groups
West Syriac (Antiochian) East Syriac (Chaldean)
Oriental Orthodox Protestant Oriental Independent Orthodox Eastern Catholic Assyrian Church of the East
Malankara Jacobite Syrian Church (Syriac Orthodox Church) Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church (Indian Orthodox Church) Malankara Mar Thoma Syrian Church (Mar Thoma Church) Malabar Independent Syrian Church (Thozhiyoor Church) Syro-Malankara Catholic Church Syro-Malabar Catholic Church Chaldean Syrian Church
N.B. The Malabar Independent Syrian Church, while Oriental Orthodox in tradition, is not in communion with the rest of Oriental Orthodoxy. This church is in communion however with the Mar Thoma Church and both churches have assisted each other in the consecration of bishops. The Mar Thoma Church itself, while continuing to maintain a Syrian idenitity, has moved closer to the Anglican Communion and maintains communion with both the Anglican groupings in India - The CNI(Church of North India) and CSI(Church of South India)

The term Oriental Orthodoxy refers to the churches of Eastern Christian traditions that keeps the faith of only the first three ecumenical councils of the undivided Church - the councils of Nicea, Constantinople and Ephesus. ... There are two Reformed Orthodox Churches in Eastern Christianity. ... The term Independent Orthodox is a church that was originally part of an Oriental Orthodox Church of Eastern Orthodox Church, that were removed. ... The term Eastern Rites may refer to the liturgical rites used by many ancient Christian Churches of Eastern Europe and the Middle East that, while being part of the Roman Catholic Church, are distinct from the Latin Rite or Western Church. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Assyrian Church of the East... HH Mor Ignatios Zakka I Iwas The Malankara Jacobite Syriac Orthodox Church, or sometimes called Jacobite Syrian Orthodox Church, an Orthodox church in Malankara (Kerala) is a branch and an integral part of the Syriac Orthodox Church with the Patriarch of Antioch, His Holiness Moran Mor Ignatius Zakka I Iwas... The Indian Orthodox Church (also known as the Malankara Orthodox Church, Orthodox Church of the East, Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church, Orthodox Syrian Church of the East), is a prominent member of the Oriental Orthodox Church family. ... The Malankara Mar Thoma Syrian Church, commonly referred to as the Mar Thoma Church is a Reformed offshoot of the pre-16th century undivided Syrian Orthodox Church, and got its current identity in 1889, even though it was born much earlier. ... The Malabar Independent Syrian Church (Thozhiyur Sabha) is a Church of Syriac Orthodox tradition in South India. ... Major Archbishop Catholicos Moran Mor Baselios Cleemis The Syro-Malankara Catholic Church (also known as Malankara Catholic Syrian Church, Malankara Syriac Catholic Church) is an Antiochian Rite, Major Archiepiscopal sui iuris Eastern Catholic Church in the Catholic Communion in union with the Pope of Rome, historically linked to the Syrian... Syro-Malabar Church Official website The Syro-Malabar Catholic Church is a Major Archiepiscopal Church in communion with the Roman Catholic Church. ... Chaldean Syrian Church is the name used for the Assyrian Church of the East in India. ... The term Oriental Orthodoxy refers to the churches of Eastern Christian traditions that keeps the faith of only the first three ecumenical councils of the undivided Church - the councils of Nicea, Constantinople and Ephesus. ... On the south western coast of India, lies a small state known as Kerala. ... On the south western coast of India, lies a small state known as Kerala. ... Main article: Anglicanism The Anglican Communion is a world-wide affiliation of Anglican Churches. ... The Church of North India has united various denominations and missions and orders in India. ... CSI St. ...

Nasrani religious jurisdictions

(in alphabetical order by Communion)

Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Assyrian Church of the East... Chaldean Syrian Church is the name used for the Assyrian Church of the East in India. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Athanasius · Augustine · Constantine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Calvin · Luther · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      The... Syro-Malabar Church Official website The Syro-Malabar Catholic Church is a Major Archiepiscopal Church in communion with the Roman Catholic Church. ... Major Archbishop Catholicos Moran Mor Baselios Cleemis The Syro-Malankara Catholic Church (also known as Malankara Catholic Syrian Church, Malankara Syriac Catholic Church) is an Antiochian Rite, Major Archiepiscopal sui iuris Eastern Catholic Church in the Catholic Communion in union with the Pope of Rome, historically linked to the Syrian... The Syriac Orthodox Church is an autocephalous Oriental Orthodox church based in the Middle East with members spread throughout the world. ... The Indian Orthodox Church (also known as the Malankara Orthodox Church, Orthodox Church of the East, Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church, Orthodox Syrian Church of the East), is a prominent member of the Oriental Orthodox Church family. ... The Malabar Independent Syrian Church (Thozhiyur Sabha) is a Church of Syriac Orthodox tradition in South India. ... On the south western coast of India, lies a small state known as Kerala. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Evangelicalism is a theological perspective in Protestant Christianity which identifies with the gospel. ... St. ...

Demography

On a rough reckoning, about 70% to 75% of the Christians in Kerala belong to the St. Thomas Christianity spread across different denominations; the Syro-Malabar Catholic Church, the Syro-Malankara Catholic Church, the Jacobite Syrian Orthodox Church, the Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church, the Marthoma Syrian Church, the Chaldean Syrian Church and the Malabar Independent Syrian Church. Syro-Malabar Church Official website The Syro-Malabar Catholic Church is a Major Archiepiscopal Church in communion with the Roman Catholic Church. ... Major Archbishop Catholicos Moran Mor Baselios Cleemis The Syro-Malankara Catholic Church (also known as Malankara Catholic Syrian Church, Malankara Syriac Catholic Church) is an Antiochian Rite, Major Archiepiscopal sui iuris Eastern Catholic Church in the Catholic Communion in union with the Pope of Rome, historically linked to the Syrian... The Syriac Orthodox Church is an autocephalous Oriental Orthodox church based in the Middle East with members spread throughout the world. ... The Indian Orthodox Church (also known as the Malankara Orthodox Church, Orthodox Church of the East, Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church, Orthodox Syrian Church of the East), is a prominent member of the Oriental Orthodox Church family. ... The Malankara Mar Thoma Syrian Church, commonly referred to as the Mar Thoma Church is a Reformed offshoot of the pre-16th century undivided Syrian Orthodox Church, and got its current identity in 1889, even though it was born much earlier. ... Chaldean Syrian Church is the name used for the Assyrian Church of the East in India. ... The Malabar Independent Syrian Church (Thozhiyur Sabha) is a Church of Syriac Orthodox tradition in South India. ...


Some members of the Latin Church and Church of South India also trace their origin to St. Thomas Christianity.[30] The Latin Church is that part of the Roman Catholic Church where the Latin rites are or were used in the liturgy. ... CSI St. ...

St.Thomas Christianity
Church Name Population
Syro-Malabar Church[31] 3,674,115
Syro-Malankara Church[32] 408,725
Malankara Jacobite Syrian Orthodox Church[33] 2,200,000 *
Church of South India[34] 3,800,000 @
Malankara (Indian) Orthodox Syrian Church[35] 2,500,000 *
Mar Thoma Church[36] 1,000,000
Chaldean Syrian Church[30] 30,000
Malabar Independent Syrian Church[30] 10,000
St. Thomas Evangelical Church[37] 10,000
  • According to one estimate, the combined population of these two churches is only 1,750,000[30]

@ This is the world population of CSI [|Church of South India[38]] The Syro-Malabar Catholic Church is a Major Archiepiscopal Eastern Rite Church sui iuris with historical ties to the Chaldean Catholic Church in communion with the Church of Rome. ... Major Archbishop Catholicos Moran Mor Baselios Cleemis The Syro-Malankara Catholic Church (also known as Malankara Catholic Syrian Church, Malankara Syriac Catholic Church) is an Antiochian Rite, Major Archiepiscopal sui iuris Eastern Catholic Church in the Catholic Communion in union with the Pope of Rome, historically linked to the Syrian... The Syriac Orthodox Church is an autocephalous Oriental Orthodox church based in the Middle East with members spread throughout the world. ... CSI St. ... The Indian Orthodox Church (also known as the Malankara Orthodox Church, Orthodox Church of the East, Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church, Orthodox Syrian Church of the East) is a prominent member of the Oriental Orthodox Church family in Christianity, founded by St. ... On the south western coast of India, lies a small state known as Kerala. ... Chaldean Syrian Church is the name used for the Assyrian Church of the East in India. ... The Malabar Independent Syrian Church (Thozhiyur Sabha) is a Church of Syriac Orthodox tradition in South India. ... St. ... CSI St. ...


It may be stated that the data as tabulated above are in direct conflict with India's official census data [3]which place the total Christian population in Kerala at 6.06 million in the year 2001. Accordingly, the population of St Thomas Christians in Kerala (who form 70%-75% of the total Christian population in the State as suggested above) may be in the region of 4.2 to 4.5 million. (Please also see the article Demographics of Kerala in Wikipedia.) Kerala is a state in south-western India. ...


See also

Indian Christianity Portal 
Christianity portal
Catholicism portal

Distribution of Christian population in different Indian states [1] Christianity is Indias third-largest religion, following Hinduism and Islam. ... ... Cochin Jews, also called Malabar Jews are the ancient prospetutess and their descendants of the South Indian erstwhile state of Kingdom of Cochin which includes the present day port city of Kochi. ... The Syrian Kuriz also known as Nasrani Menorah or the Mar Thoma sliva The Syrian Malabar Nasrani people are an ethnic group from Kerala, South India. ... St. ... The Nasrani Menorah also known as the Mar Thoma sliba Knanaya (Heb:קנאים, Ar:قينان), literally meaning Knai people, are an endagamous Jewish people from Kerala, India. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Jude Thomas. ...

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e f Menachery G; 1973, 1998; Mundalan, A. M; 1984; Podipara, Placid J. 1970; Leslie Brown, 1956
  2. ^ a b Menachery G; 1973, 1982, 1998; Leslie Brown, 1956
  3. ^ Claudius Buchanan, 1811., Menachery G; 1973, 1998; Mundalan, A. M; 1984; Podipara, Placid J. 1970; Leslie Brown, 1956
  4. ^ a b c d Menachery G; 1973, 1998; Leslie Brown, 1956; Vellian Jacob 2001; Poomangalam C.A 1998; Weil,S. 1982
  5. ^ a b Miller, J. Innes; (1960),Periplus Maris Erythraei The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea
  6. ^ Menachery G; 1973, 1982, 1998; Leslie Brown, 1956
  7. ^ Menachery G; 1973, 1982, 1998; Mackenzie G.T 1905 ; Aiya Nagam 1905 ; Medlycott Dr. 1905 ;
  8. ^ Menachery G; 1973, 1982, 1998; The Nazranies
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i (' NSC Network (2007)' St. Thomas, India mission- Early reference and testimonies
  10. ^ Dr. Wright (Ed.), Apocryphal Acts of the Apostles, London, 1871 (Syriac Text in Vol.1, English translation in Vol. II); Rev. Paul Bedjan, Acta Martyrum et Sanctorum, Vol. III, Leipsic-Paris, 1892.A. E. Medlycott, India and the Apostle Thomas, London 1905, Appendix, pp. 221 -225.
  11. ^ Cardinal Mai, Scriptorum Veterum Nova Collectio, Rome, 1838. W. Cureton, Ancient Syriac Documents, London, 1864: Latin Translation by A. Assemani; Vindobonae, 1856; Didascalia in Coptic, Ethiopic, and Arabic. Also see Medlycott, p. 33 ff.
  12. ^ (Cureton, pp. 32, 33, 34). 20th Century Discussions : Medlycott, pp 33-37 alias Menachery, STCEI, II, 20-21, Farquhar, p. 26 ff.
  13. ^ Eusebius, Hist. Eccl., 3.1; Patrologia Graeca, Migne Edn., 20.215; Patrologia Latina, Migne, 21.478.
  14. ^ Farquhar, p. 30. 20th Century Discussions : Perumalil, pp. 50,51.E. R. Hambye, “Saint Thomas and India”, The Clergy Monthly 16 (1952). Comes, S. J., “Did St. Thomas Really come to India?”, in Menachery (Ed).) STCEI, II. Farquhar, pp. 30,31,
  15. ^ Patrologia Graeca (Migne), 19-24., 20.215.
  16. ^ J.C.Panjikaran, Christianity in Malabar w.s.r.t. The St. Thomas Christians of the Syro-Malabar Rite, Orientalia Christiana, VI, 2 (23), Roma I, April 1926, p.99 esp. for reference to Pantaenus’ Indian visit.
  17. ^ Bickell, S. Ephraemi Syri, Caramina Nisibena, Lipsiae, 1866; Monsignor Lamy, S. Ephraemi Syri Hymni et Sermones, (Quarto 4 vols.); Breviary acc. to the Rite of the Church of Antioch of the Syrians, Mosul, 1886-96. Also See Medlycott, pp. 21-32. Alias Menachery (Ed.) STCEI, II, p. 18 ff.
  18. ^ 20th Century Discussions : Medlycott, pp.21-32 alias Menachery (Ed.), STCEI, II, p. 18 ff.
  19. ^ Homil. XXXII,xi, Contra Arianos et de seipso. Migne, P-G 36-228.
  20. ^ 20th Century Discussions : Medlycott, pp, 42,43; Perumalil pp. 43,44.
  21. ^ Migne, P-L 140 1143. (Also see 17. 1131, 17.1133, for his Indian knowledge.)
  22. ^ 20th Century Discussions : Medlycott, pp. 43, 44. Perumalil, pp. 44.45,Perumalil and Menachery (STCEI I, II), Migne Edns.; Wm. A. Jurgens, Faith of the Early Fathers:etc. History of Christianity-Source Materials by M. K. George, CLS, Madras, 1982 and the Handbook of Source Materials by Wm. G. Young.D. Ferroli, The jesuits in Malabar, Vol. I. Bangalore, 1939, esp. notes and documents p. 71 ff.; W.S. Hunt, The Anglican Church in Travancore and Cochin, Kottayam, 1920, esp. p. 27, p.33 pp. 46-50; G.T. Mackenzie, i.c.s., “History of Christianity in Travancore”, in The Travancore State Manual, Vol-II, Edited by Nagam Aiya, Trivandrum 1906 pp. 135-233; Menachery, STCEI, I, II.
  23. ^ a b c d NSC Network (2007),Defining a Kerala Syrian Christian Placid ( 1950) , Mundanadan (1970), S G Pothen (1970)
  24. ^ The Mongols and the West, Jackson, Peter (2005)
  25. ^ Odoric of Pordenone (Nendeen, Liechenstein, 1967), Henry Yule, trans. Cathy and the Way Thither vol. II.
  26. ^ Sir Henry Yule's Jordanus, a version of the Mirabilia with a commentary (Hakluyt Society, 1863) and the same editor's Cathay, giving a version of the Epistles, with a commentary, &c. (Hakluyt Society, 1866) pp. 184-185, 192-196, 225-230
  27. ^ Sir Henry Yule's Jordanus, a version of the Mirabilia with a commentary (Hakluyt Society, 1863) and the same editor's Cathay, giving a version of the Epistles, with a commentary, &c. (Hakluyt Society, 1866) pp. 184-185, 192-196, 225-230
  28. ^ J. G. Meinert, in Abhandl. der k. bohm. Gesellsch. der Wissenschaften, vol. vii.
  29. ^ a b Claudius Buchanan 1811 ., Menachery G; 1973, 1982, 1998; Podipara, Placid J. 1970; Leslie Brown, 1956; Tisserant, E. 1957; Michael Geddes, 1694;
  30. ^ a b c d NSC Network (2007),St. Thomas Christians Demography.
  31. ^ http://www.smcim.org//about.htm
  32. ^ Welcome to "The Syro-Malankara Catholic Major Archiepiscopal Church Website"
  33. ^ Adherents.com
  34. ^ Church of South India
  35. ^ Malankara Orthodox Church - Malankara Orthodox Church
  36. ^ Address data base of Reformed churches and institutions
  37. ^ Adherents.com
  38. ^ Church of South India

References and bibliography

  • Menachery G (1973) The St. Thomas Christian Encyclopedia of India, Ed. George Menachery, B.N.K. Press, vol. 2, ISBN 81-87132-06-X, Lib. Cong. Cat. Card. No. 73-905568 ; B.N.K. Press --(has some 70 lengthy articles by different experts on the origins, development, history, culture... of these Christians, with some 300-odd photographs).
  • Mundadan, A. Mathias. (1984) History of Christianity in India, vol.1, Bangalore, India: Church History Association of India.
  • Leslie Brown, (1956) The Indian Christians of St. Thomas. An Account of the Ancient Syrian Church of Malabar, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 1956, 1982 (repr.)
  • Podipara, Placid J. (1970) The Thomas Christians. London: Darton, Longman and Tidd, 1970. (is a readable and exhaustive study of the St. Thomas Christians.)
  • Menachery G (ed); (1998) "The Indian Church History Classics", Vol.I, The Nazranies, Ollur, 1998. [ISBN 81-87133-05-8].
  • Medlycott, A E. (1905) India and the Apostle Thomas; Gorgias Press LLC; ISBN 1-59333-180-0
  • Menachery, George (2005) Glimpses of Nazraney Heritage", Ollur, [ISBN 81-87133-08-2].
  • David de Beth Hillel (1832) Travels; Madras publication;
  • Menachery G (ed) (1982) The St. Thomas Christian Encyclopedia of India, B.N.K. Press, vol. 1;
  • Lord, James Henry (1977) The Jews in India and the Far East; Greenwood Press Reprint; ISBN 0-8371-2615-0).
  • Acts of St. Thomas (Syriac) MA. Bevan, London, 1897
  • Poomangalam C.A (1998) The Antiquities of the Knanaya Syrian Christians; Kottayam, Kerala.
  • Tisserant, E. (1957) Eastern Christianity in India: A History of the Syro-Malabar Church from the Earliest Times to the Present Day. Trans. and ed. by E. R. Hambye. Westminster, MD: Newman Press.
  • James Hough (1893) The History of Christianity in India.
  • Michael Geddes, (1694) A Short History of the Church of Malabar together with the Synod of Diamper, London.
  • K.V. Krishna Iyer (1971) "Kerala’s Relations with the Outside World", pp. 70, 71 in The Cochin Synagogue Quatercentenary Celebrations Commemoration Volume, Kerala History Association, Cochin.
  • Periplus Maris Erythraei The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, (trans). Wilfred Schoff (1912), reprinted South Asia Books 1995 ISBN 81-215-0699-9
  • Miller, J. Innes. (1969). The Spice Trade of The Roman Empire: 29 B.C. to A.D. 641. Oxford University Press. Special edition for Sandpiper Books. 1998. ISBN 0-19-814264-1.
  • Thomas Puthiakunnel, (1973) "Jewish colonies of India paved the way for St. Thomas", The Saint Thomas Christian Encyclopedia of India, ed. George Menachery, Vol. II., Trichur.
  • Koder S. "History of the Jews of Kerala". The St.Thomas Christian Encyclopaedia of India, Ed. G. Menachery,1973.
  • Vellian Jacob (2001) "Knanite community: History and culture"; Syrian church series; vol.XVII; Jyothi Book House, Kottayam
  • Weil,S. (1982) "Symmetry between Christians and Jews in India: The Cananite Christians and Cochin Jews in Kerala". In Contributions to Indian Sociology, 16.
  • Claudius Buchanan, (1811) Christian Researches in Asia (With Notices of the Translation of the Scriptures into the Oriental Languages). 2nd ed. Boston: Armstron, Cornhill
  • Bjorn Landstrom (1964) The Quest for India, Doubleday English Edition, Stockholm.
  • Menachery G (1987) (Chs. I & II) Kodungallur City of St. Thomas, Mar Thoma Shrine Azhikode. Reprinted 2000 as "Kodungallur Cradle of Christianity in India".
  • T.K Velu Pillai, (1940) The Travancore State Manual; 4 volumes; Trivandrum

External links

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Nestorianism is the Christian doctrine that Jesus existed as two persons, the man Jesus and the divine Son of God, rather than as a unified person. ... Assyrian Neo-Aramaic is a modern Eastern Aramaic or Syriac language. ... Bohtan Neo-Aramaic is a modern Eastern Aramaic or Syriac language. ... Chaldean Neo-Aramaic is a modern Eastern Aramaic or Syriac language. ... Garshuni, also Karshuni, is a term referring to writings in the Arabic language written in the Syriac alphabet. ... The Hértevin language is a modern Eastern Aramaic or Syriac language. ... Koy Sanjaq Surat is a modern Eastern Aramaic or Syriac language. ... Syriac ( Suryāyā) is an Eastern Aramaic language that was once spoken across much of the Fertile Crescent. ... Mlahsô is a Modern West Syriac language, a dialect of Aramaic. ... The Senaya language is a modern Eastern Aramaic or Syriac language. ... Turoyo is a Modern West Syriac language, a dialect of Aramaic. ... Image File history File links Example. ... The UTF-8-encoded Japanese Wikipedia article for mojibake, as displayed in ISO-8859-1 encoding. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
saint: Definition and Much More from Answers.com (4713 words)
Sorting out exactly which Saints are ahistorical is difficult, because of the larger difficulty of proving a negative: the absence of independent records of a Saint's existence doesn't prove she or he never existed; indeed there are no specific records of the existence of many people who lived before the 20th century.
The saints are seen as models of holiness to be imitated, and as a 'cloud of witnesses' that strengthen and encourage the believer during his or her spiritual journey (Hebrews 12:1).
The saints are seen as elder brothers and sisters in Christ, and it is reasoned that just as believers may ask their living brothers and sisters on earth for intercessory prayer, the prayers of the saints thought to be in heaven can be requested as well.
CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: St. Thomas Christians (9702 words)
There is one incident of the long period of isolation of the St. Thomas Christians from the rest of the Christian world which they are never tired of relating, and it is one of considerable importance to them for the civil status it conferred and secured to them in the country.
Thomas was a wealthy merchant who had probably come to trade; the King took a liking to this man, and when he expressed a wish to acquire land and make a settlement the King readily acceded to his request and let him purchase land, then unoccupied, at Cranganore.
He is said to have collected seventy-two Christian families (this is the traditional number always mentioned) and to have installed them in as many separate houses erected for them; attach to each dwelling was a sufficient piece of land for vegetable cultivation for the support of the family as is the custom of the country.
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