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Encyclopedia > Saint Petersburg
Санкт-Петербург
Saint Petersburg
The English Embankment with Saint Isaac's Cathedral
The English Embankment with Saint Isaac's Cathedral
Official flag of Санкт-ПетербургSaint Petersburg
Flag Coat of arms
Nickname
"Piter"
Location
Position of Saint Petersburg in Europe
Government
Country
District
Subdivision
Russia
North West Russia
Federal City
Governor Valentina Matviyenko
Geographical characteristics
Area
 - City

606 km²
Population
 - City (2002)
   - Density
 - Metro area

4,661,219 (2002 Census)
  3330/km²
6 million
Coordinates 59°56′0″N, 30°20′0″E
Elevation 3 to 175 m
Time zone
- Summer (DST)
MSK (UTC+3)
MSD (UTC+4)
Other Information
Postal Code 190000–199406
Dialing Code +7 812
License plate 78, 98
Website: www.gov.spb.ru

Saint Petersburg (Russian: , tr.: Sankt-Peterburg, IPA: [sankt pʲɪtʲɪˈrburk]) is a city and a federal subject located in Northwestern Federal District of Russia on the Neva River at the east end of the Gulf of Finland on the Baltic Sea. St. Petersburg's informal name, Piter (Питер), is based on how Peter the Great was called by foreigners. The city's other names were Petrograd (Петрогра́д, 1914–1924) and Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991)[1] Saint Petersburg is the second-largest city in Russia. ... Leningrad (Russian: Ленинград) may refer to: Saint Petersburg, a Russian city formerly called Leningrad Leningrad Oblast, an administrative region centered on St. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 346 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... The English Embankment with the Constitutional Court of Russia, view from Vasilievsky Island The English Embankment (Russian: ; Angliyskaya Naberezhnaya) or English Quay is a street along the Neva River in Central Saint Petersburg. ... The cathedral dominates the city skyline St. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_St_Petersburg_(Russia). ... Image File history File links Coat_of_Arms_of_Saint_Petersburg_large_(2003). ... EXAMPLE:Laughbox,Blondie,BamBam,Pinkie,etc. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... This is an alphabetical list of the sovereign states of the world, including both de jure and de facto independent states. ... All of the federal subjects of Russia are grouped into seven federal districts (Russian: , sing. ... Northwestern Federal District (Russian: Се́веро-За́падный федера́льный о́круг; tr. ... This article is being considered for deletion, in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... For other uses, see Governor (disambiguation). ... Valentina Ivanovna Matviyenko (Russian: , b. ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different geographical regions, we list here areas between 1,000 km² and 10,000 km². See also areas of other orders of magnitude. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Russian Census of 2002 (Russian: ) was the first census of Russian Federation carried out on October 9, 2002. ... Square kilometre (U.S. spelling: square kilometer), symbol km², is a decimal multiple of SI unit of surface area square metre, one of the SI derived units. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ... Elevation histogram of the surface of the Earth – approximately 71% of the Earths surface is covered with water. ... This article is about the unit of length. ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ... Although DST is common in Europe and North America, most of the worlds people do not use it. ... Time zones of Europe: Light colours indicate countries not observing daylight saving Moscow Time (Russian: ) is the time zone for the city of Moscow, Russia and most of western Russia, including Saint Petersburg, Russia. ... -12 | -11 | -10 | -9:30 | -9 | -8 | -7 | -6 | -5 | -4 | -3:30 | -3 | -2:30 | -2 | -1 | -0:25 | UTC (0) | +0:20 | +0:30 | +1 | +2 | +3 | +3:30 | +4 | +4:30 | +4:51 | +5 | +5:30 | +5:40 | +5:45 | +6 | +6:30 | +7 | +7:20 | +7... Time zones of Europe: Light colours indicate countries not observing daylight saving Moscow Time (Russian: ) is the time zone for the city of Moscow, Russia and most of western Russia, including Saint Petersburg, Russia. ... Moscow Summer Time Category: ... Postcodes are generally clearly visible outside Australia Post offices. ... A telephone numbering plan is a system that allows subscribers to make and receive telephone calls across long distances. ... // Introduction A license plate, number plate or registration plate (often referred to simply as a plate, or colloquially tag) is a small metal or plastic plate attached to a motor vehicle for official identification purposes. ... Image File history File links Ru-Sankt Peterburg Leningrad Petrograd Piter. ... For romanization of Russian on Wikipedia, see Wikipedia:Romanization of Russian. ... Types of inhabited localities in Russia, Soviet Union, and some other post-Soviet states have certain peculiarities with respect to the English language traditions. ... Russia is a federation which consists of 86 subjects[1]. These subjects are of equal federal rights in the sense that they have equal representation—two delegates each—in the Federation Council (upper house of the Russian parliament). ... Northwestern Federal District (Russian: Се́веро-За́падный федера́льный о́круг; tr. ... River Neva (Нева́) is a 74 km long Russian river flowing from the Lake Ladoga (Ладожское Озеро - Ladozhskoye Ozero) through the Carelian Isthmus (Карельский &#1055... The Baltic Sea The Gulf of Finland is an arm of the Baltic Sea that extends between Finland (to the north) and Estonia (to the south) all the way to the city of Saint Petersburg in Russia, where the river Neva drains into it. ... For other uses, see Baltic (disambiguation). ...


Founded by Tsar Peter the Great on May 27, 1703, it was capital of the Russian Empire for more than two hundred years (1712-1728, 1732-1918). St. Petersburg ceased being the capital in 1918 after the Russian Revolution of 1917.[2] It is Russia's second largest and Europe's fourth largest city (by city limit) after Moscow,London and Paris. At latitude 59°56′N, Saint Petersburg is the world's largest city north of Moscow (55°45′N). 4.6 million people live in the city, and over 6 million people in the city with its vicinity. Saint Petersburg is a major European cultural center, and important Russian port on the Baltic Sea. The city, as federal subject, has a total area of 1439 square km. Tsar (Bulgarian, Serbian and Macedonian цар, Russian  , in scientific transliteration respectively car and car ), occasionally spelled Czar or Tzar and sometimes Csar or Zar in English, is a Slavonic term designating certain monarchs. ... Peter the Great or Pyotr Alexeyevich Romanov (Russian: Пётр I Алексеевич Pyotr I Alekse`yevich, Пётр Великий Pyotr Veli`kiy) (9 June 1672 – 8 February 1725 [30 May 1672–28 January 1725 O.S.][1]) ruled Russia from 7 May (27 April O.S.) 1682 until his death, jointly ruling before 1696 with his... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 2 - Earthquake in Aquila, Italy February 4 - In Japan, the 47 samurai commit seppuku (ritual suicide) February 14 - Earthquake in Norcia, Italy April 21 - Company of Quenching of Fire (ie. ... The subject of this article was previously also known as Russia. ... The Russian Revolution of 1917 was a series of political and social upheavals in Russia, involving first the overthrow of the tsarist autocracy, and then the overthrow of the liberal and moderate-socialist Provisional Government, resulting in the establishment of Soviet power under the control of the Bolshevik party. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... This table lists statistics (2002) (GdaÅ„sk, Gdynia, ÅšwinoujÅ›cie, Szczecin, Helsinki and Tallinn 2004)( KlaipÄ—da 2005) for the major ports of the Baltic Sea. ...


St. Petersburg enjoys the image of being the most European city of Russia.[3] Among cities of the world with over one million people, Saint Petersburg is the northernmost. The historic center of St. Petersburg is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Russia's political and cultural center for 200 years, the city is impressive, and is sometimes referred to in Russia as "the Northern Capital" (северная столица, severnaya stolitsa). A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State...

Contents

History

Further information: History of Saint Petersburg

Founded by Tsar Peter the Great on May 27, 1703 as a window to Europe[1], Saint Petersburg was capital of the Russian Empire for more than two hundred years (1712-1728, 1732-1918). ...

The new capital

The Bronze Horseman, monument to Peter the Great

On May 1, 1703 Peter the Great took the Swedish fortress of Nyenskans and the city Nyen on the Neva river. On May 27, 1703 (May 16, Old Style) he founded the city after reconquering the Ingrian land from Sweden in the Great Northern War. He named the city after his patron saint, the apostle Saint Peter. The original name Sankt Pieterburg (pronounced Sankt Piterburh) was borrowed from Dutch (Modern Dutch Sint Petersburg), because Peter had lived and studied in the Netherlands; he also spent three months in Britain and was influenced by his experience in the rest of Europe.[4] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (768 × 1024 pixel, file size: 290 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (768 × 1024 pixel, file size: 290 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... The Bronze Horseman is a poem by Aleksandr Pushkin which is widely considered to be one of the most significant works of Russian literature. ... Peter I Emperor and Autocrat of All Russia Peter I (Pyotr Alekseyvich) (9 June 1672–8 February 1725 [30 May 1672–28 January 1725 O.S.1]) ruled Russia from 7 May (27 April O.S.) 1682 until his death. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 2 - Earthquake in Aquila, Italy February 4 - In Japan, the 47 samurai commit seppuku (ritual suicide) February 14 - Earthquake in Norcia, Italy April 21 - Company of Quenching of Fire (ie. ... Peter I Emperor and Autocrat of All Russia Peter I (Pyotr Alekseyvich) (9 June 1672–8 February 1725 [30 May 1672–28 January 1725 O.S.1]) ruled Russia from 7 May (27 April O.S.) 1682 until his death. ... Nyenschantz model at the museum Nyenschantz (Swedish: , Finnish: , Russian: , although generally known in the 17th century as Канцы) was a Swedish fortress built in 1611 at the mouth of the Neva river in Swedish Ingria. ... Nyen (Skantsen, Nyenskans, in Finnish: Nevanlinna, also Skantsi, in Russian: Kantsy) was a Swedish fortress built in 1611 at the mouth of the Neva river in Swedish Ingria. ... The River Neva (Russian: Нева́) is a 74 km-long Russian river flowing from Lake Ladoga (Ладожское Озеро, Ladožskoe Ozero) through the Karelian Isthmus (Карельский Перешеек, Karelskij PereÅ¡eek) and the city of Saint Petersburg (Санкт-Петербург, Sankt-Peterburg) to the Gulf of Finland (Финский Залив, Finskij Zaliv). ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 2 - Earthquake in Aquila, Italy February 4 - In Japan, the 47 samurai commit seppuku (ritual suicide) February 14 - Earthquake in Norcia, Italy April 21 - Company of Quenching of Fire (ie. ... is the 136th day of the year (137th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Julian calendar was a reform of the Roman calendar which was introduced by Julius Caesar in 46 BC and came into force in 45 BC (709 ab urbe condita). ... Ingria may be seen represented in the easternmost part of the Carta Marina (1539) Ingria (Finnish: , Russian: , Swedish: , Estonian: ) is a historical region, now situated mostly in Russia, comprising the area along the basin of the river Neva, between the Gulf of Finland, the Narva River, Lake Peipsi in the... Combatants Sweden Ottoman Empire (1710–1714) Ukrainian Cossacks Russia Denmark-Norway Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth Saxony after 1718 Prussia Hanover Commanders Charles XII of Sweden Ahmed III Ivan Mazepa Peter the Great Frederick IV of Denmark Augustus II the Strong Strength 77,000 in the beginning of the war. ... St Peter redirects here. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...


The city was built under adverse weather and geographical conditions. High mortality rate required a constant supply of workers. Peter ordered a yearly conscription of 40,000 serfs, one conscript for every nine to 16 households. Conscripts had to provide their own tools and food for the journey of hundreds of kilometers, on foot, in gangs, often escorted by military guards and shackled to prevent desertion. Many escaped, however, and others died from disease and exposure under the harsh conditions.[4] The new city's first building was the Peter and Paul Fortress, it originally also bore the name of Sankt Pieterburg. It was laid down on Zaiachiy (Hare's) Island, just off the right bank of the Neva, three miles (5 km) inland from the gulf. The marshland was drained and the city spread outward from the fortress under the supervision of German and Dutch engineers whom Peter had invited to Russia. Peter restricted the construction of stone buildings in all of Russia outside of St. Petersburg, so that all stonemasons would come to help build the new city.[5] Costumes of Slaves or Serfs, from the Sixth to the Twelfth Centuries, collected by H. de Vielcastel, from original Documents in the great Libraries of Europe. ... The Peter and Paul Fortress (Петропавловская крепость) is in St. ... Look up engineer in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


At the same time, Peter hired a large number of engineers, architects, shipbuilders, scientists and businessmen from all countries of Europe. Substantial immigration of educated professionals eventually turned St. Petersburg into a much more cosmopolitan city than Moscow and the rest of Russia. Peter's efforts to push for modernization in Moscow and the rest of Russia were completely misunderstood by the old-fashioned Russian nobility and eventually failed. This caused him much trouble with opposition, including several attempts on his life and the treason involving his own son.[6]


Peter moved the capital from Moscow to St. Petersburg in 1712, nine years before the Treaty of Nystad. It was a seaport and also a base for Peter's navy, protected by the fortress of Kronstadt. The first person to build a home in St. Petersburg was Cornelis Cruys, commander of the Baltic Fleet. Inspired by Venice and Amsterdam, Peter the Great proposed boats and coracles as means of transport in his city of canals. Initially there were only 12 permanent bridges over smaller waterways, while the Bolshaya Neva was crossed by boats in the summertime and by foot or horse carriages during winter. A pontoon bridge over the Neva was built every summer. Today there are more then 800 bridges. The Treaty of Nystad (1721), signed at the present-day Finnish town of Uusikaupunki (Swedish Nystad), ended the Great Northern War, in which Russia received the territories of Estonia, Livonia and Ingria, as well as much of Karelia and Tsar Peter I of Russia replaced King Frederick I of Sweden... 1888 map of the Kronstadt bay Kronstadt (Russian: ), also spelled Kronshtadt, Cronstadt (German: for Crown and Stadt for City) is a Russian seaport town, located on Kotlin Island, thirty kilometers west of Saint Petersburg near the head of the Gulf of Finland. ... Admiral Cornelius Cruys Cornelis Cruys (1655-1727) - was a Vice Admiral of the Imperial Russian Navy. ... Russian Baltic Fleet sleeve ensign The Baltic Fleet (Russian: Балтийский флот, in the Soviet period - The Double Red Banner Baltic Fleet - Дважды Краснознамённый Балтийский флот) is located at the Baltic Sea and headquartered in Kaliningrad, the other major base is at Kronstadt, located in the Gulf of Finland. ... For other uses, see Venice (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Amsterdam (disambiguation). ... The River Neva (Нева́) is a 74 km-long Russian river flowing from Lake Ladoga (Ладожское Озеро — Ladozhskoye Ozero) through the Karelian Isthmus (Карельский Перешеек — Karelskii Peresheyek) and the city of Saint Petersburg (Санкт-Петербург — Sankt Peterburg) to the Gulf of Finland (Финский Залив — Finskii Zaliv). ... Pontoon bridge across the James River at Richmond, Virginia, 1865. ...


Peter was impressed by Versailles and other palaces in Western Europe. His official palace of a comparable importance in Peterhof was the first suburban palace permanently used by the tsar as the primary official residence and the place for official receptions and state balls. The waterfront palace, Monplaisir, and the Great Peterhof Palace were built between 1714 and 1725.[7] In 1716, Prussia's King presented a gift to Tsar Peter: the Amber Room.[8] This article is about the city of Versailles. ... Peterhof (Russian: , Petergof, originally named Peterhof: Peters Court), is a series of palaces and gardens, laid out on the orders of Peter the Great, and sometimes called the Russian Versailles. It is located about twenty kilometers west and six kilometers south of St. ... Peterhof (Russian: , Petergof, originally named Peterhof: Peters Court), is a series of palaces and gardens, laid out on the orders of Peter the Great, and sometimes called the Russian Versailles. It is located about twenty kilometers west and six kilometers south of St. ... The original Amber Room (Russian Янтарная комната, German: ) in the Catherine Palace of Tsarskoye Selo near Saint Petersburg was a complete chamber decoration of amber panels backed with gold leaf and mirrors. ...


Aleksandr Danilovich Menshikov, Peter's best friend, was the first Governor General of Saint Petersburg Governorate in 1703-1727. In 1724 St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences was established in the city. After the death of Peter the Great, Menshikov was arrested and exiled to Siberia. In 1728 Peter II of Russia moved the capital back to Moscow. But four years later in 1732, St. Petersburg again became the capital of Russia and remained the seat of the government for about two centuries. Menshikov in Exile Aleksandr Danilovich Menshikov (Александр Данилович Меншиков) (1673 – 1729) was a Russian statesman, whose official titles included Generalissimo, Prince of the Holy Roman Empire and Duke of Izhora. ... Map of Saint Petersburg Governorate in 1900. ... Map of Saint Petersburg Governorate in 1900. ... Russian Academy of Sciences main building Russian Academy of Sciences (Росси́йская Акаде́мия Нау́к) is the national academy of Russia. ... Peter II (Russian: Пётр II Алексеевич or Pyotr II Alekseyevich) (October 23, 1715 – January 29, 1730) was Emperor of Russia from 1727 until his death. ...


St. Petersburg prospered under the rule of two most powerful women in Russian history. Peter's daughter, Empress Elizabeth, reigned from 1740 to 1762, without a single execution in 22 years. She cut taxes, downsized government and was known for masquerades and festivities, amassing a wardrobe of about 12,000 dresses, most of them now preserved as museum art pieces. She supported the Russian Academy of Sciences and completed both the Winter Palace and the Summer Palace, which then became residencies of Empress Catherine the Great, who reigned for 34 years, from 1762 to 1796. Under her rule, which exemplified that of an enlightened despot, more palaces were built in St. Petersburg than in any other capital in the world.[7] Charles van Loo. ... Russian Academy of Sciences: main building Russian Academy of Sciences (Росси́йская Акаде́мия Нау́к) is the national academy of Russia. ... Located between the Palace Embankment and the Palace Square, the Winter Palace (Russian: Зимний Дворец) in Saint Petersburg, Russia was built between 1754 and 1762 as the winter residence of the Russian tsars. ... South side - view from the garden. ... Catherine the Great redirects here. ... Enlightened absolutism (also known as benevolent or enlightened despotism) is a form of despotism in which rulers were influenced by the Enlightenment. ...


Revolutions

The Church of the Savior on Blood commemorates the spot where Tsar Alexander II was assassinated
The Church of the Savior on Blood commemorates the spot where Tsar Alexander II was assassinated

Several revolutions, uprisings, assassinations of Tsars, and power takeovers in St. Peterburg had shaped the course of history in Russia and influenced the world. In 1801, after the assassination of the Emperor Paul I, his son became the Emperor Alexander I. Alexander I ruled Russia during the Napoleonic Wars and expanded his Empire by acquisitions of Finland and part of Poland. His mysterious death in 1825 was marked by the Decembrist revolt, which was suppressed by the Emperor Nicholas I, who ordered execution of leaders and exiled hundreds of their followers to Siberia. Nicholas I then pushed for Russian nationalism by suppressing non-Russian nationalities and religions.[9] personal collection File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... personal collection File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Church as seen from Griboedov Canal. ... Alexander (Aleksandr) II Nikolaevich (Russian: Александр II Николаевич) (Moscow, 29 April 1818 – 13 March 1881 in St. ... Paul I of Russia (Russian: ; Pavel Petrovich) (October 1, 1754-March 23, 1801) was the Emperor of Russia between 1796 and 1801. ... Aleksandr I Pavlovich (Russian: Александр I Павлович) (December 23, 1777 – December 1, 1825?), was Emperor of Russia from 23 March 1801-1 December 1825 and Ruler of Poland from 1815–1825, as well as the first Grand Duke of Finland. ... Combatants Austria[a] Portugal Prussia[a] Russia[b] Sicily[c] Sardinia  Spain[d]  Sweden[e] United Kingdom French Empire Holland[f] Italy Etruria[g] Naples[h] Duchy of Warsaw[i] Confederation of the Rhine[j] Bavaria Saxony Westphalia Württemberg Denmark-Norway[k] Commanders Archduke Charles Prince Schwarzenberg Karl Mack... Decembrists at the Senate Square The Decembrist revolt or the Decembrist uprising (Russian: ) was attempted in Imperial Russia by army officers who led about 3,000 Russian soldiers on December 14 (December 26 New Style), 1825. ... Nicholas I (Russian: Николай I Павлович, Nikolai I Pavlovich), July 6 (June 25, Old Style), 1796–March 2 (18 February Old Style), 1855), was the Emperor of Russia from 1825 until 1855, known as one of the most reactionary of the Russian monarchs. ...


Cultural revolution that followed after the Napoleonic wars, had further opened St. Petersburg up, in spite of repressions. The city's wealth and rapid growth had always attracted prominent intellectuals, scientists, writers and artists. St. Petersburg eventually gained international recognition as a gateway for trade and business, as well as a cosmopolitan cultural hub. The works of Aleksandr Pushkin, Nikolai Gogol, Ivan Turgenev, Fyodor Dostoyevsky and numerous others brought Russian literature to the world. Music, theatre and ballet became firmly established and gained international stature. Aleksandr Pushkin by Vasily Tropinin Aleksandr Sergeyevich Pushkin (Russian: Алекса́ндр Серге́евич Пу́шкин, Aleksandr Sergeevič PuÅ¡kin,  ) (June 6, 1799 [O.S. May 26] – February 10, 1837 [O.S. January 29]) was a Russian Romantic author who is considered to be the greatest Russian poet[1] [2][3] and the founder of modern Russian... Nikolai Vasilievich Gogol (Russian: ; IPA: ; Ukrainian: ) (April 1, 1809 — March 4, 1852) was a Russian-language writer of Ukrainian origin. ... Ivan Turgenev, photo by Félix Nadar (1820-1910) “Turgenev” redirects here. ... Fyodor Dostoevsky. ... For other uses, see Ballet (disambiguation). ...


The son of Tsar Nicholas I, Tsar Alexander II implemented the most challenging reforms[10] undertaken in Russia since the reign of Peter the Great. The emancipation of the serfs (1861) caused the influx of large numbers of poor into the capital. Tenements were erected on the outskirts, and nascent industry sprang up, surpassing Moscow in population and industrial growth. By 1900, St. Petersburg had grown into one of the largest industrial hubs in Europe, an important international center of power, business and politics, and the 4th largest city in Europe. Alexander (Aleksandr) II Nikolaevich (Russian: Александр II Николаевич) (Moscow, 29 April 1818 – 13 March 1881 in St. ... The Emancipation reform of 1861 in Russia performed by tsar Alexander II of Russia amounted to liquidation of serf dependence of Russian peasants. ...


With the growth of industry, radical movements were also astir. Socialist organizations were responsible for the assassinations of many public figures, government officials, members of the royal family, and the Tsar himself. Tsar Alexander II was killed by a suicide bomber Ignacy Hryniewiecki in 1881, in a plot with connections to the family of Lenin and other revolutionaries. The Revolution of 1905 initiated here and spread rapidly into the provinces. During World War I, the name Sankt Peterburg was seen to be too German, so the city was renamed Petrograd.[11] Socialism is a broad array of ideologies and political movements with the goal of a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community for the purposes of increasing social and economic equality and cooperation. ... Alexander (Aleksandr) II Nikolaevich (Russian: Александр II Николаевич) (Moscow, 29 April 1818 – 13 March 1881 in St. ... Ignacy Hryniewiecki (Игнатий Гриневицкий in Russian, or Ignatiy Grinevitskiy) (August of 1855, or fall of 1856 - 1881), Polish-Russian revolutionary, murderer of Tsar Alexander II of Russia. ... Vladimir Ilyich Lenin ( Russian: Влади́мир Ильи́ч Ле́нин  listen?), original surname Ulyanov (Улья́нов) ( April 22 (April 10 ( O.S.)), 1870 – January 21, 1924), was a... ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ...


1917 saw next stages of the Russian Revolution[12], and re-emergence of the Communist party led by Lenin, who declared "Guns give us the power" and "All power to the Soviets!"[13] After the February Revolution, the Tsar Nicholas II was arrested and the Tsar's government was replaced by two opposing centers of political power: the "pro-democracy" Provisional government and the "pro-communist" Petrograd Soviet.[14] Then the Provisional government was overthrown by the Bolsheviks in the October Revolution[15], causing the Russian Civil War. In modern usage, the term communist party is generally used to identify any political party which has adopted communist ideology. ... Vladimir Ilyich Lenin ( Russian: Влади́мир Ильи́ч Ле́нин  listen?), original surname Ulyanov (Улья́нов) ( April 22 (April 10 ( O.S.)), 1870 – January 21, 1924), was a... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Nicholas II can refer to: Pope Nicholas II Tsar Nicholas II of Russia This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The Russian Provisional Government was formed in Petrograd after the deterioration of the Russian Empire and the abdication of the Tsars. ... An assembly of the Petrograd Soviet, 1917 The Petrograd Soviet, or the Petrograd Soviet of Workers and Soldiers Deputies, was the council set up in Petrograd (Saint Petersburg, Russia) in March 1917 as the representative body of the citys workers. ... Bolshevik Party Meeting. ... For other uses, see October Revolution (disambiguation). ... Combatants Local Soviet powers led by Russian SFSR and Red Army Chinese mercenaries White Movement Central Powers (1917-1918): Austria-Hungary Ottoman Empire German Empire Allied Intervention: (1918-1922) Japan Czechoslovakia Greece  United States  Canada Serbia Romania UK  France Foreign volunteers: Polish Italian Local nationalist movements, national states, and decentralist...


The city's proximity to anti-Soviet armies, forced communist leader Vladimir Lenin to move his government to Moscow on March 5, 1918. The move was disguised as temporary, but Moscow has remained the capital ever since. On January 24, 1924, three days after Lenin's death, Petrograd was renamed Leningrad. The Communist party's reason for renaming the city again was that Lenin had led the revolution. Deeper reasons existed at the level of political propaganda: Saint Petersburg had stood as the symbol of capitalist culture and the Tsarist empire, but the Soviet empire needed to destroy that.[16] After the Civil War, and murder of the Tsar Nicholas II and his family, as well as millions of anti-Soviet people, the renaming to Leningrad was designed to destroy last hopes among the resistance, and show strong dictatorship of Lenin's communist party and the Soviet regime. [17] [18] Lenin redirects here. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... This article is about the day. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... is the 24th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the rap album, see 1924 (album). ... In modern usage, the term communist party is generally used to identify any political party which has adopted communist ideology. ... For other uses, see Propaganda (disambiguation). ... Nicholas II can refer to: Pope Nicholas II Tsar Nicholas II of Russia This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


St. Petersburg was devastated by Lenin's Red Terror[19] then by Stalin's Great Purge[20] in addition to crime and vandalism in the series of revolutions and wars. Between 1917 and 1930s, about two million people fled the city, including hundreds of thousands of educated intellectuals and aristocracy, who emigrated to Europe and America. At the same time many political, social and paramilitary groups had followed the communist government in their move to Moscow, as the benefits of capital status had left the city. In 1931 Leningrad administratively separated from Leningrad Oblast. For other uses, see Red Terror (disambiguation). ... The Great Purge (Russian: , transliterated Bolshaya chistka) refers collectively to several related campaigns of political repression and persecution in the Soviet Union orchestrated by Joseph Stalin during the 1930s, which removed all of his remaining opposition from power. ... Leningrad Oblast (Russian: , tr. ...


In 1934 the popular governor of Leningrad, Kirov, was assassinated, because Stalin apparently became increasingly paranoid about Kirov's growth[21]. The death of Kirov was used to ignite the Great Purge[22] where supporters of Trotsky and other suspected "enemies of the Soviet state" were arrested. Then a series of "criminal" cases, known as the Leningrad Centre and Leningrad Affair[23], were fabricated and resulted in death sentences for many top leaders of Leningrad, and severe repressions of thousands of top officials and intellectuals. Sergey Kirov Sergei Mironovich Kirov (Russian: ) (March 27 [O.S. March 15] 1886 – December 1, 1934) was a prominent early Bolshevik leader whose assassination marked the beginning of the Great Purge, the final removal of Joseph Stalins enemies and all remaining Old Bolsheviks from the Soviet government. ... The Great Purge (Russian: , transliterated Bolshaya chistka) refers collectively to several related campaigns of political repression and persecution in the Soviet Union orchestrated by Joseph Stalin during the 1930s, which removed all of his remaining opposition from power. ... The Leningrad Affair (Ленинградское дело in Russian, or Leningradskoye delo), a series of criminal cases, fabricated in the late 1940s–early 1950s in order to accuse a number of prominent members of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union of treason and intention to create an anti-Soviet organization out of the...


Siege of Leningrad

Main article: Siege of Leningrad
People starved and froze to death in Leningrad under the German siege

During World War II, Leningrad was surrounded and besieged by the German Wehrmacht from September 8, 1941 to January 27, 1944, a total of 29 months. By Hitler's order the Wehrmacht constantly shelled and bombed the city and systematically isolated it from any supplies, causing death of more than 1 million civilians in 3 years; 1942 alone saw 650,000 people die. [24]The secret instruction from 23 September 1941 said: "the Führer is determined to eliminate the city of Petersburg from the face of earth. There is no reason whatsoever for subsequent existence of this large-scale city after the neutralization of the Soviet Russia." Starting in early 1942, the Ingermanland region was included into the Generalplan Ost annexation plans as the "German settlement area". This implied the genocide of 3 million Leningrad residents, who had no place in Hitler's "New East European Order". Combatants Germany Spanish Blue Division Soviet Union Commanders Wilhelm von Leeb Georg von Küchler Agustín Muñoz Grandes Kliment Voroshilov Georgiy Zhukov Strength 725,000 930,000 Casualties Unknown Red Army: 332,059 KIA 24,324 non-combat dead 111,142 missing 16,470 civilians 1 million civilians... Image File history File links Blokada_01. ... Image File history File links Blokada_01. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The straight-armed Balkenkreuz, a stylized version of the Iron Cross, the emblem of the Wehrmacht. ... is the 251st day of the year (252nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... is the 27th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Ingria may be seen represented in the easternmost part of the Carta Marina (1539) Ingria (Finnish: , Russian: , Swedish: , Estonian: ) is a historical region, now situated mostly in Russia, comprising the area along the basin of the river Neva, between the Gulf of Finland, the Narva River, Lake Peipsi in the... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Hitler ordered preparations for victory celebrations at the Tsar's Palaces. The Nazis looted art from museums and palaces, as well as from private homes. All looted treasures, such as the Amber Room, gold statues of Peterhof, paintings and other valuable art were taken to Germany. Hitler also prepared a party to celebrate his victory at the hotel Astoria. A printed invitation to Hitler's reception ball at the Hotel Astoria is now on display at the City Museum of St. Petersburg. Adolf Hitler Adolf Hitler (April 20, 1889 – April 30, 1945, standard German pronunciation in the IPA) was the Führer (leader) of the National Socialist German Workers Party (Nazi Party) and of Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945. ... The original Amber Room (Russian Янтарная комната, German: ) in the Catherine Palace of Tsarskoye Selo near Saint Petersburg was a complete chamber decoration of amber panels backed with gold leaf and mirrors. ... Peterhof (Russian: , Petergof, originally named Peterhof: Peters Court), is a series of palaces and gardens, laid out on the orders of Peter the Great, and sometimes called the Russian Versailles. It is located about twenty kilometers west and six kilometers south of St. ...


During the Nazi siege of 1941 - 1944, the only ways to supply the city, and suburbs, inhabited by several millions, were by aircraft or by cars crossing the frozen Lake Ladoga. The Nazis systematically shelled this route, called the Road of Life, so thousands of cars with people and food supplies had sank in the lake. The situation in the city was especially horrible in the winter of 1941 - 1942. The German bombing raids destroyed most of the food reserves. Daily food ration was cut in October to 400 grams of bread for a worker and 200 grams for a woman or child. On 20 November 1941, the rations were reduced to 250 and 125 grams respectively. Those grams of bread were the bulk of a daily meal for a person in the city. The water supply was destroyed. The situation further worsened in winter due to lack of heating fuel. In December 1941 alone some 53,000 people in Leningrad died of starvation, many corpses were scattered in the streets all over the city. Map of lake Ladoga Towpath Bridge between Lake Ladoga and Lake Onega (from a photograph taken ca. ... Supply trucks on their way to Leningrad on the Road of Life The Road of Life (Russian: Дорога жизни, doroga zhizni) was the transport route across the frozen Lake Ladoga, which provided the only access to the besieged city of Leningrad in the winter months during the Great Patriotic War. ... is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ...


"Savichevs died. Everyone died. Only Tanya is left," wrote 11-year-old Leningrad girl Tanya Savicheva in her diary. This diary became one of the symbols of the blockade tragedy and was shown as one of many documents at the Nuremberg trials. Tatyana Nikolayevna Savicheva (Russian: Татьяна Николаевна Савичева), commonly referred to as Tanya Savicheva (Таня Савичева) (January 25, 1930 - July 1, 1944) was a Russian child diarist who died during the Siege of Leningrad during World War II. The diary that survives her is brief yet heartbreaking. ... For the 1947 Soviet film about the trials, see Nuremberg Trials (film). ...


The city suffered severe destruction - the Wehrmacht fired about 150,000 shells at Leningrad and the Luftwaffe dropped about 100,000 air bombs. Many houses, schools, hospitals and other buildings were leveled, and those in the occupied territory were plundered by German troops.


As a result of the Nazi siege, about 1.2 million of 3 million Leningrad civilians lost their lives because of bombardment, starvation, infections and stress. Hundreds of thousands of unregistered civilians, who lived in Leningrad prior to WWII, had perished in the Nazi siege without any record at all. About 1 million civilians escaped with evacuation, mainly by foot. After two years of the siege, Leningrad became an empty "ghost-city" with thousands of ruined and abandoned homes.


Historians speak about the Nazi genocide of the Leningrad residents in terms of the "racially motivated starvation policy" which became the integral part of the unprecedented German war of extermination against the civilian population of the Soviet Union. [25] National Socialism redirects here. ... For other uses, see Genocide (disambiguation). ...


For the heroic resistance of the city and tenacity of the survivors of the Nazi Siege, Leningrad was the first city in the former USSR awarded the title Hero City in 1945. Hero City (город-герой or gorod-geroy in Russian) is an honorary title awarded to twelve cities and one city-fortress in the Soviet Union for outstanding heroism during the Great Patriotic War of 1941 to 1945. ...


After the war

The war damaged the city and killed many old Petersburgers who had not fled after the revolution and did not perish in the mass purges before the war. Nonetheless, Leningrad and many of its suburbs were rebuilt over the post-war decades, partially according to the pre-war plans. In 1950 the Kirov Stadium was opened and soon set a record when 110,000 fans attended a football match. In 1955 the Leningrad Metro, the second underground rapid transit system in the country, was opened with its first seven stations decorated with marble and bronze. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (380x2112, 124 KB) Saint Petersburg TV tower as seen from the Medikov street. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (380x2112, 124 KB) Saint Petersburg TV tower as seen from the Medikov street. ... Saint Petersburg TV Tower as seen from the Medikov street The Saint Petersburg TV Tower is a 310 metre high lattice steel tower in Saint Petersburg, Russia. ... Kirov Stadium SM Kirov Stadion is a multi-use stadium in St. ... Saint Petersburg Metro (Russian: ) is an underground rapid transit system in Saint Petersburg, Russia. ...


However, during the late 1940s and 1950s, the entire political and cultural elite of Leningrad suffered from more harsh repressions under dictatorship of Stalin[26], hundreds were executed and thousands were imprisoned in repressions known as the Leningrad Affair.[27]Independent thinkers, writers, artists and other intellectuals were attacked, magazines "Zvezda" and "Leningrad" were banned, Akhmatova and Zoshchenko were repressed[28], and tens of thousands Leningraders were exiled to Siberia. More crackdowns on the Leningrad's intellectual elite, known as the "Second Leningrad affair", were part of the economic policies of the Soviet state. Leningrad's economy was producing about 6% of the USSR GNP, having less than 2% of the country's population, but such economic efficiency was negated by the Soviet Communist Party which diverted the income from people of Leningrad to other Soviet places and programs. As a result during the 1960s, 1970s and 1980s, the city of Leningrad was seriously underfunded in favor of Moscow. Leningrad suffered from the imbalanced distribution of wealth because the Soviet leadership drained the city's resources to subsidise higher standards of living in Moscow as well as some underperforming parts of the Soviet Union and beyond. Such redistribution of wealth caused struggle within the Soviet government and Communist Party, which lead to their fragmentation and played a role in the eventual collapse of the USSR.[citation needed] The Leningrad Affair (Ленинградское дело in Russian, or Leningradskoye delo), a series of criminal cases, fabricated in the late 1940s–early 1950s in order to accuse a number of prominent members of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union of treason and intention to create an anti-Soviet organization out of the... Akhmatova in 1922 (Portrait by Kuzma Petrov-Vodkin) Anna Akhmatova (Russian: , real name А́нна Андре́евна Горе́нко) (June 23 [O.S. June 11] 1889 — March 5, 1966) was the pen name of Anna Andreevna Gorenko, the leader and the heart and soul of the Saint Petersburg tradition of Russian poetry for half a century. ... Mikhail Mikhailovich Zoshchenko (1895 - 1958) was a Russian satirist of the Soviet period. ... Measures of national income and output are used in economics to estimate the value of goods and services produced in an economy. ... The Communist Party of the Soviet Union ( Russian: Коммунисти́ческая Па́ртия Сове́тского Сою́за = &#1050...


On June 12, 1991, the day of the first Russian presidential election, in a referendum 54% of voters chose to restore "the original name, Saint Petersburg, on September 6, 1991. In the same election Anatoly Sobchak became the first democratically elected mayor of the city.[29] Among the first initiatives of Sobchak was his efforts to minimise the federal control by Moscow to keep the income from St. Petersburg's economy in the city. is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... Presidential elections were held in the Russian Federation on June 12, 1991. ... is the 249th day of the year (250th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... Official photography of Anatoly Sobchack as Mayor of Saint Petersburg Anatoly Alexandrovich Sobchak (Russian: , August 10, 1937 - February 20, 2000) was a Russian politician, co-author of Constitution of the Russian Federation, first democratically-elected Mayor of Saint-Petersburg and mentor of Vladimir Putin. ... // From 16 May 1703 -------------> Saint Petersburg From 19 Jul 1914 -------------> Petrograd From 26 Jan 1924 -------------> Leningrad From 6 Sep 1991 -------------> Saint Petersburg Chairpersons of the Executive Committee: 25 Oct 1917 - 11 Dec 1917: Lev Davydovich Trotsky (b. ...


Original names returned to 39 streets, six bridges, three Saint Petersburg Metro stations and six parks. Older people sometimes use old names and old mailing addresses. The name Leningrad was heavily promoted in media, mainly in connection with the siege, so even authorities may call it "Hero city Leningrad." Young people may use Leningrad as a vague protest against some social and economic changes. A popular ska punk band from Saint Petersburg is called Leningrad Official Logo The Saint Petersburg Metro (Russian: ) is an underground rapid transit system in Saint Petersburg, Russia. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Leningrad in San Francisco, June 2003 Leningrad (Ленинград in Russian) is a Russian ska punk band from Saint Petersburg (formerly Leningrad). ...


Leningrad Oblast retained its name after a popular vote. It is a separate federal subject of Russia of which the city of St. Petersburg is the capital. Leningrad Oblast (Russian: , tr. ... Russia is a federation which consists of 89 subjects (Russian: субъект(ы); English transliteration: subyekty, sing. ...


In 1996, Vladimir Yakovlev was elected the head of the Saint Petersburg City Administration, and changed his title from "mayor" to "governor." In 2003, Yakovlev resigned a year before his second term expired. Valentina Matviyenko was elected governor. In 2006 she was reapproved as governor by the city legislature. Vladimir Anatolyevich Yakovlev (Russian: Владимир Анатольевич Яковлев) (born November 25, 1944, in Olyokminsk, Yakutia, Soviet Union) is a Russian politician. ... The Saint Petersburg City Administration is the superior executive body of Saint Petersburg (formerly Leningrad), Russian Federation. ... Valentina Ivanovna Matviyenko (Russian: , b. ... The building of the Assembly, Mariinsky Palace The Saint Petersburg Legislative Assembly (Russian: ) is the legislative power body of Saint Petersburg, Federal subject of Russia, which has existed since 1994 and succeeded the Leningrad Council of People Deputies (Lensovet). ...


The Constitutional Court of Russia is scheduled to move to the former Senate and Synod buildings at the Decembrists Square in St. Petersburg by 2008. The move will partially restore Saint Petersburg's historic status, making the city the second judicial capital. Constitutional Court of Russian Federation (Russian: Конституционный Суд Российской Федерации) is a high court which is empowered to rule on whether or not certain laws or presidential decrees are in fact contrary to the Constitution of Russia. ... The Bronze Horseman Saint Isaacs Cathedral Decembrists Square russian: Площадь Декабристов is a city square in Saint Petersburgs Central Business District. ...


Geography

Further information: Geography of Saint Petersburg
Satellite picture of St. Peterburg
Satellite picture of St. Peterburg
Territory of the federal subject of St. Petersburg
Territory of the federal subject of St. Petersburg

The area of Saint Petersburg city proper is 605.8 km². The area of the federal subject is 1439 km², which contains the Saint Petersburg proper, and suburban towns (Kolpino, Krasnoye Selo, Kronstadt, Lomonosov, Pavlovsk, Peterhof, Pushkin, Sestroretsk and Zelenogorsk), all together over 20 municipalities and rural localities. Saint Petersburg is a city and a federal subject located in Northwestern Federal District of Russia on the Neva River at the east end of the Gulf of Finland on the Baltic Sea. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1280 × 958 pixel, file size: 199 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Saint Petersburg from space. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1280 × 958 pixel, file size: 199 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Saint Petersburg from space. ... Image File history File links Spb-locator. ... Image File history File links Spb-locator. ... Kolpino (Колпино in Russian) is a city in the Federal City of Saint Petersburg in Russia, located on the Izhora River (Nevas tributary) some 26 km southeast of St. ... Krasnoye Selo may also refer to a village formerly known as Hohensalzburg in Kaliningrad Oblast Krasnoye Selo (Russian: , lit. ... 1888 map of the Kronstadt bay Kronstadt (Russian: ), also spelled Kronshtadt, Cronstadt (German: for Crown and Stadt for City) is a Russian seaport town, located on Kotlin Island, thirty kilometers west of Saint Petersburg near the head of the Gulf of Finland. ... Lomonosov (Ломоно́сов), formerly Oranienbaum (Ораниенба́ум), is a city and in northwestern Russia, on the shore of the Bay of Finland west of St. ... Pavlovsk (Russian: Павловск) is a town situated in the Leningrad oblast, Russia, 30 km from St. ... Peterhof (Russian: , Petergof, originally named Peterhof: Peters Court), is a series of palaces and gardens, laid out on the orders of Peter the Great, and sometimes called the Russian Versailles. It is located about twenty kilometers west and six kilometers south of St. ... Pushkin is a town in Russia that is located 24 kilometres south of Saint Petersburg, at 59°44′N 30°23′E. The town was founded in the 18th century as the summer residence of the Russian tsars under the name Tsarskoye Selo (Royal Village). ... Sestroretsk (Сестрорецк in Russian) is a town in the Kurortny District of St. ... Zelenogorsk (Russian: ) is a town under jurisdiction of Saint Petersburg, Russia, located in part of the Karelian Isthmus on the shore of the Gulf of Finland. ...


Saint Petersburg is situated on the middle taiga lowlands along the shores of the Neva Bay of the Gulf of Finland, and islands of the river delta. The largest are Vasilyevsky island (besides the artificial island between Obvodny canal and Fontanka, and Kotlin in the Neva Bay), Petrogradsky, Dekabristov and Krestovsky. The latter together with Yelagin and Kamenny island are covered mostly by parks. For other uses, see Taiga (disambiguation). ... The Baltic Sea The Gulf of Finland is an arm of the Baltic Sea that extends between Finland (to the north) and Estonia (to the south) all the way to the city of Saint Petersburg in Russia, where the river Neva drains into it. ... Vasilievsky Island is a district of Saint Petersburg, bordered by the rivers Bolshaya Neva and Malaya Neva (in the delta of Neva) from South and Northeast, and by the Gulf of Finland from the West. ... Fontanka River in the 1820s. ... Kotlin (or Kettle; Finnish Retusaari, or Rat Island) is a Russian island, located near the head of the Gulf of Finland, 20 miles west of Saint Petersburg in the Baltic Sea. ... Yelagin Island - boat pond on Yelagin Island Yelagin Island (Yelagin Ostrov, Russian: ) is an island at the mouth of the Neva River which is part of St. ... For another Kamenny Island, see Kamenny Monastery View of Kamenny Island Palace (1803), by Semyon Shchedrin. ...


The Karelian Isthmus, north of the city, is a popular resort area. In the south Saint Petersburg crosses the Baltic-Ladoga Klint and meets the Izhora Heights. The Karelian Isthmus is the narrow stretch of land between the Gulf of Finland and Lake Ladoga in northwestern Russia. ...


The elevation of Saint Petersburg ranges from the sea level to its highest point of 175.9 m (577') at the Orekhovaya hill in the Duderhof Heights in the south. Part of the city's territory west of Liteyny Prospekt, is no higher than 4 m above sea level, and has suffered from numerous floods. Floods in Saint Petersburg are triggered by a long wave in the Baltic Sea, caused by meteorological conditions, winds and shallowness of the Neva Bay. The most disastrous floods occurred in 1824 (421 cm above sea-level[30]), 1924 (380 cm), 1777 (321cm), 1955 (293 cm) and 1975 (281 cm). To prevent floods, the Saint Petersburg Dam has been under construction since 1979.[31] For considerations of sea level change, in particular rise associated with possible global warming, see sea level rise. ... Liteyny Prospekt (Russian: ) is a major street in the Central Business District of Saint Petersburg. ... Floods in Saint Petersburg are due to the Neva River delta and the eastern part of Neva Bay. ... The dam is constructed across the Neva Bay, with the island of Kronstadt at its center The Saint Petersburg Dam, sometimes called the Leningrad Dam or the Kronstadt Dam, is a flood control dam currently under construction outside Saint Petersburg, Russia - from Lomonosov to Kronstadt and from Kronstadt to Lisy...


Since the 18th century the terrain in the city has been raised artificially, at some places by more than 4 m, making mergers of several islands, and changing the hydrology of the city.


Besides Neva and its distributaries, other important rivers of the federal subject of Saint Petersburg are Sestra, Okhta and Izhora. The largest lake is Sestroretsky Razliv in the north, followed by Lakhtinsky Razliv, Suzdal Lakes and other smaller lakes. Sestra River, also known as Rajajoki in Finnish (Сестра in Russian) is a river in the Leningrad Oblast in Russia. ... For other uses, see Okhta. ... River Izhora, in English also known as River Inger, is the main tributary to River Neva on its run through Ingria in western-most Russia from Lake Ladoga to Gulf of Finland. ...


St. Petersburg's position on the latitude of ca. 60° N, causes variation in day length across seasons, ranging from 5:53 to 18:50. Twilight may last all night in early summer, from June to mid-July, the celebrated phenomenon known as the white nights. This article is about the geographical term. ... Day length as a function of latitude and Julian day. ... For other uses, see Twilight (disambiguation). ... The White Nights are a short late Spring and early Summer period in high latitude areas in the few weeks around the Summer solstice in June. ...


Climate

Saint Petersburg experiences a humid continental climate of the cool summer subtype (Köppen: Dfb), due to the distinct moderating influence of the Baltic Sea cyclons. Summers are typically cool, humid and quite short, while winters are long, cold, but with frequent warm spells. The average daily temperature in July is 22C (72 F), summer maximum is about 34C (94F), winter minimum is about -27 °C (-17 °F), the record low temperature is -35.9 °C (-33 °F), recorded in 1883. The average wholeyear temperature is +4 °C (39 °F). The River Neva within the city limits usually freezes up in November-December, break-up occurs in April. From December to March there are 123 days average with snow cover, which reaches the average of 24 cm (9.5") by February. The frost-free period in the city lasts on average for about 135 days. The city has a climate slightly warmer than its suburbs. Weather conditions are quite variable all year round.[32] The humid continental climate is a climate found over large areas of land masses in the temperate regions of the mid-latitudes where there is a zone of conflict between polar and tropical air masses. ... The Köppen Climate Classifications are the standard incriments by which geographers and climatologists classify the climate of a particular part of the world. ... For other uses, see Baltic (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Average annual precipitation varies across the city, averaging 600 mm per year and reaching maximum in late summer. Soil moisture is almost always high because of lower evapotranspiration due to the cool climate. air humidity is 78% on average, overcast is 165 days a year on average. Evapotranspiration (ET) is the sum of evaporation and plant transpiration. ... A hygrometer used to measure the humidity of air. ...

Weather averages for Saint Petersburg
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 8.6 (47) 10.2 (50) 14.9 (59) 25.3 (78) 30.9 (88) 34.6 (94) 34.3 (94) 33.5 (92) 30.4 (87) 21.0 (70) 12.3 (54) 10.9 (52) 34.6 (94)
Average high °C (°F) -4.8 (23) -4.6 (24) 0.0 (32) 7.4 (45) 14.7 (58) 19.4 (67) 22.0 (72) 20.1 (68) 14.5 (58) 7.7 (46) 1.6 (35) -2.5 (28) 8.1 (47)
Average low °C (°F) -10.5 (13) -10.6 (13) -6.9 (20) -0.2 (32) 5.7 (42) 10.8 (51) 13.9 (57) 12.5 (55) 7.9 (46) 2.8 (37) -2.4 (28) -7.3 (19) 1.4 (35)
Record low °C (°F) -35.9 (-33) -35.2 (-31) -29.9 (-22) -21.8 (-7) -6.6 (20) 0.1 (32) 4.9 (41) 1.3 (34) -3.1 (26) -12.9 (9) -22.2 (-8) -34.4 (-30) -35.9 (-33)
Precipitation mm (inch) 37 (1.5) 30 (1.2) 34 (1.3) 33 (1.3) 37 (1.5) 57 (2.2) 77 (3) 80 (3.1) 69 (2.7) 66 (2.6) 55 (2.2) 50 (2) 625 (24.6)
Source: Pogoda.ru.net[33] 29.07.2007

Demographics

Further information: Demographics of Saint Petersburg
Population history of Saint Petersburg
Population history of Saint Petersburg [34][35]

Saint Petersburg is the second largest city in Russia. 2002 census recorded population of the federal subject 4,661,219, or 3.21% of the total population of Russia. The 2002 census recorded twenty-two ethnic groups of more than two thousand persons each. The ethnic composition was: Russian 84.72% • Ukrainian 1.87% • Belarusians 1.17% • Jewish 0.78% • Tatar 0.76% • Armenian 0.41% • Azeri 0.36% • Georgian 0.22% • Chuvash 0.13% • Polish 0.10% and many other smaller ethnic groups. 7.89% of the inhabitants declined to state their ethnicity.[36] Satellite picture of St. ... Image File history File links Saint_Petersburg_population_history. ... Image File history File links Saint_Petersburg_population_history. ... Russian Census of 2002 (Russian: ) was the first census of Russian Federation carried out on October 9, 2002. ... Languages Historical Jewish languages Hebrew, Yiddish, Ladino, others Liturgical languages: Hebrew and Aramaic Predominant spoken languages: The vernacular language of the home nation in the Diaspora, significantly including English, Hebrew, Yiddish, and Russian Religions Judaism Related ethnic groups Arabs and other Semitic groups For the Jewish religion, see Judaism. ... This article is about the people. ... Aside from a large Azeri community that is native to Russias Dagestan Republic, the majority of Azeris in Russia are fairly recent immigrants. ... The Chuvash are a bunch of pakis . ...


The 20th century saw hectic ups and downs in population. From 2.4 million in 1916 it had dropped to less than 740 thousand by 1920 during the Russian Revolution of 1917 and Russian Civil War. The sizeable minorities of Germans, Poles, Finns, Estonians and Latvians were almost completely expelled from Leningrad by the Soviet government.[37] From 1941 to the end of 1943, population dropped from 3 million to less than 700 thousand, as people died in battles, starved to death during the Siege of Leningrad, or were evacuated. After the siege, some of the evacuees returned, but most influx was due to migration from other parts of the Soviet Union. The city absorbed 3 million people in the 1950s and grew over 5 million in the 1980s. From 1991 to 2006 the city's population decreased to current 4.6 million, while the suburban population increased due to privatization of land and massive move to suburbs.[34][38] Birth rate remains lower than death rate, people over 65 make more than 20% of population, and the median age is about 40 years.[39] The Russian Revolution of 1917 was a series of political and social upheavals in Russia, involving first the overthrow of the tsarist autocracy, and then the overthrow of the liberal and moderate-socialist Provisional Government, resulting in the establishment of Soviet power under the control of the Bolshevik party. ... Combatants Local Soviet powers led by Russian SFSR and Red Army Chinese mercenaries White Movement Central Powers (1917-1918): Austria-Hungary Ottoman Empire German Empire Allied Intervention: (1918-1922) Japan Czechoslovakia Greece  United States  Canada Serbia Romania UK  France Foreign volunteers: Polish Italian Local nationalist movements, national states, and decentralist... Not by Their Own Will. ... Combatants Germany Spanish Blue Division Soviet Union Commanders Wilhelm von Leeb Georg von Küchler Agustín Muñoz Grandes Kliment Voroshilov Georgiy Zhukov Strength 725,000 930,000 Casualties Unknown Red Army: 332,059 KIA 24,324 non-combat dead 111,142 missing 16,470 civilians 1 million civilians...


People in urban Saint Petersburg live mostly in apartments. Between 1918 and 1990s, the Soviets nationalised housing and forced residents to share communal apartments (kommunalkas). With 68% living in shared flats in the 1930s, Leningrad was the largest city in the USSR by the number of kommunalkas. Resettling residents of kommunalkas is now on the way, albeit shared apartments are still not uncommon. As new boroughs were built on the outskirts in the 1950s-1980s, over half a million low income families eventually received free apartments, and additional hundred thousand condos were purchased by the middle class. While economic and social activity is concentrated in the historic city centre, the richest part of Saint Petersburg, most people live in the commuter areas. Nationalization is the act of taking assets into state ownership. ... Kommunalka (коммуналка) - is a shared apartament in Russia. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


For the first half of 2007, the birth rate was 9.1 per 1000 [17]


Government

Further information: Government in Saint Petersburg
Mariinsky Palace, the seat of the Assembly
Mariinsky Palace, the seat of the Assembly

Saint Petersburg is a federal subject of Russia[40]. The political life of Saint Petersburg is regulated by the city charter adopted by the city legislature in 1998.[41] The superior executive body is the Saint Petersburg City Administration, led by the governor (mayor before 1996). Saint Petersburg has a single-chamber legislature, the Saint Petersburg Legislative Assembly. Quarenghis original design for the Smolny Institute, the office of the Governor Mariinsky Palace, the seat of the Assembly Saint Petersburg is a federal subject of Russia[1]. The political life of Saint Petersburg is regulated by the city charter adopted by the city legislature in 1998. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 267 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I, the copyright holder of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 267 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I, the copyright holder of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... The façade of the Mariinsky Palace is executed in a local reddish-brown sandstone. ... Russia is a federation which consists of 89 subjects (Russian: субъект(ы); English transliteration: subyekty, sing. ... The Saint Petersburg City Administration is the superior executive body of Saint Petersburg (formerly Leningrad), Russian Federation. ... // From 16 May 1703 -------------> Saint Petersburg From 19 Jul 1914 -------------> Petrograd From 26 Jan 1924 -------------> Leningrad From 6 Sep 1991 -------------> Saint Petersburg Chairpersons of the Executive Committee: 25 Oct 1917 - 11 Dec 1917: Lev Davydovich Trotsky (b. ... The building of the Assembly, Mariinsky Palace The Saint Petersburg Legislative Assembly (Russian: ) is the legislative power body of Saint Petersburg, Federal subject of Russia, which has existed since 1994 and succeeded the Leningrad Council of People Deputies (Lensovet). ...


According to the federal law passed in 2004, heads of federal subjects, including the governor of Saint Petersburg, are nominated by the President of Russia and approved by local legislatures. If the legislature disapproves the nominee, it is dissolved. The current governor, Valentina Matviyenko was approved according to the new system in December 2006. The President of Russia (Russian: ) is the Head of State and highest office within the Government of Russia. ... Valentina Ivanovna Matviyenko (Russian: , b. ...


Saint Petersburg city is currently divided into eighteen districts. City administrative districts: Admiralteysky (Адмиралте́йский) with 6 municipal districts under the city administrative districts jurisdiction. ...


Saint Petersburg is also the administrative center of Leningrad Oblast, and of the Northwestern Federal District[42]. Leningrad Oblast (Russian: , tr. ... Northwestern Federal District (Russian: Се́веро-За́падный федера́льный о́круг; tr. ...


Saint Petersburg and Leningrad Oblast, being two different federal subjects, share a number of local departments of federal executive agencies and courts, such as court of arbitration, police, FSB, postal service, drug enforcement administration, penitentiary service, federal registration service, and other federal services. Emblem of FSB The FSB (ФСБ) is a state security organization in Russia, and is the domestic successor organization to the KGB. Its name is an acronym from the Russian Federal Security Service of the Russian Federation (Федера́льная слу́жба безопа́сности Росси́йской Федера́ции) (Federalnaya Sluzhba Bezopasnosti Rossiyskoi Federatsii). ...


Crime

The Kresty prison
The Kresty prison

As in other large Russian cities, Saint Petersburg experiences fairly high levels of Street crime and bribery. In addition, in recent years there has been a noticeable increase in racially motivated violence. On the other hand, unlike in Moscow, there have been no major terrorist attacks in St. Petersburg in recent years.[43] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 353 pixelsFull resolution (1120 × 494 pixel, file size: 170 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 353 pixelsFull resolution (1120 × 494 pixel, file size: 170 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Bribery is a crime implying a sum or gift given alters the behaviour of the person in ways not consistent with the duties of that person. ...


In the end of the 1980s – beginning of the 1990s Leningrad became home to a number of gangs, such as Tambov Gang, Malyshev Gang, Kazan Gang and ethnic criminal groups, engaged in a racket, extortion and violent clashes with each other.[43] The Tambov Gang (in Russian: Тамбовская преступная группировка) is a large, arguably the most powerful gang of Saint Petersburg, Russia, according to common allegations, organized in Leningrad (former name of St. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Extortion is a criminal offense, which occurs when a person either obtains money, property or services from another through coercion or intimidation or threatens one with physical harm unless they are paid money or property. ...


After the sensational assassinations of City Property Committee Chairman Mikhail Manevich (1997), State Duma deputy Galina Starovoytova (1998), acting City Legislature Speaker Viktor Novosyolov (1999) and a number of prominent businesspeople, Saint Petersburg was dubbed capital of crime in the Russian press.[44][45] For other uses, see State Duma (disambiguation). ... Galina Vasilyevna Starovoitova (Галина Васильевна Старовойтова) (17 May 1946, Chelyabinsk - November 20, 1998 St Petersburg) was a Russian politician and ethnographer known for her work to protect ethnic minorities and promote democratic reforms in Russia. ...


Economy

Further information: Economy of Saint Petersburg
Former Saint Petersburg Bourse
Former Saint Petersburg Bourse

St. Petersburg is a major trade gateway, financial and industrial center of Russia specialising in oil and gas trade, shipbuilding yards, aerospace industry, radio and electronics, software and computers; machine building, heavy machinery and transport, including tanks and other military equipment, mining, instrument manufacture, ferrous and nonferrous metallurgy (production of aluminium alloys), chemicals, pharmaceuticals, medical equipment, publishing and printing, food and catering, wholesale and retail, textile and apparel industries, and many other businesses. It was also home to Lessner, one of Russia's two pioneering automobile manufacturers (along with Russo-Baltic), Lessner; founded by machine tool and boiler maker G. A. Lessner in 1904, with designs by Boris Loutsky, it survived until 1910.[46] Former Saint Petersburg Bourse The busy St Petersburg docks at dawn St. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 584 pixelsFull resolution (946 × 691 pixel, file size: 147 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 584 pixelsFull resolution (946 × 691 pixel, file size: 147 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... The Old Bourse seen from the Neva River The old Saint Petersburg Bourse is the one of the most important monuments of the Greek Revival not only in the capital of Imperial Russia but in the whole of the Russian Empire and the world. ... Look up aerospace in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the engineering discipline. ... Computer software (or simply software) refers to one or more computer programs and data held in the storage of a computer for some purpose. ... The tower of a personal computer. ... A machine is any mechanical or electrical device that transmits or modifies energy to perform or assist in the performance of tasks. ... This article is about mineral extractions. ... For other uses, see Tool (disambiguation). ... Georg Agricola, author of De re metallica, an important early book on metal extraction Metallurgy is a domain of materials science that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements, their intermetallic compounds, and their compounds, which are called alloys. ... Aluminum redirects here. ... A chemical substance is any material substance used in or obtained by a process in chemistry: A chemical compound is a substance consisting of two or more chemical elements that are chemically combined in fixed proportions. ... Pharmacology (in Greek: pharmacon is drug, and logos is science) is the study of how chemical substances interfere with living systems. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... “Publisher” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Print. ... A professionally catered event Catering is the business of providing food service at a remote site. ... Wholesaling consists of the sale of goods/merchandise to retailers, to industrial, commercial, institutional, or other professional business users or to other wholesalers and related subordinated services. ... Drawing of a self-service store. ... For other uses, see Textile (disambiguation). ... Clothing protects the vulnerable nude human body from the extremes of weather, other features of our environment, and for safety reasons. ... “Car” and “Cars” redirect here. ... A machine tool is a powered mechanical device, typically used to fabricate metal components of machines by machining, which is the selective removal of metal. ... A boiler is a closed vessel in which water or other fluid is heated. ...


10% of the world's power turbines are made here at the LMZ, which built over two thousand turbines for power plants across the world. Major local industries are Admiralty Shipyard, Baltic Shipyard, LOMO, Kirov Plant, Elektrosila, Izhorsky Zavod; also registered in St. Petersburg are Gazprom Neft[citation needed], Sovkomflot, Petersburg Fuel Company and SIBUR among other major Russian and international companies. A Siemens steam turbine with the case opened. ... Logo of Leningradsky Metallichesky Zavod Leningradsky Metallichesky Zavod (Russian: ), also known as LMZ, is the largest Russian manufacturer of power machines and turbines for electric power stations. ... The Admiralty Shipyards is one of the oldest and largest shipyards in Russia, located in Saint Petersburg. ... The Baltic Shipyard (Baltiysky Zavod, formerly Shipyard-189) is one of the oldest shipyards in Russia. ... Lomo is an Italian cured meat made from a pork tenderloin. ... A 1923 Soviet stamp featured the Soviet Fordson Logo of Kirov Plant The Kirov Plant or Kirov Factory is a major Russian machine-building plant in St. ... Flag of Izhorsky Zavod Izhorsky Zavod is a major manufacturing plant located in Kolpino, Saint Petersburg. ... Gazprom Neft (Russian: Газпром нефть), until 2005 called Sibneft (Russian: Сибнефть), is Russias fifth largest oil producing and refining company. ... Sovkomflot (Russian: , Modern Commercial Fleet) is the largest Russian sea shipping company, founded in 1995. ... The Petersburg Fuel Company (PTK, in Russian: Петербургская топливная компания, ПТК) is a joint stock company of Saint Petersburg, Russia, specializing mostly in gasoline refining, storage, transportation and retailing, founded in September 1994 after a fuel supply crisis had hit the city hard. ...

The busy St Petersburg docks at dawn
The busy St Petersburg docks at dawn

St. Petersburg has three large cargo seaports: Bolshoi Port St. Petersburg, Kronstadt, and Lomonosov. International cruise liners are served at the passenger port at Morskoy Vokzal on the west end of the Vasilevsky Island. A complex system of riverports on both banks of the Neva river are interconnected with the system of seaports, thus making St. Petersburg the main link between the Baltic sea and the rest of Russia through the Volga-Baltic Waterway. ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1097x1594, 223 KB) Summary The Industrial docks of St Petersburg in the morning smog; picture taken by R Neil Marshman (c) August 2005 Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1097x1594, 223 KB) Summary The Industrial docks of St Petersburg in the morning smog; picture taken by R Neil Marshman (c) August 2005 Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to... This table lists statistics (2002) (GdaÅ„sk, Gdynia, ÅšwinoujÅ›cie, Szczecin, Helsinki and Tallinn 2004)( KlaipÄ—da 2005) for the major ports of the Baltic Sea. ... 1888 map of the Kronstadt bay Kronstadt (Russian: ), also spelled Kronshtadt, Cronstadt (German: for Crown and Stadt for City) is a Russian seaport town, located on Kotlin Island, thirty kilometers west of Saint Petersburg near the head of the Gulf of Finland. ... The name Lomonosov may refer to: Mikhail Lomonosov, a polymath and writer of Imperial Russia Lomonosov Gold Medal, an annual award given by the Russian Academy of Sciences Lomonosov, Russia, a city named for Mikhail Lomonosov (formerly Oranienbaum) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other... Spit of the Vasilievsky island Vasilievsky Island is a district of Saint Petersburg, bordered by the rivers Bolshaya Neva and Malaya Neva (in the delta of Neva) from South and Northeast, and by the Gulf of Finland from the West. ... River Neva (Нева́) is a 74 km long Russian river flowing from the Lake Ladoga (Ладожское Озеро - Ladozhskoye Ozero) through the Carelian Isthmus (Карельский &#1055... For other uses, see Baltic (disambiguation). ... Volga-Baltic Waterway, formerly known as the Mariinsk Canal System, is a series of canals and rivers in Russia which link the Volga River with the Baltic Sea. ...


The Saint Petersburg Mint (Monetny Dvor), founded in 1724, is one of the largest mints in the world, it mints Russian coins, medals and badges. St. Petersburg is also home to the oldest and largest Russian foundry, Monumentskulptura, which made thousands of sculptures and statues that are now gracing public parks of St. Petersburg, as well as many other cties. Monuments and bronze statues of the Tsars, as well as other important historic figures and dignitaries, and other world famous monuments, such as the sculptures by Peter Clodt von Jürgensburg, Paolo Troubetzkoy, Pavel Antokolsky, and others, were made here. Saint Petersburg Mint (Russian: ) is one of the worlds largest mints. ... A mint is a facility which manufactures coins for currency. ... ISO 4217 Code RUB User(s) Russia and self-proclaimed Abkhazia and South Ossetia Inflation 7% Source Rosstat, 2007 Subunit 1/100 kopek (копейка) Symbol руб kopek (копейка) к Plural The language(s) of this currency is of the Slavic languages. ... A medal is a small metal object, usually engraved with insignia, that is awarded to a person for athletic, military, scientific, academic or some other kind of achievement. ... For other uses, see Badge (disambiguation) NY NJ Port Authority Police Department Badge. ... Klodts statues in front of the royal palace in Naples. ... Paolo Troubetzkoy (Intra, 15 February 1866 - Pallanza, 12 February 1938), also known as Paul, was an artist. ... Pavel Antokolsky (1896-1978) - a Russian poet. ...


Toyota is building a plant in Shuishary, one of the suburbs; General Motors and Nissan have signed deals with the Russian government too. Automotive and parts industry is on the rise here during the last decade. Saint Petersburg is known as a "beer capital" of Russia, due to the supply and quality of local water, contributing over 30% of the domestic production of beer with its five large-scale breweries including Europe's second largest brewery Baltika, Vena (both operated by BBH), Heineken Brewery, Stepan Razin (both by Heineken) and Tinkoff brewery (SUN-InBev). St. Petersburg has the second largest construction industry in Russia, including commercial, housing and road construction. This article is about the automaker. ... The Baltika logo Baltika Brewery (Baltic Beverages Holdings) is a Russian brewery based in Saint Petersberg. ... Heineken (or Heineken Brouwerijen) is a Dutch beer brewer, established in 1863 when Gerard Adriaan Heineken purchased a brewery in Amsterdam. ... InBev (Euronext: INB, NYSE: ABV) is the largest beer company in the industry. ...


In 2006 Saint-Petersburg's city budget was 179,9 billion rubles,[47] and is planned to double by 2012. The federal subject's gross regional product as of 2005 was 667,905.4 million Russian rubles, ranked 4th in Russia, after Moscow, Tyumen Oblast, and Moscow Oblast[48], or 145,503.3 rubles per capita, ranked 12th among Russia's federal subjects[49], contributed mostly by wholesale and retail trade and repair services (24.7%) as well as processing industry (20.9%) and transportation and telecommunications (15.1%).[50] A metropolitan areas gross domestic product, i. ... ISO 4217 Code RUB User(s) Russia and self-proclaimed Abkhazia and South Ossetia Inflation 7% Source Rosstat, 2007 Subunit 1/100 kopek (копейка) Symbol руб kopek (копейка) к Plural The language(s) of this currency is of the Slavic languages. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... Tyumen Oblast Coat of Arms Tyumen Oblast flag Tyumen Oblast (Russian: ) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast) in Urals Federal District. ... Moscow Oblast (Russian: ) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast) officially established on January 14, 1929. ...


Transportation

The exquisite decoration of Saint Petersburg Metro
The exquisite decoration of Saint Petersburg Metro

The city is a major transport hub. In 1837 the first Russian railroad was built here. Today St. Petersburg is the final destination of Trans-Siberian railroad, and a web of intercity and suburban railways, served by five different railway terminals (Baltiysky, Finlyandsky, Ladozhsky, Moskovsky and Vitebsky)[51], as well as dozens of non-terminal railway stations within the federal subject. Saint Petersburg has international railway connections to Helsinki, Finland, Berlin, Germany, and all former republics of the USSR. Helsinki railroad was built in 1870, 443 km, commutes 3 times a day, about 5.5 h. The railroad Saint Petersburg-Moscow opened in 1851, 651 km, commute to Moscow is 4.5-9 h.[52] Saint Petersburg is also served by the Pulkovo International Airport,[53] and three smaller commercial and cargo airports in the suburbs. There is a regular 24/7 rapid bus transit connection between Pulkovo airport and the city center. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3456x2304, 1858 KB) Saint Petersburg Metro, station Автово (Awtowo) Photographed by mysel. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3456x2304, 1858 KB) Saint Petersburg Metro, station Автово (Awtowo) Photographed by mysel. ... Official Logo The Saint Petersburg Metro (Russian: ) is an underground rapid transit system in Saint Petersburg, Russia. ... Trans-Siberian line in red; Baikal Amur Mainline in green. ... Baltic Railway Station in 2005. ... Finland Rail Terminal (Russian: Финляндский вокзал) is a train station in St. ... Ladoga Rail Terminal (Russian: ) is the newest and most modern passenger rail station in Saint Petersburg, Russia. ... Moskovsky Rail Terminal The Moscow Rail Terminal Russian: Московский вокзал, or Moskovsky Rail Terminal, is a railway station in Saint Petersburg. ... Vitebsk Railway Station in May 2005. ... Location of Helsinki in Northern Europe Coordinates: , Country Province Region Uusimaa Sub-region Helsinki Charter 1550 Capital city 1812 Government  - Mayor Jussi Pajunen Area  - Total 187. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... Modern building of the Finlyandsky Rail Terminal in 2006 Lahti railway station Modern Vyborg station in 2006 Sibelius train at the Finlyandsky Rail Terminal, 2007 Riihimäki railway station The Riihimäki-Saint Petersburg railroad is a 385 km long segment of the Helsinki-Saint Petersburg connection, which is divided... Moscow Railway Station in St. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... Pulkovo Airport (Russian: ) (IATA: LED, ICAO: ULLI) is the international airport serving St. ...

Map of the Saint Petersburg Metro
Map of the Saint Petersburg Metro

The city is also served by the passenger and cargo seaports in the Neva Bay of the Gulf of Finland, Baltic Sea, the river port higher up Neva, and tens of smaller passenger stations on both banks of the Neva river. It is a terminus of the Volga-Baltic and White Sea-Baltic waterways. In 2004 the first high bridge that doesn't need to be drawn, a 2824 m long Big Obukhovsky Bridge, was opened. Meteor hydrofoils link the city centre to the coastal towns of Kronstadt, Lomonosov, Peterhof, Sestroretsk and Zelenogorsk from May through October. Image File history File links Metro_St_Petersburg. ... Image File history File links Metro_St_Petersburg. ... The Baltic Sea The Gulf of Finland is an arm of the Baltic Sea that extends between Finland (to the north) and Estonia (to the south) all the way to the city of Saint Petersburg in Russia, where the river Neva drains into it. ... For other uses, see Baltic (disambiguation). ... Volga-Baltic Waterway, formerly known as the Mariinsk Canal System, is a series of canals and rivers in Russia which link the Volga River with the Baltic Sea. ... A map of the White Sea–Baltic Sea Canal. ... The Big Obukhovsky Bridge (Russian: , Bolshoy Obukhovsky most) is the newest bridge across Neva River in Saint Petersburg, Russia. ... This article is about marine engineering. ... 1888 map of the Kronstadt bay Kronstadt (Russian: ), also spelled Kronshtadt, Cronstadt (German: for Crown and Stadt for City) is a Russian seaport town, located on Kotlin Island, thirty kilometers west of Saint Petersburg near the head of the Gulf of Finland. ... Lomonosov (Ломоно́сов), formerly Oranienbaum (Ораниенба́ум), is a city and in northwestern Russia, on the shore of the Bay of Finland west of St. ... Peterhof (Russian: , Petergof, originally named Peterhof: Peters Court), is a series of palaces and gardens, laid out on the orders of Peter the Great, and sometimes called the Russian Versailles. It is located about twenty kilometers west and six kilometers south of St. ... Sestroretsk (Сестрорецк in Russian) is a town in the Kurortny District of St. ... Zelenogorsk (Russian: ) is a town under jurisdiction of Saint Petersburg, Russia, located in part of the Karelian Isthmus on the shore of the Gulf of Finland. ...


Saint Petersburg has an extensive city-funded network of public transportation (buses, trams, trolleybuses) and several hundred routes served by marshrutkas. Trams in Saint Petersburg used to be the main transportation; in the 1980s, Leningrad had the largest tramway network in the world, but many tramway rail tracks were dismantled in the 2000s. Buses carry up to 3 million passengers daily, serving over 250 urban and a number of suburban bas routes. Saint Petersburg Metro underground rapid transit system was opened in 1955; it now has 4 lines with 60 stations, connecting all five railway terminals, and carrying 2,8 million passengers daily. Metro stations are decorated in marble and bronze. The 5th metro line is scheduled to open in 2008. A taxi serving as a bus Public transport comprises all transport systems in which the passengers do not travel in their own vehicles. ... Present-day tram (type LVS-86) in Saint Petersburg The city of Saint Petersburg, Russia boasts the largest tramway network in the world, consisting of about 1000 kilometres of track. ... Further information: electric bus A trolleybus (also known as trolley bus, trolley coach, trackless trolley, trackless tram or simply trolley) is an electric bus powered by two overhead wires, from which it draws electricity using two trolley poles. ... Marshrutka (Russian: ; short for маршрутное такси (routed taxicab)) is a CIS minibus taxi. ... Present-day tram (type LVS-86) in Saint Petersburg The city of Saint Petersburg, Russia boasts the largest tramway network in the world, consisting of about 1000 kilometres of track. ... Official Logo The Saint Petersburg Metro (Russian: ) is an underground rapid transit system in Saint Petersburg, Russia. ...


Traffic jams are common in the city, because of narrow streets, parking sites along their edges, high daily traffic volumes between the commuter boroughs and the city center, intercity traffic, and at times excessive snowing in winter. Five segments of the Saint Petersburg Ring Road were opened between 2002 and 2006, and full ring is planned to open in 2010. Traffic jams are common in heavily populated areas. ... Saint Petersburg Ring Road (Russian: ) is an unfinished ring road in Saint Petersburg. ...


Saint Petersburg is part of the important transport corridor linking Scandinavia to Russia and Eastern Europe. The city is a node of the international European routes E18 towards Helsinki, E20 towards Tallinn, E95 towards Pskov, Kiev and Odessa and E105 towards Petrozavodsk, Murmansk and Kirkenes (north) and towards Moscow and Kharkiv (south). For other uses, see Scandinavia (disambiguation). ... Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current national boundaries: Russia (dark orange), other countries of the former USSR (medium orange),members of the Warsaw pact (light orange), and other former Communist regimes not aligned with Moscow (lightest orange). ... European Route Sign The international E-road network is a network of roads in Europe, numbered E1 and up. ... European route E18 begins at Ireland, then through the United Kingdom, Norway, Sweden, and Finland to end at Russia. ... Location of Helsinki in Northern Europe Coordinates: , Country Province Region Uusimaa Sub-region Helsinki Charter 1550 Capital city 1812 Government  - Mayor Jussi Pajunen Area  - Total 187. ... From west to east: Shannon Airport - Limerick - Dublin . ... County Area 159. ... The Trinity Cathedral (1682-99) is a symbol of Pskovs former might and independence. ... Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted Coordinates: , Country Ukraine Oblast Kiev City Municipality Raion Municipality Government  - Mayor Leonid Chernovetskyi Elevation 179 m (587 ft) Population (2006)  - City 4,450,968  - Density 3,299/km² (8,544. ... The ODESSA, which stands for the German phrase Organisation der ehemaligen SS-Angehörigen, which phrase in turn translates as “Organization of Former Members of the SS,” is the name commonly given to an international Nazi network alleged to have been set up towards the end of World War II... The E105 is part of the International E-road network, which is a series of main roads in Europe. ... Petrozavodsk (Russian: ; Karelian/Finnish: Petroskoi) is the capital of the Republic of Karelia, Russia, with a population of 266,160 (2002 Census). ... Murmansk coin Murmansk (Russian: ; Finnish: (archaic); Northern Sami: ; Skolt Sami: ) is a city in the extreme northwest part of Russia with a seaport on the Kola Bay, 12 km from the Barents Sea on the northern shore of the Kola Peninsula, not far from Russias borders with Norway and... Kirkenes, Norway and Petsamo, Russia Orthographic projection over Kirkenes Norway Kirkenes is the centre of the municipality of Sør-Varanger in Finnmark county, Norway. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... Map of Ukraine with Kharkiv highlighted. ...


Built environment and landmarks

Further information: Landmarks of Saint Petersburg
Kazan Cathedral at night 2006
Kazan Cathedral at night 2006

The majestic appearance of St. Petersburg is achieved through a variety of architectural details including long, straight boulevards, vast spaces, gardens and parks, decorative wrought-iron fences, monuments and decorative sculptures. The Neva River itself, together with its many canals and their granite embankments and bridges gives the city a unique and striking ambience. These bodies of water led to St. Petersburg being given the name of "Venice of the North". Main article: Saint Petersburg Kazan Cathedral at night 2006 The majestic appearance of St. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x296, 177 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Kazan Cathedral ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x296, 177 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Kazan Cathedral ... 19th-century view of the Kazan Cathedral in St. ... Afsluitdijk, a 32 km dike in the Netherlands. ... Saint Petersburg was built in the delta of Neva river. ... For other uses, see Venice (disambiguation). ...


St. Petersburg's position below the Arctic Circle, on the same latitude as nearby Helsinki, Stockholm, Aberdeen and Oslo (60° N), causes twilight to last all night in May, June and July. This celebrated phenomenon is known as the "white nights". The white nights are closely linked to another attraction — the eight drawbridges spanning the Neva. Tourists flock to see the bridges drawn and lowered again at night to allow shipping to pass up and down the river. Bridges open from May to late October according to a special schedule between approximately 2 a.m. and 4:30 a.m. For the fast food restaurant chain, see Arctic Circle Restaurants. ... This article is about the geographical term. ... Location of Helsinki in Northern Europe Coordinates: , Country Province Region Uusimaa Sub-region Helsinki Charter 1550 Capital city 1812 Government  - Mayor Jussi Pajunen Area  - Total 187. ... For other uses, see Stockholm (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Aberdeen (disambiguation). ... This article is about the capital of Norway. ... This article is about the geographical term. ... White night is a night on which it never gets completely dark, because the sun does not descend completly far below the horizon. ... Drawbridge at the fort of Ponta da Bandeira; Lagos, Portugal A drawbridge is a type of movable bridge typically associated with the entrance of a castle, but the term is often used to describe all different types of movable bridges, like bascule bridges and lift bridges. ...


The historical center of St. Petersburg, sometimes called the outdoor museum of Architecture[citation needed], was the first Russian patrimony inscribed on the UNESCO list of World Heritage Sites. Historic Centre of Saint Petersburg and Related Groups of Monuments is the name used by UNESCO when it collectively designated the historic core of the Russian city of St. ... This article is about building architecture. ... UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... Elabana Falls is in Lamington National Park, part of the Central Eastern Rainforest Reserves World Heritage site in Queensland, Australia. ...


Canals and Bridges

Palace Bridge at night. It is one of the most familiar images of the Northern capital of Russia.
Palace Bridge at night. It is one of the most familiar images of the Northern capital of Russia.

Saint Petersburg is built on what originally were more than 100 islands created by a maze of rivers, creeks, canals, gulfs, lakes and ponds and other bodies of water that flow into the Baltic Sea at the mouth of the Neva river. There are 342 bridges in Saint Petersburg, Russia. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (3008x2000, 1350 KB) Beschreibung Description: Sankt Petersburg Санкт-Петербург Date: 2005-08-12 photographer: Heidas Wikipedia account All pictures Please use this discussion page Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Bascule bridge Palace Bridge Metadata This file contains additional... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (3008x2000, 1350 KB) Beschreibung Description: Sankt Petersburg Санкт-Петербург Date: 2005-08-12 photographer: Heidas Wikipedia account All pictures Please use this discussion page Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Bascule bridge Palace Bridge Metadata This file contains additional... Night view of Palace Bridge is one of the most familiar images of the Northern capital of Russia. ... The River Neva (Russian: Нева́) is a 74 km-long Russian river flowing from Lake Ladoga (Ладожское Озеро, Ladožskoe Ozero) through the Karelian Isthmus (Карельский Перешеек, Karelskij Perešeek) and the city of Saint Petersburg (Санкт-Петербург, Sankt-Peterburg) to the Gulf of Finland (Финский Залив, Finskij Zaliv). ...


Peter the Great was designing the city as another Amsterdam and Venice, with canals instead of streets and citizens skillful in sailing. Initially, there were only about ten bridges constructed in the city, mainly across ditches and minor creeks. By Peter's plans, in the summer months, the citizens were supposed to move around in boats, and in the winter months when the water froze to move in sledges. However, after Peter's death, new bridges were built, as it was a much easier way of transportation. Temporary pontoon bridges were built across Neva in the summertime. The largest temporary bridge across the Bolshaya Neva was in operation from 1727 to 1850. For other uses, see Amsterdam (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Venice (disambiguation). ... Pontoon bridge across the James River at Richmond, Virginia, 1865. ... The River Neva (Нева́) is a 74 km-long Russian river flowing from Lake Ladoga (Ладожское Озеро — Ladozhskoye Ozero) through the Karelian Isthmus (Карельский Перешеек — Karelskii Peresheyek) and the city of Saint Petersburg (Санкт-Петербург — Sankt Peterburg) to the Gulf of Finland (Финский Залив — Finskii Zaliv). ...


The first permanent bridge of bricks and stones across the main waters of Bolshaya Neva river was the Lieutenant Schmidt Bridge, built from 1843 to 1850, and opened in 1850. A familiar view of St. Petersburg is a drawbridge across the Neva. Every night during the navigation period from April to November, 22 bridges across Neva and main canals are drawn to let ships pass in and out of the Baltic Sea.[54] Lieutenant Shmidt Bridge The Lieutenant Shmidt Bridge (Russian: ) is the first permanent bridge across the Neva River in Saint Petersburg, Russia. ... Drawbridge at the fort of Ponta da Bandeira; Lagos, Portugal A drawbridge is a type of movable bridge typically associated with the entrance of a castle, but the term is often used to describe all different types of movable bridges, like bascule bridges and lift bridges. ...


Today, there are 342 bridges over canals and rivers of various sizes, styles and constructions, built at different periods. Over 800 smaller bridges over smaller ponds and streams are gracing public parks and gardens, the popular places for entertainment and leisure.


Thanks to the intricate web of canals, St. Petersburg is often called the "Venice of the North" which is a popular poetic name for the northern capital.


Palaces of the Tsars

Catherine Palace is one of three Summer Palaces

Saint Petersburg is known as the city of palaces. One of the earliest of these is the Summer Palace, a modest house built for Peter I in the Summer Garden (1710–1714). Much more imposing are the baroque residences of his associates, such as the Kikin Hall and the Menshikov Palace on the Neva Embankment, constructed from designs by Domenico Trezzini over the years 1710 to 1716. A residence adjacent to the Menshikov palace was redesigned for Peter II and now houses the State University. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (819x614, 1123 KB) Palais de Tsarskoïe Selo, photo prise en août 2004 (c) Ratigan File links The following pages link to this file: Tsarskoye Selo ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (819x614, 1123 KB) Palais de Tsarskoïe Selo, photo prise en août 2004 (c) Ratigan File links The following pages link to this file: Tsarskoye Selo ... South side - view from the garden. ... The Summer House The Summer Palace (Russian: ) is the name of three Russian royal residences in Saint Petersburg, of which only one survives to the present. ... The quintessential medieval European palace: Palais de la Cité, in Paris, the royal palace of France. ... The Summer Palace is the name of three Russian royal residences in St Petersburg, of which only one survives to the present. ... Peter the Great or Pyotr Alexeyevich Romanov (Russian: Пётр I Алексеевич Pyotr I Alekse`yevich, Пётр Великий Pyotr Veli`kiy) (9 June 1672 – 8 February 1725 [30 May 1672–28 January 1725 O.S.][1]) ruled Russia from 7 May (27 April O.S.) 1682 until his death, jointly ruling before 1696 with his... The Summer Palace is the name of three Russian royal residences in St Petersburg, of which only one survives to the present. ... For other uses, see Baroque (disambiguation). ... House at Cúcuta, Colombia A house is a building typically lived in by one or more people. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Kikin. ... Menshikov in Exile Aleksandr Danilovich Menshikov (Александр Данилович Меншиков) (1673 – 1729) was a Russian statesman, whose official titles included Generalissimo, Prince of the Holy Roman Empire... Peter and Paul Cathedral is the most celebrated work by Domenico Trezzini. ... Peter II (Russian: Пётр II Алексеевич or Pyotr II Alekseyevich) (October 23, 1715 – January 29, 1730) was Emperor of Russia from 1727 until his death. ... Saint Petersburg State University (Санкт-Петербургский государственный университет) is one of the oldest educational institutions in Russia, situated in the city of Saint Petersburg. ...


Probably the most illustrious of imperial palaces is the baroque Winter Palace (1754–1762), a vast stately building with over 600 rooms and dazzlingly luxurious interiors, now housing the Hermitage Museum.[7] The same architect, Bartolomeo Rastrelli, was also responsible for three residences in the vicinity of the Nevsky Prospekt: the Stroganov palace (1752–1754, is now a branch of the State Russian Museum, the Vorontsov palace (1749–1757, now a military school), and the Anichkov Palace (1741–1750, many times rebuilt, now a palace for children). Other baroque palaces include the Sheremetev house on the Fontanka embankment (also called the Fountain House), and the Beloselsky-Belozersky Palace (1846–1848) on the Nevsky Prospekt, formerly a residence of the Grand Duke Sergey Aleksandrovich. Located between the Palace Embankment and the Palace Square, the Winter Palace (Russian: Зимний Дворец) in Saint Petersburg, Russia was built between 1754 and 1762 as the winter residence of the Russian tsars. ... The State Hermitage Museum (Russian: ) in Saint Petersburg, Russia is one of the largest museums in the world, with 3 million works of art (not all on display at once), [1] and one of the oldest art galleries and museums of human history and culture in the world. ... Francesco Bartolomeo Rastrelli (1700-71) was the most important baroque architect working in Russia. ... Nevsky Prospekt, or the Neva Avenue (Russian: Невский проспект), is the main street in the city of St Petersburg. ... Stroganovs or Strogonovs (Строгановы, Строгоновы in Russian), also spelled in French manner as Stroganoffs, was a family of highly successful Russian merchants, industrialists, landowners, and statesmen of the 16th - 20th centuries that eventually earned nobility. ... The State Russian Museum, formerly the Russian Museum of His Imperial Majesty Alexander III, is the largest depository of the Russian fine art in St Petersburg. ... Count Mikhail Illarionovich Vorontsov (Михаи́л Илларио́нович Воронцо́в) (1714 - 1767) was a Russian statesman and diplomat. ... Anichkov Bridge and Anichkov Palace in 1753. ... Boris Petrovich Sheremetyev (Russian: Борис Петрович Шереме́тьев), born 1692, died 1719. ... Fontanka River in the 1820s. ... View of the Beloselsky-Belozersky Palace and Anichkov Bridge in the 1850s. ... Sergei Alexandrovich Grand Duke Sergei Alexandrovich Romanov (April 29, 1857 - February 4, 1905, Old Style) was the seventh child and fifth son of Emperor Alexander II of Russia and his first Empress-consort Marie of Hesse and by Rhine. ...


Of Neoclassical palaces, the foremost is St Michael's (or Engineers') Castle[7], constructed for Emperor Paul in 1797–1801 to replace the earlier Summer Palace. The Tauride Palace of Prince Potemkin (1783–1789), situated near the Smolny Institute, used to be a seat of the first Russian parliament, and now the Assembly of Independent States. Just two blocks from the Hermitage buildings is the Marble Palace, commissioned by Count Orlov and built in 1768–1785 from 44 various sorts of marble to a Neoclassical design by Antonio Rinaldi, it is now part of the State Russian Museum. The Michael Palace (1819–1825), famed for its opulent interiors and named after its first lodger, Grand Duke Mikhail Pavlovich, now houses the main collections of the Russian Museum.[7] Also designed in the Neoclassical style is the Yusupov's Moyka palace (built in the 1790s), where Rasputin was killed by Prince Yusupov. Other treasured palaces are the Razumovsky palace (1762–1766); the Shuvalov palace (1830–1838); and the Yelagin Palace (1818–1822), a sumptuous summer dacha of the imperial family, situated on the Yelagin Island. The last Royal residences were built for Nicholas I's children: the Mariinsky Palace (1839–1844), located just opposite St Isaac's Cathedral, is now housing the St. Petersburg City Legislature and Offices of Representatives, the Nicholas Palace (1853–61), and the New Michael Palace (1857-1861). All major palaces are now housing numerous state and private museums and various branches of the government. Late Baroque classicizing: G. P. Pannini assembles the canon of Roman ruins and Roman sculpture into one vast imaginary gallery (1756) Neoclassicism (sometimes rendered as Neo-Classicism or Neo-classicism) is the name given to quite distinct movements in the decorative and visual arts, literature, theatre, music, and architecture that... St Michaels Castle (Southern facade) St Michaels Castle (Western facade) St. ... Paul I of Russia (Russian: ; Pavel Petrovich) (October 1, 1754-March 23, 1801) was the Emperor of Russia between 1796 and 1801. ... Tauride Palace and Gardens in the early 20th century. ... Prince Grigori Aleksandrovich Potemkin (Russian: Григорий Александрович Потемкин) (September 13, 1739 (NS: September 24) – October 5, 1791 (NS: October 16)) was a Russian... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with State Duma. ... The Marble Palace is in North Calcutta and still residence of a family. ... Count Grigory Orlov Orlov is the name of a Russian noble family which produced several distinguished statesmen, diplomatists and soldiers. ... For other uses, see Marble (disambiguation). ... Rinaldis cathedral in a provincial Russian town, 1764 Antonio Rinaldi (1710-1794) was an Italian architect, trained by Luigi Vanvitelli, who worked mainly in Russia. ... The State Russian Museum, formerly the Russian Museum of His Imperial Majesty Alexander III, is the largest depository of the Russian fine art in St Petersburg. ... Russian Museum - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Grigori Rasputin Grigori Yefimovich Rasputin (Russian: ) (22 January [O.S. 10 January] 1869 – 29 December [O.S. 16 December] 1916) was a Russian mystic with an influence in the later days of Russias Romanov dynasty. ... Count Kirill Grigorievich Razumovsky, more correctly Rozumovsky, (1728-1803) was a Ukrainian Cossack who was appointed President of the Russian Academy of Sciences when he just turned 18 years old. ... Count Pyotr Ivanovich Shuvalov (Петр Иванович Шувалов in Russian) (1711 - 1762) was a Russian statesman and Field Marshal. ... Yelagin Palace in St. ... Dacha of Boris Pasternak in Peredelkino. ... Yelagin Island - boat pond on Yelagin Island Yelagin Island (Yelagin Ostrov, Russian: ) is an island at the mouth of the Neva River which is part of St. ... Nicholas I (Russian: Николай I Павлович, Nikolai I Pavlovich), July 6 (June 25, Old Style), 1796–March 2 (18 February Old Style), 1855), was the Emperor of Russia from 1825 until 1855, known as one of the most reactionary of the Russian monarchs. ... The façade of the Mariinsky Palace is executed in a local reddish-brown sandstone. ... A legislatureis a type of representative deliberative assembly with the power to ratify laws. ... Nicholas Palace in 1861. ... Michael Palace (Russian: Михайловский дворец) may refer to one of the following palaces in St Petersburg, Russia: Old Michael Palace — Neoclassical palace of Grand Duke Mikhail Pavlovich of Russia, designed by Carlo Rossi, constructed in 1819-1825 and housing the State Russian Museum since 1895. ...


Cathedrals and temples

While many cathedrals and buildings formerly owned by churches and monasteries still belong to the Russian government, since their seizure in 1917, some were eventually returned to congregations. The largest cathedral in the city is St Isaac's Cathedral (1818–1858), it is the biggest gold-plated dome in the world. It was constructed over 40 years under supervision of architects Auguste de Montferrand and Vasily Stasov. The Kazan Cathedral on the Nevsky Prospekt is a national landmark in the Empire style, modeled after St Peter's, Vatican. The Church of the Savior on Blood (1883–1907), is a monument in the old Russian style which marks the spot of Alexander II's assassination. The Peter and Paul Cathedral (1712–1732), a long-time symbol of the city, contains the sepulchers of Peter the Great and other Russian emperors. The St. Nicholas Cathedral and the Great Choral Synagogue are near the Mariinsky Opera Theatre. Most cathedrals and temples operate today as places of worship as well as museums, and there are numerous other places of worship in all major religions. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (819 × 614 pixel, file size: 964 KB, MIME type: image/png) Description: Cathedral Saint Isaac in Saint Petersburg Author: Ratigan Août 2004 - licence GFDL File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (819 × 614 pixel, file size: 964 KB, MIME type: image/png) Description: Cathedral Saint Isaac in Saint Petersburg Author: Ratigan Août 2004 - licence GFDL File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it... The cathedral dominates the city skyline St. ... For other uses, see Cathedral (disambiguation). ... Saint Isaacs Cathedral - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... For other uses, see Dome (disambiguation). ... Monferrands cathedral was the largest Orthodox church in the world at the time it was completed. ... Stasov is a quintessential family of Russian intelligentsia. ... 19th-century view of the Kazan Cathedral in St. ... Empire is an early 19th century style of architecture and furniture design that and originates from Napoleons rule of France. ... This article is about the famous building in Rome. ... The Church as seen from Griboedov Canal. ... Saint Basils Cathedral (1555-61) is a showcase of medieval Russian architecture. ... Alexander (Aleksandr) II Nikolaevich (Russian: Александр II Николаевич) (Moscow, 29 April 1818 – 13 March 1881 in St. ... The Peter and Paul Cathedral is located inside the Peter and Paul Fortress in St. ... A sepulcher, or sepulchre, is a type of tomb or burial chamber. ... Peter the Great or Pyotr Alexeyevich Romanov (Russian: Пётр I Алексеевич Pyotr I Alekse`yevich, Пётр Великий Pyotr Veli`kiy) (9 June 1672 – 8 February 1725 [30 May 1672–28 January 1725 O.S.][1]) ruled Russia from 7 May (27 April O.S.) 1682 until his death, jointly ruling before 1696 with his... Tsar (Bulgarian, Serbian and Macedonian цар, Russian  , in scientific transliteration respectively car and car ), occasionally spelled Czar or Tzar and sometimes Csar or Zar in English, is a Slavonic term designating certain monarchs. ... The Palais du Louvre in Paris, which houses the Musée du Louvre, one of the worlds most famous museums, and most certainly the largest. ...


Of baroque structures, the grandest is the white-and-blue Smolny Convent (1748–1764), later the Smolny Institute, a striking design by Bartolomeo Rastrelli, but never completed. It is followed by the Naval Cathedral of St Nicholas (1753–1762), a lofty structure dedicated to the Russian Navy, the outside being covered with plaques to sailors lost at sea. The church of Sts. Simeon and Anna (1731–1734), St. Sampson Cathedral (1728–1740), St. Pantaleon church (1735–1739), and St. Andrew's Cathedral (1764–1780) are all worth mentioning. The Smolny Institute is the Neoclassical edifice in St Petersburg, which has played an important part in the Russian history. ... Francesco Bartolomeo Rastrelli (1700-71) was the most important baroque architect working in Russia. ... The Russian Navy or VMF (Russian: Военно-Морской Флот (ВМФ) - Voyenno- Morskoy Flot (VMF) or Military Maritime Fleet) is the naval arm of the Russian armed forces. ... A commemorative plaque, or simply plaque, is a plate of metal attached to a wall or other vertical surface and bearing text in memory of an important figure or event. ... St. ...


The Neoclassical churches are numerous. Many of them are intended to dominate vast squares, like St. Vladimir's Cathedral (1769–1789), not to be confused with the church of Our Lady of Vladimir (1761–1783). The Transfiguration Cathedral (1827–29) and the Trinity Cathedral (1828–1835, fire-damaged) were both designed by Vasily Stasov. Smaller churches include the Konyushennaya (1816–1823), also by Stasov, the "Easter Cake" church (1785–1787), noted for its droll appearance, St Catherine church on the Vasilievsky Island (1768–1771), and numerous non-Orthodox churches on the Nevsky Prospekt. A town square is an open area commonly found in the heart of a traditional town used for community gatherings. ... Our Lady of Vladimir Church Vladimirskaya Church (Russian: ) is a Russian Orthodox church, dedicated to Our Lady of Vladimir and located at 20 Vladimirsky Prospect, St. ... According to the Russian tradition, each regiment of the imperial guards had its own cathedral. ... Stasov is a quintessential family of Russian intelligentsia. ... Spit of the Vasilievsky island Vasilievsky Island is a district of Saint Petersburg, bordered by the rivers Bolshaya Neva and Malaya Neva (in the delta of Neva) from South and Northeast, and by the Gulf of Finland from the West. ...


The Alexander Nevsky Monastery, intended to house the relics of St. Alexander Nevsky, is graced by two cathedrals and five smaller churches in various styles. The monastery is also one of three main centers of Christian education in Russia, having the Russian Orthodox Academy and Seminary and the residence of the St. Petersburg Patriarch. It is also remarkable for the Tikhvin Cemetery, with graves of such dignitaries as writers Fyodor Dostoyevsky and Ivan Krylov, composers Pyotr Ilyich Tchaykovsky and Modest Mussorgsky, pianist Anton Rubinstein, director Georgy Tovstonogov, actors Fyodor Stravinsky, Vera Komissarzhevskaya, Nikolay Simonov, mayor Anatoly Sobchak and many other notable Russians. View of the monastery in the early 19th century Alexander Nevsky Monastery was founded by Peter the Great in 1710 at the southern end of the Nevsky Prospect in St Petersburg to house the relics of Alexander Nevsky, patron saint of the newly-founded Russian capital. ... For other uses, see Alexander Nevsky (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... Tikhvin Cemetery (Тихвинское кладбище) is located at the Alexander Nevsky Monastery, in St. ... Fyodor Dostoevsky. ... Ivan Andreyevich Krylov (Иван Андреевич Крылов in Russian) (February 13, 1769 - November 21, 1844) was a famous Russian fabulist. ... Modest Petrovich Mussorgsky Modest Petrovich Mussorgsky (Russian: , Modest Petrovič Musorgskij, French: ) (March 9/21, 1839 – March 16/28, 1881), one of the Russian composers known as the Five, was an innovator of Russian music. ... Anton Rubinstein. ... Georgy Alexandrovich Tovstonogov Georgy Alexandrovich Tovstonogov (Russian: , September 28 N.S. 1915 - May 23, 1989) was a Russian theatre director, the leader of Saint Petersburg Bolshoi Academic Theatre of Drama (formerly Gorky Theater), which now bears his name. ... Fyodor Stravinsky as the Miller in Dargomyzhskys opera Rusalka Fyodor Ignatievich Stravinsky (Russian: , 20 June [O.S. 8 June] 1843 - 4 December [O.S. 21 November] 1902) was a Russian-Ukrainian bass opera singer and actor. ... Vera Komissarzhevskaya Vera Fyodorovna Komissarzhevskaya (1864, St. ... Official photography of Anatoly Sobchack as Mayor of Saint Petersburg Anatoly Alexandrovich Sobchak (Russian: , August 10, 1937 - February 20, 2000) was a Russian politician, co-author of Constitution of the Russian Federation, first democratically-elected Mayor of Saint-Petersburg and mentor of Vladimir Putin. ...


The Grand Choral Synagogue of St. Petersburg is the second largest in Europe. It was opened in 1893, with the building permit obtained in 1869 from the Tsar Alexander II. The Small Synagogue was opened in 1886. On 5 Tamuz 5761 (June 26, 2001), the greater hall ("Bolshoi Zal" in Russian) was reopened after reconstruction. The Grand Choral Synagogue of St. ... A number of historical people were named Alexander II: Alexander II of Macedon was King of Macedon from 370 to 368 B.C. Alexander II of Epirus was the King of Epirus in 272 B.C. Pope Alexander II was Pope from 1061 to 1073. ...


Two small churches in the early Gothic Revival style, both designed by Yuri Felten, are the St John the Baptist (1776–1781) and the Chesmenskaya (1777–1780). The late 19th century and early 20th century temples are designed in the Russian Revival or Byzantine Revival styles. Saint Petersburg Mosque (1909–1920), once the largest in Europe, is modeled after the Gur-e Amir Mosque in Samarkand. Victoria Tower at the Palace of Westminster, London: Gothic details provided by A.W.N. Pugin The Gothic revival was a European architectural movement with origins in mid-18th century England. ... Cast-iron grille of the Summer Garden in St Petersburg Yury Matveyevich Felten (or Georg Friedrich Velten, born 1730, died 1801) was a court architect to Catherine the Great, Empress of Russia who worked on Palace Square in St. ... The Chesme Church (Russian: ; full name Church of Saint John the Baptist at Chesme Palace, Russian: ) is a small Russian Orthodox church completed by architect Yury Velten in 1780 at the direction of Catherine the Great, Empress of Russia. ... Thons Cathedral of Christ the Saviour, Moscow, 1839-60 The Russian Revival style (Russian: ) is the generic term for a number of different movements within Russian architecture, that arose in second quarter of the 19th century and was an eclectic melding of pre-Peterine Russian architecture and elements of... Byzantine architecture is the architecture of the Byzantine Empire. ... Saint Petersburg Mosque Saint Petersburg Mosque (Russian: ), when opened in 1913, was the largest mosque in Europe, its minarets attaining 48 meters in height and the impressive dome rising 39 meters high. ... Timurs mausoleum Gur-e Amir at Samarkand Gur-e Amir is the mausoleum of the Asian conqueror Timur in Samarkand (now in Uzbekistan). ... Samarkand (Tajik: Самарқанд, Persian: ‎ , Uzbek: , Russian: ), population 412,300 in 2005, is the second-largest city in Uzbekistan and the capital of Samarqand Province. ...


St Petersburg Buddhist temple was the first in Europe. Construction was funded by subscriptions of the Dalai Lama and Russian and Mongolian Buddhists; the structure was inaugurated in the presence of Itigilov in 1914 and served as a valuable resource to transient Buryats, Kalmyks and other Buddists during World War I. It did not function from 1935 to 1991, when the lamas passed into gulags, and temple and its grounds were used for secular purposes. In 1991 the St. Petersburg datsan was reopened for worship. This article is about the Dalai Lama lineage. ... Dashi-Dorzho Itigilov (1852-1927) Dashi-Dorzho Itigilov (Russian: ) (1852–1927) was a Buryat Buddhist lama of the Tibetan Buddhist tradition, best known for the lifelike state of his body, which is not exposed to decay. ... The Buryats, numbering approximately 436,000, are the largest ethnic minority group in Siberia and are mainly concentrated in their homeland, the Buryat Republic. ... The Republic of Kalmykia ( Russian: Респу́блика Калмы́кия; Kalmyk: Хальм Тангч) is a federal subject of the Russian Federation (a republic). ... Datsan (Russian: ) is the term used for Buddhist university monasteries in the Tibetan tradition of Gelukpa located throughout Russia, but concentrated in Eastern Siberia. ...


Museums and popular sites

The ensemble of Peter and Paul Fortress with the Peter and Paul Cathedral takes dominant position on the right bank of the Neva river, across the Winter Palace in the center of the city. A boardwalk was built along a portion of the fortress wall, giving visitors a clear view of the city across the river to the south. On the other bank of the Neva, the spit (Strelka) of the Vasilievsky Island is graced by the former Bourse building (1805–1810), an important lanmark in the style of the Greek Revival, is now home of the Museum of Navy. The spit of the Vasilievsky Island is designed as a classic lawn-park on the waterfront, and is highlighted by two tall and colorful Rostral Columns, decorated with statues and prows of battleships. This is a traditional place for music festivals and public events, such as the White Nights Festival. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 553 pixelsFull resolution (1258 × 870 pixel, file size: 308 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 553 pixelsFull resolution (1258 × 870 pixel, file size: 308 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... The Peter and Paul Fortress (Петропавловская крепость) is in St. ... The Peter and Paul Fortress (Петропавловская крепость) is in St. ... The Peter and Paul Cathedral is located inside the Peter and Paul Fortress in St. ... Located between the Palace Embankment and the Palace Square, the Winter Palace (Russian: Зимний Дворец) in Saint Petersburg, Russia was built between 1754 and 1762 as the winter residence of the Russian tsars. ... Photograph of the boardwalk in Atlantic City, NJ, USA, taken August 2003. ... Spit of the Vasilievsky island Vasilievsky Island is a district of Saint Petersburg, bordered by the rivers Bolshaya Neva and Malaya Neva (in the delta of Neva) from South and Northeast, and by the Gulf of Finland from the West. ... The Old Bourse seen from the Neva River The old Saint Petersburg Bourse is the most important monument of the Greek Revival not only in the capital of Imperial Russia but in the whole of the Russian Empire. ... Personal residence of Catherine the Great Greek Revival was a style of classical architecture which became fashionable in Europe in the 18th century, and in the United Kingdom and United States in the early 19th century. ... The Old Bourse seen from the Neva River The old Saint Petersburg Bourse is the most important monument of the Greek Revival not only in the capital of Imperial Russia but in the whole of the Russian Empire. ... The White Nights Festival in St. ...


The most famous of St. Petersburg's museums is the Hermitage, one of the world's largest and richest collections of Western European art. Its vast holdings were originally exhibited in the Greek Revival building (1838–1852) by Leo von Klenze, now called the New Hermitage. But the first Russian museum was established by Peter the Great in the Kunstkammer, erected in 1718–1734 on the opposite bank of the Neva River and formerly a home to the Russian Academy of Sciences. Other popular tourist destinations include the State Russian Museum and the Summer Garden, the Ethnography Museum (1900–1911), Stieglitz Museum of Applied Arts (1885–1895), the Suvorov Museum of Military History (1901–1904), and the Political History Museum (1904–06).
The State Hermitage Museum (Russian: ) in Saint Petersburg, Russia is one of the largest museums in the world, with 3 million works of art (not all on display at once), [1] and one of the oldest art galleries and museums of human history and culture in the world. ... Medieval Art Main article: Medieval art Art during Medieval times was almost exclusively concerned with Christianity. ... Personal residence of Catherine the Great Greek Revival was a style of classical architecture which became fashionable in Europe in the 18th century, and in the United Kingdom and United States in the early 19th century. ... Ruhmeshalle in Munich Leo von Klenze (Franz Karl Leopold von Klenze, February 29, 1784 - January 27, 1864) - German neoclassicist architect, painter and writer. ... ). The Kunstkamera is a museum in St. ... Russian Academy of Sciences: main building Russian Academy of Sciences (Росси́йская Акаде́мия Нау́к) is the national academy of Russia. ... The State Russian Museum, formerly the Russian Museum of His Imperial Majesty Alexander III, is the largest depository of the Russian fine art in St Petersburg. ... The Summer Palace is the name of three Russian royal residences in St Petersburg, of which only one survives to the present. ... Ethnography ( ethnos = people and graphein = writing) is the genre of writing that presents varying degrees of qualitative and quantitative descriptions of human social phenomena, based on fieldwork. ... Suvorov Military Museum was scored to resemble a medieval Russian fortress. ...

The Hermitage complex as seen from across the Neva River. The New Hermitage and Hermitage Theatre are on the left; the Winter Palace is to the right.

The imperial government institutions were housed in stately buildings, such as the General Staff building on the Palace Square (1820–1827), with a huge triumphal arch in the centre, the Senate and Synod buildings on the Senate Square (1827–1843), the Imperial Cabinet (1803–1805) and the City Duma (1784-87) on the Nevsky Prospekt, the Assignation Bank (1783–1790), the Customs Office (1829–1832), and the masterpiece of Russian architecture: the Admiralty (1806–1823), one of the city's most conspicuous landmarks. Most of Imperial palaces and state buildings were designed by reputable architects invited by the Russian Tsar's from European capitals, such as Domenico Trezzini, Giacomo Quarenghi, Thomas de Thomon, Bartholomeo Rastrelli, Carlo Rossi and other foreign architects who settled in St. Petersburg and worked on numerous large-scale projects. Next came the generation of Russian-born architects and engineers, such as Zakharov, Stasov, Voronikhin, Starov, and other Russians who studied abroad and returned to work in St. Petersburg. Download high resolution version (1350x200, 51 KB)Vew of Hermitage Museum complex, St. ... Interior of the Hermitage Theatre. ... Located between the Palace Embankment and the Palace Square, the Winter Palace (Russian: Зимний Дворец) in Saint Petersburg, Russia was built between 1754 and 1762 as the winter residence of the Russian tsars. ... A General Staff is a group of professional military officers who act in a staff or administrative role under the command of a general officer. ... Palace Square is the central city square of St Petersburg and of the former Russian Empire. ... For the band, see Senate (band). ... A synod (also known as a council) is a council of a church, usually a Christian church, convened to decide an issue of doctrine, administration or application. ... The Bronze Horseman Saint Isaacs Cathedral Decembrists Square russian: Площадь Декабристов is a city square in Saint Petersburgs Central Business District. ... Nevsky Prospekt near the City Duma in 1811. ... The Admiralty building situated on the bank of the Neva river next to St Isaacs Cathedral Admiralty Board (Адмиралтейств-коллегия in Russian) was a supreme body for the administration of the Imperial Russian Navy in the Russian Empire, established by Peter the Great on December 12, 1718. ... Peter and Paul Cathedral is the most celebrated work by Domenico Trezzini. ... It has been said that Quarenghi, due to his somewhat droll appearance, was the most frequently painted of architects. ... A wine made in Modesto, California. ...


The former imperial capital is rich in science and educational institutions. Saint Petersburg State University is based on Vasilievsky Island and in Peterhof. The university's spacious baroque edifice of Twelve Collegia (1722–1744) was designed by Domenico Trezzini. The Academy of Arts (1764–1788), an exceedingly handsome structure, overlooks a quayside adorned with genuine Egyptian griffins and sphinxes. The Smolny Institute (1806–1808), originally the first school for Russian women, was Lenin's headquarters during the Russian Revolution of 1917, is now the office of the Governor. The Catherine's Institute (1804–1807), also designed by Quarenghi, is now the Russian National Library. Another Neoclassical building by Quarenghi, a roomy Horse Guards Riding School (1804–1807), is now the Central Exhibition Hall. Saint Petersburg State University (Санкт-Петербургский государственный университет) is one of the oldest educational institutions in Russia, situated in the city of Saint Petersburg. ... Peter and Paul Cathedral is the most celebrated work by Domenico Trezzini. ... ... A quay, pronounced key, kay, is a wharf or bank where ships and other vessels are loaded. ... For other uses, see Griffin (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Sphinx (disambiguation). ... The Smolny Institute is the Neoclassical edifice in St Petersburg, which has played an important part in the Russian history. ... Vladimir Ilyich Lenin ( Russian: Влади́мир Ильи́ч Ле́нин  listen?), original surname Ulyanov (Улья́нов) ( April 22 (April 10 ( O.S.)), 1870 – January 21, 1924), was a... The Russian Revolution of 1917 was a series of political and social upheavals in Russia, involving first the overthrow of the tsarist autocracy, and then the overthrow of the liberal and moderate-socialist Provisional Government, resulting in the establishment of Soviet power under the control of the Bolshevik party. ... Visit of Alexander I to the library in 1812. ... Metro Toronto Convention Centre, late 2004. ...


Some historic shops and storehouses are landmarks in their own right, such as the monumental New Holland Arch (1779–1787) and adjacent walls of the New Holland isle. The Merchant Court on the Nevsky Prospekt (1761–1785), also designed by Jean-Baptiste Vallin de la Mothe, houses the largest extant 18th century shopping mall and supermarket in the world, now rebuilt and updated with several coffee bars and a metro station. Nearby are the Circular Market, erected in 1785–1790, and the Passage, one of the great covered arcades of the mid-19th century. Inside Green Logistics Co. ... New Holland Arch as seen from a boat sailing along the Moika New Holland Island (Russian: Новая Голландия) in Saint Petersburg was created in 1720, when the newly-built Kryukov Canal and Admiralty Canal connected the Moika River with the Neva. ... New Holland Arch as seen from a boat sailing along the Moika New Holland Island (Russian: Новая Голландия) in Saint Petersburg was created in 1720, when the newly-built Kryukov Canal and Admiralty Canal connected the Moika River with the Neva. ... Great Gostiny Dvor in St Petersburg, 1802. ... Nevsky Prospekt, or the Neva Avenue (Russian: Невский проспект), is the main street in the city of St Petersburg. ... The Gostiny Dvor metro station Gostiny Dvor (Russian: ) is a station on the Nevsko-Vasileostrovskaya Line of the Saint Petersburg Metro. ... The interior of the old Passage in the 1850s. ... For other uses, see Arcade. ...


Nevsky Prospekt is the main avenue of St. Petersburg connecting the Winter Palace with the ancient monastery at Alexander Nevsky Lavra. Nevsky is the busiest shopping destination and the prime center of entertainment and nighlife. Shopping malls, department stores, business centers, built in a variety of styles, include the Eliseev emporium, the House of Books, The Passage, and more. Nevsky Prospekt, or the Neva Avenue (Russian: Невский проспект), is the main street in the city of St Petersburg. ... Located between the Palace Embankment and the Palace Square, the Winter Palace (Russian: Зимний Дворец) in Saint Petersburg, Russia was built between 1754 and 1762 as the winter residence of the Russian tsars. ... View of the monastery in the early 19th century Alexander Nevsky Monastery was founded by Peter the Great in 1710 at the southern end of the Nevsky Prospect in St Petersburg to house the relics of Alexander Nevsky, patron saint of the newly-founded Russian capital. ... The interior of a typical Macys department store. ... The interior of the old Passage in the 1850s. ...


St Petersburg is a home to more than 50 theatres. The oldest is the Hermitage Theatre, a private palatial theatre of Catherine the Great, still preserving the complex stage machinery of the 18th century. The Alexandrine Theatre, built in 1828–1832 by Carlo Rossi, was named after the wife of Nicholas I. Most famous outside Russia is the Mariinsky Theatre (former Kirov Theatre of Opera and Ballet), which has been styled the capital of the world ballet. The Ciniselli Circus is one of the oldest circus buildings in the world. The Opera House at Saint Petersburg Conservatory, the first in Russia, was founded in 1861 by Anton Rubinstein and bears the name of Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov; its alumni include Tchaikovsky, Prokofiev, and Shostakovich who also taught here. Serge Sudeikins poster for the Bat Theatre (1922). ... Interior of the Hermitage Theatre. ... Catherine II (Екатерина II Алексеевна: Yekaterína II Alekséyevna, April 21, 1729 - November 6, 1796), born Sophie Augusta Fredericka, known as Catherine the Great, reigned as empress of Russia from... Nicholas I (Russian: Николай I Павлович, Nikolai I Pavlovich), July 6 (June 25, Old Style), 1796–March 2 (18 February Old Style), 1855), was the Emperor of Russia from 1825 until 1855, known as one of the most reactionary of the Russian monarchs. ... The Maryinsky (or Mariinsky) Theatre (or Theater), is the St Petersburg theatre where the Mariinsky Ballet is located. ... For other uses, see Ballet (disambiguation). ... Circus Ciniselli, August 2004 Circus Ciniselli (Russian: Цирк Чинизелли) was the first stone-built circus in Russia; it is situated beside the Fontanka in Saint Petersburg. ... Theatre Square and the conservatory in 1913. ... Anton Rubinstein. ... Nikolai Andreyevich Rimsky-Korsakov Nikolai Andreyevich Rimsky-Korsakov (Russian: , Nikolaj Andreevič Rimskij-Korsakov), also Nikolay, Nicolai, and Rimsky-Korsakoff, (March 6 (N.S. March 18), 1844 – June 8 (N.S. June 21) 1908) was a Russian composer, one of five Russian composers known as The Five, and was later a... “Tchaikovsky” redirects here. ... Sergei Sergeyevich Prokofiev (Russian: , Sergej Sergejevič Prokofijev; April 27 (April 151 O.S.), 1891–March 5, 1953) was a Russian and Soviet composer who mastered numerous musical genres and came to be admired as one of the greatest composers of the 20th century. ... Dmitri Shostakovich in 1942 Dmitri Dmitriyevich Shostakovich   (Russian: , Dmitrij Dmitrievič Å ostakovič) (September 25 [O.S. September 12] 1906 – August 9, 1975) was a Russian composer of the Soviet period. ...


Monuments and sculptures

A horse tamer on the Anichkov Bridge, designed by Peter Clodt von Jürgensburg, near the Beloselsky-Belozersky Palace
A horse tamer on the Anichkov Bridge, designed by Peter Clodt von Jürgensburg, near the Beloselsky-Belozersky Palace

Probably the most familiar symbol of St Petersburg is the equestrian statue of Peter the Great, known as the Bronze Horseman and installed in 1782 on the Senate Square. Considered the greatest masterpiece of the French-born Etienne Maurice Falconet, Aleksandr Pushkin's poem about the statue figures prominently in the Russian literature under the name of The Bronze Horseman. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 400 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2304 × 3456 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 400 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2304 × 3456 pixel, file size: 2. ... The Fontanka River at the Anichkov Bridge The Anichkov Bridge (Russian: Аничков мост, Anichkov Most) is the first and most famous bridge across the Fontanka River in Saint Petersburg, Russia. ... Klodts statues in front of the royal palace in Naples. ... View of the Beloselsky-Belozersky Palace and Anichkov Bridge in the 1850s. ... The equestrian Marcus Aurelius on Capitoline Hill displayed uninterruptedly for eighteen centuries was the prototype of Renaissance equestrian sculptures An equestrian sculpture (from the Latin equus meaning horse) is a statue of a mounted rider. ... Peter the Great or Pyotr Alexeyevich Romanov (Russian: Пётр I Алексеевич Pyotr I Alekse`yevich, Пётр Великий Pyotr Veli`kiy) (9 June 1672 – 8 February 1725 [30 May 1672–28 January 1725 O.S.][1]) ruled Russia from 7 May (27 April O.S.) 1682 until his death, jointly ruling before 1696 with his... The Bronze Horseman is a poem by Aleksandr Pushkin which is widely considered to be one of the most significant works of Russian literature. ... The Senate Square can refer to several squares depending on the city. ... Falconets awesome statue of Peter I has become one of the symbols of St Petersburg Etienne Maurice Falconet (1716-1791), is counted among the first rank of French Rococo sculptors, patronized by Mme de Pompadour. ... Aleksandr Pushkin by Vasily Tropinin Aleksandr Sergeyevich Pushkin (Russian: Алекса́ндр Серге́евич Пу́шкин, Aleksandr Sergeevič PuÅ¡kin,  ) (June 6, 1799 [O.S. May 26] – February 10, 1837 [O.S. January 29]) was a Russian Romantic author who is considered to be the greatest Russian poet[1] [2][3] and the founder of modern Russian... Alexandre Benoiss illustration to the poem (1904). ...


The Palace Square is dominated by the unique Alexander Column(1830–1834), the tallest of its kind in the world and so nicely set that no attachment to the base is needed. A striking monument to Generalissimo Suvorov, represented as a youthful god of war, was erected in 1801 on the Field of Mars, formerly used for military parades and popular festivities. Saint Isaac's Square is graced by the Monument to Nicholas I (1856–1859), which was spared by Bolshevik authorities from destruction as the first equestrian statue in the world with merely two support points (the rear feet of the horse). Palace Square is the central city square of St Petersburg and of the former Russian Empire. ... The Alexander Column in the Palace Square The Alexander Column (Russian: , Aleksandrovskaya Kolonna), is the focal point of Palace Square in Saint Petersburg, Russia. ... Generalissimo Francisco de Miranda Generalissimo or Generalissimus is a military rank of the highest degree, superior to a Field Marshal or Grand Admiral. ... Monument to Suvorov as youthful Mars, the Roman god of war (Italy (November 24, 1729 - May 18, 1800), was a Russian Generalissimo, reckoned one of a few great generals in history who never lost a battle. ... Rumyantsev Obelisk used to grace the Field of Mars until 1818, when it was moved to its present location on Vasilievsky Island. ... View from the square on St. ... The Monument to Emperor Nicholas I at Saint Isaacs Square The Monument to Nicholas I (Russian: ), is a bronze equestrian of Nicholas I of Russia in front of Saint Isaacs Cathedral in Saint Petersburg, Russia. ... For other uses, see Bolshevik (disambiguation). ... The equestrian Marcus Aurelius on Capitoline Hill displayed uninterruptedly for eighteen centuries was the prototype of Renaissance equestrian sculptures An equestrian sculpture (from the Latin equus meaning horse) is a statue of a mounted rider. ...


The public monuments of St Petersburg also include Mikeshin's circular statue of Catherine II on the Nevsky Avenue, fine horse statues on the Anichkov Bridge, a Rodin-like equestrian statue of Alexander III by Paolo Troubetzkoy, and the Tercentenary monument presented by France in 2003 and installed on the Sennaya Square. For other uses, see Monument (disambiguation). ... Mikeshins monument to the Millennium of Russia, in Veliky Novgorod. ... Catherine II (Екатерина II Алексеевна: Yekaterína II Alekséyevna, April 21, 1729 - November 6, 1796), born Sophie Augusta Fredericka, known as Catherine the Great, reigned as empress of Russia from... Nevsky Prospekt, or the Neva Avenue (Russian: Невский проспект), is the main street in the city of St Petersburg. ... The Fontanka River at the Anichkov Bridge The Anichkov Bridge (Russian: Аничков мост, Anichkov Most) is the first and most famous bridge across the Fontanka River in Saint Petersburg, Russia. ... Rodins The Burghers of Calais in Calais, France. ... Alexander III Alexandrovich (10 March 1845 – 1 November 1894) (Russian: Александр III Александрович) reigned as Emperor of Russia from 14 March 1881 until his death in 1894. ... Paolo Troubetzkoy (Intra, 15 February 1866 - Pallanza, 12 February 1938), also known as Paul, was an artist. ... Sennaya Square in 1900. ...


Some of the most important events in the city's history are represented by particular monuments. The Russian victory over Napoleon, for example, was commemorated by the Narva Triumphal Gate (1827–1834), and the victory in the Russo-Turkish War, 1828-1829 — by the Moscow Triumphal Gates (1834–1838). Following this tradition, the Piskarevskoye Cemetery was opened in 1960 as a monument to the victims of the 900-Day Siege. Kazan Cathedral in St Petersburg and the Cathedral of Christ the Saviour in Moscow were built to commemorate the Russian victory against Napoleon. ... For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ... Narva Triumphal Gate The Narva Triumphal Gate (Russian: ) was erected in the vast Narva Square (known as the Stachek Square in Soviet years), Saint Petersburg, in 1814 to commemorate the Russian victory over Napoleon. ... The Russo-Turkish War of 1828-1829 was sparked by the Greeks struggle for independence. ... Moscow Triumphal Gates after the 1960 reconstruction. ... Piskarevskoye Cemetery in 1961. ... Combatants Germany Spanish Blue Division Soviet Union Commanders Wilhelm von Leeb Georg von Küchler Agustín Muñoz Grandes Kliment Voroshilov Georgiy Zhukov Strength 725,000 930,000 Casualties Unknown Red Army: 332,059 KIA 24,324 non-combat dead 111,142 missing 16,470 civilians 1 million civilians...


Suburban parks and palaces

Peterhof: the Samson Fountain and Sea Channel
Peterhof: the Samson Fountain and Sea Channel

St. Petersburg is surrounded by imperial residences, some of which are inscribed in the World Heritage list. These include: Peterhof, with the Grand Peterhof Palace and glorious fountain cascades; Tsarskoe Selo, with the baroque Catherine Palace and the neoclassical Alexander Palace; and Pavlovsk, which contains a domed palace of Emperor Paul (1782–1786) and one of the largest English-style parks in Europe. Peterhof fountains and canal. ... Peterhof fountains and canal. ... Elabana Falls is in Lamington National Park, part of the Central Eastern Rainforest Reserves World Heritage site in Queensland, Australia. ... Peterhof (Russian: , Petergof, originally named Peterhof: Peters Court), is a series of palaces and gardens, laid out on the orders of Peter the Great, and sometimes called the Russian Versailles. It is located about twenty kilometers west and six kilometers south of St. ... Tsarskoye Selo (Царское Село in Russian, may be translated as “Tsar’s Village”), a former residence of the royal families and visiting nobility 24 km south of St. ... South side - view from the garden. ... View of the corps de logis from the cour dhonneur. ... Pavlovsk (Russian: Павловск) is a town situated in the Leningrad oblast, Russia, 30 km from St. ... Paul I of Russia (Russian: ; Pavel Petrovich) (October 1, 1754-March 23, 1801) was the Emperor of Russia between 1796 and 1801. ...


Much of Peterhof and Tsarskoe Selo had to be restored after being dynamited by the retreating Germans in 1944. Other imperial residences have yet to be revived to their former glory. Gatchina, lying 45 km southwest of St Petersburg, retains a royal castle with 600 rooms surrounded by a park. Oranienbaum, founded by Prince Menshikov, features his spacious baroque residence and the sumptuously decorated Chinese palace. Strelna has a hunting lodge of Peter the Great and the reconstructed Constantine Palace, used for official summits of the Russian president with foreign leaders. Gatchina is the city of 84900 inhabitants in the Leningrad oblast of the Russian Federation, 45 km south of St Petersburg by the road leading to Pskov. ... For other uses, see Castle (disambiguation). ... Oranienbaum (Russian: ) is a Russian royal residence, located on the Bay of Finland west of St. ... Menshikov in Exile Aleksandr Danilovich Menshikov (Александр Данилович Меншиков) (1673 – 1729) was a Russian statesman, whose official titles included Generalissimo, Prince of the Holy Roman Empire... The Constantine Palace in 1921 Strelna (Russian: Стрельна) is a historic village situated about halfway between Saint Petersburg and Peterhof and overlooking the shore of the Gulf of Finland. ... Peter the Great or Pyotr Alexeyevich Romanov (Russian: Пётр I Алексеевич Pyotr I Alekse`yevich, Пётр Великий Pyotr Veli`kiy) (9 June 1672 – 8 February 1725 [30 May 1672–28 January 1725 O.S.][1]) ruled Russia from 7 May (27 April O.S.) 1682 until his death, jointly ruling before 1696 with his... Upper terrace of the Constantine Palace in 1921 Strelna (Russian: Стрельна) is a historic village situated about halfway between Saint Petersburg and Peterhof and overlooking the shore of the Gulf of Finland. ...


Other notable suburbs are Shlisselburg, with a medieval fortress, and Kronstadt, with its 19th century fortifications and naval monuments. Catherinehof, originally intended as a garden suburb, was engulfed by the city in the 19th century. Shlisselburg (Russian: ) is a town in western Russia (Kirovsky District, Leningrad Oblast) located at the head of the Neva River on Lake Ladoga, 45 km east of Saint Petersburg, which lies at the mouth of the Neva on the Gulf of Finland. ... Orechovets is an island with the fortress Oreshek (Nöteborg in Swedish, given the name Schlisselburg/Schlüsselburg after its re-conquest by Peter the Great in 1702). ... 1888 map of the Kronstadt bay Kronstadt (Russian: ), also spelled Kronshtadt, Cronstadt (German: for Crown and Stadt for City) is a Russian seaport town, located on Kotlin Island, thirty kilometers west of Saint Petersburg near the head of the Gulf of Finland. ... Etching by Aleksey Zubov, 1716. ...


Society and Culture

Further information: Society and culture in Saint Petersburg

// The Mariinsky Theatre of St. ...

Music in St. Petersburg

The Mariinsky Theatre of St. Petersburg, Russia

St. Petersburg has always been known for its high-quality cultural life. Among the city's more than fifty theaters is the world-famous Mariinsky Theater (also known as the Kirov Theater in the USSR ), home to the Mariinsky Ballet company and opera. Leading ballet dancers, such as Vaslav Nijinsky, Anna Pavlova, Rudolph Nureyev, Mikhail Baryshnikov, Galina Ulanova and Natalia Makarova, were principal stars of the Mariinsky ballet. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 541 pixelsFull resolution (1200 × 812 pixel, file size: 236 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photo obtained from this page - [1] My rationale for fair use is to illustrate the object in question - the article on Mariinsky Theatre - for no free... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 541 pixelsFull resolution (1200 × 812 pixel, file size: 236 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photo obtained from this page - [1] My rationale for fair use is to illustrate the object in question - the article on Mariinsky Theatre - for no free... The Maryinsky (or Mariinsky) Theatre (or Theater), is the St Petersburg theatre where the Mariinsky Ballet is located. ... Kirov can refer to: Sergey Kirov, Bolshevik revolutionary and Soviet communist The north-eastern European Russian city Kirov, center of Kirov Oblast The Soviet warship Kirov, now of the Russian Navy, lead ship of the Kirov class of battlecruisers. ... The Mariinsky Ballet is one of the most famous ballet schools in history (formerly the Kirov Ballet, and also the Academic State Theatre), located in St. ... Vaslav Nijinsky as Vayou in Nikolai Legats revival of Marius Petipas The Talisman, St. ... Photographic postcard of Anna Pavlova as Aspicia in The Pharoahs Daughter, circa 1910 Anna Pavlova as Nikiya in the Grand Pas Classique of the Shades from Act III of La Bayadere, circa 1902 Anna Pavlova is also the name of an Olympic gymnast. ... Rudolf Nureyev Rudolf Khametovich Nureyev (Russian spelling Рудольф Хаметович Нуреев, Tatar form Rudolf Xämät ulı Nuriev) (17 March 1938 – 6 January 1993), Russian-born dancer, was regarded... For the Russian athlete, see Aleksandr Baryshnikov. ... Galina Sergeyevna Ulanova (Russian: ; 8 January 1910 (O.S. 26 December 1909} - 21 March 1998) has the reputation of the greatest Soviet ballerina. ... Nataliya Romanovna Makarova is a ballet dancer. ...


Dmitri Shostakovich was born and brought up in St. Petersburg, and dedicated his Seventh Symphony to the city, calling it the "Leningrad Symphony." He wrote the symphony while in Leningrad during the Nazi siege. The 7th symphony was premiered in 1942; its performance in the besieged Leningrad at the Bolshoy Philharmonic Hall under the baton of conductor Karl Eliasberg was heard over the radio and lifted the spirits of the survivors[55]; each musician received 125 grams of bread after the premiere. In 1992 a reunion performance of the 7th Symphony by the (then) 14 survivors was played in the same hall as they done half a century ago.[56] The Leningrad Philharmonic Orchestra remained one of the best known symphony orchestras in the world under the leadership of conductors Yevgeny Mravinsky and Yuri Temirkanov. Dmitri Shostakovich in 1942 Dmitri Dmitriyevich Shostakovich   (Russian: , Dmitrij Dmitrievič Å ostakovič) (September 25 [O.S. September 12] 1906 – August 9, 1975) was a Russian composer of the Soviet period. ... Symphony No. ... The St. ... Yevgeny Aleksandrovich Mravinsky (June 4, 1903 - January 19, 1988) was a Russian conductor. ... Yuri Khatuevich Temirkanov (born December 10, 1938) is a Russian conductor. ...


Choral music has a great tradition here. The Imperial Choral Capella was founded and modeled after the royal courts of other European capitals. The Male Choir of St Petersberg moved to the City of St Petersberg in the 18th century from Moscow. At the end of the 19th century the choir numbered 90. 40 adults and 50 boys (women were not admitted). Of the 22 basses, 7 were profundi capable of reaching bottom G easily. These unique voices are produced on Russian soil to this day.[57] The Male Choir of St Petersberg is a Russian choir that moved to the City of St Petersberg in the 18th century from Moscow. ... Nickname Piter Location Position of Saint Petersburg in Europe Government Country District Subdivision Russia North West Russia Federal City Governor Valentina Matviyenko Geographical characteristics Area  - City 1,439 km² Population  - City (2002)    - Density 4,661,219 (2002 Census)   3330/km² Coordinates Elevation 3 m Time zone - Summer (DST) MSK (UTC... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ...


St. Petersburg has been home to the newest movements in popular music. The first jazz band in the Soviet Union was founded here by Leonid Utyosov in the 1920s, under the patronage of Isaak Dunayevsky. The first jazz club in the Soviet Union was founded here in the 1950s, and later was named jazz club Kvadrat. In 1956 the popular ensemble Druzhba was founded by Aleksandr Bronevitsky and Edita Piekha, becoming the first popular band in the 1950s USSR. In the 1960s student rock-groups Argonavty, Kochevniki and others pioneered a series of unofficial and underground rock concerts and festivals. In 1972 Leningrad University student Boris Grebenshchikov founded the band Aquarium, that later grew to huge popularity. Since then the "Piter's rock" music style was formed. For other uses, see Jazz (disambiguation). ... Utyosov in Jolly Fellows (1934). ... Isaak Dunayevsky Isaak Osipovich Dunayevsky also Dunaevsky or Dunaevski (Russian: ; 30 January [O.S. 18 January] 1900 Lokhvitsa, Poltava - 25 July 1955, Moscow) was a Soviet composer and conductor, who specialized in light music for operetta and film comedies, frequently working with the film director Grigory Aleksandrov. ... A jazz club is a venue where the primary entertainment is live jazz. ... Edita Piekha () (BGN transliteration: Edita Pyekha) () is a popular Russian actress[1] and singer of French and Polish heritage. ... Categories: Russia-related stubs | Universities and colleges in Russia | Saint Petersburg ... Boris Grebenshchikov, 1985 Boris Grebenshchikov (Russian: ) is one of the most prominent members of the generation which is widely considered the founding fathers of Russian rock music. ... Aquarium [Аква́риум] is a Russian rock group, formed in Leningrad in 1972 by Boris Grebenshchikov, then a student of Applied Mathematics at Leningrad State University, and Anatoly George Gunitsky, then a playwright and absurdist poet. ...


In the 1970s many bands came out from "underground" and eventually founded the Leningrad rock club which has been providing stage to such bands as Piknik, DDT, Kino, headed by the legendary Viktor Tsoi, Igry, Mify, Zemlyane, Alisa and many other popular groups. The first Russian-style happening show Pop mekhanika, mixing over 300 people and animals on stage, was directed by the multi-talented Sergey Kuryokhin in the 1980s. DDT, 1987 For other uses: see DDT (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Russian rock band. ... Grave of Victor Tsoi, 1992. ... Sergey Kuryokhin (Russian: , other spellings include Sergei Kuriokhin, Sergueï Kouriokhine, Sergey Kuriokhin, etc. ...


Today's St. Petersburg boasts many notable musicians of various genres, from popular Leningrad's Sergei Shnurov and Tequilajazzz, to rock veterans Yuri Shevchuk, Vyacheslav Butusov and Mikhail Boyarsky. The Palace Square was stage for Paul McCartney, Rolling Stones, Scorpions and other stars. This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... // Overview Tequilajazzz is a Saint-Petersburg, Russia based alternative rock band lead by bassist Evgeny Ai-ai-ai Fedorov (Евгений Ай-яй-яй Фёдоров). Band members also include Alexander Dooser Voronov (Александр Дусер Воронов) on the drums, Constantin Fedorov (Константин Федоров) and Oleg Baranov (Олег Баранов) on the guitars. ... Yuri Shevchuk (Юрий Шевчук) is a Russian singer whom evolves in the rock and roll band DDT he created in 1981. ... Vyacheslav Butusov (Russian: ), born October 15, 1961, was a lead singer of Nautilus Pompilius, a legendary Russian rock group, until its disbandment. ... Cover of Boyarskys CD Grand Collection Mikhail Boyarsky (Михаил Боярский; born December 26, 1949 in Leningrad, currently Saint Petersburg) is a Russian actor and singer, currently living in the city of Saint Petersburg. ... Palace Square is the central city square of St Petersburg and of the former Russian Empire. ... Sir James Paul McCartney, MBE (born 18 June 1942) is an Academy Award-winning English singer, songwriter and multi-instrumentalist who first gained worldwide fame as one of the founding members of The Beatles. ... This article is about the rock band. ... For other bands named The Scorpions or other meanings of scorpion, see scorpion. ...


The White Nights Festival in St. Petersburg is famous for spectacular fireworks and massive show celebrating the end of school year: "Scarlet Sails" celebration in St. Petersburg The White Nights Festival in St. ...


St. Petersburg in the movies

The stage of the Mariinsky Theatre was a filming location for The Nutcracker, Swan Lake and other movies
The stage of the Mariinsky Theatre was a filming location for The Nutcracker, Swan Lake and other movies

Over 250 international and Russian movies were filmed in St. Peterburg. [58] Well over a thousand feature films about tsars, revolution, people and stories set in St. Petersburg were produced worldwide, but were not filmed in the city. First film studios were founded in St. Petersburg in the 1900s, and since the 1920s Lenfilm has been the largest film studio based in St. Petersburg. Earliest films that became known internationally were often based on famous literary works set in St. Petersburg, such as Fyodor Dostoevsky's The Idiot and a few versions of Anna Karenina (a Russian and a French film, each of 1911). Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Nutcracker (Russian: , Shchelkunchik) Op. ... The Valse des cygnes from Act II of the Ivanov/Petipa edition of Swan Lake. ... Kinostudiya Lenfilm (Ленфи́льм) was a production unit of the Soviet film industry), with its own film studio, located in Leningrad, R.S.F.S.R.. After the fall of Communism and the foundation of the Russian Republic, it became a quasi-private film production company, retaining its name in spite of... Fyodor Mikhailovich Dostoevsky (Russian: Фёдор Миха́йлович Достое́вский, pronounced , sometimes transliterated Dostoyevsky, Dostoievsky, or Dostoevski  ) (November 11 [O.S. October 30] 1821–February 9 [O.S. January 28] 1881) was a Russian novelist and writer of fiction whose works, including Crime and Punishment and The Brothers Karamazov, have had a profound and lasting effect... The Idiot is a novel written by the Russian author Fyodor Dostoevsky and first published in 1869. ... This article refers to the novel by Tolstoy. ...


The first foreign feature movie filmed entirely in St. Petersburg was the 1997 production of Tolstoy's Anna Karenina, starring Sophie Marceau and Sean Bean, and made by international team of British, American, French and Russian filmmakers. The filming was made at such locations as Palace Embankment, The Winter Palace, Yusupov Palace, Catherine Palace, Peterhof, Pavlovsk Palace, Mariinsky Theatre and other famous landmarks and streets of St. Petersburg. Anna Karenina is a 1997 film by director Bernard Rose, Starring Sophie Marceau and Sean Bean. ... Sophie Marceau is a popular French actress who gained international recognition with her performances in Braveheart and The World is Not Enough. ... Shaun Mark Bean (born 17 April 1959) is an English film and stage actor. ... The Palace Embankment or Palace Quay (Russian: Дворцовая набережная (Dvortsovaya Naberezhnaya)) is a street along the Neva River in Central Saint Petersburg which contains the complex of the Hermitage Museum buildings, including the Winter Palace, the Hermitage Theatre, the Marble Palace and the Summer Garden. ... For other uses, see Winter Palace (disambiguation). ... South side - view from the garden. ... Peterhof (Russian: , Petergof, originally named Peterhof: Peters Court), is a series of palaces and gardens, laid out on the orders of Peter the Great, and sometimes called the Russian Versailles. It is located about twenty kilometers west and six kilometers south of St. ... Pavlovsk (Russian: ) is a town situated in Leningrad Oblast, Russia, 30 km from and under jurisdiction of St. ... The Maryinsky (or Mariinsky) Theatre (or Theater), is the St Petersburg theatre where the Mariinsky Ballet is located. ...

The original Tsar's Box of the Mariinsky Theatre was filming location for Anna Karenina and other movies
The original Tsar's Box of the Mariinsky Theatre was filming location for Anna Karenina and other movies

Soviet-made films, such as the trilogy of "Maksim" by director Grigori Kozintsev may show the complex history of St. Petersburg with some propagandistic tone. Many foreign films, such as Nicholas and Alexandra, Rasputin, Anastasia, are focused on the story of the Tsars. Film Noi vivi, based on the novel We the Living by Ayn Rand, comments on Italian politics by way of featuring the October Revolution. The story of Anastasia is best known by the 1956 version starring Ingrid Bergman and the 1997 cartoon. The Russian Ark, filmed entirely in Hermitage, shows the life of the Tsars and their entourage in the original interiors of the Winter Palace. Der Untergang was also filmed in Petersburg because several buildings on Shkapina Street resembled the center of Berlin of 1945. Leningrad about the Siege of Leningrad was released in 2007, and Giuseppe Tornatore's film on the same theme is currently in production and planned for release in 2008. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 467 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2513 × 3227 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 467 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2513 × 3227 pixel, file size: 1. ... Anna Karenina is a 1997 film by director Bernard Rose, Starring Sophie Marceau and Sean Bean. ... Grigori Mikhailovich Kozintsev (Russian: ; Kiev, 22 March (O.S. 9 March) 1905 – Leningrad, now Saint Petersburg, 11 May 1973) was a Soviet Russian film director. ... For other uses, see Propaganda (disambiguation). ... Nicholas and Alexandra, ... is a 1971 biographical film which tells the story of the last of Russias monarchs, Tsar Nicholas II of Russia and his wife, the Tsarina Alexandra. ... Grigori Rasputin Grigori Yefimovich Rasputin (Russian: ) (22 January [O.S. 10 January] 1869 – 29 December [O.S. 16 December] 1916) was a Russian mystic with an influence in the later days of Russias Romanov dynasty. ... Look up Anastasia in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... We the Living is Ayn Rands first novel. ... Ayn Rand (IPA: , February 2 [O.S. January 20] 1905 – March 6, 1982), born Alisa Zinovyevna Rosenbaum (Russian: ), was a Russian-born American novelist and philosopher. ... This is the history of Italy as a monarchy and in the World Wars. ... For other uses, see October Revolution (disambiguation). ... Grand Duchess Anastasia Nikolaevna (1901-1918) Grand Duchess Anastasia of Russia (Anastasia Nikolaevna Romanova, in Russian: Великая Княжна Анастасия Николаевна ) (June 18, 1901 – July 17, 1918) was the youngest daughter of Emperor Nicholas II of Russia and Empress Alexandra. ...   (pronounced in Swedish, but usually in English, IPA notation) (August 29, 1915 – August 29, 1982) was a three-time Academy Award-winning and two-time Emmy Award-winning Swedish actress. ... Russian Ark (Русский ковчег) is a 2002 movie by Russian director Alexander Sokurov. ... The State Hermitage Museum (Russian: ) in Saint Petersburg, Russia is one of the largest museums in the world, with 3 million works of art (not all on display at once), [1] and one of the oldest art galleries and museums of human history and culture in the world. ... Located between the Palace Embankment and the Palace Square, the Winter Palace (Russian: Зимний Дворец) in Saint Petersburg, Russia was built between 1754 and 1762 as the winter residence of the Russian tsars. ... Der Untergang (2004; international English title Downfall) is a German film depicting the final days of Adolf Hitler and Nazi Germany in 1945. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... Combatants Germany Spanish Blue Division Soviet Union Commanders Wilhelm von Leeb Georg von Küchler Agustín Muñoz Grandes Kliment Voroshilov Georgiy Zhukov Strength 725,000 930,000 Casualties Unknown Red Army: 332,059 KIA 24,324 non-combat dead 111,142 missing 16,470 civilians 1 million civilians... Giuseppe Tornatore (born 27 May 1956) is an Italian film director. ...


St. Petersburg is a set for Interdevochka (also Интердевочка or Intergirl), featuring impressive shots of the city. The cult comedy Irony of Fate (also Ирония судьбы, или С лёгким паром!) is set in St. Petersburg and pokes fun at Soviet city planning. Other movies include GoldenEye (1995), Midnight in St. Petersburg (UK, 1996). Onegin (1999 featuring Ralph Fiennes, Liv Tyler and Lena Heady) is based on the Pushkin poem and showcases many tourist attractions. The Stroll (2003) by Aleksei Uchitel featured many attractions of the city with Irina Pegova playing the role of a mysterious, well endowed and enchanting Russian beauty. Two Brothers and A Bride (2002), originally titled A Foreign Affair and starring David Arquette, is a comedy about brothers seeking a mail order bride in St. Petersburg and end up finding much more. The popular TV series Master and Margarita was filmed partly in St. Petersburg. Several international film festivals are held annually, such as the International Film Festival in Saint Petersburg, since its inauguration in 1993 during the White Nights.[citation needed] Irony of Fate (original title: Ирония судьбы, или С лёгким паром!, in transcription: Ironiya Sudby ili S Lyogkim Parom) is a Soviet comedy-drama directed by Eldar Ryazanov. ... For other uses, see Goldeneye (disambiguation). ... Onegin is a 1999 film adaptation of Aleksandr Pushkins novel in verse Yevgeny Onegin. ... Ralph Nathaniel Fiennes, (IPA: ), born 22 December 1962) is a Tony Award-winning, Academy Award-nominated and Genie Award-nominated British actor. ... Liv Tyler (born Liv Rundgren, on July 1, 1977, at Mount Sinai Hospital in New York City, New York[1]) is an American actress and model. ... Lena Heady is an actress from Huddersfield. ... Pushkin may refer to: People Aleksandr Pushkin - a famous Russian poet Apollo Mussin-Pushkin - chemist and plant collector Aleksei Musin-Pushkin - statesman, historian, art collector Other Pushkin, a town in Russia Pushkin Square - square in Moscow Pushkin Museum - fine arts museum in Moscow This is a disambiguation page — a... The Stroll was a popular line dance in the 50s. ... Russia’s first television production of The Master and Margarita, the novel by Mikhail Bulgakov. ...


St. Petersburg in literature

Dostoyevsky museum
Dostoyevsky museum

St. Petersburg has a longstanding and world famous tradition in literature. Dostoyevsky called it “The most abstract and intentional city in the world," emphasizing its artificiality, but it was also a symbol of modern disorder in a changing Russia. It frequently appeared to Russian writers as a menacing and inhuman mechanism. The grotesque and often nightmarish image of the city is featured in Pushkin's last poems, the Petersburg stories of Gogol, the novels of Dostoyevsky, the verse of Alexander Blok and Osip Mandelshtam, and in the symbolist novel Petersburg by Andrey Bely. According to Lotman in his chapter, 'The Symbolism of St. Petersburg' in Universe and the Mind, these writers were inspired from symbolism from within the city itself. The themes of water and the conflict between water and stone, interpreted as the conflict between nature and the artificial, and also the theme of theatricality, in which St. Petersburg's building facades and massive boulevards create a stage designed for spectators became important themes for these writers. The effect of life in St. Petersburg on the plight of the poor clerk in a society obsessed with hierarchy and status also became an important theme for authors such as Pushkin, Gogol, and Dostoyevsky. Another important feature of early St. Petersburg literature is its mythical element, which incorporates urban legends and popular ghost stories, as the stories of Pushkin and Gogol included ghosts returning to St. Petersburg to haunt other characters as well as other fantastical elements, creating a surreal and abstract image of St. Petersburg. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1704 × 2272 pixel, file size: 585 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1704 × 2272 pixel, file size: 585 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Fyodor Dostoevsky. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Nikolai Vasilevich Gogol (Russian: Николай Васильевич Гоголь) (March 31, 1809 - March 4, 1852) was a Ukrainian-born Russian writer. ... Fyodor Dostoevsky. ... Blok in 1907 Alexander Blok (Александр Александрович Блок, November 28 [O.S. November 16] 1880 – August 7, 1921), was perhaps the most gifted lyrical poet produced by Russia after Alexander Pushkin. ... Boris Budaev Andrei Bely (Андрей Белый) was the pseudonym of Boris Nikolaevich Bugaev (1880 - 1934), a Russian novelist, poet, theorist, and literary critic. ... Pushkin may refer to: People Aleksandr Pushkin - a famous Russian poet Apollo Mussin-Pushkin - chemist and plant collector Aleksei Musin-Pushkin - statesman, historian, art collector Other Pushkin, a town in Russia Pushkin Square - square in Moscow Pushkin Museum - fine arts museum in Moscow This is a disambiguation page — a... Nikolai Vasilevich Gogol (Russian: Николай Васильевич Гоголь) (March 31, 1809 - March 4, 1852) was a Ukrainian-born Russian writer. ... Fyodor Dostoevsky. ... Pushkin may refer to: People Aleksandr Pushkin - a famous Russian poet Apollo Mussin-Pushkin - chemist and plant collector Aleksei Musin-Pushkin - statesman, historian, art collector Other Pushkin, a town in Russia Pushkin Square - square in Moscow Pushkin Museum - fine arts museum in Moscow This is a disambiguation page — a...


Twentieth century writers from St. Petersburg, such as Vladimir Nabokov, Andrey Bely and Yevgeny Zamyatin, along with his apprentices, The Serapion Brothers, created entire new styles in literature and contributed new insights to the understanding of society through their experience in this city. Anna Akhmatova became an important leader for Russian poetry. Her poem Requiem focuses on the tragedies of living during the time of the Stalinist terror. Another notable 20th century writer from St. Petersburg is Joseph Brodsky, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Literature (1987). While living in the United States, his writings in English reflected on life in St. Petersburg from the unique perspective of being both an insider and an outsider to the city in essays such as, "A Guide to a Renamed City" and the nostalgic "In a Room and a Half" [59]. Vladimir Vladimirovich Nabokov (Russian: Влади́мир Влади́мирович Набо́ков, pronounced ) (April 22 [O.S. April 10] 1899, Saint Petersburg – July 2, 1977, Montreux) was a Russian-American, Academy Award nominated author. ... Yevgeny Zamyatin by Boris Kustodiev (1923) Yevgeny Ivanovich Zamyatin (Евге́ний Ива́нович Замя́тин sometimes translated into English as Eugene Zamyatin) (February 1, 1884 – March 10, 1937) was a Russian author, most famous for his novel We, a story of dystopian future which influenced George Orwells Nineteen Eighty-Four and Aldous Huxleys Brave... Serapion Brothers is a Russian literary group, founded in 1922. ... Akhmatova in 1922 (Portrait by Kuzma Petrov-Vodkin) Anna Akhmatova (Russian: , real name А́нна Андре́евна Горе́нко) (June 23 [O.S. June 11] 1889 — March 5, 1966) was the pen name of Anna Andreevna Gorenko, the leader and the heart and soul of the Saint Petersburg tradition of Russian poetry for half a century. ... Bookcover of Works and Days in Russian Joseph Brodsky (May 24, 1940 – January 28, 1996), born Iosif Aleksandrovich Brodsky (Russian: ) was a Russian-born poet and essayist who won the Nobel Prize in Literature (1987) and was chosen Poet Laureate of the United States (1991-1992). ...


Sport

Further information: Sport in Saint Petersburg

St. Petersburg hosted part of the football (soccer) tournament during the 1980 Summer Olympics. The 1994 Goodwill Games were held here. FC Zeniths home Petrovsky stadium St. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... FC Zenit St. ... Petrovsky stadium (capacity 22500) is home arena of FC Zenit Saint-Petersburg. ... Soccer redirects here. ... The Summer Olympic Games are an international multi-sport event held every four years, organised by the International Olympic Committee. ... Logo of the 2nd Games in Seattle The Goodwill Games were an international sports competition, created by Ted Turner in reaction to the political troubles surrounding the Olympic Games of the 1980s. ...


The first competition here was the 1703 rowing event initiated by Peter the Great, after the victory over the Swedish fleet. Yachting events were held by the Russian Navy since the foundation of the city. Equestrianism has been a long tradition, popular among the Tsars and aristocracy, as well as part of the military training. Several historic sports arenas were built for Equestrianism since the 18th century, to maintain training all year round, such as the Zimny Stadion and Konnogvardeisky Manezh among others. A coxless pair which is a sweep-oar boat. ... Yachting is a physical activity involving boats. ... A young rider at a horse show in Australia. ...


Chess tradition was highlighted by the 1914 international tournament, in which the title "Grandmaster" was first formally conferred by Russian Tsar Nicholas II to five players: Lasker, Capablanca, Alekhine, Tarrasch and Marshall, and which the Tsar had partially funded. This article is about the Western board game. ... Tsar Nicholas II (18 May 1868 to 17 July 1918)1 was the last crowned Emperor of Russia. ... Emanuel Lasker (December 24, 1868 – January 11, 1941) was a German World Chess Champion, mathematician, and philosopher born at Berlinchen in Brandenburg (now Barlinek in Poland). ... José Raúl Capablanca y Graupera (November 19, 1888 - March 8, 1942) was a famous Cuban chess player in the early to mid twentieth century. ... Alexander Alexandrovich Alekhine (sometimes spelled Aljechin or Alechin) (IPA: ; other members of his family pronounce it ; Russian: ; French: Alexandre Alekhine) (October 31 or November 1, 1892 – March 24, 1946) was a Russian-born naturalized French chess grandmaster (officially naturalized in 1927 only three days before the World Champion title), and... Siegbert Tarrasch Siegbert Tarrasch (March 5, 1862 – February 17, 1934) was one of the strongest chess players of the late 19th century and early 20th century. ... This article is about the early 20th century chess champion. ...


Kirov Stadium (now demolished) was one of the largest stadiums anywhere in the world, and the home to FC Zenit Saint Petersburg in 1950-1989 and 1992. In 1951 the attendance of 110,000 set the record for the Soviet football. Zenit recently became champions of the Russian Premier League. Zenit now plays their home games at Petrovsky stadium Kirov Stadium SM Kirov Stadion is a multi-use stadium in St. ... FC Zenit St. ... Soviet redirects here. ... The Russian Premier League is the top division of Russian football teams. ... Petrovsky stadium (capacity 22500) is home arena of FC Zenit Saint-Petersburg. ...


Notable people

As Russia's political and cultural center for 200 years, and its second-largest city, a great many politicians, businessmen, artists, writers, athletes and scientists were born and/or have lived in Saint Petersburg. This is a list of famous people who have lived in St. ...


Education and Science

Original headquarters of the Russian Academy of Sciences - the Kunstkamera in St. Petersburg
Original headquarters of the Russian Academy of Sciences - the Kunstkamera in St. Petersburg

Saint Petersburg has long been a leading center of science and education in Russia and houses the following institutions: Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 508 pixelsFull resolution (1592 × 1011 pixel, file size: 146 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Sergey Barichev File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 508 pixelsFull resolution (1592 × 1011 pixel, file size: 146 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Sergey Barichev File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Russian Academy of Sciences: main building Russian Academy of Sciences (Росси́йская Акаде́мия Нау́к) is the national academy of Russia. ... ). The Kunstkamera is a museum in St. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... This article is about education in Russia. ...

Russian Academy of Sciences: main building Russian Academy of Sciences (Росси́йская Акаде́мия Нау́к) is the national academy of Russia. ... Saint Petersburg State University (Санкт-Петербургский государственный университет) is one of the oldest educational institutions in Russia, situated in the city of Saint Petersburg. ... The edifice for the academy was built in 1764-89 to a design by Jean-Baptiste Vallin de la Mothe and Alexander F. Kokorinov. ... Argippina Vaganova in the title role of Marius Petipas 1899 production of the Perrot/Pugni La Esmeralda, St. ... Famous Mining Institute located in St. ... Lapel pin of a graduate from Saint-Petersburg State Institute of Technology Saint Petersburg State Institute of Technology (Technological University) (Russian: ) is one of the oldest institutions of higher education in Russia (founded in 1828), that currently trains around 5000 students. ... The Pulkovo Space Observatory The Pulkovo Space Observatory (Russian: ), the principal space observatory of the Russian Academy of Sciences, located 19 km south of Saint Petersburg on Pulkovo Heights (75 m above the sea level), at . It is a World Heritage Site [1]. The observatory was opened in 1839 (chief... For other uses, see Pavlov (disambiguation). ... Theatre Square and the conservatory in 1913. ... Alexander Military Law Academy (Russian: ) (1867-1917) was an educational institution in Russian Empire that provided military law education for officers of Russian Army and Fleet. ... Main Building, Photo of 1902 Saint Petersburg State Polytechnical University (Russian: ; abbreviated SPbSPU) is a major Russian technical university situated in Saint Petersburg. ... Saint Petersburg State University of Information Technologies, Mechanics and Optics (Санкт-Петербургский государственный университет информационных технологий, механики и оптики) is Russian leader in training specialists in cutting-edge technologies directed to science and techincs development. ... The Saint-Petersburg State University of Engineering and Economics is one of the oldest universities in Russia and also is known as ENGECON (Russian: ИНЖЭКОН). At the postgraduate level, it is a [business school]]. At the undergraduate level, it also teaches economics. ... The St. ... Saint Petersburg State University of Economics and Finance (Санкт-Петербургский государственный универси&#1090... Smolny College (Russian: ) is a liberal arts college located in St. ...

Sister cities

Further information: List of Sister Cities to Saint Petersburg

This is a list of cities which have a sister relationship with Saint Petersburg. ...

Gallery

See also

The following treaties are called Treaty of Saint Petersburg or Treaty of St. ... Ves Petersburg (Literally translated All Petersburg or The Whole Saint Petersburg ) (Full name in cyrillic Ves Petersburg; Adresnaja i spravočnaja kniga g. ...

Sources

  1. ^ Governor of Sankt Petersburg: [1]
  2. ^ Nicholas and Alexandra: An Intimate Account of the Last of the Romanovs and the Fall of Imperial Russia (Athenum, 1967) by Robert K. Massie, ASIN B000CGP8M2 (also, Ballantine Books, 2000, ISBN 0-345-43831-0 and Black Dog & Leventhal Publishers, 2005, ISBN 1-57912-433-X)
  3. ^ V. Morozov. The Discourses of St. Petersburg and the Shaping of a Wider Europe. Copenhagen Peace Research institute. 2002. [2]
  4. ^ a b Peter the Great: His Life and World (Knopf, 1980) by Robert K. Massie, ISBN 0-394-50032-6
  5. ^ The St. Petersburg of Peter the Great [3]
  6. ^ Matthew S. Anderson, Peter the Great (London: Thames and Hudson, 1978)
  7. ^ a b c d e St. Petersburg:Architecture of the Tsars. 360 pages. Abbeville Press, 1996. ISBN-10: 0789202174
  8. ^ Peter the Great's amber room reborn. [4]
  9. ^ Edvard Radzinsky. Alexander II: The Last Great Tsar. New York: The Free Press, 2005. ISBN-10: 074327332X
  10. ^ Edvard Radzinsky. Alexander II: The Last Great Tsar. New York: The Free Press, 2005. ISBN-10: 074327332X
  11. ^ The Romanovs: The Final Chapter (Random House, 1995) by Robert K. Massie, ISBN 0-394-58048-6 and ISBN 0-679-43572-7
  12. ^ Rex A. Wade The Russian Revolution, 1917 2005 Cambridge University Press ISBN 0521841550
  13. ^ Tony Cliff "Lenin: All power to the Soviets" Lenin: All Power to the Soviets 1976 Pluto Press
  14. ^ Pipes, Richard. The Russian Revolution (New York, 1990)
  15. ^ Reed, John. Ten Days that Shook the World. 1919, 1st Edition, published by BONI & Liveright, Inc. for International Publishers. Transcribed and marked by David Walters for John Reed Internet Archive. Penguin Books; 1st edition. June 1, 1980. ISBN 0-14-018293-4
  16. ^ Russian source: Factbook on the history of the Communist Party and the Soviet Union. Справочник по истории Коммунистической партии и Советского Союза 1898 - 1991 [5]
  17. ^ Leon Trotsky. Memoir and Critique. New York, 1989.
  18. ^ Felix Yusupov. Memoirs, Lost Splendor, New York, 1953.
  19. ^ Lenin, Stalin, and Hitler: The Age of Social Catastrophe. By Robert Gellately, 2007, Random House, 720 pages. ISBN 1400040051
  20. ^ Stalin's Terror: High Politics and Mass Repression in the Soviet Union by Barry McLoughlin and Kevin McDermott (eds). Palgrave Macmillan, 2002, p. 6
  21. ^ Dmitri Volkogonov. Stalin: Triumph and Tragedy, 1996, ISBN-10: 0761507183
  22. ^ Great Purges: Great Purges Spartacus Educational
  23. ^ Stalin and the Betrayal of Leningrad by John Barber[6]
  24. ^ The siege of Leningrad September 8, 1941 - January 27, 1944. [7]
  25. ^ Joerg Ganzenmueller, Das belagerte Leningrad, pp.13-82, quotation p. 17 und 20.
  26. ^ Dmitri Volkogonov. Stalin: Triumph and Tragedy, 1996, ISBN-10: 0761507183
  27. ^ Russian publication: Ленинградское дело – надо ли ставить кавычки?: [8]
  28. ^ Russian publication: Маленков против Жданова. Игры сталинских фаворитов. [9]
  29. ^ Jack F. Matlock, Jr., Autopsy on an Empire: The American Ambassador's Account of the Collapse of the Soviet Union, Random House, 1995, ISBN 0679413766
  30. ^ The level of flooding is measured near Saint Petersburg Mining Institute, which is normally 11 cm a.s.l.
  31. ^ Нежиховский Р. А. Река Нева и Невская губа, Leningrad: Гидрометеоиздат, 1981.
  32. ^ See Historical weather records for Saint Petersburg (since 1932) and Historical weather in Saint Petersburg for further information.
  33. ^ Pogoda.ru.net (Russian). Retrieved on July 29, 2007.
  34. ^ a b Чистякова Н. Третье сокращение численности населения… и последнее? Демоскоп Weekly 163 – 164, August 1-15, 2004.
  35. ^ Юбилейный статистический сборник. / Под ред. И.И. Елисеевой и Е.И. Грибовой. - Вып.2. - СПб: Судостроение, 2003. с.16-17
  36. ^ (2002). "National Composition of Population for Regions of the Russian Federation" (XLS). 2002 Russian All-Population Census. Retrieved on 2006-07-20.
  37. ^ Martin, Terry (1998). The Origins of Soviet Ethnic Cleansing. The Journal of Modern History 70.4, 813-861.
  38. ^ Russian source: "Encyclopedia of St. Petersburg" Чистяков А. Ю. Население (обзорная статья). Энциклопедия Санкт-Петербурга
  39. ^ Russian statisticsОсновные показатели социально-демографической ситуации в Санкт-Петербурге
  40. ^ The Constitution of the Russian federation: [10]
  41. ^ Russian source: Charter of St. Petersburg City.[11]
  42. ^ Offivial site of the Northwestern Federal District (Russian): [12]
  43. ^ a b Russia 2007 Crime & Safety Report: St. Petersburg
  44. ^ Trumbull, Nathaniel S. (2003) The impacts of globalization on St. Petersburg: A secondary world city in from the cold? The Annals of Regional Science 37:533–546
  45. ^ Powell, Bill & Brian Whitmore. The Capital Of Crime.(St. Petersburg, Russia). Newsweek International, May 15, 2000.
  46. ^ Georgano, G. N. Cars: Early and Vintage, 1886-1930. (London: Grange-Universal, 1985)
  47. ^ Budget of St. Petersburg (Russian document): [13]
  48. ^ Валовой региональный продукт по субъектам Российской Федерации в 1998-2005гг. (в текущих основных ценах; млн.рублей)
  49. ^ Валовой региональный продукт на душу населения (в текущих основных ценах; рублей)
  50. ^ Отраслевая структура ВРП по видам экономической деятельности (по ОКВЭД) за 2005 год
  51. ^ Until 2001, the Varshavsky Rail Terminal served as a major station, it is now converted into a railway museum.Reconstruction of the Warsaw Railway Station
  52. ^ http://www.russianrail.com/
  53. ^ Rossiya (Pulkovo): Pulkovo Aviation Enterprise
  54. ^ Schedule for main drawbridges across the Neva river (Official Russian schedule): [14]
  55. ^ Where a symphony silenced guns: [http://www.guardian.co.uk/travel/2005/oct/16/classicalmusicandopera.russia.stpetersburg}
  56. ^ Orchestral manoeuvres (part one): [15]
  57. ^ EMI Classics - The Male Choir of St. Petersburg CD Booklet - Vadim Afanasiev
  58. ^ International Movie Database: [16]
  59. ^ Joseph Brodsky. Less Than One: Selected Essays, 1986

Nicholas and Alexandra: An Intimate Account of the Last of the Romanovs and the Fall of Imperial Russia is a 1967 biography of the last royal family of Russia by historian Robert K. Massie. ... Tony Cliff (May 20, 1917 – May 9, 2000) was a Trotskyist revolutionary activist. ... John Reeds signature John Jack Silas Reed (October 22, 1887 – October 19, 1920) was an American journalist, poet, and communist activist, famous for his first-hand account of the Bolshevik Revolution, Ten Days that Shook the World. ... Jack Matlock was an American career diplomat who was posted in Moscow during some of the most tumultuous years of the Cold War. ... Famous Mining Institute located in St. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 201st day of the year (202nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Journal of Modern History is an academic journal published by the University of Chicago Press. ... Warsaw Railway Station prior to the Russian Revolution. ...

References

  • Нежиховский Р. А. Река Нева и Невская губа, Leningrad, Гидрометеоиздат, 1981.
  • Oleg Kobtzeff, "Espaces et cultures du Bassin de la Neva: représentations mythiques et réalités géopolitiques", in-Saint-Petersbourg: 1703-2003, Actes du Colloque international, Université de Nantes, Mai 2003, ouvrage coordonné par Walter Zidaric, CRINI, Nantes, 2004. ISBN 2-9521752-0-9
  • Dmitri Volkogonov Stalin: Triumph and Tragedy, 1996, ISBN-10: 0761507183
  • Edvard Radzinsky Stalin: The First In-depth Biography Based on Explosive New Documents from Russia's Secret Archives, 1997, ISBN-10: 0385479549
  • Stalin and the Betrayal of Leningrad by John Barber: [18]
  • Acton, Edward, Vladimir Cherniaev, and William G. Rosenberg, eds. A Critical Companion to the Russian Revolution, 1914-1921 (Bloomington, 1997)
  • Edward Acton Rethinking the Russian Revolution 1990 Oxford University Press ISBN 0713165308
  • Voline The Unknown Revolution Black Rose Books
  • Pipes, Richard. The Russian Revolution (New York, 1990)
  • Figes, Orlando. A People's Tragedy: The Russian Revolution 1891-1924, : ISBN 0-14-024364
  • Reed, John. Ten Days that Shook the World. 1919, 1st Edition, published by BONI & Liveright, Inc. for International Publishers. Transcribed and marked by David Walters for John Reed Internet Archive. Penguin Books; 1st edition. June 1, 1980. ISBN 0-14-018293-4.
  • This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.

Vsevolod Mikhailovich Eikhenbaum (August 11, 1882 - September 18, 1945), known in later life as Voline (Волин), was a leading Russian anarchist. ... John Reeds signature John Jack Silas Reed (October 22, 1887 – October 19, 1920) was an American journalist, poet, and communist activist, famous for his first-hand account of the Bolshevik Revolution, Ten Days that Shook the World. ... Encyclopædia Britannica, the eleventh edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...

Further reading

  • Amery, Colin, Brian Curran & Yuri Molodkovets. St. Petersburg. London: Frances Lincoln, 2006. ISBN 0711224927.
  • Bater, James H. St. Petersburg: Industrialization and Change. Montreal: McGuill-Queen’s University Press, 1976. ISBN 0773502661.
  • Berelowitch, Wladimir & Olga Medvedkova. Histoire de Saint-Pétersbourg. Paris: Fayard, 1996. ISBN 2213596018.
  • Buckler, Julie. Mapping St. Petersburg: Imperial Text and Cityshape. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2005 ISBN0691113491.
  • Clark, Katerina, Petersburg, Crucible of Revolution. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1995.
  • George, Arthur L. & Elena George. St. Petersburg: Russia's Window to the Future, The First Three Centuries. Lanham: Taylor Trade Publishing, 2003. ISBN 1589790170.
  • Glantz, David M. The Battle for Leningrad, 1941-1944. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2002. ISBN 0700612084.
  • Hellberg-Hirn, Elena. Imperial Imprints: Post-Soviet St. Petersburg. Helsinki: SKS Finnish Literature Society, 2003. ISBN 9517464916.
  • Knopf Guide: St. Petersburg. New York: Knopf, 1995. ISBN 0679762027.
  • Eyewitness Guide: St. Petersburg.
  • Lincoln, W. Bruce. Sunlight at Midnight: St. Petersburg and the Rise of Modern Russia. New York: Basic Books, 2000. ISBN 0465083234.
  • Lubbeck, William; Hurt, David B. At Leningrad's Gates: The Story of a Soldier with Army Group North. Philadelphia, PA: Casemate, 2006 (hardcover, ISBN 1-932033-55-6).
  • Orttung, Robert W. From Leningrad to St. Petersburg: Democratization in a Russian City. New York: St. Martin’s, 1995. ISBN 0312175612.
  • Ruble, Blair A. Leningrad: Shaping a Soviet City. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1990. ISBN 0877723478.
  • Shvidkovsky, Dmitry O. & Alexander Orloff. St. Petersburg: Architecture of the Tsars. New York: Abbeville Press, 1996. ISBN 0789202174.
  • Volkov, Solomon. St. Petersburg: A Cultural History. New York: Free Press, 1995. ISBN 0028740521.
  • St. Petersburg:Architecture of the Tsars. 360 pages. Abbeville Press, 1996. ISBN-10: 0789202174
  • Saint Petersburg: Museums, Palaces, and Historic Collections: A Guide to the Lesser Known Treasures of St. Petersburg. 2003. ISBN 1593730004

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Saint Petersburg
  • WikiSatellite view of Saint Petersburg at WikiMapia
  • Official website of St. Petersburg City Administration
  • 463 casual photos of St. Petersburg from 5 july 2007 walk from Rentgena street to Repina square
  • Key Tourist Sights on Google Map linked to Official websites and/or wiki pages.
  • Map of Saint Petersburg (Russian)
  • Historical maps (Russian)
  • PetersburgCity.com
  • Many pages about St.Petersburg's architecture and history with hundreds of images
  • Photo-site about life in Saint-Petersburg.
  • Saint Petersburg in 1900 - a photographic travelogue
  • Encyclopaedia of Saint Petersburg
  • St. Petersburg in Architecture, from University of Michigan
  • Satellite photo, via Google Maps
  • Vintage postcards of St. Petersburg
  • History and photos of the St. Petersburg bridges
  • White Night views of St.Petersburg
  • Weather of Saint Petersburg, 6 days (Russian)
  • Saint Petersburg (Russia) travel guide from Wikitravel

Coordinates: 59°56′N, 30°20′E Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Wikitravel is a project to create an open content, complete, up-to-date, and reliable world-wide travel guide. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Saint Petersburg - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (5162 words)
Saint Isaac's Square is graced by the Monument to Nicholas I (1856–1859), which was spared by Bolshevik authorities from destruction as the first equestrian statue in the world with merely two support points (the rear feet of the horse).
The public monuments of St Petersburg also include Mikeshin's circular statue of Catherine II on the Nevsky Avenue, fine horse statues on the Anichkov Bridge, a Rodin-like equestrian statue of Alexander III by Paolo Troubetzkoy, and the Tercentenary monument presented by France in 2003 and installed on the Sennaya Square.
Saint Petersburg has an extensive public transport system, including the tramway network that is considered the world's largest by track length.
Saint-Petersburg (1439 words)
The city of Saint Petersburg lies on the flat and marshy shores of the Neva River at the place where it flows into the Gulf of Finland over a delta of 42 islands.
Saint Petersburg possesses the largest number of rivers, islands and bridges in the world.
Saint Petersburg is often called a museum of bridges for there are more than 300 of them in the city.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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