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Encyclopedia > Saint Patrick's Battalion
Saint Patrick's Battalion

Reproduction of the Batallón de San Patricio's flag, as described by John Riley
Active 1846-1847, disbanded-1850
Country Mexico
Branch Mexican army
Type artillery/infantry
Size 800 maximum strength
Nickname "Los San Patricios", "Los Colorados Valientes"
Patron Saint Patrick
Engagements Mexican-American war
* Battle of Monterrey
* Battle of Buena Vista
* Battle of Cerro Gordo
* Battle of Churubusco
* Battle of Mexico City
Commanders
Notable
commanders
Brevet Major John Riley
Santiago O'Leary
Colonel Francisco R. Moreno

The Saint Patrick's Battalion (Spanish: Batallón de San Patricio) was a unit of several hundred Irish, Germans, Swiss, Scots and other Roman Catholics of European descent, who deserted the U.S. Army and fought as part of the Mexican Army against the United States in the Mexican-American War of 1846 to 1848. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... 1846 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... 1847 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... For the game, see: 1850 (board game) 1850 (MDCCCL) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday [1] of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Heroic Naval Military Academy cadets Mexicos armed forces number about 300,000. ... For other uses, see Artillery (disambiguation). ... Infantry of the Royal Irish Rifles during the Battle of the Somme in World War I Infantry or footmen are very highly disciplined and trained soldiers who fight primarily with small arms(rifles), but are trained to use everything from their bare hands to missle systems in order to neutralize... St Patrick redirects here, for other uses, see St. ... Combatants United States Mexico Commanders Zachary Taylor Winfield Scott Stephen W. Kearney Antonio López de Santa Anna Mariano Arista Pedro de Ampudia José Mariá Flores Strength 78,790 soldiers 25,000–40,000 soldiers Casualties KIA: 1733 Total dead: 13,271 Wounded: 4,152 AWOL: 9,200+ 25,000... The Battle of Monterrey (September 21–September 23, 1846) was an engagement in the Mexican-American War in which General Pedro de Ampudia and the Mexican Army of the North managed to fight US troops to a standstill at the important fortress town of Monterrey. ... The Battle of Buena Vista was a land battle of the Mexican-American War fought on 23 February 1847 in Buena Vista, Coahuila, seven miles (12 km) south of Saltillo, in northern Mexico. ... Combatants United States Mexico Commanders Winfield Scott Antonio López de Santa Anna Strength 8,500 12,000 Casualties 417 4,000 Gen Ciriaco Vasquez dead Gens. ... Combatants United States Mexico Commanders Winfield Scott Antonio López de Santa Anna Manuel Rincón Strength 8,497 2,641 Casualties 133 dead 865 wounded 40 missing 263 dead 1,261 captured 20 missing. ... The Battle for Mexico City refers to the series of engagements from September 8 to September 15, 1847 in the general vicinity of Mexico City during the Mexican-American War. ... Jon Riley, also known as John ORiley, (1805-1850) A US Army lieutenant, had been one of the estimated 800 immigrant Irishmen who had deserted the US Army to fight for Mexico in the 1846-48 war. ... Swiss may be: Related to Switzerland: the Swiss Confederation Swiss people Swiss cheese Swiss corporations Switzerland-related topics Named Swiss: Swiss, Missouri Swiss, North Carolina Swiss, West Virginia Swiss, Wisconsin Swiss International Air Lines Swiss Re SWiSS is also used as a disparaging nickname for the Socialist Workers Student Society. ... This article is about the Scottish as an ethnic group. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... The Army is the branch of the United States armed forces which has primary responsibility for land-based military operations. ... The Mexican military forces are composed of the Mexican Army (which includes the Mexican Air Force as a subordinate entity) and the Mexican Navy. ... Combatants United States Mexico Commanders Zachary Taylor Winfield Scott Stephen W. Kearney Antonio López de Santa Anna Mariano Arista Pedro de Ampudia José Mariá Flores Strength 78,790 soldiers 25,000–40,000 soldiers Casualties KIA: 1733 Total dead: 13,271 Wounded: 4,152 AWOL: 9,200+ 25,000...

Contents

Historical perspective

For Americans of the generation who fought the Mexican-American War, the "San Patricios" were considered traitors.[1] For Mexicans of that generation, and generations to come, the San Patricios were heroes who came to the aid of fellow Catholics in need.[2][3]


Some historians characterize the members of the Saint Patrick's Battalion as malcontents who weren't happy with their lot. Under this characterization, members switched sides for higher wages and land grants.[4] However, Irish expatriates had a long tradition of serving in Catholic countries' military forces dating back to the Flight of the Wild Geese in the 17th century. More recent history details the role played by Irish soldiers in South American wars of independence.[5] The Flight of the Wild Geese refers to the departure of an Irish army under the command of Patrick Sarsfield from Ireland to France, as agreed in the Treaty of Limerick on October 3, 1691, following the Williamite war in Ireland with the Jacobites. ... Because Spain was virtually cut off from its colonies during the Peninsular War of 1808–1814, Latin America was, in these years, ruled by independent juntas. ...

Commemorative plaque at Mexico City plaza
Commemorative plaque at Mexico City plaza

The great majority of these men were recent immigrants from northeastern US ports, escaping extremely poor economic conditions in Ireland, which at the time was part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Throughout most of the Saint Patrick's battalion's active years the Irish Potato Famine was taking place. Irishmen and other immigrants were often recruited directly into military service shortly or sometimes immediately on arrival. Others were conscripted on their way south by General Zachary Taylor,[6] with promises of salaries and land after the war. Mexican author José Raúl Conseco writes that many Irish lived in northern Texas, and were forced to move south due to regional insecurity. Early in the war they helped Taylor attack the fort and supply depot in St. Isabel, now the city of Port Isabel, Texas. Nickname: Location of Mexico City Coordinates: , Country Federal entity Boroughs The 16 delegaciones Founded c. ... This article is about the historical state called the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland (1801–1927). ... For other uses, please see Great Famine. ... This article is about the twelfth President of the United States. ... Port Isabel is a city located in Cameron County, Texas. ...


Many theories exist on motivations for desertion, including cultural alienation,[7] mistreatment of immigrant conscripts by other nativist soldiers and senior officers, not being allowed to attend Sunday Mass or to practice their religion freely, offers of free land in Mexico (more than 300 acres) or witnessing the conduct of U.S. troops following battle victories. However, it seems clear based on the evidence of the number of Irish Catholics in the Battalion, the letters of Riley, and the field entries of senior officers that the primary motivations were shared religion and sympathy for the Mexican cause, likely based on similarities between the situations in Mexico and Ireland.[8] (Hogan 1998, pp. 152–155). Immigration is the act of moving to or settling in another country or region, temporarily or permanently. ... The term Nativism is used in both politics and psychology in two fundamentally different ways. ... Mass is the term used of the celebration of the Eucharist in the various liturgical rites of the Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic Church, the Anglo-Catholic tradition of Anglicanism, and in some Lutheran regions which are largely High Church: the main Lutheran service is still known as the... The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen guarantees freedom of religion, as long as religious activities do not infringe on public order in ways detrimental to society. ...


The flag

There are many conflicting accounts of what the flag of the Saint Patrick's Battalion actually looked like, further confused by the fact that no actual flags, or depictions of them, are known to have survived to the present day. The only version of the flag known to have survived the war was subsequently lost or stolen from the chapel at West Point (Hogan 1998, p. 228). Alternate meanings: West Point (disambiguation). ...


John Riley himself mentioned in a brief missive, regarding the appearance of the flag:

"In all my letter, I forgot to tell you under what banner we fought so bravely. It was that glorious Emblem of native rights, that being the banner which should have floated over our native Soil many years ago, it was St. Patrick, the Harp of Erin, the Shamrock upon a green field"

— John Riley, [9]

Possible Saint Patrick's Batallion flag. The Irish gaelic motto reads: "Ireland forever"
Possible Saint Patrick's Batallion flag. The Irish gaelic motto reads: "Ireland forever"

However according to an American journalist covering the war with Mexico: This article is about the modern Goidelic language. ...

The banner is of green silk, and on one side is a harp, surmounted by the Mexican coat of arms, with a scroll on which is painted "Libertad por la Republica Mexicana". Under the harp is the motto of "Erin go Bragh!" On the other side is a painting of a badly executed figure, made to represent St. Patrick, in his left hand a key and in his right a crook or staff resting upon a serpent. Underneath is painted "San Patricio."

— George Kendall, [10]

Note that Mexican elements described by Kendall have been excluded from Riley's description of the flag. Two other eye-witness accounts of the flag exist, both from American soldiers. The first describes it as:

"a beautiful green silk banner (that) waved over their heads; on it glittered a silver cross and a golden harp, embroidered by the hands of the fair nuns of San Luis Potosí."

Samuel E. Chamberlian, My Confession, [11] Samuel E. Chamberlain ( November 27, 1829-1908) was a soldier, painter, and author who travelled throughout the American Southwest and Mexico. ...

The second only mentioning:

"Among the mighty host we passed was O'Reilly [sic] and his company of deserters bearing aloft in high disgrace the holy banner of St. Patrick."

— Unknown, [12]

Another radically different version of the flag, as described in this Mexican source:

"Tenían una insignia blanca, en la que se encontraban los escudos de Irlanda y Mexico, y el nombre de su capitán, John O'Reilly bordado en verde." [They had a white flag/standard, on which were found the shields of Ireland and Mexico, and the name of their captain, John O'Reilly [sic] embroidered in green]

— Diccionario Porrúa de historia, biografía y geografía de México, (3:3146)

Whatever the case, a reproduction military flag was created by the Clifden and Connemara Heritage Group in 1997, and another the following year for the MGM film One Man's Hero. The film was a romanticized version of the San Patricios' history. A third version embodying the description of the San Luis Potosí flag was produced by the Irish Society of Chicago and hangs in Chicago's Union League Club. For the band, see 1997 (band). ... One Mans Hero is a 1999 film starring Tom Berenger and directed by Lance Hool. ...


Service as a military unit

Formation and early engagements

Present in the Mexican army for the battles of Palo Alto and Resaca de la Palma were the Legión de Extranjeros (Legion of Foreigners); the men who would later make up the core of the Saint Patrick's battalion. Popularly they were called Los Colorados (the red-heads) by the Mexicans.[13] Combatants United States Mexico Commanders Zachary Taylor Mariano Arista Strength 2,400 infantry 2,300 infantry, 1,100 cavalry and 160 artillery 12 guns Casualties 5 killed 43 wounded 102 killed 129 wounded 26 missing The Battle of Palo Alto was the first major battle of the Mexican-American War... This page is a candidate to be moved to Wikisource. ...


The Saint Patrick's Battalion first fought as a recognized Mexican unit in the Battle of Monterrey on 21 September 1846, as an artillery battery commanded by John Riley.[14] This Irish-born artilleryman, a veteran Non-commissioned officer of the British Army, arrived in Canada in 1843, but went on to join the U.S. Army in Michigan in September 1845. He deserted in Matamoros in April 1846 (Hogan 1998, p. 41). The Battle of Monterrey (September 21–September 23, 1846) was an engagement in the Mexican-American War in which General Pedro de Ampudia and the Mexican Army of the North managed to fight US troops to a standstill at the important fortress town of Monterrey. ... is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1846 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Remains of a battery of English cannon from Youghal, County Cork. ... Jon Riley, also known as John ORiley, (1805-1850) A US Army lieutenant, had been one of the estimated 800 immigrant Irishmen who had deserted the US Army to fight for Mexico in the 1846-48 war. ... A non-commissioned officer (sometimes noncommissioned officer), also known as an NCO or Noncom, is an enlisted member of an armed force who has been given authority by a commissioned officer. ... Year 1843 (MDCCCXLIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1845 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... The name Matamoros, meaning Moor-killer or Moor-slayer in Spanish, may refer to: People Santiago Matamoros, St. ... 1846 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ...


At the battle of Monterrey, the San Patricios proved their artillery skills by mowing down many American soldiers,[15] and they are credited with defeating two separate assaults into the heart of the city. Their tenacity, however, did not prevent the defeat of the Mexican forces there.


Recruitment increases and Buena Vista

Following the engagement at Monterrey, the San Patricios grew in number, by some estimates reaching an enlistment of about 800 men. The U.S. army's conduct at the previous battle, which had included firing on people taking refuge in Catholic churches,[15] resulted in more desertions from the U.S. army. Santa Anna even sent out notices encouraging Catholic U.S. troops to desert the army and nation that had no respect for their religion. Not all the new recruits were deserters, but also European Catholics already residing in Mexico. Forces re-assembled at San Luis Potosí and they had their distinct Green silk flag embroidered there. They marched northwards after joining a larger force commanded by Antonio López de Santa Anna sent from Mexico City. At the Battle of Buena Vista (known as the battle of Angostura in Mexico) in Coahuila on 23 February, the Patricios became engaged with US forces. They were assigned the three biggest cannons the Mexican army possessed, which were positioned on high ground over-looking the battlefield. They suffered numerous casualties from the American forces' unsuccessful attempts to capture the Mexican's cannons. The San Patricios counter-attacked and captured two American cannons. Several Irishmen were awarded the Cross of Honor by the Mexican government for their conduct in that battle, and many received field promotions. Nickname: Motto: El Trabajo templa el Espíritu Location of Monterrey in northern Mexico Coordinates: , Country State Founded 20 September 1596 Government  - Mayor Adalberto Madero ( PAN) Area  - City 860 km² (332 sq mi) Elevation 537 m (1,762 ft) Population (2005)  - City 1,133,814  - Density 1,989/km² (5... The Mexican state of San Luis Potosí has an area of 62,848 km² (24,266 mi²). It is in the north-central part of the Mexican republic, bordered by the states of Jalisco, Guanajuato, Querétaro, Hidalgo, Veracruz, Tamaulipas, Nuevo León, Coahuila, and Zacatecas. ... Antonio de Padua María Severino López de Santa Anna y Pérez de Lebrón (February 21, 1794 – June 21, 1876), often known as Santa Anna, was a Mexican political leader who greatly influenced early Mexican and Spanish politics and government, first fighting against the independence from Spain... The Battle of Buena Vista was a land battle of the Mexican-American War fought on 23 February 1847 in Buena Vista, Coahuila, seven miles (12 km) south of Saltillo, in northern Mexico. ... Coahuila (formal name: Coahuila de Zaragoza) is one of Mexicos 31 component states. ... is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Battlefield may refer to: the location of a battle, the Battlefield televised documentary series, shown on the Discovery Channel, which explores battles of World War 2, the Battlefield Vietnam televised documentary series, shown on the Military Channel, which gives detail explanations of Vietnam War, (1945-1975), battles. ...


Re-organisation and final battles

Despite their excellent performance in a number of engagements as artillery, the much-reduced San Patricios were ordered to muster a larger infantry battalion in mid-1847 by personal order of Santa Anna, which was re-named the The Foreign Legion of Patricios consisting of many other European volunteers, commanded by Colonel Francisco R. Moreno, with Riley in charge of 1st company and Santiago O'Leary heading up the second. Infantry of the Royal Irish Rifles during the Battle of the Somme in World War I Infantry or footmen are very highly disciplined and trained soldiers who fight primarily with small arms(rifles), but are trained to use everything from their bare hands to missle systems in order to neutralize... Symbol of the Austrian 14th Armoured Battalion in NATO military graphic symbols This article is about the military unit. ... Standard NATO code for a friendly infantry company. ...


As an infantry unit, the San Patricios continued to serve with distinction. Knowing that they were likely to face the death penalty if captured, the San Patricios are known to have threatened wavering Mexican troops with death by "friendly fire" at the Battle of Cerro Gordo, if they retreated. When the San Patricios were too heavily engaged to carry out their threat, the Mexican troops broke and ran, leaving the San Patricios as they fought U.S. troops in hand to hand combat.[citation needed] For other uses, see Friendly Fire (disambiguation). ... Combatants United States Mexico Commanders Winfield Scott Antonio López de Santa Anna Strength 8,500 12,000 Casualties 417 4,000 Gen Ciriaco Vasquez dead Gens. ...

The Convent at Churubusco, painted by American Carl Nebel
The Convent at Churubusco, painted by American Carl Nebel

At the Battle of Churubusco (20 August 1847), the San Patricio Companies together with the Los Bravos Battalion occupied the parapets of the convento de Churubusco. Though hopelessly outnumbered, the defenders repelled the attacking US forces with heavy losses until their ammunition ran out, and a Mexican officer raised the white flag of surrender. Captain Patrick Dalton of the San Patricios tore the white flag down, prompting General Pedro Anaya to order his men to fight on with their bare hands if necessary. American Private Ballantine reported that when the Mexicans attempted to raise the white flag a further two more times, members of the San Patricios shot and killed them.[16][17] General Anaya states in his written battle report that 35 San Patricios were killed, 85 taken prisoner (including a wounded John Riley) and about 85 more escaped with retreating Mexican forces. They were briefly reformed just before the Battle of Mexico City some two weeks later, but never regained their former numbers and were officially mustered out of Mexican military service in 1850. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 490 pixelsFull resolution (924 × 566 pixel, file size: 166 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)Painting by Carl Nebel. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 490 pixelsFull resolution (924 × 566 pixel, file size: 166 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)Painting by Carl Nebel. ... Combatants United States Mexico Commanders Winfield Scott Antonio López de Santa Anna Manuel Rincón Strength 8,497 2,641 Casualties 133 dead 865 wounded 40 missing 263 dead 1,261 captured 20 missing. ... is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1847 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... This article concerns the buildings occupied by monastics. ... Pedro María Anaya (1794-1854) was the interim president of Mexico from 1847 to 1848. ... German troops after surrendering to the U.S. Third Army carry the white flag (WW2 photo). ... The Battle for Mexico City refers to the series of engagements from September 8 to September 15, 1847 in the general vicinity of Mexico City during the Mexican-American War. ... For the game, see: 1850 (board game) 1850 (MDCCCL) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday [1] of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ...

The mass hanging of San Patricios, as portrayed by Samuel Chamberlain, c1867
The mass hanging of San Patricios, as portrayed by Samuel Chamberlain, c1867

Hanging of the San Patricios following the Battle of Chapultepec. ... Hanging of the San Patricios following the Battle of Chapultepec. ... Samuel E. Chamberlain ( November 27, 1829-1908) was a soldier, painter, and author who travelled throughout the American Southwest and Mexico. ...

Aftermath

Trials

The San Patricios captured by the U.S. Army suffered the punishment of traitors; they had been responsible for some of the toughest fighting (and the heaviest casualties) that the U.S. Army had faced, and 72 were immediately charged with desertion by the Army.


Two separate courts-martial were held, one at Tacubaya on 23 August, and another at San Ángel on 26 August. At neither of these trials were the men represented by lawyers nor were transcripts taken of the proceedings. This lack of formal legal advice could account for the fact that several of the men claimed that drunkenness had led them to desert (a very common defense in military trials at the time that sometimes led to lighter sentences), and others described how they were forced to join the Mexican army in some form or another. The vast majority of the San Patricios, however, either offered no defense or their defenses were not recorded. {| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 235th day of the year (236th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The traditional neighborhood of San Angel lies to the southeast of Mexico City. ... is the 238th day of the year (239th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Sentences

One soldier who claimed he was forced to fight by the Mexicans after he was captured by them, and who subsequently refused to do so was sentenced to death by firing squad instead of hanging, along with another who was found to have never officially joined the Mexican army.[citation needed]


The fate that awaited most of the captured San Patricios was death by hanging, thirty from the Tacubaya trial and twenty from San Ángel. The rationale for this was that they had entered Mexican military service following the declaration of war. However, this was in violation of the Articles of War for the time which clearly stipulated that the penalty for desertion and/or defecting to the enemy during a time of war was death by firing squad, regardless of the circumstances.[citation needed] In fact more than 9,000 U.S. soldiers deserted during the Mexican-American War,[18] and only the San Patricios were punished in this way. The Royal Navys Articles of War were used to govern British ships at sea in the Napoleonic Wars and have been used as models for later marshal and maritime law. ... Execution by firing squad is a method of capital punishment, especially in times of war. ...


Those who had left military service before the official declaration of war on Mexico (Riley among them) on the other hand were sentenced to: President Franklin D. Roosevelt signs a declaration of war against the Empire of Japan on December 8, 1941, one day after the attack on Pearl Harbor. ...

receive 50 lashes on their bare backs, to be branded with the letter "D" for deserter, and to wear iron yokes around their necks for the duration of the war.[19]

Executions

En masse hangings for treason took place on 10 September 1847 at San Ángel, and 13 September at Chapultepec. By order of General Winfield Scott, 30 San Patricios were to be executed in full view of the two armies as they fought the Battle of Chapultepec, at the precise moment that the flag of the United States replaced the flag of Mexico atop the citadel. This order was to be carried out by Colonel William Harney, an officer who had been twice disciplined for insubordination in his career, and would later go on to be court-martialed a further two more times.[citation needed] While overseeing the hangings, Harney ordered Francis O'Connor hanged even though he had had both legs amputated the previous day. When the army surgeon informed the colonel that the absent soldier had lost both his legs in battle, Harney replied: For other uses, see Treason (disambiguation) or Traitor (disambiguation). ... is the 253rd day of the year (254th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1847 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Chapultepec Park with Polanco at the right, as seen from Torre Mayor observation deck. ... For other uses of Winfield Scott, see Winfield Scott (disambiguation). ... Combatants United States Mexico Commanders Winfield Scott Nicolás Bravo #, Mariano Monterde School Commandant, Juan N. Perez commander Remants Leon Brigade) Strength 13,000 876 cadets, 4000 regulars Casualties 130 killed 703 wounded 29 missing 862 total 1,800 killed and wounded 823 captured 2,623 Total Gen. ... William S. Harney William Selby Harney (22 August 1800 - 9 May 1889) was a cavalry officer in the U.S. Army during the Mexican-American War and the Indian Wars. ... Insubordination is the act of a subordinate deliberately disobeying a lawful order. ... A court-martial (plural courts-martial) is a military court that determines punishments for members of the military subject to military law. ...

Bring the damned son of a bitch out! My order was to hang 30 and by God I'll do it![20]

After four and a half hours the flag finally appeared on the flagpole of the castle of Chapultepec at 9.30 am. At Harney's signal, the carts holding the tied and noosed men pulled away (Hogan 1998, p. 287). Harney’s further violations of the Articles of War requiring prompt execution did not result in charges being brought against him. He was also subsequently promoted to Brigadier General, a post which he held while the US Army occupied Mexico City.


Legacy

Those who survived the war generally disappeared from history. A handful are on record as having made use of the land claims promised them by the Mexican government. But even today, they are honored and revered as heroes in Mexico.[21]


The Batallón de San Patricio is memorialized on two separate days; the first on 12 September, the generally accepted anniversary of the executions, and the other on Saint Patrick's Day. The San Patricios are also remembered with many schools, churches and other landmarks taking their name. The street in front of the Irish School, in suburban Monterrey, is named Batallón de San Patricio ("Battalion of Saint Patrick"). Down south, the street in front of the Santa María de Churubusco convent in Mexico City was named Mártires Irlandeses ("the Irish martyrs"). is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... St. ... Churubusco is a neighbourhood of Mexico City. ...


In 1997, President Ernesto Zedillo commemorated the 150th anniversary of the execution of the San Patricios at a ceremony in Mexico City's San Jacinto Plaza, where the first twenty hangings were staged. Both the Republic of Ireland and Mexico jointly issued commemorative postage stamps to mark this anniversary. For the band, see 1997 (band). ... Ernesto Zedillo Ponce de León (born December 27, 1951) was President of Mexico from 1994 to 2000. ... San Jacinto Plaza is an historic park located on the corner of Oregon and Mills in the heart of Downtown El Paso, Texas. ... Peace Bridge joint issue of 1977, Canadian version The US version of this joint issue has a radically different design. ...

The Mexican version of the stamp looks virtually identical, apart from a few minor font differences

In honor of John Riley, the Mexican flag flies daily in the town center of Riley's native Clifden, County Galway[citation needed]. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 379 × 598 pixelsFull resolution (449 × 709 pixel, file size: 46 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Irish St. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 379 × 598 pixelsFull resolution (449 × 709 pixel, file size: 46 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Irish St. ... Clifden (in Irish, An Clochán meaning bee-hive cell) is a town on the coast of County Galway, Ireland and being Connemaras largest town, it is often referred to as the Capital of Connemara. It is located on the Owenglin River where it flows into Clifden Bay. ... Statistics Province: Connacht County Town: Galway Code: G (GY proposed) Area: 6,148 km² Population (2006) 231,035 (including Galway City); 159,052 (without Galway City) Website: www. ...


In 2004, at an official ceremony attended by numerous international dignitaries, including directors Lance and Jason Hool, as well as several actors from the film One Man's Hero, a statue was donated by the Mexican government to the Irish government in perpetual thanks for the bravery, honor and sacrifice of the St. Patrick's Battalion. The statue also stands at Clifden's town center. Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... One Mans Hero is a 1999 film starring Tom Berenger and directed by Lance Hool. ...


Music

David Rovics sings at the A16 rally in Washington DC in early 2005. ... Black 47 is an American-Celtic rock band made up of Irish expatriates, formed in New York City by Larry Kirwan and Chris Byrne in 1989. ...

Films and Fiction

One Mans Hero is a 1999 film starring Tom Berenger and directed by Lance Hool. ... James Alexander Thom (born 1933) is an American author, most famous for his works in the Western genre. ...

See also

// The following are known battles of the Mexican-American War. ... Combatants United States Mexico Commanders Zachary Taylor Winfield Scott Stephen W. Kearney Antonio López de Santa Anna Mariano Arista Pedro de Ampudia José Mariá Flores Strength 78,790 soldiers 25,000–40,000 soldiers Casualties KIA: 1733 Total dead: 13,271 Wounded: 4,152 AWOL: 9,200+ 25,000... The Irish Brigade was a brigade in the French army composed of Irish exiles. ... This article is about the unit of the United States Army during the Civil War. ... Irish Migration Studies in Latin America (IMSLA) is an open access journal dedicated to the links between Ireland and Latin America. ...

References

  1. ^ Hogan, Michael (1998), Irish Soldiers of Mexico, Guadalajara: Fondo Editorial Universitario, p. 223, ISBN 978-9687846002 
  2. ^ Mexican president Vicente Fox Quesada - "the affinities between Ireland and Mexico go back to the first years of our nation, when our country fought to preserve its national sovereignty... Then, a brave group of Irish soldiers... in a heroic gesture, decided to fight against the foreign ground invasion"
  3. ^ Mexican president Ernesto Zedillo - "members of the St. Patrick's Battalion were executed for following their consciences. They were martyred for adhering to the highest ideals ... we honor their memory. In the name of the people of Mexico, I salute today the people of Ireland and express my eternal gratitude." The News (Mexico City), 13 September 1997.
  4. ^ Richard McCornack. The San Patricio Deserters in the Mexican War, 1847, The Irish Sword. Volume 3, 1958 p. 255
  5. ^ See articles Bernardo O'Higgins, Daniel Florencio O'Leary, Morgan O'Connell, Juan O'Donojú & 1st Venezuelan Rifles.
  6. ^ "I recollect at this place [the battle of Churubusco] that some of the gunners who had stood their ground, were deserters from General Taylor's army on the Rio Grande." Personal memoirs of U. S. Grant, Volume I, Chapter XI
  7. ^ An interview with Montserrat Fontes. MELUS. Retrieved on 28 April 2008.
  8. ^ David Lloyd, Ireland After History, p. 104, ISBN 0268012180
  9. ^ Stevens, Peter F. (1999). The Rogue's March: John Riley and the St. Patrick's Battalion. Washington, DC: Brassey's, 285. 
  10. ^ George Wilkins and Lawrence Delbert Cress. Dispatches from the Mexican-American War. (University of Oklahoma Press, 1999.) p. 350
  11. ^ Robert Ryal Miller, Shamrock and Sword, The Saint Patrick's Battalion in the US-Mexican War (Norman, Oklahoma; University of Okiahoma Press, 1989), p. 38.
  12. ^ Ibid. p. 52.
  13. ^ Bauer, K. Jack. The Mexican War, 1846-48, p.42.
  14. ^ Sometimes spelled Jon Reily, Reilly, and O'Reilly. Juan Reley appears on Mexican army records and on his Mexican death certificate.
  15. ^ a b Howes, Kelly King. Mexican American war (U·X·L, 1 edition 2003) p. 181 ISBN 0787665371
  16. ^ The Mexican War and its Heroes 2:45 ISBN 1425561381
  17. ^ Milton Meltzer, Bound for the Rio Grande; the Mexican Struggle, 1845-1850. New York: Knopf, 1974. P. 197
  18. ^ Ex. Doc. 36, 30th Cong., 1 Sess, "Report of the Secretary of War... pp. 6-7: see also (Hogan 1998, p. 19).
  19. ^ Heriberto Frías, La guerra contra los gringos (Mexico City: Ediciones Leega/Jucar, 1984), p. 173.
  20. ^ Wynn, The San Patricio Soldiers, p. 14.
  21. ^ Gonzales, Manuel G. Mexicanos: A history of Mexicans in the United States. Indiana University Press P.86-87 ISBN 0-253-33520-5

Vicente Fox Quesada (born July 2, 1942) is the current president of Mexico. ... Ernesto Zedillo Ponce de León (born December 27, 1951) was President of Mexico from 1994 to 2000. ... Bernardo OHiggins Riquelme (August 20, 1778 – October 24, 1842), South American independence leader, was one of the commanders – together with José de San Martín – of the military forces that freed Chile from Spanish rule in the Chilean War of Independence. ... Daniel Florencio OLeary was a military general and aide-de-camp under Simón Bolívar. ... Morgan OConnell was one of seven children of Daniel OConnell, the Irish national leader who was to become the first Roman Catholic Lord Mayor of Dublin, and his wife, a cousin, Mary OConnell. ... Juan ODonojú Juan ODonojú (1762, Seville, Spain—October 8, 1821, Mexico City) was a Spanish military officer and viceroy of New Spain from July 21, 1821 to September 28, 1821, during Mexicos war of independence. ... is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

  • Murray, Edmundo The San Patricio Battalion: A Bibliography at Irish Migration Studies in Latin America, 2006.
  • Bauer, K. Jack, The Mexican-American War, 1846-1848. New York: Macmillan, 1974.
  • Hogan, Michael. The Irish Soldiers of Mexico. Guadalajara: Fondo Editorial Universitario, 1997.
  • Peral, Miguel Ángel, ed., Diccionario Biográfico Mexicano. Mexico City: Editorial P.A.C., 1956.
  • Stevens, Peter F. The Rogue's March: John Riley and the St. Patrick's Battalion. Potomac Books, 2005. ISBN 1574881450

External links


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