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Encyclopedia > Saint Peter
Saint Peter

West: Prince of the Apostles, First Pope
East: Pre-eminent Apostle
Born Bethsaida
Died ~64, Rome, by crucifixion
Venerated in Roman Catholic Church
Eastern Orthodox Church
Oriental Orthodoxy
Anglican Communion
Major shrine St. Peter's Basilica
Feast January 16 (Chains of St. Peter)
February 22 (Chair)
June 29 (Martyrdom, together with St. Paul)
November 18 (Dedication)
Attributes Keys of Heaven, pallium, Papal vestments, man crucified head downwards, vested as an Apostle, holding a book or scroll. Iconographically, he is depicted with a bushy white beard and white hair
Patronage See St. Peter's Patronage
Saints Portal

The Apostle Peter, also known as Saint Peter (from the Greek Petros, meaning "rock"), Shimon "Keipha" Ben-Yonah/Bar-Yonah, Simon Peter, Cephas and Keipha (Keipha and Cephas also mean rock)—original name Shimon or Simeon (Hebrew: שמעון‎) ( (Acts 15:14)—was one of the Twelve Apostles whom Jesus chose as his original disciples. His life is prominently featured in the New Testament Gospels and the Acts of the Apostles. Peter was a Galilean fisherman assigned a leadership role by Jesus (Matthew 16:18; John 21:15–16). Many within the early Church, such as St. Irenaeus[1], assert his primacy among the apostles. St. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1000x2065, 210 KB) Description: Title: de: Griffoni-Altar, ursprl. ... Bethsaida (beth-sā´i-da; Βηθσαΐδά, BeÌ„thsaidá, “house of fishing”) // Bethsaida Julias A city east of the Jordan River, in a “desert place” (that is, uncultivated ground used for grazing) at which Jesus miraculously fed the multitude with five loaves and two fishes (Mark 6:32; Luke 9:10). ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Crucifixion (disambiguation). ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... Orthodox icon of Pentecost. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      The term... Main article: Anglicanism The Anglican Communion is a world-wide affiliation of Anglican Churches. ... Shrine is also used as a conventional translation of the Japanese Jinja. ... The Basilica of Saint Peter (Latin: ), officially known in Italian as the Basilica di San Pietro in Vaticano and commonly known as St. ... The calendar of saints is a traditional Christian method of organising a liturgical year on the level of days by associating each day with one or more saints, and referring to the day as that saints day. ... is the 16th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 53rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 180th day of the year (181st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The name Saint Paul may refer to one of several possible meanings or references, though it is most commonly used to refer to the Biblical Paul of Tarsus. ... is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Saint symbology was important to people who couldnt read because they can figure out what symbols mean. ... Saint Peter holding the Keys of Heaven. ... now. ... The most famous symbol of the Papacy is almost certainly the triregnum (a crown with three levels), also called the tiara or triple crown; recent Popes (since Pope John Paul I) have not, however, worn the triregnum. ... Saint Quentin is the patron saint of locksmiths and is also invoked against coughs and sneezes. ... St Peter redirects here. ... Image File history File links Gloriole. ... Simeon or Shimon (שִׁמְעוֹן) is a Hebrew name meaning Hearkening; listening, Standard Hebrew Šimʿon, Tiberian Hebrew Šimʿôn) The Greek form of the name is Simon. ... Simeon, Symeon, or Shimon is a Hebrew name (שִׁמְעוֹן) meaning hearkening; listening, pronounced in Biblical Hebrew Å imÊ¿on, Tiberian Hebrew Å imʿôn. ... Hebrew redirects here. ... For the literature genre, see Acts of the Apostles (genre). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      For... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... In Christianity, the disciples were the students of Jesus during his ministry. ... This article is about the Christian scriptures. ... For other uses, see Gospel (disambiguation). ... For the literature genre, see Acts of the Apostles (genre). ... For other uses, see Galilee (disambiguation). ... A Long Island fisherman cleans his nets A fisherman is someone who gathers fish, shellfish, or other animals from a body of water. ... // Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Early Christianity is the Christianity of the three centuries between the death of Jesus ( 30) and the First Council of Nicaea (325). ... Saint Irenaeus (Greek: Ειρηναίος), (b. ...


The Roman Catholic Church, Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox and Anglican Communion, consider Simon Peter a saint and associate him with the foundation of the Church in Rome, even if they differ on the significance of this and of the Pope in present-day Christianity. The historical accuracy of the accounts of his role in Rome is a matter of ongoing debate.[2][3][4] Catholic Church redirects here. ... Orthodox icon of Pentecost. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      The term... Main article: Anglicanism The Anglican Communion is a world-wide affiliation of Anglican Churches. ... Saints redirects here. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Athanasius · Augustine · Constantine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Arminius · Calvin · Luther · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box... For other uses, see Pope (disambiguation). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... Historicity refers to the historical authenticity of a person, event, or place. ...


Some who recognize his office as Bishop of Antioch and, later, as Bishop of Rome or Pope, hold that his episcopacy held a primacy only of honor, as a first among equals. Some propose that his primacy was not intended to pass to his successors. The Patriarch of Antioch, is one of the original patriarchs of Early Christianity, who presided over the bishops of Syria, Palestine, Armenia and Mesopotamia. ... While all episcopal sees can be referred to as holy, the expression the Holy See (without further specification) is normally used in international relations (as well as in the canon law of the Catholic Church)[1] to refer to the central government of the Catholic Church, headed by the Bishop... For other uses, see Pope (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that episcopal be merged into this article or section. ...


The Roman Martyrology assigns 29 June as the feast day of both Peter and Paul, without thereby declaring that to be the day of their deaths. St. Augustine of Hippo says in his Sermon 295: "One day is assigned for the celebration of the martyrdom of the two apostles. But those two were one. Although their martyrdom occurred on different days, they were one." The Annuario Pontificio gives the year of Peter's death as A.D. 64 or A.D. 67. Some scholars believe that he died on October 13 A.D. 64. It is traditionally believed that the Roman authorities sentenced him to death by crucifixion. According to a tradition recorded or perhaps initiated in the apocryphal Acts of Peter, he was crucified head down. Tradition also locates his burial place where the Basilica of Saint Peter was later built, directly beneath the Basilica's high altar. In art, he is often depicted holding the keys to the kingdom of heaven (interpreted by Roman Catholics as the sign of his primacy over the Church), a reference to Matthew 16:19. A martyrology is a catalogue or list of martyrs, or, more exactly, of saints, arranged in the order of their anniversaries. ... is the 180th day of the year (181st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The calendar of saints is a traditional Christian method of organising a liturgical year on the level of days by associating each day with one or more saints, and referring to the day as that saints day. ... St. ... Augustinus redirects here. ... The Annuario Pontificio or Pontifical Yearbook is the annual directory of the Holy See of the Roman Catholic Church. ... July 18 - Great fire of Rome: A fire began to burn in the merchant area of Rome and soon burned completely out of control while Emperor Nero allegedly played his lyre and sang while watching the blaze from a safe distance, although there is no hard evidence to support this... Centuries: 1st century BC - 1st century - 2nd century Decades: 10s 20s 30s 40s 50s - 60s - 70s 80s 90s 100s 110s Years: 62 63 64 65 66 - 67 - 68 69 70 71 72 Events Linus succeeds Saint Peter as pope. ... is the 286th day of the year (287th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... July 18 - Great fire of Rome: A fire began to burn in the merchant area of Rome and soon burned completely out of control while Emperor Nero allegedly played his lyre and sang while watching the blaze from a safe distance, although there is no hard evidence to support this... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Crucifixion (disambiguation). ... In Judeo-Christian theologies, apocrypha refers to religious Sacred text that have questionable authenticity or are otherwise disputed. ... One of the earliest of the apocryphal acts of the apostles, the Acts of Peter is one of the books in the New Testament Apocrypha. ... The Basilica of Saint Peter (Latin: ), officially known in Italian as the Basilica di San Pietro in Vaticano and commonly known as St. ... Kingdom of Heaven redirects here. ... The Gospel of Matthew (literally, according to Matthew; Greek, Κατά Μαθθαίον or Κατά Ματθαίον, Kata Maththaion or Kata Matthaion) is a synoptic gospel in the New Testament, one of four canonical gospels. ...

Contents

New Testament account

Peter's life story relies on the New Testament, since there are few other first-century accounts of his life and death. This article is about the Christian scriptures. ...


Background

According to the Gospel of John, Peter was born in Bethsaida (John 1:44). His father's name is given as 'Jonah' (John 1:42, Matthew 16:17), although some manuscripts of John give his father's name as John. The synoptic gospels all recount how Peter's mother-in-law was healed by Jesus at their home in Capernaum (Matthew 8:14–17; Mark 1:29–31; Luke 4:38) which, coupled with 1 Corinthians 9:5, implies that Peter was married. Bethsaida (beth-sā´i-da; Βηθσαΐδά, BeÌ„thsaidá, “house of fishing”) // Bethsaida Julias A city east of the Jordan River, in a “desert place” (that is, uncultivated ground used for grazing) at which Jesus miraculously fed the multitude with five loaves and two fishes (Mark 6:32; Luke 9:10). ... In the New Testament of the Christian Bible, gospels Matthew, Mark, and Luke are so similar that they are called the synoptic gospels (from Greek, συν, syn, together, and οψις, opsis, seeing). ... According to the canonical Gospels, Jesus worked many miracles in the course of his ministry. ... Catholic church built over the house of Saint Peter Capernaum (pronounced k-pûrn-m; Hebrew כפר נחום Kefar Nachum, Nahums hamlet) was a settlement on the shore of the Sea of Galilee. ...


According to the synoptic gospels, before becoming a disciple of Jesus, Simon (that is, Peter whose name was in fact originally Simon) was a fisherman along with his brother Andrew. The Gospel of John also depicts Peter fishing, but only after the resurrection in the story of the Catch of 153 fish. In the New Testament of the Christian Bible, gospels Matthew, Mark, and Luke are so similar that they are called the synoptic gospels (from Greek, συν, syn, together, and οψις, opsis, seeing). ... Saint Andrew (Greek: Ανδρέας, Andreas), called in the Orthodox tradition Protocletos, or the First-called, is a Christian Apostle and the elder brother of Saint Peter. ... For other uses, see Gospel of John (disambiguation). ... The Catch of 153 fish is an episode in the appendix of the Gospel of John, in which seven of the Twelve Apostles were out fishing when they unexpectedly witness one of the resurrection appearances of Jesus. ...

Ruins of ancient Capernaum on north side of the Sea of Galilee. An Orthodox church is built on top of traditional site of Saint Peter's house.
Ruins of ancient Capernaum on north side of the Sea of Galilee. An Orthodox church is built on top of traditional site of Saint Peter's house.

Matthew and Mark report that while fishing in the Lake of Gennesaret, Simon and his brother Andrew were called by Jesus to be his followers, with the words, "Follow me, and I will make you fishers of men" (Matthew 4:18–19; Mark 1:16–17). In Luke's account Simon is the owner of a boat that Jesus uses to preach to the multitudes who were pressing on him at the shore of Lake Gennesaret (Luke 5:3). Jesus then amazes Simon and his companions James and John (Andrew is not mentioned) by telling them to lower their nets, whereupon they catch a huge number of fish. Immediately after this, they follow him (Luke 5:4–11).The Gospel of John gives a slightly different, though compatible account (John 1:35–42). Andrew, we are told, was originally a disciple of John the Baptist. Along with one other disciple, Andrew heard John the Baptist describe Jesus as the "Lamb of God," whereupon he followed Jesus. He then went and fetched his brother Simon, said, "We have found the Messiah," and brought him to Jesus. Jesus then gave Simon the name "Cephas," meaning 'rock', in Aramaic. 'Petros', a masculine form of the feminine 'petra' (rock) is the Greek equivalent of this. It had not previously been used as a name, but in the Greek-speaking world it became a popular Christian name after the tradition of Peter's prominence in the early Christian church had been established. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2848x2136, 1548 KB) Ruins of ancient Capernum in Israel. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2848x2136, 1548 KB) Ruins of ancient Capernum in Israel. ... Catholic church built over the house of Saint Peter Capernaum (pronounced k-pûrn-m; Hebrew כפר נחום Kefar Nachum, Nahums hamlet) was a settlement on the shore of the Sea of Galilee. ... The Sea of Galilee or Lake Kinneret (Hebrew ים כנרת), is Israels largest freshwater lake. ... The Sea of Galilee with the Jordan River flowing out of it to the south and into the Dead Sea The Sea of Galilee is Israels largest freshwater lake, approximately 53 kilometers (33 miles) in circumference, about 21 km (13 miles) long, and 13 km (8 miles) wide; it... Saint Andrew (Greek: Ανδρέας, Andreas), called in the Orthodox tradition Protocletos, or the First-called, is a Christian Apostle and the elder brother of Saint Peter. ... For the hip-hop producer with the same name, see John the Baptist (producer). ... For the band, see Lamb of God (band). ... In Judaism, the Messiah (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian ; Aramaic: , ; Arabic: , ; the Anointed One) at first meant any person who was anointed with oil on rising to a certain position among the ancient Israelites, at first that of High priest, later that of King and also that of a prophet. ... Aramaic is a Semitic language with a four-thousand year history. ...


Position among the apostles

Peter is always mentioned first in the lists of the Twelve. He is also frequently mentioned in the Gospels as forming with James the Elder and John a special group within the Twelve Apostles, present at incidents to which the others were not party, such as at the Transfiguration of Jesus. Saint James the Great (d. ... John the Apostle (Greek Ιωάννης, see names of John) was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus. ... Icon of the Transfiguration (15th century, Novgorod) The Transfiguration of Jesus is an event reported by the Synoptic Gospels in which Jesus was transfigured upon a mountain (Matthew 17:1-9, Mark 9:1-8, Luke 9:28-36). ...


Peter is also often depicted in the Gospels as spokesman of all the apostles, and as one to whom Jesus gave special authority. In contrast, Jewish Christians are said to have argued that James the Just was the leader of the group.[5] Some argue James was the Patriarch of Jerusalem, and that this position at times gave him privilege in some (but not all) situations. This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Saint James the Just (יעקב Holder of the heel; supplanter; Standard Hebrew Yaʿaqov, Tiberian Hebrew Yaʿăqōḇ, Greek Iάκωβος), also called James Adelphotheos, James, 1st Bishop of Jerusalem, or James, the Brother of the Lord[1] and sometimes identified with James the Less, (died AD 62) was an important figure...


Washing of feet

According to John, Peter initially refused to allow Jesus to wash his feet. When Jesus responded "If I wash thee not, thou hast no part with me," Peter replied "Lord, not my feet only, but also my hands and my head" (John 13:7–9). Feet washing is a religious rite observed as an ordinance by several Christian denominations. ...


Walking on water

According to the Gospel of Matthew, Peter (alone out of all the disciples) was able to walk on water after seeing Jesus do the same thing, but he later fell in because he lost faith. Jesus caught him and scolded him for losing faith. (Matthew 14:22–32). (Mark and John also mention Jesus walking on water, but do not mention Peter doing so). Not to be confused with Walk on Water . ...


Arrest of Jesus

According to John, Peter cut off the ear of a servant of the high priest with a sword at the time of the arrest of Jesus. (John 18:10) John names the servant as Malchus. The synoptic gospels also mention this incident, but do not specifically identify Peter as the swordsman or Malchus as the victim. According to Matthew, Luke and John, Jesus rebuked this act of violence, Luke adding the detail that Jesus touched the ear and healed it. For other uses, see Ear (disambiguation). ... Gethsemane by Wassilij Grigorjewitsch Perow The Arrest of Jesus is a pivotal event recorded in the Canonical Gospels, in which Jesus is arrested. ... In the New Testament of the Bible, Malchus was the name of a servant of the high priest who helped try to arrest Jesus. ... In the New Testament of the Christian Bible, gospels Matthew, Mark, and Luke are so similar that they are called the synoptic gospels (from Greek, συν, syn, together, and οψις, opsis, seeing). ...


Denial of Jesus

St Peter Denying Christ, by Gustave Doré
St Peter Denying Christ, by Gustave Doré

All four canonical gospels recount that, during the Last Supper, Jesus foretold that Peter would deny association with him three times that same night. In Matthew's account, this is reported as: Doré photographed by Felix Nadar. ... For other uses, see The Last Supper (disambiguation). ...

Jesus said unto him, "Verily I say unto thee, That this night, before the cock[6] crow, thou shalt deny me thrice."[7] For other uses, see Rooster (disambiguation). ...

and that Peter did in fact do so, while Jesus was on trial before the high priest. The three Synoptics describe the three denials as follows:

  1. A denial when a female servant of the high priest spots Simon Peter, saying that he had been with Jesus.
  2. A denial when Simon Peter had gone out to the gateway, away from the firelight, but the same servant girl or another told the bystanders he was a follower of Jesus.
  3. A denial came when recognition of Peter as a Galilean was taken as proof that he was indeed a disciple of Jesus. Matthew adds that it was his accent that gave him away as coming from Galilee. Luke deviates slightly from this by stating that, rather than a crowd accusing Simon Peter, it was a third individual.

The Gospel of John places the second denial while Peter was still warming himself at the fire, and gives as the occasion of the third denial a claim by someone to have seen him in the garden of Gethsemane when Jesus was arrested. Since Peter does not reappear in Matthew's gospel after his denial of Jesus, a small but notable number of scholars (for instance?) have suggested the theory that Matthew might have viewed Peter as an apostate, and was actually criticising Peter and the groups that looked to him as founder. In the Gospel of Luke, Jesus' prediction of Peter's denial is coupled with a prediction that all the apostles ("you," plural) would be "sifted like wheat," but that it would be Peter's task ("you," singular), when he had turned again, to strengthen his brethren. This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The Garden of Gethsemane. ... Gethsemane by Wassilij Grigorjewitsch Perow The Arrest of Jesus is a pivotal event recorded in the Canonical Gospels, in which Jesus is arrested. ... The Gospel of Matthew (literally, according to Matthew; Greek, Κατά Μαθθαίον or Κατά Ματθαίον, Kata Maththaion or Kata Matthaion) is a synoptic gospel in the New Testament, one of four canonical gospels. ... Apostasy (Greek απο, apo, away, apart, στασις, stasis, standing) is the formal renunciation of ones religion. ...


Empty tomb

In John's gospel, Peter is the first person to enter the empty tomb, although the women and the beloved disciple see it before him (John 20:1–9). In Luke's account, the women's report of the empty tomb is dismissed by the apostles and Peter is the only one who goes to check for himself. After seeing the graveclothes he goes home, apparently without informing the other disciples (Luke 24:1–12). entering into the sepulchre, they saw a young man sitting on the right side, clothed in a long white garment - an image from the Pericopes of Henry II In the Gospels, the empty tomb is the first sign of the Resurrection of Jesus. ... The phrase disciple whom Jesus loved or Beloved Disciple is used several times in the Gospel of John. ...

Church of the Primacy of St. Peter on the Sea of Galilee. Traditional site where Jesus Christ appeared to his disciples after his resurrection and, according to Catholic tradition, established Peter's supreme jurisdiction over the Christian church.
Church of the Primacy of St. Peter on the Sea of Galilee. Traditional site where Jesus Christ appeared to his disciples after his resurrection and, according to Catholic tradition, established Peter's supreme jurisdiction over the Christian church.

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixel Image in higher resolution (2848 × 1899 pixel, file size: 409 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Church of the Primacy of St. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixel Image in higher resolution (2848 × 1899 pixel, file size: 409 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Church of the Primacy of St. ... The Sea of Galilee or Lake Kinneret (Hebrew ים כנרת), is Israels largest freshwater lake. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...

Resurrection appearances

Paul's First Epistle to the Corinthians contains a list of resurrection appearances of Jesus, the first of which is an appearance to "Cephas" (Peter).[8] An appearance to "Simon" is also reported in Luke 24:34. In the final chapter of the Gospel of John, Peter, in one of the resurrection appearances of Jesus, three times affirmed his love for Jesus, balancing his threefold denial, and Jesus reconfirmed Peter's position (John 21:15–17). Almost all Christians consider the final chapter of the Gospel of John to be canonical, though some scholars hypothesize that it was added later to bolster Peter's status.[9] The First Epistle to the Corinthians is a book of the Bible in the New Testament. ... In the Supper at Emmaus, Caravaggio depicted the moment the disciples recognise Jesus The Resurrection appearances of Jesus are reported in the New Testament to have occurred after his death and burial. ... John 21 provides the only Biblical information about Peters death, traditionally held to have been by crucifixion. ... In the Supper at Emmaus, Caravaggio depicted the moment the disciples recognise Jesus The Resurrection appearances of Jesus are reported in the New Testament to have occurred after his death and burial. ...


In the early Greek versions of this exchange between the risen Jesus and Peter, Jesus asks whether Peter loves him unconditionally (ἀγάπος). Peter responds that he considers Jesus a friend (φίλος). The third time, Jesus asks whether Peter considers Jesus a friend (φίλος), and Peter responds that he considers Jesus a friend (φίλος). One interpretation of this is that Peter actually denies Jesus two more time (i.e., denies Jesus the unconditional love (ἀγάπος) that Jesus requests); Jesus "comes down" to Peter's level with the final request of mere friendship (φίλος).

Statue of St. Peter on the south door of St Mary's Church in Aylesbury, United Kingdom
Statue of St. Peter on the south door of St Mary's Church in Aylesbury, United Kingdom

ImageMetadata File history File links StMarysAylesburyDetail6. ... ImageMetadata File history File links StMarysAylesburyDetail6. ... This page is about Aylesbury in Buckinghamshire, England. ...

Role in the early church

The author of the Acts of the Apostles portrays Peter as an extremely important figure within the early Christian community, with Peter delivering a significant open-air sermon during Pentecost. According to the same book, Peter took the lead in selecting a replacement for Judas Iscariot (Acts 1:15). He was twice arraigned, with John, before the Sanhedrin and directly defied them (Acts 4:7–22, Acts 5:18–42). He undertook a missionary journey to Lydda, Joppa and Caesarea (Acts 9:32–10:2), becoming instrumental in the decision to evangelise the Gentiles (Acts 10). He was present at the Council of Jerusalem, where Paul further argued the case for accepting Gentiles into the Christian community without circumcision. For the literature genre, see Acts of the Apostles (genre). ... Open air preaching is the act of preaching to people in public places, primarily on the street corner where there is a crowd of people. ... … The Descent of the Holy Spirit in a 15th century illuminated manuscript. ... For other uses, see Judas. ... For the tractate in the Mishnah, see Sanhedrin (tractate). ... Lod (Hebrew לוד; Arabic اللد al-Ludd, Greco-Latin Lydda) is a city in the Center District of Israel in Israel. ... Jaffa (Hebrew יָפוֹ, Standard Hebrew Yafo, Tiberian Hebrew Yāp̄ô; Arabic يَافَا Yāfā; also Japho, Joppa), is an ancient city located in Israel. ... Caesarea Palaestina, also called Caesarea Maritima, a town built by Herod the Great about 25 - 13 BC, lies on the sea-coast of Israel about halfway between Tel Aviv and Haifa, on the site of a place previously called Pyrgos Stratonos (Strato or Stratons Tower, in Latin Turris Stratonis). ... The word gentile is an anglicised version of the Latin word gentilis, meaning of or belonging to a clan or tribe. ... This article is about the 1st century Council of Jerusalem in Christianity. ... This article is about male circumcision. ...


About halfway through, the Acts of the Apostles turns its attention away from Peter and to the activities of Paul, and the Bible is fairly silent on what occurred to Peter afterwards. A fleeting mention of Peter visiting Antioch is made in the Epistle to the Galatians (Galatians 2:11) where Paul confronted him, and historians have furnished other evidence of Peter's sojourn in Antioch.[10] Subsequent tradition held that Peter had been the first Patriarch of Antioch. Some scholars also interpret Paul's brief mention of Peter in 1 Corinthians as evidence that Peter had visited Corinth (1 Corinthians 1:12). 1 Peter 5:13 may imply that he wrote that epistle in Babylon, Egypt, Rome or Jerusalem.[11] For the literature genre, see Acts of the Apostles (genre). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Antakya. ... The Epistle to the Galatians is a book of the New Testament. ... Patriarch of Antioch is the traditional title carried by the Bishop of Antioch. ... (Redirected from 1 Corinthians) See also: Second Epistle to the Corinthians and Third Epistle to the Corinthians The First Epistle to the Corinthians is a book of the Bible in the New Testament. ... Temple of Apollo at Corinth Corinth, or Korinth (Κόρινθος) is a Greek city, on the Isthmus of Corinth, the original isthmus, the narrow stretch of land that joins the Peloponnesus to the mainland of Greece. ...


Death

Verses 18-19 in the last chapter of the Gospel of John have been interpreted as referring to Peter's martyrdom by crucifixion, though without reference to its location: "'…when you are old you will stretch out your hands, and another will gird you and take you where you do not want to go.' Jesus said this to indicate the kind of death by which Peter would glorify God" (John 21:18–19). For other uses, see Crucifixion (disambiguation). ...


Accounts outside the New Testament

Sayings of Peter

Georgian Orthodox Icon of Saints Peter and Paul

Two sayings are attributed to Peter in the Gospel of Thomas. In the first, Peter compares Jesus to a "just messenger."[12] In the second, Peter asks Jesus to "make Mary leave us, for females don't deserve life,"[13] although the verse containing the second is regarded as a dubious, later addition by most scholars. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 462 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (650 × 844 pixel, file size: 85 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 462 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (650 × 844 pixel, file size: 85 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Georgian Orthodox Church (full title Georgian Apostolic Autocephalous Orthodox Church, or in the Georgian language საქართველოს მართლმადიდებელი სამოციქულო ეკლესია Saqartvelos Samotsiqulo Avtokepaluri Martlmadidebeli Eklesia) is one of the worlds most ancient Christian Churches, and tradition traces its origins to the mission of Apostle Andrew in the 1st century. ... The Gospel of Thomas (full name The Gospel According to Thomas (in Coptic, p. ...


In the Apocalypse of Peter, Peter holds a dialogue with Jesus about the parable of the fig tree and the fate of sinners.[14] The recovered Apocalypse of Peter or Revelation of Peter is extant in two translations of a lost original, one Greek, one Ethiopic, which diverge considerably. ... The story of the Fig Tree appears in the Synoptic Gospels, though in the Gospel of Matthew and that of Mark, it appears as a narrative about Jesus, and though a similar tale appears in the Gospel of Luke (13:6–9) it is instead framed as a parable told... This page is about sin in the context of religion. ...


In the Gospel of Mary, Peter appears to be jealous of "Mary" (probably Mary Magdalene). He says to the other disciples "Did He really speak privately with a woman and not openly to us? Are we to turn about and all listen to her? Did He prefer her to us?"[15] In reply to this, Levi says "Peter, you have always been hot tempered."[16] This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article is about the disciple of Jesus. ... Matthew the Evangelist (מתי Gift of the LORD, Standard Hebrew and Tiberian Hebrew Mattay; Septuagint Greek Ματθαιος, Matthaios) is traditionally believed to be the author of the Gospel of Matthew. ...


Other noncanonical texts that attribute sayings to Peter include the Secret Book of James and the Acts of Peter. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... One of the earliest of the apocryphal acts of the apostles, the Acts of Peter is one of the books in the New Testament Apocrypha. ...


Denial of Jesus

In the Fayyum Fragment Jesus predicts that Peter will deny him three times before the cock crows at dawn in an account similar to that of the canonical gospels, especially the Gospel of Mark. The Fayyum Fragment is a papyrus fragment containing text that could form part of the New Testament, and consists of only about 100 Greek letters. ... The Gospel of Mark, anonymous[1] but traditionally ascribed to Mark the Evangelist, is a synoptic gospel of the New Testament. ...


After the death of Jesus

The fragmentary Gospel of Peter, attributed to Peter, contains an account of the death of Jesus differing significantly from the canonical gospels. It contains little information about Peter himself, except that after the discovery of the empty tomb, "I, Simon Peter, and Andrew my brother, took our fishing nets and went to the sea." [17] The Gospel of Peter was a prominent passion narrative in the early history of Christianity, but over time passed out of common usage. ... entering into the sepulchre, they saw a young man sitting on the right side, clothed in a long white garment - an image from the Pericopes of Henry II In the Gospels, the empty tomb is the first sign of the Resurrection of Jesus. ...


Death of Peter

Caravaggio's depiction of the crucifixion of Saint Peter.
Caravaggio's depiction of the crucifixion of Saint Peter.

The early writings indicated in the following paragraphs witness to the tradition that Peter, probably at the time of the Great Fire of Rome of the year 64, for which the Emperor Nero blamed the Christians, met martyrdom in Rome. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (618x800, 120 KB) Summary Michelangelo Merisi, aka Caravaggio: , Santa Maria del Popolo, Rome. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (618x800, 120 KB) Summary Michelangelo Merisi, aka Caravaggio: , Santa Maria del Popolo, Rome. ... For other uses, see Caravaggio (disambiguation). ... According to the historian Tacitus, the Great Fire of Rome started on the night of 18 July in the year 64, among the shops clustered around the Circus Maximus. ... Nero Claudius Cæsar Augustus Germanicus (December 15, 37 – June 9, 68), born Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus, also called Nero Claudius Drusus Germanicus, was the fifth and last Roman Emperor of the Julio-Claudian dynasty (54–68). ...


Clement of Rome, in his Letter to the Corinthians (Chapter 5), written c. 80-98, speaks of Peter's martyrdom in the following terms: "Let us take the noble examples of our own generation. Through jealousy and envy the greatest and most just pillars of the Church were persecuted, and came even unto death… Peter, through unjust envy, endured not one or two but many labours, and at last, having delivered his testimony, departed unto the place of glory due to him." ... Events By place Roman Empire The Emperor Titus inaugurates the Flavian Amphitheatre with 100 days of games. ... Events Roman emperor Nerva succeeded by Trajan Tacitus finished his Germania (approximate date) Births Deaths January 27: Nerva, Roman emperor Apollonius of Tyana, Greek/Roman philosopher and mathematician (b. ...


Saint Ignatius of Antioch, in his Letter to the Romans (Ch. 4) of c. 105-110, tells the Roman Christians: "I do not command you, as Peter and Paul did." Saint Ignatius of Antioch (also known as Theophorus)(c. ... Events Roman Empire Trajan starts the second expedition against Dacia. ... For other uses, see number 110. ...


Dionysius of Corinth wrote: "You [Pope Soter] have also, by your very admonition, brought together the planting that was made by Peter and Paul at Rome and at Corinth; for both of them alike planted in our Corinth and taught us; and both alike, teaching similarly in Italy, suffered martyrdom at the same time" (Letter to Pope Soter [A.D. 170], in Eusebius, History of the Church 2:25:8). Dionysius, Bishop of Corinth lived about the year 170. ...


St. Irenaeus of Lyon (a disciple of St. Polycarp of Smyrna, who was himself a disciple of the Apostle St. John, which puts Irenaeus not far from the authentic teachings of the Apostles) in c. 175-185 wrote in Against Heresies (Book III, Chapter III, paragraphs 2–3): An engraving of Irenaeus (ca. ... Polycarp of Smyrna (martyred in his 87th year, ca. ... John the Apostle (Greek Ιωάννης, see names of John) was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus. ... Events Pope Eleuterus succeeds Pope Soter (approximate date) Roman emperor Marcus Aurelius defeats the Marcomanni. ... For other uses, see number 185. ... On the Detection and Overthrow of the So-Called Gnosis, commonly called Against Heresies (Latin: Adversus haereses), is a five volume work written by St. ...

Since, however, it would be too long to enumerate in such a volume as this the succession of all the churches, we shall confound all those who, in whatever manner, whether through self-satisfaction or vainglory, or through blindness and wicked opinion, assemble other than where it is proper, by pointing out here the successions of the bishops of the greatest and most ancient church known to all, founded and organized at Rome by the two most glorious apostles, Peter and Paul, that church which has the tradition and the faith which comes down to us after having been announced to men by the apostles. With that church, because of its superior origin, all the churches must agree, that is, all the faithful in the whole world, and it is in her that the faithful everywhere have maintained the apostolic tradition.

The blessed apostles, then, having founded and built up the Church, committed into the hands of Linus the office of the episcopate. Of this Linus, Paul makes mention in the Epistles to Timothy. To him succeeded Anacletus; and after him, in the third place from the apostles, Clement was allotted the bishopric. This man, as he had seen the blessed apostles, and had been conversant with them, might be said to have the preaching of the apostles still echoing [in his ears], and their traditions before his eyes. Nor was he alone [in this], for there were many still remaining who had received instructions from the apostles. In the time of this Clement, no small dissension having occurred among the brethren at Corinth, the Church in Rome dispatched a most powerful letter to the Corinthians, exhorting them to peace, renewing their faith, and declaring the tradition which it had lately received from the apostles…

Tertullian also writes: "But if you are near Italy, you have Rome, where authority is at hand for us too. What a happy church that is, on which the apostles poured out their whole doctrine with their blood; where Peter had a passion like that of the Lord, where Paul was crowned with the death of John [the Baptist, by being beheaded]"


Traditions originating in or recorded in the apocryphal Acts of Peter, say that the Romans crucified Peter upside down at his request, due to his wishing not to be equated with Jesus. Acts of Peter is also thought to be the source for the tradition about the famous phrase "Quo vadis, Domine?" (or "Pou Hupageis, Kurios?" which means, "Whither goest Thou, Master?"), a question that, according to this tradition, Peter, fleeing Rome to avoid execution, asked a vision of Jesus, and to which Jesus responded that he was "going to Rome, to be crucified again," causing Peter to decide to return to the city and accept martyrdom. This story is commemorated in an Annibale Carracci painting. The Church of Quo Vadis, near the Catacombs of Saint Callistus, contains a stone in which Jesus' footprints from this event are supposedly preserved, though this was actually apparently an ex-voto from a pilgrim, and indeed a copy of the original, housed in the Basilica of St Sebastian. Apocrypha (from the Greek word , meaning those having been hidden away[1]) are texts of uncertain authenticity or writings where the authorship is questioned. ... One of the earliest of the apocryphal acts of the apostles, the Acts of Peter is one of the books in the New Testament Apocrypha. ... // Quo vadis is a Latin phrase meaning Where are you going? It is used as a proverbial phrase from the Bible (John 16:5). ... Self-portrait, (Uffizi) Annibale Carracci (November 3, 1560 - July 15, 1609) was an Italian Baroque painter. ... Chiesa di Santa Maria in Palmis, better known as Chiesa del Domine Quo Vadis? is a small church on the Appian way, on the spot where Saint Peter supposedly met Jesus while fleeing persecution in Rome. ... For the Bronze Age culture, see Catacomb culture. ... ... An ex-voto is a votive offering to a saint or divinity. ... Monument to pilgrims in Burgos, Spain This article is on religious pilgrims. ... San Sebastiano fuori le mura, facade. ...


The ancient historian Josephus describes how Roman soldiers would amuse themselves by crucifying criminals in different positions, and it is likely that this would have been known to the author of the Acts of Peter. The position attributed to Peter's crucifixion is thus plausible, either as having happened historically or as being an invention by the author of the Acts of Peter. Death, after crucifixion head down, is unlikely to be caused by suffocation, the usual cause of death in ordinary crucifixion. A fanciful representation of Flavius Josephus, in an engraving in William Whistons translation of his works Josephus (37 – sometime after 100 CE),[1] who became known, in his capacity as a Roman citizen, as Titus Flavius Josephus,[2] was a 1st-century Jewish historian and apologist of priestly and... Suffocation can mean two things: Suffocation, or Asphyxia, is a medical condition where the body is depraved of oxygen. ...


A medieval misconception was that the Mamertine Prison in Rome is the place where Peter was imprisoned before his execution. The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and Modern Times. ... The Mamertine Prison (also referred to as the Tullianum) was a prison (Carcer) located in the Forum Romanum in Ancient Rome. ...


In 1950, human bones were found buried underneath the altar of St. Peter's Basilica. The bones have been claimed by many to have been that of Peter.[18] These claims were later contradicted by a 1953 excavation of what some believe to be St Peter's tomb in Jerusalem.[19] This discovery seems to clarify Paul's confrontation in Antioch (ca 51 AD) with "Cephas" (Galatians 2:1–8), as being Peter. Also there is an apocryphal text entitled "Martyrdom of Paul," in which Peter is absent from Paul's death at Rome, stating Paul's only companions to be Luke and Titus (2 Timothy, Paul says "only Luke is with me.") The Vatican contends that the bones found in 1950 are St. Peter's.


Children

Late legends said that Peter had a daughter, who was sometimes identified with the virgin martyr Petronilla.[20] This is at least possible, since 1 Corinthians 9:5 indicates that Cephas (Peter) traveled with his wife. Saint Petronilla (name variants include Aurelia Petronilla; Pernelle; Peroline; Perrenotte; Perrette; Perrine; Perronelle; Petronella; Peyronne; Peyronnelle; Pierrette; Pérette; Périne; Pétronille) (d. ...


At one point (1 Pet 5:13) Peter refers to Mark as his son, although this is generally considered to not be literal.[citation needed] Mark the Evangelist (1st century) is traditionally believed to be the author of the Gospel of Mark, drawing much of his material from Peter. ...


Religious interpretations

Roman Catholic Church

Peter
Birth name Simon/Simeon
Papacy began 30 AD?
Papacy ended 64 AD
Predecessor None (seat created)
Successor Linus
Born
Bethsaida (traditional)
Died Circa 64 AD
City of Rome,
present day Italy Flag of Italy
Styles of
Pope Peter
Reference style His Holiness
Spoken style Your Holiness
Religious style Holy Father
Posthumous style Saint

In Catholic tradition, Peter's leadership role among the Apostles, referred to above lies at the root of the leadership role of the pope among the bishops of the Church. The pope is seen as the successor of Peter as bishop of Rome by all the ancient Christian Churches. Protestants question this belief on the grounds of alleged lack of contemporary evidence. Image File history File links S._Peter_GraoVasco1. ... Events The Sermon on the Mount (according to proponents of the 33 theory) April 7 - Crucifixion of Jesus (suggested date, but it is also suggested that he died on April 3, AD 33) Births Quintus Petillius Cerialis, brother-in-law of Vespasian Deaths April 7 - Judas Iscariot, disciple of Jesus... July 18 - Great fire of Rome: A fire began to burn in the merchant area of Rome and soon burned completely out of control while Emperor Nero allegedly played his lyre and sang while watching the blaze from a safe distance, although there is no hard evidence to support this... Pope Saint Linus (d. ... Bethsaida (beth-sā´i-da; Βηθσαΐδά, BeÌ„thsaidá, “house of fishing”) // Bethsaida Julias A city east of the Jordan River, in a “desert place” (that is, uncultivated ground used for grazing) at which Jesus miraculously fed the multitude with five loaves and two fishes (Mark 6:32; Luke 9:10). ... Look up Circa on Wiktionary, the free dictionary The Latin word circa, literally meaning about, is often used to describe various dates (often birth and death dates) that are uncertain. ... July 18 - Great fire of Rome: A fire began to burn in the merchant area of Rome and soon burned completely out of control while Emperor Nero allegedly played his lyre and sang while watching the blaze from a safe distance, although there is no hard evidence to support this... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... A style of office, or honorific, is a form of address which by tradition or law precedes a reference to a person who holds a title or post, or to the political office itself. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Bible, English, King James, Matthew A number of Christian denominations hold that Simon Peter was the most prominent of the apostles, favoured by Jesus of Nazareth with the first place of honour and authority. ... The primacy of the Roman Pontiff is the apostolic authority of the Pope (Bishop of Rome), from the Holy See, over the several churches that comprise the Catholic Church in the Latin and Eastern Rites. ... For other uses, see Pope (disambiguation). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      This article... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Pope. ... Protestantism encompasses the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated with the doctrines of the Reformation. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      This article is about theological concept. ...


The first Epistle of Peter ends with "The church that is in Babylon, chosen together with you, salutes you, and so does my son, Mark." (1 Pet 5:13). Though the word "Babylon" refers literally to a city in Mesopotamia, it could be used cryptically to indicate Rome, as some argue the term is used in Revelation 14:8; 16:19; 17:5-6, and in the works of various Jewish seers. "Babylon" could also simply be a reference to the present age, so the reference to a specific place is not conclusive. For other uses, see Babylon (disambiguation). ... Mesopotamia was a cradle of civilization geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, largely corresponding to modern-day Iraq. ... Visions of John of Patmos, as depicted in the Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry. ...


In reference to Peter's occupation before becoming an Apostle, the popes wear the Fisherman's Ring, which bears an image of the saint casting his nets from a fishing boat. The keys used as a symbol of the Pope's authority refer to the "keys of the kingdom of Heaven" promised to Peter (Matthew 16:18–19). The terminology of this "commission" of Peter is unmistakably parallel to the commissioning of Eliakim ben Hilkiah in Isaiah 22:15 and Isaiah 22:19–23. The Ring of the Fisherman or Pescatorio is an official part of the regalia worn by the pope, described by the Roman Catholic Church as the successor of Saint Peter, a fisherman by trade. ...


Peter is therefore often depicted in both Western and Eastern Christian art holding a key or a set of keys.


In the same passage of the Gospel of Matthew, Jesus tells Peter: "You are Peter, and on this rock I will build my Church." In the original Greek the word translated as "Peter" is Πέτρος (Petros) and that translated as "rock" is πέτρα (petra), two words that, while not identical, give an impression of a play on words. Furthermore, since Jesus presumably spoke to Peter in their native Aramaic language, he would have used kepha in both instances.[21] The Peshitta Text and the Old Syriac text use the word "kepha" for both "Peter" and "rock" in Matthew 16:18.[22] John 1:42 says Jesus called Simon "Cephas", as does Paul in some letters. The traditional Catholic interpretation has therefore been that Jesus told Peter (Rock) that he would build his Church on this Peter (Rock). Many Protestants agree with this interpretation, but dispute the doctrine of Apostolic Succession, thus questioning the authority of the popes without questioning the authority of Peter himself. Aramaic is a group of Semitic languages with a 3,000-year history. ... For other uses, see Gospel of John (disambiguation). ... In Christianity, the doctrine of Apostolic Succession (or the belief that the Church is apostolic) maintains that the Christian Church today is the spiritual successor to the original body of believers in Christ, composed of the Apostles. ...


Some Protestant scholars disagree with this interpretation on the basis of the difference between the Greek words. In classical Attic Greek petros generally meant "pebble," while petra meant "boulder" or "cliff." Accordingly, taking Peter's name to mean "pebble," they argue that the "rock" in question cannot have been Peter, but something else, either Jesus himself, or the faith in Jesus that Peter had just professed. In appealing to the doctrine of Biblical inerrancy, these scholars claim that speculation regarding the original language/word choice of the event recorded in Matthew is irrelevant because the account in Greek is without error, and thus there must be significance to the different words chosen by the author. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Biblical...

Christ Handing the Keys to St Peter, by Pietro Perugino (1481-82)
Christ Handing the Keys to St Peter, by Pietro Perugino (1481-82)

Counter-arguments are presented not only by Catholic apologists like Karl Keating[21] but also by scholars of other Christian churches, such as the Evangelical Christian D. A. Carson in The Expositor's Bible Commentary (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1984). They point out that the Gospel of Matthew was written, not in the classical Attic form of Greek, but in the Hellenistic Koine dialect, in which there is no distinction in meaning between petros and petra. Moreover, even in Attic Greek, in which the regular meaning of petros was a smallish "stone," there are instances of its use to refer to larger rocks, as in Sophocles, Oedipus at Colonus v. 1595, where petros refers to a boulder used as a landmark, obviously something more than a pebble. In any case, a petros/petra distinction is irrelevant considering the Aramaic language in which the phrase might well have been spoken. In Greek, of any period, the feminine noun petra could not be used as the given name of a male, which may explain the use of Petros as the Greek word with which to translate Aramaic Kepha.[21] Self-portrait, 1497–1500. ... Apologetics is the field of study concerned with the systematic defense of a position. ... Koine redirects here. ... This article is about the Greek tragedian. ... Oedipus at Colonus (also Oedipus Coloneus, and in Greek Οἰδίπους ἐπὶ Κολωνῷ) is one of the three Theban plays of the Athenian tragedian Sophocles. ...


By analyzing the Greek, it is also believed Jesus meant to single out Peter as the very rock which he will build upon. Matthew uses the demonstrative pronoun taute, which allegedly means "this very" or this same, when he refers to the rock on which Jesus' church will be built. He also uses the Greek word for "and", kai. It is alleged that when a demonstrative pronoun is used with kai, the pronoun refers back to the preceding noun. The second rock Jesus refers to must then be the same rock as the first one; and if Peter is the first rock he must also be the second.[23][24][25]


Both Latin and Greek writers in the early church (such as St. John Chrysostom) considered the "foundation rock" as applying to both Peter personally and his confession of faith (or the faith of his confession) symbolically, as well as seeing Christ's promise to apply more generally to his twelve apostles and the Church at large.[26] This "double meaning" interpretation is present in the Catechism of the Catholic Church.[27] This article refers to the Christian saint. ... The Catechism of the Catholic Church, or CCC, is an official exposition of the teachings of the Catholic Church, first published in French in 1992 by the authority of Pope John Paul II.[1] Subsequently, in 1997, a Latin text was issued which is now the official text of reference...


When, in the early fourth century, the Emperor Constantine I decided to honour Peter with a large basilica, the precise location of Peter's burial was so firmly fixed in the belief of the Christians of Rome that the building had to be erected on a site that involved considerable difficulties, both physical (excavating the slope of the Vatican Hill, while the great church could much more easily have been built on level ground only slightly to the south) and moral and legal (demolishing a cemetery). The focal point of St. Peter's Basilica, both in its original form and in its later complete reconstruction, is the altar placed over what is held to be the exact place where Peter was buried. Head of Constantines colossal statue at Musei Capitolini Gaius Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus[1] (February 27, 272–May 22, 337), commonly known as Constantine I, Constantine the Great, or (among Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic[2] Christians) Saint Constantine, was a Roman Emperor, proclaimed Augustus by his troops on... Look up basilica in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Basilica of Saint Peter (Latin: ), officially known in Italian as the Basilica di San Pietro in Vaticano and commonly known as St. ...


Feast days

Looking down into the confessio containing Relics of Saint-Peter, Saint Peter's Basilica, Rome.
Looking down into the confessio containing Relics of Saint-Peter, Saint Peter's Basilica, Rome.

The Catholic Encyclopedia states that from very early times in the history of the Christian community in Rome, January 18 was the date on which celebrated the memory of the day St. Peter held his first service with Christians in Rome [1]. This feast was suppressed as part of the simplification of the calendar in the 1960s.[citation needed] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3072 × 2304 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3072 × 2304 pixel, file size: 1. ... Confession of sins is an integral part of the Christian faith and practice. ... For other uses, see Relic (disambiguation). ... Interior view, with the nave of the Cattedra in the back St. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 78th day of the year (79th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... ... is the 180th day of the year (181st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Feast of Sts. ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This, the cathedral of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Cincinnati, is a Greek revival structure located at 8th and Plum Streets in downtown Cincinnati. ... is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Not to be confused with New Catholic Encyclopedia. ...


Eastern Orthodox

Icon of St. Peter (15th century, Russian State Museum, Saint Petersburg).
Icon of St. Peter (15th century, Russian State Museum, Saint Petersburg).

The Eastern Orthodox Church regards Saint Peter, together with Saint Paul, as "Preeminent Apostles". Another title used for Peter is Coryphaeus, which could be translated as "Choir-director", or lead singer.[28] The church recognizes Saint Peter's leadership role in the early church, especially in the very early days at Jerusalem, but does not consider him to have had any "princely" role over his fellow Apostles. The New Testament is not seen by the Orthodox as supporting any extraordinary authority for Peter with regard to faith or morals. The Orthodox also hold that Peter did not act as leader at the Council of Jerusalem, but as merely one of a number who spoke. The final decision regarding the non-necessity of circumcision (and certain prohibitions) was spelled out by James, the Brother of the Lord (though Catholics hold James merely reiterated and fleshed out what Peter had said, regarding the latter's earlier divine revelation regarding the inclusion of Gentiles). Look up icon in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and Petrograd (Петрогра́д, 1914–1924), is a city located in Northwestern Russia on the delta of the river Neva at the east end of the Gulf of Finland... Orthodox icon of Pentecost. ... The Early Christians is a term used to refer to the early followers of Jesus of Nazareth, before the emergence of established Christian orthodoxy. ... This article is about the 1st century Council of Jerusalem in Christianity. ... This article is about male circumcision. ...


With regard to Jesus' words to Peter, "Thou art Peter and upon this rock I will build my church", the Orthodox hold Christ is referring to the confession of faith, not the person of Peter as that upon which he will build the church. This is allegedly shown by the fact that the original Greek uses the feminine demonstative pronoun when he says "upon this rock" (ταύτι τή πέτρα); whereas, grammatically, if he had been referring to Peter, he would allegedly have used the masculine.[29] This "gender distinction" argument is also held by some Protestants.


Feast days

In the Orthodox Daily Office every Thursday throughout the year is dedicated to the Holy Apostles, including St. Peter. There are also two feast days in the year which are dedicated to him: The Liturgy of the Hours is usually recited in full in monastic communities. ... The calendar of saints is a traditional Christian method of organising a liturgical year on the level of days by associating each day with a saint, and referring to the day as the saints day of that saint. ...

  • June 29, Feast of Saints Peter and Paul—This is a major feast day and is preceded by a period of Lenten fasting known as the Apostles' Fast
  • January 16, Veneration of the Precious Chains of the Holy and All-Glorious Apostle Peter—commemorating both the chains which Acts 12:1-11 says miraculously fell from him, and the chains in which he was held before his martyrdom by Nero

is the 180th day of the year (181st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Feast of Sts. ... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... is the 16th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Martyr (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Nero (disambiguation). ...

Evangelical Protestant and Seventh-day Adventist

Evangelical Protestants, Seventh Day Adventists and others contend that the idea of Peter being the first Pope is based on a misinterpretation.[citation needed] (see the discussions above about the words "petros" and "petra" in Attic and Koine Greek, and as a translation from the Aramaic).


They argue in addition that Peter was in need of a firm foundation to gain a sense of stability, as Peter was noted for his great zeal, but instability:

  1. In Matthew 14:28–31 Peter went out to walk on water, but then sank because of doubt.
  2. In Matthew 26:35 and Matthew 26:74 Peter dramatically swears that he will not deny his Lord even on pain of death, but he denied Jesus with cursing and swearing.
  3. Matthew 15:15, Matthew 16:16, Matthew 17:4 Matthew 18:21, Matthew 19:27 are a few examples of Peter being the first to answer.
  4. John 21:7 Peter jumping into the water to meet his Lord.

They also argue that the statement by Peter: "Thou art the Christ, the Son of the living God" [30] is the foundation of the Christian faith: not Peter, but the testimony that Peter gave.


They also argue that Peter's acts are recorded in all of the gospels, and the book of Acts, and his writings were included in the bible, and are used by Christians today. In this sense Peter was used in the building of the Lord's church, as a small stone (petros) would be used. For the genre of Christian-themed music, see gospel music. ... The Acts of the Apostles (Greek Praxeis Apostolon) is a book of the Bible, which now stands fifth in the New Testament. ...


They also argue that the idea of making a single man the whole foundation of the church would go against the principle taught in Matthew 23:8–12 although in John 21:15-17 Jesus clearly tells "The Beloved Disciple" to feed and tend his sheep, and the ability to loose and bind is given to every disciple of Christ. (Matthew 18:18)


New Apostolic Church

The New Apostolic Church, who believes in the re-established Apostle ministry, sees Peter as the first Chief Apostle. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Chief Apostle, also known as the Stammapostel, is the highest minister in the New Apostolic Church, and has existed since 1896. ...


Latter Day Saint movement

The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church or "Mormons") along with other sects of the Latter Day Saint movement believe that Peter was the first leader of the early Christian church, but reject papal succession. In interpreting Matt. 16: 13–19 the church has stated, "The words then addressed to him, 'Thou art Peter, and upon this rock I will build my church,' have been made the foundation of the papal claims. But it is the Godhead of Christ, which Peter had just confessed, that is the true keystone of the Church."[31] Latter-day saints believe that as part of the restoration, Peter, James and John came from heaven and conferred the keys of the Melchizedek Priesthood upon Joseph Smith and Oliver Cowdery in 1829, near Harmony Township, Susquehanna County, Pennsylvania.[32] For other uses, see The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (disambiguation). ... The term Mormon is a colloquial name, most-often used to refer to members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church). ... The Latter Day Saint movement (a subset of Restorationism) is a group of religious denominations and adherents who follow at least some of the teachings and revelations of Joseph Smith, Jr. ... The Melchizedek Priesthood, to members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, is the authority and power to act in the name of God including the authority to perform ordinances and to preside over and direct the affairs of his Church and Kingdom. ... Joseph Smith redirects here. ... Photograph of Oliver Cowdery found in the Library of Congress, taken in the 1840s Oliver Hervy Pliny Cowdery[1] (3 October 1806 – 3 March 1850) was the primary participant with Joseph Smith, Jr. ... Johann Wolfgang von Goethe 1829 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Harmony Township is a township located in Susquehanna County, Pennsylvania. ...


Afro-American syncretism

In the Cuban Santería and Palo Mayombe, he has been syncretized with Ogún. For other uses, see Santeria (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Palo Monte. ... Ogum In Haitian Vodun and Yoruba mythology, Ogun (or Ogoun, Ogum, Ogou) is a loa and orisha, who presides over fire, iron, hunting, politics and war. ...


Writings

New Testament

A 6th-century encaustic icon from Saint Catherine's Monastery, Mount Sinai.
A 6th-century encaustic icon from Saint Catherine's Monastery, Mount Sinai.

The New Testament includes two letters (epistles) ascribed to Peter. Both demonstrate a high quality of cultured and urban Greek, at odds with the linguistic skill that would ordinarily be expected of an Aramaic-speaking fisherman, who would have learned Greek as a second or third language. However, the author of the first epistle explicitly claims to be using a secretary (see below), and this explanation would allow for discrepancies in style without entailing a different source. The textual features of these two epistles are such that a majority of scholars doubt that they were written by the same hand. This means at the most that Peter could not have authored both, or at the least that he used a different secretary for each letter. Some scholars argue that theological differences imply different sources, and point to the lack of references to 2 Peter among the early Church Fathers. Image File history File links Petersinai. ... Image File history File links Petersinai. ... St. ... This article is about the Christian scriptures. ... Aramaic is a Semitic language with a four-thousand year history. ...


Of the two epistles, the first epistle is considered the earlier. A number of scholars have argued that the textual discrepancies with what would be expected of the biblical Peter are due to it having been written with the help of a secretary or as an amanuensis. Indeed in the first epistle the use of a secretary is clearly described: "By Silvanus, a faithful brother unto you, as I suppose, I have written briefly, exhorting, and testifying that this is the true grace of God wherein ye stand" (1 Peter 5:12). Thus, in regards to at least the first epistle, the claims that Peter would have written Greek poorly seem irrelevant. The references to persecution of Christians, which only began under Nero, cause most scholars to date the text to at least 80, which would require Peter to have survived to an age that was, at that time, extremely old, and almost never reached, particularly by common fishermen. However, the Roman historian Tacitus and the biographer Suetonius both record that Nero's persecution of Christians began immediately after the fire that burned Rome in 64. Such a date, which is in accord with Christian tradition, especially Eusebius (History book 2, 24.1), would not have Peter at an improbable age upon his death. On the other hand, many scholars consider this in reference to the persecution of Christians in Asia Minor during the reign of the emperor Domitian (81-96). In Christianity, the First Epistle of Peter is a book of the New Testament. ... A secretary is a person who performs routine, administrative, or personal tasks for a superior. ... Spanish Leftists during the Red Terror Shoot at a statue of Christ The persecution of Christians is religious persecution that Christians sometimes undergo as a consequence of professing their faith, both historically and in the current era. ... For other uses, see Nero (disambiguation). ... Events By place Roman Empire The Emperor Titus inaugurates the Flavian Amphitheatre with 100 days of games. ... For other uses, see Tacitus (disambiguation). ... Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus ( 69/75 - after 130), also known as Suetonius, was a prominent Roman historian and biographer. ... Titus Flavius Domitianus (24 October 51 – 18 September 96), commonly known as Domitian, was a Roman Emperor of the gens Flavia. ... Centuries: 1st century BC - 1st century - 2nd century Decades: 0s BC - 0s - 10s - 20s - 30s - 40s - 50s - 60s - 70s - 80s - 90s - 100s Years: 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 Events Domitian succeeds his brother Titus Flavius as emperor of the Roman Empire. ... For other uses, see number 96. ...


In the salutation of the first epistle, the writer refers to the diaspora, which did not occur until 136 a.d. "1. Peter, an apostle of Jesus Christ, to God's elect, strangers in the world, scattered throughout Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia and Bithynia, 2. who have been chosen according to the foreknowledge of God the Father, through the sanctifying work of the Spirit, for obedience to Jesus Christ and sprinkling by his blood: Grace and peace be yours in abundance."


The Second Epistle of Peter, on the other hand, appears to have been copied, in part, from the Epistle of Jude, and some modern scholars date its composition as late as c. 150. Some scholars argue the opposite, that the Epistle of Jude copied 2 Peter, while others contend an early date for Jude and thus observe that an early date is not incompatible with the text. Many scholars have noted the similarities between the apocryphal second pseudo-Epistle of Clement (2nd century) and 2 Peter. Second Peter may be earlier than 150, there are a few possible references to it that date back to the first century or early second century, e.g. 1 Clement written in c 96 AD, and the later church historian Eusebius claimed that Origen had made reference to the epistle before 250. Even in early times there was controversy over its authorship, and 2 Peter was often not included in the Biblical Canon; it was only in the 4th century that it gained a firm foothold in the New Testament, in a series of synods. In the east the Syriac Church still did not admit it into the canon until the 6th century. The Second Epistle of Peter is a book of the New Testament of the Bible. ... The brief Epistle of Jude is a book in the Christian New Testament canon. ... The Roman army consists of 400,000 men. ... Apocrypha (from the Greek word , meaning those having been hidden away[1]) are texts of uncertain authenticity or writings where the authorship is questioned. ... The Epistles of Clement often referred to as 1 Clement and 2 Clement were not accepted in the canonic New Testament but they are part of the Apostolic Fathers collection. ... The Epistles of Clement often referred to as 1 Clement and 2 Clement were not accepted in the canonic New Testament. ... Eusebius is the name of several significant historical people: Pope Eusebius - Pope in AD 309 - 310. ... Origen Origen (Greek: Ōrigénēs, 185–ca. ... A biblical canon is a list of Biblical books which establishes the set of books which are considered to be authoritative as scripture by a particular Jewish or Christian community. ... The Syriac Orthodox Church is an autocephalous Oriental Orthodox church based in the Middle East with members spread throughout the world. ...


Traditionally, the Gospel of Mark was said to have been written by a person named John Mark, and that this person was an assistant to Peter, hence its content was traditionally seen as the closest to Peter's viewpoint. According to Eusebius's Ecclesiastical History, Papias recorded this belief from John the Presbyter: The Gospel of Mark, anonymous[1] but traditionally ascribed to Mark the Evangelist, is a synoptic gospel of the New Testament. ... Eusebius is the name of several significant historical people: Pope Eusebius - Pope in AD 309 - 310. ... Papias (working in the 1st half of the 2nd century) was one of the early leaders of the Christian church, canonized as a saint. ... For the mythical king, see Presbyter John John the Presbyter is an obscure figure in early Christian tradition, who is either distinguished from, or identified with, the Apostle John. ...

Mark having become the interpreter of Peter, wrote down accurately whatsoever he remembered. It was not, however, in exact order that he related the sayings or deeds of Christ. For he neither heard the Lord nor accompanied Him. But afterwards, as I said, he accompanied Peter, who accommodated his instructions to the necessities [of his hearers], but with no intention of giving a normal or chronological narrative of the Lord's sayings. Wherefore Mark made no mistake in thus writing some things as he remembered them. For of one thing he took especial care, not to omit anything he had heard, and not to put anything fictional into the statements.—Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History, 3.39.14–16

Also Irenaeus wrote about this tradition:

After their (Peter and Paul's) passing, Mark also, the disciple and interpreter of Peter, transmitted to us in writing the things preached by Peter. (Irenaeus, Against Heresies, III. 1.2.; quoted by Eusebius in Ecclesiastical History, book 5, 7.6)

Based on these quotes, and on the Christian tradition, the information in Mark's Gospel about St. Peter would be based on eyewitness material. It should be observed, however, that some scholars (for differing reasons) dispute the attribution of the Gospel of Mark to its traditional author. The gospel itself is anonymous, and the above passages are the oldest surviving written testimony to its authorship. Look up anonymous, anon, anonymity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Jewish folklore

According to Jewish folklore (Toledot Yeshu narrative), St. Peter (Shimeon Kepha Ha-Tzadik) has a pristine reputation as a greatly learned and holy man who according to the directions of his sage to bring about the end of one hundred years of strife in Israel, established the Sunday Sabbath for God-Fearers (converted from among Gnostic heretics known as The Watchers) instead of Saturday, Noel (as a new year feast but not as Christmas) instead of Hanukkah, the Feast of the Cross instead of Rosh Hashana, Firstfruits instead of Pesach, remembering The Feast of The Jews John 7:2 instead of Sukkot, and the Ascension for them instead of Shavuot. R. Judah ben Samuel of Regensburg, who led Germany's 12th-century Chasidei Ashkenaz, considered him to be a Tzaddik (a Jewish saint or spiritual Master among Hasidim) (Sefer Hasidim). The Tosaphist Rabbeinu Tam wrote that he was "a devout and learned Jew who dedicated his life to guiding gentiles along the proper path". Tam also passed on the traditions that St Peter was the author of the Sabbath and feast-day Nishmat prayer, which has no other traditional author, and also that he authored a prayer for Yom Kippur in order to prove his commitment to Judaism despite his work amongst Gentiles (R.J.D. Eisenstein). Legends about Peter and his activities are also mentioned in other medieval works, such as the Mahzor Vitri. The Godfearers or Sebioi in Greek (Arabic: Sabieen/Sabioon, Hebrew: Toshavim) are messianic Non-Jews who from the earliest of times have worshipped The Name of the Hebrew Elohim. ... Gnosticism is a blanket term for various religions and sects most prominent in the first few centuries A.D. General characteristics The word gnosticism comes from the Greek word for knowledge, gnosis (γνῶσις), referring to the idea that there is special, hidden mysticism (esoteric knowledge) that only a few possess. ... Grand Rabbi Israel Abraham Portugal of Skulen Hasidism lighting Hanukkah lights Hanukkah (‎, alt. ... This article is about the Jewish holiday of Rosh Hashanah. ... Easter (also called Pascha) is generally accounted the most important holiday of the Christian year, observed March or April each year to celebrate the Resurrection of Jesus from the dead (after his death by crucifixion; see Good Friday), which Christians believe happened at about this time of year, almost two... Passover, also known as Pesach or Pesah (פסח pesaḥ), is a Jewish holiday (lasting seven days in Israel and among some liberal Diaspora Jews, and eight days among other Diaspora Jews) that commemorates the exodus and freedom of the Israelites from Egypt; it is also observed by some Christians to... Sukkot (Hebrew:  ; booths. ... Also refers to the process of gaining Enlightenment and several meditation techniques. ... Shavuot, also spelled Shavuos (Hebrew: שבועות (Israeli Heb. ... Judah Ben Samuel of Regensburg (12th & 13th Centuries), also called Hehasid or the Saint in Hebrew. ... The Chassidei Ashkenaz (literally the Pious of Germany) was a Jewish movement in the 12th and 13th century founded by Rabbi Judah the Pious (Rabbi Yehuda HeChassid) of Regensburg, Germany and several other German Jews. ... The Hasideans (Hasidæans or Assideans) were a Jewish religious party which commenced to play an important role in political life only during the time of the Maccabean wars, although it had existed for quite some time previous. ... See Judah he-Hasid for other people who used this name. ... Rabbeinu Tam (רבינו תם) (real name Rabbeinu Yaakov, or Jacob in English) was the son of Rabbeinu Meir and his wife Yochebed. ... Yom Kippur (Hebrew:יוֹם כִּפּוּר , IPA: ), also known in English as the Day of Atonement, is the most solemn of the Jewish holidays. ... Title page from Ozar Yisroel (1951), by Julius (Judah David) Eisenstein. ...


Pseudepigrapha and apocrypha

There are also a number of other apocryphal writings that have been either attributed to or written about St. Peter. They were from antiquity regarded as pseudepigrapha. These include: Apocrypha (from the Greek word , meaning those having been hidden away[1]) are texts of uncertain authenticity or writings where the authorship is questioned. ... Pseudepigrapha (from the Greek words pseudos = lie and epigrapho = write) is a text or a number of texts whose claimed authorship or authenticity is incorrect. ...

The Gospel of Peter was a prominent passion narrative in the early history of Christianity, but over time passed out of common usage. ... In Christianity, Docetism (from the Greek [dokeō], to seem) is the belief that Jesus physical body was an illusion, as was his crucifixion; that is, Jesus only seemed to have a physical body and to physically die, but in reality he was incorporeal, a pure spirit, and hence could not... One of the earliest of the apocryphal acts of the apostles, the Acts of Peter is one of the books in the New Testament Apocrypha. ... The Acts of Peter and Andrew is a short text from the New Testament apocrypha, not to be confused with either the Acts of Andrew or the Acts of Peter. ... The Acts of Peter and Paul is a late text from the New Testament apocrypha, thought to date from after the 4th century. ... The Acts of Peter and the Twelve is one of the texts from the New Testament apocrypha which was found in the Nag Hammadi collection. ... The Gnostic Apocalypse of Peter, not to be confused with the Apocalypse of Peter, is a text found amongst the Nag Hammadi codices, and part of the New Testament apocrypha. ... The Letter of Peter to Philip found in the cache of texts at Nag Hammadi (bound into Codex VIII), contains a brief letter purporting to be from Saint Peter to Saint Philip, followed by a narrative and gnostic discourse upon the nature of Christ. ... The Nag Hammadi library is a collection of early Christian Gnostic texts discovered near the Egyptian town of Nag Hammadi in 1945. ... The recovered Apocalypse of Peter or Revelation of Peter is extant in two translations of a lost original, one Greek, one Ethiopic, which diverge considerably. ... Clementine literature (also called Clementia, Pseudo-Clementine Writings, The Preaching of Peter etc. ...

Popular culture

Over the years "St. Peter" has evolved into a stock character that is now widely used in jokes, cartoons, comedies, dramas, and plays. Such caricatures almost all play upon Peter's role as the "keeper of the keys of the kingdom of heaven" in Matthew 16:19 [2], on the basis of which he is often depicted as an elderly, bearded man who sits at the pearly gates that serve as heaven's main entrance, and acting as a sort of hotel-style doorman / bouncer who personally interviews prospective entrants into Heaven, often from behind a desk. St. Peter is depicted as a rabbit in the South Park episode Fantastic Easter Special. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A joke is a short story or ironic depiction of a situation communicated with the intent of being humorous. ... For other uses, see Cartoon (disambiguation). ... A comedy is a dramatic performance of a light and amusing character, usually with a happy conclusion to its plot. ... For other uses, see Drama (disambiguation). ... The Kingdom of Heaven (or the Kingdom of God, Hebrew מלכות השמים, malkhut hashamayim, Greek basileia tou theou) is a key concept detailed in all the three major monotheistic religions of the world — Islam, Judaism and Christianity. ... The Pearly gates, in Christianity, is an informal name for the gateway to Heaven, inspired by the description of the New Jerusalem in Revelation 21:21— The image of the gates in popular culture is a set of large, white, wrought-iron gates in the clouds, guarded by Saint Peter. ... A doorman (more commonly referred to as a bouncer) is a term for a person who deals with the general security of a bar, pub or nightclub. ... For other uses, see Bouncer (disambiguation). ... This article is about the TV series. ... Fantastic Easter Special is episode 1105 (#158) of the animated series South Park. ...


Patronage

In Roman Catholic religious doctrine and tradition, Saint Peter is the patron saint of the following categories Saint Quentin is the patron saint of locksmiths and is also invoked against coughs and sneezes. ...

Workers
Called for aid in
  • Frenzy
  • Foot problems
Institutions
Locations

A baker prepares fresh rolls A baker is someone who primarily bakes and sells bread. ... Engineering is the discipline and profession of applying scientific knowledge and utilizing natural laws and physical resources in order to design and implement materials, structures, machines, devices, systems, and processes that realize a desired objective and meet specified criteria. ... Butcher shop in Valencia A butcher is someone who prepares various meats and other related goods for sale. ... A Long Island fisherman cleans his nets A fisherman is someone who gathers fish, shellfish, or other animals from a body of water. ... Look up Harvest in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A cordwainer (or cordovan) is somebody who makes shoes and other articles from fine soft leather. ... Horology is the study of the science and art of timekeeping devices. ... Locksmithing is the science and art of making and defeating locks. ... Northampton Town F.C. is a football team in Northampton, England. ... This article refers to the building structure component; for the fraternal organization, see Freemasonry. ... Look up net in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Pope is the Catholic Bishop and patriarch of Rome, and head of the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Catholic Churches. ... Shipbuilding is the construction of ships. ... An analogue medical thermometer showing the temperature of 38. ... Longevity is a term that generally refers to long life or great duration of life.[1] Reflections on longevity have usually gone beyond acknowledging the basic shortness of human life and have included thinking about methods to extend life. ... Bath Abbey at sunset Bath Abbey is the last in a series of monastic churches built in Bath and is still in active use. ... and of the Exeter College College name Exeter College Latin name Collegium Exoniense Named after Walter de Stapledon, Bishop of Exeter Established 1314 Sister college Emmanuel College, Cambridge Rector Ms Frances Cairncross JCR president Edward Moores Undergraduates 299 MCR president Sara Adams Graduates 150 Location of Exeter College within central... Origen, a 3rd century proponent of Universal Reconciliation In Christian theology, Universal Reconciliation, also known as Christian Universalism, Universal Salvation, Greater Hope, is the doctrine or belief that all men will eventually have reconciliation and salvation through the crucifixion and resurrection of Jesus Christ, which provides reconciliation for all mankind... College name Peterhouse Named after Saint Peter Established 1284 Previously named The Scholars of the Bishop of Ely Saint Peter’s College Location Trumpington Street Admittance Men and women Master The Lord Wilson of Tillyorn Undergraduates 284 Graduates 130 Sister college Merton College, Oxford Official website Boat Club website Peterhouse... This article is about the city in Germany. ... Wormser Dom Worms (pronounced ) is a city in the southwest of Germany. ... Calatrava is a 1st class municipality in the province of Negros Occidental, Philippines. ... Chartres is a town and commune of France, préfecture (capital) of the Eure-et-Loir département. ... Chimbote is the largest city in the Ancash Region of Peru. ... Calbayog City is a first class city in the province of Samar, Philippines. ... Cologne (German: , IPA: ; local dialect: Kölle ) is Germanys fourth-largest city after Berlin, Hamburg and Munich, and is the largest city both in the German Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia and within the Rhine-Ruhr Metropolitan Area, one of the major European metropolitan areas with more than... Davao refers to several places in Mindanao in the Philippines. ... , Country Region District Elevation 118 m (387 ft) Coordinates , Area 31. ... This article is about Jackson, the city and related subjects within the city. ... Köpenick is a former borough of Berlin; in 2001 it merged with Treptow to form the new borough Treptow-Köpenick. ... For further information, see Las Vegas metropolitan area and Las Vegas Strip. ... Geography Country Belgium Community Flemish Community Region Flemish Region Province Flemish Brabant Arrondissement Leuven Coordinates , , Area 56. ... Coordinates: , Country Province Area (2006)  - Municipality 23. ... Lessines is a municipality located in the Belgian province of Hainaut. ... Maralal Maralal is a small hillside market town in northern Kenya, lying east of the Loroghi Plateau within the Samburu District. ... Marquette is a city in the U.S. state of Michigan. ... A stop on the way to Santiago of Compostella The town of Moissac holds 3 major points of interest : the National heritage, tourism and economy which reflect Monuments, Streams and Fruit. ... This article is about the town in Saxony-Anhalt; for Naumburg in Hesse, see Naumburg, Hesse. ... Obermarsberg is a quarter in the municipality of Marsberg in the state of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. ... For other uses, see Philadelphia (disambiguation) and Philly. ... Coordinates: , Country Voivodeship Powiat city county Gmina PoznaÅ„ Established 8th century City Rights 1253 Government  - Mayor Ryszard Grobelny Area  - City 261. ... Providence redirects here. ... Pubnico is a small Acadian community in southwest Nova Scotia. ... Regensburg (also Ratisbon, Latin Ratisbona) is a city (population 151. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... Póvoa de Varzim (pron. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and Petrograd (Петрогра́д, 1914–1924), is a city located in Northwestern Russia on the delta of the river Neva at the east end of the Gulf of Finland... Scranton redirects here. ... Geography Country Belgium Region Flemish Region Community Flemish Community Province West Flanders Arrondissement Tielt Coordinates , , Area 68. ... Toa Baja is a municipality of Puerto Rico. ... Umbria is one of the 20 Regions of Italy. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Irenaeus, Adversus Haereses 3:3:20.
  2. ^ Ehrman, Bart D.: Peter, Paul, And Mary Magdalene: The Followers of Jesus in History And Legend, Chapter 6, Oxford University Press US, 2006, ISBN: 0195300130
  3. ^ Keating, Karl: Catholicism and fundamentalism: The attack on "romanism" by "Bible Christians", Chapter 17, Ignatius Press, 1988, ISBN: 0898701775
  4. ^ Perkins, Pheme: Peter: Apostle for the Whole Church, Continuum International Publishing Group, 2000, ISBN: 0567087433
  5. ^ http://cbi.sagepub.com/cgi/reprint/5/1/73.pdf
  6. ^ Greek Lexan for the word
  7. ^ Matthew 26:34. The Bible, King James Version. Bible Gateway. Retrieved on 2007–04–18.
  8. ^ 1 Corithians 15:3–7
  9. ^ Brodie, T. L. (1997). The Gospel according to John a literary and theological commentary. New York: Oxford University Press. pg. 574
  10. ^ This is provided in Downey, A History of Antioch, pp. 583–586. This evidence is accepted by M. Lapidge, among others, see Bischoff and Lapidge, Biblical Commentaries from the Canterbury School (Cambridge, 1994) p. 16. Lastly, see Finegan, The Archaeology of the New Testament, pp. 63–71.
  11. ^ Peter's location in 1 Peter 5:13 is much debated. "Babylon" could literally be Mesopotamian Babylon or Babylon, Egypt. Many believe "Babylon" is code for another city, as in Revelation 17–18, which may refer to Babylon as Rome or Jerusalem.
  12. ^ Gospel of Thomas 13
  13. ^ Gospel of Thomas 114
  14. ^ Apocalypse of Peter
  15. ^ Gospel of Mary 9:4
  16. ^ http://www.gnosis.org/library/marygosp.htm Gospel of Mary 9:6
  17. ^ Gospel of Peter 14:3
  18. ^ Walsh, The Bones of St. Peter: A 1st Full Account of the Search for the Apostle's Body A more popular account of the traditional tomb
  19. ^ Finegan, The Archeology of the New Testament, pp. 368–370. A more popular account of this tomb.
  20. ^ "St. Petronilla". Catholic Encyclopedia. (1913). New York: Robert Appleton Company. 
  21. ^ a b c http://www.catholic.com/library/Peter_the_Rock.asp
  22. ^ http://www.peshitta.org/pdf/Mattich16.pdf
  23. ^ Jesus, Peter & the Keys: A Scriptural Handbook on the Papacy
  24. ^ http://www.bringyou.to/apologetics/a64.htm
  25. ^ http://www.geocities.com/okc_catholic/articles/cephas.html
  26. ^ Veselin Kesich (1992). "Peter's Primacy in the New Testament and the Early Tradition" in The Primacy of Peter. St. Vladimir's Seminary Press, 61-66. 
  27. ^ Catechism of the Catholic Church, Articles 424 and 552
  28. ^ John Meyendorff, et al. (1963), The Primacy of Peter in the Orthodox Church (St. Vladimir's Seminary Press, Crestwood NY, ISBN: 978-0-881-41125-6)
  29. ^ Holy Apostles Convent (1999) The Orthodox New Testament, Vol. I: The Holy Gospels (Dormition Skete, Buena Vista CO, ISBN: 0-944359-13-2) p. 105
  30. ^ This phrase is found in Revelation 12:17 and Revelation 19:10.
  31. ^ LDS Bible Dictionary—Peter
  32. ^ Doctrine & Covenants 27: 12–13

On the Detection and Overthrow of the So-Called Gnosis, commonly called Against Heresies (Latin: Adversus haereses), is a five volume work written by St. ... Not to be confused with New Catholic Encyclopedia. ... The Catechism of the Catholic Church, or CCC, is an official exposition of the teachings of the Catholic Church, first published in French in 1992 by the authority of Pope John Paul II.[1] Subsequently, in 1997, a Latin text was issued which is now the official text of reference... John Meyendorff (1926-1992) was a leading Orthodox theologian, writer and teacher. ...

See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Petrus

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The Basilica of Saint Peter (Latin: ), officially known in Italian as the Basilica di San Pietro in Vaticano and commonly known as St. ... Berninis piazza was extended by Mussolinis grand avenue of approach. ... The Big Fisherman is a 1959 film about the life of St. ... Façade of the Basilica. ... // On December 23, 1950, in his pre-Christmas radio broadcast to the world, Pope Pius XII announced the discovery of Saint Peters tomb. ... St. ... // Quo vadis is a Latin phrase meaning Where are you going? It is used as a proverbial phrase from the Bible (John 16:5). ...

External links

  • stpetersbasilica.org Books on Peter in Rome
  • Etymology of Peter
  • The Jewish St Peter
  • Jewish Encyclopedia: Simon Cephas
  • Catholic Encyclopedia: St Peter, Prince of the Apostles
  • Catholic Encyclopedia: Epistles of St Peter
  • Veneration of the Precious Chains of the Holy and All-Glorious Apostle Peter Orthodox icon and synaxarion
  • The Holy Glorious and All-Praised Leader of the Apostles, Peter icon and synaxarion
  • The Holy Glorious and All-Praised Leader of the Apostles, Peter & Paul sermon of Saint Augustine, Bishop of Hippo
  • Catholic response to Protestant claims that Peter never visited Rome
Saint Peter
Papal succession
Religious titles
Preceded by
Newly created
Bishop of Antioch
3753
Succeeded by
Evodius
Preceded by
Newly created

Pope

30–64
Succeeded by
Pope Linus
Persondata
NAME Saint Peter
ALTERNATIVE NAMES
SHORT DESCRIPTION One of the Twelve Apostles, bishop
DATE OF BIRTH unknown
PLACE OF BIRTH Bethsaida
DATE OF DEATH ~67
PLACE OF DEATH Rome

Papal Arms of Pope Benedict XVI. The papal tiara was replaced with a bishops mitre, and pallium of the Pope was added beneath the coat of arms. ... The Patriarch of Antioch is the head of the Syriac Orthodox Church. ... The Patriarch of Antioch is the head of the Syriac Orthodox Church. ... Evodius (d. ... Saint Ignatius of Antioch (also known as Theophorus)(c. ... Theophilus, Patriarch of Antioch (Eusebius Ecclesiastical History iv. ... Serapion was Patriarch of Antioch (191 - 211). ... Saint Babylas (d. ... Paul of Samosata, patriarch of Antioch (260-269), Life Paul was born at Samosata into a family of humble origin. ... Domnus II, Patriarch of Antioch of the heavily religious Eastern Roman Empire, and a friend of the influential Saint Theodoret Bishop of Cyrrhus. ... Eustathius of Antioch, sometimes surnamed the Great, was a bishop and patriarch of Antioch in the 4th century. ... Meletius Of Antioch (died 381) was a Patriarch of Antioch from 360 to his death, and saint. ... Flavian I of Antioch (ca 320-February 404) was a bishop or patriarch of Antioch from 381 until his death. ... Eudoxius (d. ... Meletius Of Antioch (died 381) was a Patriarch of Antioch from 360 to his death, and saint. ... Flavian I of Antioch (ca 320-February 404) was a bishop or patriarch of Antioch from 381 until his death. ... John of Antioch was bishop of Antioch A.D. 429-441 and led a group of moderate Eastern bishops during the Nestorian controversy. ... Domnus II, Patriarch of Antioch, and a friend of Theodoret. ... Maximus II, patriarch of Antioch. ... Peter (surnamed Fullo, the Fuller), was intruding Patriarch of Antioch (471 - 488), and Monophysite. ... Peter (surnamed Fullo, the Fuller), was intruding Patriarch of Antioch (471 - 488), and Monophysite. ... Palladius of Antioch, Saint Palladius the Desert Dweller (d. ... Flavian II of Antioch (d. ... Severus, patriarch of Antioch (AD 512 - 519), a native of Sozopolis in Pisidia, by birth and education a pagan, baptized in the martyry of Leontius at Tripolis (Evagr. ... Severus, patriarch of Antioch (AD 512 - 519), a native of Sozopolis in Pisidia, by birth and education a pagan, baptized in the martyry of Leontius at Tripolis (Evagr. ... Patriarch John of the Sedre, or John II, was the Patriarch of Antioch, and head of the Syriac Orthodox Church (641 - 648). ... Patriarch Athanasius of Balad, or Athanasius II, was the Patriarch of Antioch, and head of the Syriac Orthodox Church (683 - 686). ... Patriarch George of Antioch was the Patriarch of Antioch, and head of the Syriac Orthodox Church (758 - 790). ... Dionysius Telmaharensis (d. ... John IX bar Shushan was the Syriac Orthodox Patriarch of Antioch (1063—1073) The Patriarchs of Antioch and the Pope of Alexandria had for many years kept in close touch with one another. ... Michael the Syrian (also known as Michael the Great; or Michael Syrus) (d. ... Ignatius III David was the Patriarch of the Syriac Orthodox Church (1222—1252) Pope Cyril III of Alexandria used the increasing military and political power of Egypt over Jerusalem to appoint a Coptic Orthodox bishop of that church, which until then had been the prerogative of the Patriarch of Antioch. ... Mor Ignatius Nemet Allah I was the Syriac Orthodox Patriarch of Antioch from 1557 to 1576. ... Moran Mor Ignatius Peter IV or Ignatius Pathros IV, was the 116th in the line of Syriac Orthodox Patriarchs of Antioc. ... Mor Ignatios `Abded-Aloho II Sattuf (1833-1915) was the 118th legitimate successor to St. ... Mor Ignatius Elias III was the 119th legitimate successor to St. ... Ignatius Afram I Barsoum was the Syriac Orthodox Patriarch of Antioch and head of the Syriac Orthodox Church. ... Mor Ignatius Jacob(Ya`qub) III was the Syriac Orthodox Patriarch of Antioch and head of the Syriac Orthodox Church. ... Zakka Iwas (Arabic: ) is the current Syriac Patriarch of Antioch and head of the Syriac Orthodox Church. ...


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CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: St. Peter, Prince of the Apostles (8069 words)
The essential fact is that Peter died at Rome: this constitutes the historical foundation of the claim of the Bishops of Rome to the Apostolic Primacy of Peter.
Peter's residence and death in Rome are established beyond contention as historical facts by a series of distinct testimonies extending from the end of the first to the end of the second centuries, and issuing from several lands.
The date of Peter's death is thus not yet decided; the period between July, 64 (outbreak of the Neronian persecution), and the beginning of 68 (on 9 July Nero fled from Rome and committed suicide) must be left open for the date of his death.
Saint Peter - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3854 words)
Peter is frequently mentioned in the Gospels as forming, with James the Elder and John, a special group within the Twelve Apostles, present at incidents, such as the Transfiguration of Jesus, that the others were not party to.
Peter is also often depicted in the Gospels as spokesman of all the apostles, and as one to whom Jesus gave special authority.
Peter's Basilica, both in its original form and in its later complete reconstruction, is the altar placed over what is held to be the exact place where Peter was buried.
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