FACTOID # 9: The bookmobile capital of America is Kentucky.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Saint Nicholas
Saint Nicholas

Bishop of Myra, Defender of Orthodoxy, Wonderworker, Holy Hierarch
Born c. 270, Patara, Lycia
Died 6 December 343, Myra, Lycia
Venerated in All Christianity
Major shrine Basilica di San Nicola, Bari, Italy.
Feast December 6 (main feast day)
May 9 (translation (relics)
Attributes Vested as a Bishop. In Eastern Christianity, wearing an omophorion and holding a Gospel Book. Sometimes shown with Jesus Christ over one shoulder, holding a Gospel Book, and with the Theotokos over the other shoulder, holding an omophorion.
Patronage Children, sailors, fishermen, the falsely accused, pawnbrokers, prostitutes, repentant thieves, many cities.
Saints Portal

Saint Nicholas (Greek: Άγιος Νικόλαος , Agios Nikolaos, "victory of the people") is the common name for Nicholas of Myra, a Christian saint and Bishop of Myra in Lycia of Anatolia (modern-day Antalya province, Turkey, though at the time it was a Greek-speaking Roman Province). Because of the many miracles attributed to his intercessions, he is also known as Saint Nicholas the Wonderworker. He had a reputation for secret gift-giving, and is now commonly identified with Santa Claus. Nicholas was never officially canonised; his reputation simply evolved among the faithful, as was the custom in his time.[1] In 1087, his relics were stolen to Bari in southern Italy. For this reason, he is also known as Saint Nicholas of Bari. The St. ... A typical depiction of Santa Claus. ... St. ... Image File history File links Russian_icon_Instaplanet_Saint_Nicholas. ... Events Quintillus briefly holds power over the Roman Empire, and is succeeded by Aurelian Vandals and Sarmatians driven out of Roman territory Romans leave Utrecht after regular invasions of Germanic people. ... Patara (Lycian: Pttara), later renamed Arsinoe (Greek: ), was a flourishing maritime and commercial city on the south-west coast of Lycia on the Mediterranean coast of Turkey near the modern small town of GelemiÅŸ, in Antalya Province. ... Lycian rock cut tombs of Dalyan Lycian rock cut tombs of Dalyan Lycia (in Lycian, Trm̃misa (see List of Lycian place names); in ancient Greek, Λυκία and in modern Turkish, Likya) is a region in the modern-day provinces of Antalya and MuÄŸla on the southern coast of Turkey. ... Events Roman emperor Constans travels to Britain, possibly for a military expedition. ... For other uses, see Myra (disambiguation). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... Shrine is also used as a conventional translation of the Japanese Jinja. ... The Basilica of San Nicola by night. ... For other uses, see Bari (disambiguation). ... The calendar of saints is a traditional Christian method of organising a liturgical year on the level of days by associating each day with one or more saints, and referring to the day as that saints day. ... is the 340th day of the year (341st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 129th day of the year (130th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Saint symbology was important to people who couldnt read because they can figure out what symbols mean. ... Vestments are liturgical garments and articles associated primarily with the Christian religions, especially the Catholic, Eastern Orthodox and Anglican Churches. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      This article... Eastern Christianity refers collectively to the Christian traditions and churches which developed in Greece, Russia, Armenia, the Balkans, Eastern Europe, Asia Minor, the Middle East, northeastern Africa and southern India over several centuries of religious antiquity. ... In the Orthodox liturgical tradition, the omophorion is one of the bishops vestments and the symbol of his spiritual and ecclesiastical authority. ... A Gospel Book is a codex or bound volume, containing one or more of the four Gospels of the Christian New Testament. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Theotokos of Kazan Theotokos (Greek: , translit. ... Saint Quentin is the patron saint of locksmiths and is also invoked against coughs and sneezes. ... Image File history File links Gloriole. ... Saints redirects here. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      This article... For other uses, see Myra (disambiguation). ... Lycian rock cut tombs of Dalyan Lycian rock cut tombs of Dalyan Lycia (in Lycian, Trm̃misa (see List of Lycian place names); in ancient Greek, Λυκία and in modern Turkish, Likya) is a region in the modern-day provinces of Antalya and MuÄŸla on the southern coast of Turkey. ... This article is about two nested areas of Turkey, a plateau region within a peninsula. ... Antalya Province is located on the Mediterranean coast of south-west Turkey, between the Taurus Mountains and the Mediterranean sea. ... Hellenic may refer to: the Hellenic Republic (the modern Greek state) the Hellenes, itself a term for either ancient or modern Greeks anything related to Greece in general or Ancient Greece in particular. ... Map of the Roman Empire, with the provinces, after 120. ... For other uses, see Miracle (disambiguation). ... // Christianity In Christian practice, intercessory prayer is the act of one person praying for or on behalf of another person or situation. ... Love gift Man presents a cut of meat to a youth with a hoop. ... A typical depiction of Santa Claus. ... This article is about the process of declaring saints. ... Events May 9 - The remains of Saint Nicholas were brought to Bari. ... For other uses, see Relic (disambiguation). ... Depiction of St. ... For other uses, see Bari (disambiguation). ...


The historical Saint Nicholas is remembered and revered among Catholic and Orthodox Christians. He is also honoured by various Anglican and Lutheran churches. Saint Nicholas is the patron saint of sailors, merchants, archers, children, and students in Greece, Belgium, Bulgaria, Georgia, Russia, the Republic of Macedonia, Slovakia, Serbia and Montenegro. He is also the patron saint of Barranquilla (Colombia), Bari (Italy), Amsterdam (Netherlands), Beit Jala in the West Bank of Palestine and Russia. In 1809, the New-York Historical Society convened and named Sancte Claus the patron saint of Nieuw Amsterdam, the Dutch name for New York City.[2] ... The term Anglican describes those people and churches following the religious traditions of the Church of England, especially following the Reformation. ... The Lutheran movement is a group of denominations of Protestant Christianity by the original definition. ... Saint Quentin is the patron saint of locksmiths and is also invoked against coughs and sneezes. ... A sailor is a member of the crew of a ship or boat. ... Archery is the practice of using a bow to shoot arrows. ... For an explanation of terms related to Macedonia, see Macedonia (terminology). ... Anthem:  Serbia() on the European continent()  —  [] Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Slovak, Romanian, Croatian, Rusyn 1 Albanian 2 Demonym Serbian Government Parliamentary Democracy  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica    -  First state 7th century   -  Serbian Kingdom3 1217   -  Serbian Empire 1345   -  Independence lost... This article is about the country in Europe. ... For other places with the same name, see Barranquilla (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Bari (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Amsterdam (disambiguation). ... Beit Jala (Arabic:  , possibly from Aramaic grass carpet) is a small city in the Bethlehem Governorate of the West Bank. ... A 2003 satellite image of the region. ... The New-York Historical Society is an American organization located in New York City and dedicated to the preservation of the citys history. ... New Amsterdam may refer to: New Amsterdam, the colonial settlement in the New Netherland colony that became New York City New Amsterdam, Indiana New Amsterdam, Guyana Nieuw Amsterdam, Netherlands, in the Dutch municipality of Emmen Nieuw Amsterdam, Suriname Suriname New Amsterdam Brewing Company in New York City This is a... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ...

Contents

Life

Nicholas was born in Asia Minor during the third century in the Greek colony[3] of Patara in Lycia in the Roman province of Asia- modern-day Antalya in Turkey — at a time when the region was Hellenistic in its culture and outlook. He was the only son of Christian parents named Epiphanus and Johanna,[4] and was very religious from an early age. According to legend, Nicholas was said to have rigorously observed the canonical fasts of Wednesdays and Fridays, even when an infant, by abstaining on those days from his mother's breast.[5] His wealthy parents died in an epidemic while Nicholas was still young and he was raised by his uncle—also named Nicholas—who was the bishop of Patara. He tonsured the young Nicholas as a reader, and later as presbyter (priest). Nicholas also spent a brief period of time at a monastery named Holy Sion, which had been founded by his uncle. Anatolia (Greek: ανατολη anatole, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to the Asian portion of Turkey. ... // Overview Events 212: Constitutio Antoniniana grants citizenship to all free Roman men 212-216: Baths of Caracalla 230-232: Sassanid dynasty of Persia launches a war to reconquer lost lands in the Roman east 235-284: Crisis of the Third Century shakes Roman Empire 250-538: Kofun era, the first... Colonies in antiquity were city-states founded from a mother-city, not from a territory-at-large. ... Patara (Lycian: Pttara), later renamed Arsinoe (Greek: ), was a flourishing maritime and commercial city on the south-west coast of Lycia on the Mediterranean coast of Turkey near the modern small town of GelemiÅŸ, in Antalya Province. ... Lycian rock cut tombs of Dalyan Lycian rock cut tombs of Dalyan Lycia (in Lycian, Trm̃misa (see List of Lycian place names); in ancient Greek, Λυκία and in modern Turkish, Likya) is a region in the modern-day provinces of Antalya and MuÄŸla on the southern coast of Turkey. ... Map of the Roman Empire, with the provinces, after 120. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... This article is mostly about the Antalya City; for the province, see Antalya Province. ... The term Hellenistic (established by the German historian Johann Gustav Droysen) in the history of the ancient world is used to refer to the shift from a culture dominated by ethnic Greeks, however scattered geographically, to a culture dominated by Greek-speakers of whatever ethnicity, and from the political dominance... Tonsure is the practice of some Christian churches of cutting the hair from the scalp of clerics as a symbol of their renunciation of worldly fashion and esteem. ... In some Christian churches, the Reader is responsible for reading aloud excerpts of the scripture at a liturgy. ... Presbyter in the New Testament refers to a leader in local Christian congregations, a synonym of episkopos, which has come to mean bishop. ... This article is about religious workers. ... This article concerns the buildings occupied by monastics. ...

A medieval fresco depicting St. Nicholas from the Boyana Church, near Sofia, Bulgaria.
A medieval fresco depicting St. Nicholas from the Boyana Church, near Sofia, Bulgaria.

As the patron saint also of sailors, a legend grew that Nicholas had been a sailor or fisherman himself. However, it is more likely that one of his family businesses involved managing a fishing fleet. When his parents died, Nicholas received his inheritance but is said to have given it away to the poor. Frescoes from the Boyana Church: Angel This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Frescoes from the Boyana Church: Angel This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Frescoes from the Boyana Church: Desislava The church of Boyana is a medieval Bulgarian church situated on the outskirts of Sofia. ... This article is about the capital of Bulgaria. ... Saint Quentin is the patron saint of locksmiths and is also invoked against coughs and sneezes. ...


Nicholas' early activities as a priest are said to have occurred during the persecution of Christians under the reign of co-ruling Roman Emperors Diocletian (reigned 284305) and Maximian (reigned 286305). In the Eastern Empire Galerius (reigned 305311) continued the persecution until 311 when he issued a general edict of toleration from his deathbed. Nicholas survived this period, although his activities at the time are uncertain. A Christian Dirce, by Henryk Siemiradzki. ... This is a list of Roman Emperors with the dates they controlled the Roman Empire. ... Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus (c. ... For other uses, see number 284. ... Events May 1 - Diocletian and Maximian, emperors of Rome, retire from office. ... Maximian Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maximianus Herculius (c. ... This article is about the year 286. ... Events May 1 - Diocletian and Maximian, emperors of Rome, retire from office. ... Galerius Maximianus (c. ... Events May 1 - Diocletian and Maximian, emperors of Rome, retire from office. ... Events By Place Roman Empire May 5 - Galerius issues his Edict of Toleration, ending persecution of Christians in his part of the Roman Empire. ... Events By Place Roman Empire May 5 - Galerius issues his Edict of Toleration, ending persecution of Christians in his part of the Roman Empire. ... An edict of toleration is a declaration made by a government or ruler and states that members of a given religion will not be persecuted for engaging in their religious practices and traditions. ...


Following Galerius' death his surviving co-ruler Licinius (reigned 307324) mostly tolerated Christians. During this period, Nicholas made a pilgrimage to Egypt and Palestine.[6] [1] Upon his return, he was elected bishop of the city of Myra. Judging from tradition, he was probably well loved and respected in his area, mostly as a result of his charitable activities. As with other bishops of the time, Nicholas' popularity would serve to ensure his position and influence during and after his period. Aureus of Licinius, celebrating his tenth year of reign and the fifth year of his son Licinius (on the obverse). ... March 31 — After divorcing his wife Minervina, Constantine marries Fausta, the daughter of the retired Emperor Maximian. ... Events Constantine becomes the sole emperor of the Roman Empire. ... This article is about the religious or spiritual journey. ... For other uses, see Myra (disambiguation). ...

St. Nicholas preventing the execution of three falsely accused (Ilya Repin, 1888, State Russian Museum, St. Petersburg).
St. Nicholas preventing the execution of three falsely accused (Ilya Repin, 1888, State Russian Museum, St. Petersburg).

The destruction of several Pagan temples is also attributed to him, among them the Temple of Artemis. Because the celebration of Diana's birth is on December 6, some authors[citation needed] have speculated that this date was deliberately chosen for Nicholas' feast day to overshadow or replace the Pagan celebrations. This would be in keeping with the Christian tradition of "baptizing" certain Pagan festivals in order to gently wean newly-converted Christians away from Pagan practices. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2024x2267, 317 KB) Description: Title: de: Nikolaj Mirlikiskij rettet drei unschuldig zum Tode Verurteilte Technique: de: Öl auf Leinwand Dimensions: de: 215 × 196 cm Country of origin: de: Rußland Current location (city): de: St. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2024x2267, 317 KB) Description: Title: de: Nikolaj Mirlikiskij rettet drei unschuldig zum Tode Verurteilte Technique: de: Öl auf Leinwand Dimensions: de: 215 × 196 cm Country of origin: de: Rußland Current location (city): de: St. ... Ilyá Yefímovich Répin (Илья́ Ефи́мович Ре́пин) (August 5, 1844 (Julian calendar: July 24) – September 29, 1930) was a leading Russian painter and sculptor of the Peredvizhniki artistic school. ... The State Russian Museum, formerly the Russian Museum of His Imperial Majesty Alexander III, is the largest depository of the Russian fine art in St Petersburg. ... Pagan and heathen redirect here. ... The site of the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus in Turkey. ... Diana may refer to: In mythology: Diana (mythology), ancient Roman goddess of the moon, of love, and affection People bearing the name: Diana, Princess of Wales, the first wife of HRH The Prince of Wales Diana (given name), people with the given name Diana In music: Diana (Bryan Adams song... is the 340th day of the year (341st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The calendar of saints is a traditional Christian method of organising a liturgical year on the level of days by associating each day with a saint, and referring to the day as the saints day of that saint. ...


Not only did Nicholas seek to root out paganism, he also fought against the spread of Christian heresies, especially Arianism. According to tradition, Nicholas was a participant in the First Council of Nicaea. There, he became so angry upon hearing the views of Arius that he rushed over to him and slapped him in the face, sending him to the ground.[7] The council was so shocked at this that they immediately threw Nicholas out of the council and defrocked him. That night, the tradition says, several of the bishops of the council had the same dream: they saw Christ handing Nicholas a Gospel Book and the Theotokos (Virgin Mary) handing him an omophorion, the symbol of a bishop's office. As a result of this dream, Nicholas was restored to the episcopacy and seated again at the council. However, Methodius, while noting St Nicholas' rejection of Arianism, did not mention his involvement at Nicaea.[8] Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Athanasius · Augustine · Constantine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Arminius · Calvin · Luther · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box... The First Council of Nicaea, held in Nicaea in Bithynia (present-day Iznik in Turkey), convoked by the Roman Emperor Constantine I in 325, was the first Ecumenical council[1] of the early Christian Church, and most significantly resulted in the first uniform Christian doctrine, called the Nicene Creed. ... Arius (AD/CE 256 - 336, poss. ... This page is about the title, office or what is known in Christian theology as the Divine Person. ... A Gospel Book is a codex or bound volume, containing one or more of the four Gospels of the Christian New Testament. ... Theotokos of Kazan Theotokos (Greek: , translit. ... In the Orthodox liturgical tradition, the omophorion is one of the bishops vestments and the symbol of his spiritual and ecclesiastical authority. ...


Nicholas is also known for coming to the defence of the falsely accused, often preventing them from being executed, and for his intercession on behalf of sailors and other travelers. The popular veneration of Nicholas as a saint seems to have started relatively early. Justinian I, Emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire (reigned 527565) is reported to have built a temple (i.e. a church building) in Nicholas' honour in Constantinople. This article is about the Roman emperor. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Byzantine Empire. ... This article is about the year. ... Events January 22 - Eutychius is deposed as Patriarch of Constantinople by John Scholasticus. ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ...


Deeds and miracles attributed to Saint Nicholas

Saint Nicholas, "Help of Mariners" (Gentile da Fabriano, c. 1425, Pinacoteca Vaticana, Rome).
Saint Nicholas, "Help of Mariners" (Gentile da Fabriano, c. 1425, Pinacoteca Vaticana, Rome).

Saint Nicholas is the patron saint of sailors and is often called upon by mariners who are in danger of drowning or being shipwrecked. In Germany survivors of shipwrecks traditionally brought patches of sailcloth to Saint Nicholas as votive offerings. According to one legend, as a young man Nicholas went to study in Alexandria and on one of his sea voyages from Myra to Alexandria he is said to have saved the life of a sailor who fell from the ship's rigging in a storm. In a colourful version of this legend, Nicholas saved the man on his voyage back from Alexandria to Myra and upon his arrival took the sailor to the church. At that time the previous bishop of the city had just died and the church fathers were instructed in a dream to choose for their next bishop a "man who conquers" (Greek: nikei). While the saint was praying, the loose-lipped sailor went around telling how courageously he was saved by the man Nikei-Laos, upon which the church elders had no choice but to elect Nicholas as their new bishop. A votive deposit or votive offering is an object left in a sacred place for ritual purposes. ... This article is about the city in Egypt. ...

Saint Nicholas with the Three Boys in the Pickling Tub.Oak, South Netherlandish, ca. 1500.(Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York).
Saint Nicholas with the Three Boys in the Pickling Tub.
Oak, South Netherlandish, ca. 1500.
(Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York).

Another legend[citation needed] tells how a terrible famine struck the island and a malicious butcher lured three little children into his house, where he slaughtered and butchered them, placing their remains in a barrel to cure, planning to sell them off as ham. Saint Nicholas, visiting the region to care for the hungry, not only saw through the butcher's horrific crime but also resurrected the three boys from the barrel by his prayers. Another version of this story, possibly formed around the eleventh century, claims that the butcher's victims were instead three clerks who wished to stay the night. The man murdered them, and was advised by his wife to dispose of them by turning them into meat pies. The Saint saw through this and brought the men back to life. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1528x2036, 2861 KB) Saint Nicholas with the Three Boys in the Pickling Tub. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1528x2036, 2861 KB) Saint Nicholas with the Three Boys in the Pickling Tub. ... Metropolitan Museum of Art New York Elevation The Metropolitan Museum of Art, often referred to simply as the Met, is one of the worlds largest and most important art museums. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ...

The dowry for the three virgins (Gentile da Fabriano, c. 1425, Pinacoteca Vaticana, Rome).
The dowry for the three virgins (Gentile da Fabriano, c. 1425, Pinacoteca Vaticana, Rome).

In his most famous exploit however, a poor man had three daughters but could not afford a proper dowry for them. This meant that they would remain unmarried and probably, in absence of any other possible employment would have to become prostitutes. Hearing of the poor man's plight, Nicholas decided to help him but being too modest to help the man in public, (or to save the man the humiliation of accepting charity), he went to his house under the cover of night and threw three purses (one for each daughter) filled with gold coins through the window opening into the man's house. One version has him throwing one purse for three consecutive nights. Another has him throw the purses over a period of three years, each time the night before one of the daughters comes "of age". Invariably, the third time the father lies in wait, trying to discover the identity of their benefactor. In one version the father confronts the saint, only to have Saint Nicholas say it is not him he should thank, but God alone. In another version, Nicholas learns of the poor man's plan and drops the third bag down the chimney instead; a variant holds that the daughter had washed her stockings that evening and hung them over the embers to dry, and that the bag of gold fell into the stocking. For his help to the poor, Nicholas is the patron saint of pawnbrokers; the three gold balls traditionally hung outside a pawnshop symbolize the three sacks of gold. People then began to suspect that he was behind a large number of other anonymous gifts to the poor, using the inheritance from his wealthy parents. After he died, people in the region continued to give to the poor anonymously, and such gifts were still often attributed to St. Nicholas. Entrance to the museum The Vatican Museums (Musei Vaticani) are the public art and sculpture museums in the Vatican City, which display works from the extensive collection of the Roman Catholic Church. ... A dowry (also known as trousseau) is the money, goods, or estate that a woman brings to her husband in marriage. ... Modern pawnbroker storefront. ...


A nearly identical story is attributed by Greek folklore to Basil of Caesarea. Basil's feast day on January 1 is considered the time of exchanging gifts in Greece. Basil (ca. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Saint Nicholas was credited for leading the Crusaders away from Lexmarkus in 1181. Events Jayavarman VII assumes control of the Khmer kingdom. ...


One unusual aspect of Saint Nicholas' life is that he lived to an old age and died peacefully in his own bed. At a time when most saints died for their faith in manners most unusual and cruel, this made him stand out, together with Saint Martin, who also died of old age.[original research?] Saint Martin of Tours (Latin: Martinus), (316/317 – November 11, 397 in Candes) was a bishop of Tours whose shrine became a famous stopping-point for pilgrims on the road to Santiago de Compostela. ...


Translation of his relics

The original tomb of St. Nicholas at his basilica in Myra.
The original tomb of St. Nicholas at his basilica in Myra.
17th-century icon of the Translation of the Relics of St. Nicholas of Myra (Historic Museum in Sanok, Poland).
17th-century icon of the Translation of the Relics of St. Nicholas of Myra (Historic Museum in Sanok, Poland).

On August 26, 1071 Romanus IV, Emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire (reigned 10681071), faced Sultan Alp Arslan of the Seljuk Turks (reigned 10591072) in the Battle of Manzikert. The battle ended in humiliating defeat and capture for Romanus. As a result the Empire temporarily lost control over most of Asia Minor to the invading Seljuk Turks. It would regain its control over Asia Minor during the reign of Alexius I Comnenus (reigned 10811118). But early in his reign Myra was overtaken by the Islamic invaders. Taking advantage of the confusion, sailors from Bari in Apulia seized the remains of the saint over the objections of the Orthodox monks. Returning to Bari, they brought the remains with them and cared for them. The remains arrived on May 9, 1087. There are numerous variations of this account. In some versions those taking the relics are characterized as thieves or pirates, in others they are said to have taken them in response to a vision wherein Saint Nicholas himself appeared and commanded that his relics be moved in order to preserve them from the impending Muslim conquest. This article is about the religious artifacts. ... Saint Nicholas (Greek: , Victory of the people) is the common name for Saint Nicholas of Myra, who had a reputation for secret gift-giving, but is now commonly identified with Santa Claus, Father Christmas or in The Netherlands and Belgium as Sint-Nicolaas or Sinterklaas. ... Motto: Libera Regia Civitas Free Royal City Coordinates: , Country Poland Voivodeship County Sanok County Gmina Sanok (urban gmina) Established before 12th century Town rights 1339 Government  - Mayor Wojciech Blecharczyk Area  - Total 38. ... is the 238th day of the year (239th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Byzantine Empire loses Battle of Manzikert to Turkish army under Alp Arslan. ... Romanus IV Romanus IV (Diogenes), Byzantine emperor from 1068 to 1071, was a member of a distinguished Cappadocian family, and had risen to distinction in the army, until he was convicted of treason against the sons of Constantine X. While waiting for his execution he was summoned into the presence... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Byzantine Empire. ... Events Emperor Go-Sanjo ascends the throne of Japan William the Conqueror takes Exeter after a brief siege Births Henry I of England (d. ... Events Byzantine Empire loses Battle of Manzikert to Turkish army under Alp Arslan. ... Muhammed ben Daud (1029 – December 15, 1072), the second sultan of the dynasty of Seljuk Turks, in Persia, and great-grandson of Seljuk, the founder of the dynasty. ... The Seljuk coat of arms was a double headed eagle The Seljuk Turks (also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuq; in modern Turkish Selçuklular; in Persian سلجوقيان SaljÅ«qiyān; in Arabic سلجوق SaljÅ«q, or السلاجقة al-Salājiqa) were a major branch of the Oghuz Turks and a dynasty that ruled parts of... Events Anselm of Canterbury settles at the Benedictine monastery of Le Bec in Normandy. ... Events William I of England invades Scotland, and also receives the submission of Hereward the Wake. ... Combatants Byzantine Empire Great Seljuk Sultanate Commanders Romanus IV #, Nikephoros Bryennios, Theodore Alyates, Andronikos Doukas Alp Arslan Strength ~ 20,000 [1] (40,000 initial) ~ 20,000 [2] - 70,000[1] Casualties ~ 8,000 [3] Unknown The Battle of Manzikert, or Malazgirt was fought between the Byzantine Empire and Seljuk Turkic... Anatolia (Greek: ανατολη anatole, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to the Asian portion of Turkey. ... The Seljuk coat of arms was a double headed eagle The Seljuk Turks (also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuq; in modern Turkish Selçuklular; in Persian سلجوقيان SaljÅ«qiyān; in Arabic سلجوق SaljÅ«q, or السلاجقة al-Salājiqa) were a major branch of the Oghuz Turks and a dynasty that ruled parts of... Anatolia (Greek: ανατολη anatole, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to the Asian portion of Turkey. ... Byzantine emperor Alexius I Comnenus Alexius I (1048–August 15, 1118), Byzantine emperor (1081–1118), was the third son of John Comnenus, the nephew of Isaac I Comnenus (emperor 1057–1059). ... Events Corfu taken from Byzantine Empire by Robert Guiscard, Italy Byzantine emperor Nicephorus III is overthrown by Alexius I Comnenus, ending the Middle Byzantine period and beginning the Comnenan dynasty Alexius I helps defend Albania from the Normans (the first recorded mention of Albania), but is defeated at the Battle... Events Knights Templar founded Baldwin of Le Bourg succeeds his cousin Baldwin I as king of Jerusalem John II Comnenus succeeds Alexius I as Byzantine emperor Gelasius II succeeds Paschal II as pope Births November 28 - Manuel I Comnenus, Byzantine Emperor (died 1180) Andronicus I Comnenus, Byzantine Emperor (died 1185... For other uses, see Bari (disambiguation). ... This article is bad because of the Italian region. ... Monasticism (from Greek: monachos — a solitary person) is the religious practice in which one renounces worldly pursuits in order to fully devote ones life to spiritual work. ... is the 129th day of the year (130th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events May 9 - The remains of Saint Nicholas were brought to Bari. ... In religion, visions comprise inspirational renderings, generally of a future state and/or of a mythical being, and are believed (by followers of the religion) to come from a deity, directly or indirectly via prophets, and serve to inspire or prod believers as part of a revelation or an epiphany. ...

Pilgrims at the tomb of Saint Nicholas in Bari (Gentile da Fabriano, c. 1425, National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.).
Pilgrims at the tomb of Saint Nicholas in Bari (Gentile da Fabriano, c. 1425, National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.).

Some observers have reported seeing myrrh exude from his relics, anointing with which has been credited with numerous miracles. Vials of myrrh from his relics have been taken all over the world for centuries, and can still be obtained from his church in Bari. Currently at Bari, there are two churches at his shrine, one Roman Catholic and one Orthodox. Adoration of the Magi (1423). ... The West building of the National Gallery of Art with the East building visible behind and to to the left The National Gallery of Art is an art museum, located on the National Mall in Washington, D.C. The museum was established in 1937 by the Congress, with funds for... 100g of Myrrh. ... To anoint is to grease with perfumed oil, animal fat, or melted butter, a process employed ritually by many religions and races. ... For other uses, see Miracle (disambiguation). ...


According to a local legend, some of his remains were brought by three pilgrims to a church in what is now Nikolausberg in the vicinity of the city of Göttingen, Germany, giving the church and village its name. Monument to pilgrims in Burgos, Spain This article is on religious pilgrims. ... Nikolausberg Nikolausberg is a north-east borough of the university town of Göttingen. ... Göttingen marketplace with old city hall, Gänseliesel fountain and pedestrian zone Göttingen ( ) is a city in Lower Saxony, Germany. ...


There is also a Venetian legend (preserved in the Morosini Chronicle) that most of the relics were actually taken to Venice (where a great church to St. Nicholas, the patron of sailors, was built on the Lido), only an arm being left at Bari. This tradition was overturned in the 1950s when a scientific investigation of the relics in Bari revealed a largely intact skeleton. For other uses, see Venice (disambiguation). ... Lido and the Venetian Lagoon. ...


Local lore in Kilkenny, Ireland asserts that some of his remains were brought back from the Crusades by a local knight, and buried near Thomastown. WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: 52. ... This article is about the medieval crusades. ... For other uses, see Knight (disambiguation) or Knights (disambiguation). ... This article is about the town in Ireland. ...

The tomb of Saint Nicholas in Bari, as it appears today.
The tomb of Saint Nicholas in Bari, as it appears today.

It is said that in Myra the relics of Saint Nicholas each year exuded a clear watery liquid, called manna (or myrrh), which is believed by the faithful to possess miraculous powers. After the relics were brought to Bari, they continued to do so, much to the joy of the new owners. Even up to the present day, a flask of manna is extracted from the tomb of Saint Nicholas every year on December 6th (the Saint's feast day) by the clergy of the basilica. It is however worth noting that the actual relics are entombed several feet below the floor, at sea level in a harbor town, so the occurrence of watery liquid may be explained by several theories. However, this does not stop many believers from holding to the presence of the liquid being a miraculous manifestation. For other uses, see Myra (disambiguation). ... Not to be confused with the rune Mannaz. ... 100g of Myrrh. ... For other uses, see Miracle (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Bari (disambiguation). ... The calendar of saints is a traditional Christian method of organising a liturgical year on the level of days by associating each day with a saint, and referring to the day as the saints day of that saint. ...


The face of the historical saint

Whereas the devotional importance of relics and the economics associated with pilgrimages caused the remains of most saints to be divided up and spread over numerous churches in several countries, St. Nicholas is unique in that most of his bones have been preserved in one spot: his grave crypt in Bari. Even with the still-continuing miracle of the manna, the Roman Catholic Church has allowed for one scientific survey of the bones. In the late 1950s, during a restoration of the chapel, it allowed a team of hand-picked scientists to photograph and measure the contents of the crypt grave. For other uses, see Relic (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Bari (disambiguation). ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... The 1950s decade refers to the years 1950 to 1959 inclusive. ...


In the summer of 2005, the report of these measurements was sent to a forensic laboratory in England. The review of the data revealed that the historical St. Nicholas was barely five feet in height (while not exactly small, still shorter than average, even for his time) and had a broken nose. For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ...


Formal veneration of the saint

St. Nicholas Church in Bari, Italy where the relics of St. Nicholas are kept today.

Among the Greeks and Italians he is a favourite of sailors, fishermen, ships and sailing. As such he has become over time the patron saint of several cities maintaining harbours. In centuries of Greek folklore, Nicholas was seen as "The Lord of the Sea", often described by modern Greek scholars as a kind of Christianised version of Poseidon. In modern Greece, he is still easily among the most recognisable saints and December 6 finds many cities celebrating their patron saint. He is also the patron saint of all of Greece. Image File history File links St. ... Image File history File links St. ... Relics can be: Relics: the remains of saints (usually bones), honored in the Catholic and Orthodox churches. ... This article is about maritime crew. ... Categories: Stub ... For other uses, see Ship (disambiguation). ... A harbor (or harbour) or haven is a place where ships may shelter from the weather or are stored. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Neptune reigns in the city of Bristol. ... is the 340th day of the year (341st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Saint Nicholas, Russian icon from first quarter of 18th cent. (Kizhi monastery, Karelia).
Saint Nicholas, Russian icon from first quarter of 18th cent. (Kizhi monastery, Karelia).

In Russia, Saint Nicholas' memory is celebrated on every Thursday of the year (together with the Apostles), and special hymns to him are found in the liturgical text known as the Octoechos. Soon after the transfer of Saint Nicholas' relics from Myra to Bari, a Russian version of his Life and an account of the transfer of his relics were written by a contemporary to this event.[9] Devotional akathists and canons have been composed in his honour, and are frequently chanted by the faithful as they ask for his intercession. He is mentioned in the Liturgy of Preparation during the Divine Liturgy (Eastern Orthodox Eucharist) and during the All-Night Vigil. Many Orthodox churches will have his icon, even if they are not named after him. Andrei Rublev Trinity c. ... Wooden miracle in Kizhi. ... This article concerns the buildings occupied by monastics. ... Map showing the parts Karelia is traditionally divided into. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      For... The Octoechos (Greek Οκτώηχος; Slavonic: Октонхъ, Oktoikh, or Осмогласникъ, Osmoglasnik)—literally, the book of the Eight Tones—contains an eight-week cycle, providing texts to be chanted for every day at Vespers, Matins, the Divine Liturgy, Compline and (on Sundays) the Midnight Office. ... Hagiography is the study of saints. ... The Akathist (Ακαθιστος Υμνος, unseated hymn) is an Eastern Orthodox hymn dedicated to a saint, holy event, or one of the persons of the Holy Trinity. ... A canon is a structured hymn used in a number of Eastern Orthodox services. ... // Christianity In Christian practice, intercessory prayer is the act of one person praying for or on behalf of another person or situation. ... The altar of prothesis, set with the chalice, diskos and other implements needed for the rite Prothesis redirects here. ... The Divine Liturgy is the common term for the Eucharistic service of the Byzantine tradition of Christian liturgy. ... For other uses, see Eucharist (disambiguation). ... The All-Night Vigil (Russian: ), Opus 37, is an a cappella choral composition by Sergei Rachmaninoff, written and premiered in 1915. ... This article is about the religious artifacts. ...

Polychrome relief of Sinter Claes in Dam (Amsterdam).
Polychrome relief of Sinter Claes in Dam (Amsterdam).

In the Middle Ages, both Saint Nicholas and Martin of Tours were celebrated as true people's saints. Many churches were consecrated in their honour, and later gave their names to the villages that emerged around them. As described above, while most contemporary saints earned their place in heaven by dying for their faith in manners most unusual and cruel, both Nicholas and Martin lived peacefully to a ripe old age. At a time of Religious wars and Crusades the idea that one could go to heaven, even become a saint, just by the way one lived instead of the way one died must have offered a great deal of consolation for the Medieval common folk. Therefore, this time made Saint Nicholas a 'popular' saint in every sense of the word, more than all his miracles combined.[citation needed][original research?] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 342 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (800 × 1,403 pixels, file size: 865 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 342 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (800 × 1,403 pixels, file size: 865 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Saint Martin of Tours (Latin: Martinus), (316/317 – November 11, 397 in Candes) was a bishop of Tours whose shrine became a famous stopping-point for pilgrims on the road to Santiago de Compostela. ... St. ... To consecrate an inanimate object is to dedicate it in a ritual to a special purpose, usually religious. ... For other uses of the term, see Holy War. ... This article is about the medieval crusades. ...


In late medieval England, on Saint Nicholas' Day parishes held Yuletide "boy bishop" celebrations. As part of this celebration, youths performed the functions of priests and bishops, and exercised rule over their elders. Today, Saint Nicholas is still celebrated as a great gift-giver in several Western European countries. According to one source, medieval nuns used the night of December 6th to anonymously deposit baskets of food and clothes at the doorsteps of the needy. According to another source, on December 6th every sailor or ex-sailor of the Low Countries (which at that time was virtually all of the male population) would descend to the harbour towns to participate in a church celebration for their patron saint. On the way back they would stop at one of the various Nicholas fairs to buy some hard-to-come-by goods, gifts for their loved ones and invariably some little presents for their children. While the real gifts would only be presented at Christmas, the little presents for the children were given right away, courtesy of Saint Nicholas. This and his miracle of him resurrecting the three butchered children, made Saint Nicholas a patron saint of children and later students as well. Yule is the winter solstice Blót (celebration) in Asatru, the pagan practices of the Germanic peoples prior to the arrival of Christianity. ... Boy Bishop, was a name given to a custom very widespread in the Middle Ages, whereby a boy was chosen, for example among cathedral choristers, to parody the real Bishop, commonly on the feast of Holy Innocents. ... A current understanding of Western Europe. ... In general, a nun is a female ascetic who chooses to voluntarily leave the world and live her life in prayer and contemplation in a monastery or convent. ... For information about the confusion between the Low Countries and the Netherlands, see Netherlands (terminology). ...


Among Albanians, Saint Nicholas is known as Shen'Kollë and is venerated by most Catholic families, even those from villages that are devoted to other saints. The Feast of Saint Nicholas is celebrated on the eve of December 5th, known as Shen'Kolli i Dimnit (Saint Nicholas of Winter), as well as on the commemoration of the interring of his bones in Bari, the eve of May 8th, known as Shen'Kolli i Majit (Saint Nicholas of May). Albanian Catholics often swear by Saint Nicholas, saying "Pasha Shejnti Shen'Kollin!" ("May I see Holy Saint Nicholas!"), indicting the importance of this saint in Albanian culture, especially among the Albanians of Malësia. On the eve of his feast day, Albanians will light a candle and abstain from meat, preparing a feast of roasted lamb and pork, to be served to guests after midnight. Guests will greet each other, saying, "Nata e Shen'Kollit ju nihmoftë!" ("May the Night of Saint Nicholas help you!") and other such blessings. The bones of Albania's greatest hero, Gjergj Kastrioti, were also interred in the Church of Saint Nicholas in Lezha, Albania, upon his death. So strong and powerful was the mystery surrounding this figure and this holy church, that the invading Turks stole the bones and used them as amulets, so they are no longer there. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Scanderbeg sculpture Gjergj Kastrioti (Italian: Giorgio Castriota) (1405–January 17, 1468), better known as Skanderbeg or Skenderbej, was an Albanian leader who resisted the expanding Ottoman Empire for 25 years and is today considered a national hero of Albania. ... Lezhë (Albanian: Lezhë or Lezha) is a city in northwest Albania, in the district and county with the same name. ...


Due to the modern association with Christmas, Saint Nicholas is a patron saint of Christmas,[citation needed] as well as pawnbrokers (see above). He was also a patron of the Varangian Guard of the Eastern Roman Emperors, who protected his relics in Bari. So beloved is St. Nicholas by Russians, one commonly heard saying is "if God dies, at least we'll still have St. Nicholas." The Varangians (Russian: Variags, Варяги) were Scandinavians who travelled eastwards, mainly from Jutland and Sweden. ... This is a list of Byzantine Emperors. ...


In iconography

St. Nicholas, the patron saint of Russian merchants. Fresco by Dionisius from the Ferapontov Monastery.
St. Nicholas, the patron saint of Russian merchants. Fresco by Dionisius from the Ferapontov Monastery.

Saint Nicholas is a popular subject portrayed on countless Eastern Orthodox icons, particularly Russian ones. He is depicted as an Orthodox bishop, wearing the omophorion and holding a Gospel Book, sometimes he is depicted wearing the Eastern Orthodox mitre, sometimes he is bareheaded. Iconographically, Nicholas is depicted as an elderly man with a short, full white beard and balding head. In commemoration of the miracle attributed to him by tradition at the Ecumenical Council of Nicea, he is sometimes depicted with Christ over his left sholder holding out a Gospel Book to him and the Theotokos over his right sholder holding the omophorion. Because of his patronage of mariners, occasionally Saint Nicholas will be shown standing in a boat or rescuing a drowning sailor. Image File history File links Fresco by Dionisius in the Ferapontov Monastery, Russia. ... Image File history File links Fresco by Dionisius in the Ferapontov Monastery, Russia. ... Saint Quentin is the patron saint of locksmiths and is also invoked against coughs and sneezes. ... Dionysius, also spelled Dionisy or Dionisius the Wise, was acknowledged as a head of the Moscow school of icon painters at the turn of the 15th and 16th centuries. ... Difficulty of access helped preserve the monastery intact since the 17th century The Ferapontov convent, in the Vologda region of Russia, is considered one of the purest examples of Russian medieval art, a reason given by UNESCO for its inscription in the World Heritage list. ... Eastern Orthodoxy (also called Greek Orthodoxy and Russian Orthodoxy) is a Christian tradition which represents the majority of Eastern Christianity. ... The Savior Not Made By Hands (1410s, by Andrei Rublev) An icon (from Greek εικων, eikon, image) is an artistic visual representation or symbol of anything considered holy and divine, such as God, saints or deities. ... The Russian Orthodox Church (Русская Православная церковь) is that body of Christians who are united under the Patriarch of Moscow, who in turn is in communion with the other patriarchs of the Eastern Orthodox Church. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      This article... In the Orthodox liturgical tradition, the omophorion is one of the bishops vestments and the symbol of his spiritual and ecclesiastical authority. ... A Gospel Book is a codex or bound volume, containing one or more of the four Gospels of the Christian New Testament. ... This article is about the ceremonial head-dress; see also mitre (disambiguation). ...

A modern metal icon of St. Nicholas by the Bulgarian artist Georgi 'Chapa' Chapkanov. Gilbert House, Stanley, Falkland Islands.
A modern metal icon of St. Nicholas by the Bulgarian artist Georgi 'Chapa' Chapkanov. Gilbert House, Stanley, Falkland Islands.

In Roman Catholic iconography, Saint Nicholas is depicted as a bishop, wearing the insignia of this profession: a red bishop's cloak, a red miter and a bishop's staff (crozier). The episode with the three dowries is commemorated by showing him holding in his hand either three purses, three coins or three golden balls. Depending on whether he is depicted as patron saint of children or sailors, his images will be completed by a background showing ships, children or three figures climbing out of a wooden barrel (the three slaughtered children he resurrected). The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Look up Iconography in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the ceremonial head-dress; see also mitre (disambiguation). ... A crosier (crozier, pastoral staff) is the stylized staff of office carried by high-ranking Catholic prelates. ...


In a strange twist, the three golden balls referring to the dowry affair are sometimes misinterpreted as being oranges or other fruits. As in the Low Countries oranges are generally believed to come from Spain, this led to the belief that the Saint lives in Spain and comes to visit every winter bringing oranges and other 'wintry' fruits. For information about the confusion between the Low Countries and the Netherlands, see Netherlands (terminology). ...


Saint Nicholas the festive gift-giver

Further information: Santa ClausSinterklaas, and Christmas gift-bringers around the world
2006 Christmas stamp, Ukraine, showing St. Nicholas and children.
2006 Christmas stamp, Ukraine, showing St. Nicholas and children.

Saint Nicholas Day is a festival for children in much of Europe related to surviving legends of the saint, and particularly his reputation as a bringer of gifts. The American Santa Claus, as well as the Anglo-Canadian and British Father Christmas, derive from these legends. "Santa Claus" is itself derived from the Dutch Sinterklaas. A typical depiction of Santa Claus. ... Sinterklaas in 2007 Sinterklaas (also called Sint-Nicolaas in Dutch ( ) and Saint Nicolas in French) is a traditional holiday figure in the Netherlands and Belgium, celebrated every year on Saint Nicholas eve (December 5) or, in Belgium, on the morning of December 6. ... Many fictional Christmas gift-bringers exist around the world. ... This 1973 Christmas stamp of Canada features a dove as Christmas ornament. ... A typical depiction of Santa Claus. ... Excerpt from Josiah Kings The Examination and Tryal of Father Christmas (1686), published shortly after Christmas was reinstated as a holy day in England Father Christmas is the name used in the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, and several other Commonwealth countries, for the gift-bringing figure of Christmas... Sinterklaas in 2007 Sinterklaas (also called Sint-Nicolaas in Dutch ( ) and Saint Nicolas in French) is a traditional holiday figure in the Netherlands and Belgium, celebrated every year on Saint Nicholas eve (December 5) or, in Belgium, on the morning of December 6. ...


The history of the festive Saint Nicholas celebration is complex and reflects conflicts between Protestantism and Catholicism. Since Nicholas was a canonised saint, Martin Luther replaced the festival that had become associated with the Papacy with a Christkind ("Christ child") celebration on Christmas Eve. The Nicholas celebrations still remain a part of tradition among many Protestants, albeit on a much smaller scale than Christmas. The Protestant Netherlands, however, retain a much larger Saint Nicholas tradition. Many Catholics, on the other hand, have adopted Luther's Christkind. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Protestantism encompasses the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated with the doctrines of the Reformation. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German monk,[1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer. ... The Christkind (Christ Child) is the traditional Christmas giftbringer in Southern Germany, Switzerland, Austria and Liechtenstein. ...


Celebration in Italy

St. Nicholas (San Nicola) is the patron of the city of Bari, where he is buried. Its deeply felt celebration is called the Festa di San Nicola, held on the 7-8-9 of May. In particular on 8 May the relics of the saint are carried on a boat on the sea in front of the city with many boats following (Festa a mare). On December 6 there is a ritual called the Rito delle nubili. The same tradition is currently observed in Sassari, where during the day of Saint Nicholas, patron of the city, gifts are given to young brides who need help before getting married. For other uses, see Bari (disambiguation). ... is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Sassari (in Italian and Sassarese, a Corsican dialect; either Sassari or Tathari in southern Sardinian), is a town and a province in Sardinia, Italy. ...


In Trieste St. Nicholas (San Nicolò) is celebrated with gifts given to children on the morning of the 6th of December and with a fair called Fiera di San Nicolò during the first weeks of December. Depending on the cultural background, in some families this celebration is more important than Christmas. Trieste is a city on the sea, being one of the main ports of the Austro-Hungarian Empire and is influenced mainly by Italian, Slovenian and German cultures, but also Greek and Serbian. For other uses, see Trieste (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Christmas (disambiguation). ... Official languages Latin, German, Hungarian Established church Roman Catholic Capital & Largest City Vienna pop. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... German culture (German: Deutsche Kultur) is a term that refers to the heritage and weltanschauung of the people from the German-speaking world, or Deutschsprechende Welt. ... Serbian culture refers to the culture of Serbia as well as the culture of Serbs in other parts of the former Yugoslavia and elsewhere in the world. ...


Celebration in Lebanon

Saint Nicholas is celebrated by all the Christian communities in Lebanon: Catholic, Greek Orthodox, and Armenian. Many places, churches, convents, and schools are named in honor of Saint Nicholas, such as Escalier Saint-Nicolas des Arts, Saint Nicolas Garden, and Saint Nicolas Greek Orthodox Cathedral in Achrafieh. LEscalier de LArt or Escalier Saint-Nicolas des Arts, the Saint Nicolas Stairs, is located between Rue Sursock and Rue Gouraud in Achrafieh, Beirut. ... The Saint Nicolas Garden is a public garden located on Avenue Charles Malek in the Tabaris neighborhood of the Achrafieh District, one of Beiruts largest districts. ... Achrafieh, (Arabic: الأشرفية; sometimes spelled as Ashrafieh in English), is a part of Beirut, the capital city of Lebanon. ...


Celebration in West Bank

Saint Nicholas is the patron saint of the town of Beit Jala. This little town, which is located only two kilometers to the west of Bethlehem, boasts of being the place where St. Nicholas spent four years of his life during his pilgrimage to the Holy Land. Every year on the 19th of December according to the Gregorian Calendar—that is the 6th of December according to the Julian Calendar—a solemn Divine Liturgy is held in the Orthodox Church of St. Nicholas, and is usually followed by parades, exhibitions, and many activities. Arab Palestinian Christians of all denominations and churches come to Beit Jala and participate in prayers and celebrations. Beit Jala (Arabic:  , possibly from Aramaic grass carpet) is a small city in the Bethlehem Governorate of the West Bank. ... This article is about the city in the West Bank. ... For the calendar of religious holidays and periods, see liturgical year. ... The Julian calendar was a reform of the Roman calendar which was introduced by Julius Caesar in 46 BC and came into force in 45 BC (709 ab urbe condita). ... The Divine Liturgy is the common term for the Eucharistic service of the Byzantine tradition of Christian liturgy. ... Palestinian Christians make up 6% of the worlds Palestinian population, according to Bernard Sabella. ...


Celebration in Central Europe

In Germany, Nikolaus is usually celebrated on a small scale. Many children put a boot, called Nikolaus-Stiefel, outside the front door on the night of December 5 to December 6. St. Nicholas fills the boot with gifts, and at the same time checks up on the children to see if they were good. If they were not, they will have a tree branch (rute) in their boots instead. Sometimes, a disguised Nikolaus also visits the children at school or in their homes and asks them if they "have been good" (sometimes ostensibly checking a book for their record), handing out presents on a per-behaviour basis. This has become more lenient in recent decades. is the 339th day of the year (340th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 340th day of the year (341st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


But for many children, Nikolaus also elicited fear, as he was often accompanied by Knecht Ruprecht, who would threaten to beat, or sometimes actually eat the children for misbehaviour. Knecht Ruprecht furthermore was equipped with goatlegs. In Switzerland, where he is called Schmutzli, he would threaten to put bad children in a sack and take them back to the dark forest. In other accounts he would throw the sack into the river, drowning the naughty children. These traditions were implemented more rigidly in Catholic countries and regions such as Austria or Bavaria. Krampus (2003 Perchtenlauf in Woelfnitz, Austria) Knecht Ruprecht, companion of Father Christmas or Saint Nicholas, is also known as Servant Ruprecht, Farmhand Ruprecht, Pelzebock, Pelznickel (Nicholas in furs), and Schmutzli in Switzerland, sometimes associated with Saint Rupert. ... For other uses, see Bavaria (disambiguation). ...


In highly Catholic regions, the local priest was informed by the parents about their children's behaviour and would then personally visit the homes in the traditional Christian garment and threaten to beat them with a rod. In parts of Austria, Krampusse, who local tradition says are Nikolaus' helpers (in reality, typically children of poor families), roamed the streets during the festival. They wore masks and dragged chains behind them, even occasionally hurling them towards children in their way. These Krampusläufe (Krampus runs) still exist, although perhaps less violent than in the past. In the Czech Republic and Slovakia, Mikuláš is often also accompanied by an angel (anděl) who acts as a counterweight to the ominous devil or Knecht Ruprecht (čert). This article is about the supernatural being. ... This is an overview of the Devil. ... Krampus (2003 Perchtenlauf in Woelfnitz, Austria) Knecht Ruprecht, companion of Father Christmas or Saint Nicholas, is also known as Servant Ruprecht, Farmhand Ruprecht, Pelzebock, Pelznickel (Nicholas in furs), and Schmutzli in Switzerland, sometimes associated with Saint Rupert. ...


In Slovenia Saint Nikolaus (Miklavž) is accompanied by an angel and a devil (parkelj) corresponding to the Austrian Krampus. This article is about the supernatural being. ... The Dutch version, called Zwarte Piet Knecht Ruprecht, companion of Father Christmas or Saint Nicholas, is also known as Servant Ruprecht, Farmhand Ruprecht, Pelzebock, Pelznickel (Nicholas in furs), Zwarte Piet or Zwarte Peter in the Netherlands and Flanders, Black Peter, and Schmutzli Samichlaus in Switzerland, sometimes associated with Saint Rupert. ...


In Luxembourg "Kleeschen" is accompanied by the "Houseker" a frightening helper wearing a brown monk's habit.


In Croatia Nikolaus (Sveti Nikola) who visits on Saint Nicholas day (Nikolinje) brings gifts to children commending them for their good behaviour over the past year and exhorting them to continue in the same manner in the year to come. If they fail to do so they will receive a visit from Krampus who traditionally leaves a rod, an instrument their parents will use to discipline them. The Dutch version, called Zwarte Piet Knecht Ruprecht, companion of Father Christmas or Saint Nicholas, is also known as Servant Ruprecht, Farmhand Ruprecht, Pelzebock, Pelznickel (Nicholas in furs), Zwarte Piet or Zwarte Peter in the Netherlands and Flanders, Black Peter, and Schmutzli Samichlaus in Switzerland, sometimes associated with Saint Rupert. ...


In Hungary and Romania children typically leave their boots on the windowsill on the evening of December 5. By next morning Nikolaus (Szent Miklós traditionally but more commonly known as Mikulás) in Hungary or Moş Nicolae (Sfântul Nicolae) in Romania leaves candy and gifts if they have been good, or a rod (Hungarian: virgács, Romanian: nuieluşǎ) if they have been bad (most kids end up getting lots of candy but also a small rod). In Hungary he is often accompanied by the Krampusz, the frightening helper who is out to take away the bad ones. Mikulás (properly, Szent Miklós) is the Hungarian version of Saint Nicholas, and a similar figure to Santa Claus. ...


Similarly in Poland, children polish their winter boots on December 5th and leave them by their beds at night, and by morning of December 6th Saint Nicholas ("Święty Mikołaj") fills the boots with small presents.


Celebration in the United States

While feasts of Saint Nicholas are not observed nationally, cities with strong German influences like Milwaukee, Cincinnati, and St. Louis celebrate St. Nick's Day on a scale similar to the German custom.[10] On the previous night, children put one empty shoe (or sock) outside, and, on the following morning of December 6, the children awake to find that St. Nick has filled their previously empty footwear with candy and small presents (if the children have been "good") or ostensibly, coal (if not). For these children, the relationship between St. Nick and Santa Claus is not clearly defined, although St. Nick is usually explained to be a helper of Santa. The tradition of St. Nick's Day is firmly established in the Milwaukee and St. Louis communities, with parents often continuing to observe the day with even their adult children. This article is about Milwaukee in Wisconsin. ... Cincinnati, Ohio viewed from the SW, across the Ohio River from Kentucky. ... Nickname: Location in the state of Missouri Coordinates: , Country State County Independent City Government  - Mayor Francis G. Slay (D) Area  - City  66. ... is the 340th day of the year (341st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Celebration in the Netherlands

Main article: Sinterklaas
Sinterklaas in the Netherlands in 2007.
Sinterklaas in the Netherlands in 2007.

In the Netherlands, Saint Nicholas' Eve (December 5) is the primary occasion for gift-giving, when his reputed birthday is celebrated. In this case, roles are reversed, though, in that Sinterklaas is the one who gives the presents. Sinterklaas in 2007 Sinterklaas (also called Sint-Nicolaas in Dutch ( ) and Saint Nicolas in French) is a traditional holiday figure in the Netherlands and Belgium, celebrated every year on Saint Nicholas eve (December 5) or, in Belgium, on the morning of December 6. ... Sinterklaas in 2007 Sinterklaas (also called Sint-Nicolaas in Dutch ( ) and Saint Nicolas in French) is a traditional holiday figure in the Netherlands and Belgium, celebrated every year on Saint Nicholas eve (December 5) or, in Belgium, on the morning of December 6. ... For other uses, see Birthday (disambiguation). ...


In recent years, Christmas (along with Santa Claus) has been pushed by shopkeepers as another gift-giving festival, with some success; although, especially for young children, Saint Nicholas' Eve is still much more important than Christmas.


In the days leading up to December 5 (starting when Saint Nicholas has arrived in The Netherlands by steamboat), young children put their shoes in front of the chimneys and sing special 'Sinterklaas-songs'. Often the shoe is filled with a carrot or some hay for the horse of St. Nicholas (called Amerigo). On the next morning they will find a small present in their shoe, ranging from a bag of chocolate coins to a bag of marbles or some other small toy. On the evening of December 5th, Sinterklaas brings presents to every child that has been good in the past year (in practice to all children). This is often done by placing a sack with presents outside the house or living room, after which a neighbour or parent bangs the door or window, pretending to be Sinterklaas' assistant. Another option is to hire or ask someone to dress up as Sinterklaas and deliver the presents personally. Sinterklaas wears a bishop's robes including a red cape and mitre, rides a white horse over the rooftops and is assisted by many mischievous helpers with black faces and colourful Moorish dress, dating back two centuries. These helpers are called 'Zwarte Pieten' (Black Petes). Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      This article... For the terrain type see Moor Moors is used in this article to describe the medieval Muslim inhabitants of al-Andalus and the Maghreb, whose culture is often called Moorish. For other meanings look at Moors (Meaning) or Blackamoors. ... Zwarte Piet, together with Sinterklaas In the folklore and legends of the Netherlands and Flanders, Zwarte Piet ( (help· info)) (meaning Black Pete) is a companion of Saint Nicholas (Dutch Sinterklaas) whose yearly feast in the Netherlands is 5 December and 6 December in Flanders, when they distribute presents to all...


In the past number of years, there has been a recurrent discussion about the politically incorrect nature of the Moorish helper. In particular Dutch citizens with backgrounds from Suriname and the Netherlands Antilles feel offended by the Dutch slavery history connected to this emblem and regard the Zwarte Pieten to be racist. Slave redirects here. ... This box:      Racism has many definitions, the most common and widely accepted is that members of one race are intrinsically superior or inferior to members of other races. ...


Celebration in Belgium

As in the Netherlands


Celebration in France

In France, Saint Nicolas is celebrated this way in the eastern part of the country (Alsace, Lorraine regions) and less strongly in the northern part of the country (Nord département). He is accompanied by "Père Fouettard", carrying a bunch of sticks with which naughty children are beaten. Elsaß redirects here. ... (Région flag) (Region logo) Location Administration Capital Regional President Departments Meurthe-et-Moselle Meuse Moselle Vosges Arrondissements 19 Cantons 157 Communes 2,337 Statistics Land area1 23,547 km² Population (Ranked 11th)  - January 1, 2006 est. ... Extent of Flemish in the Arrondissement of Dunkirk, 1874 and 1972 Nord (French: North) is a département in the north of France. ... The départements (or departments) are administrative units of France and many former French colonies, roughly analogous to English counties. ...


Celebration in Portugal

In Portugal, St. Nicholas (São Nicolau) has been celebrated since the Middle Ages in Guimarães as the patron saint of high-school students, in the so called Nicolinas, a group of festivities that occur from November 29th to December 7th each year. The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... District or region Braga Mayor   - Party Magalhães Silva PS Area 241. ...


Benjamin Britten cantata

Benjamin Britten wrote a Christmas cantata commissioned by three public schools. This tells the story of Saint Nicholas and his Christian exploits. This is for small orchestra, three choirs, a tenor soloist (St. Nicholas), and a treble (young Saint Nicholas). Britten redirects here. ... A cantata (Italian, sung) is a vocal composition with an instrumental accompaniment and generally containing more than one movement. ... This article is about Tenor vocalists in music. ... Treble is a term applied in music to the high or acute part of the musical system, as opposed to the bass, the lower or grave part. ...


Metamorphosis in Demre

Russian Orthodox statue of Saint Nicolas, now in a corner near the church in Demre.
Russian Orthodox statue of Saint Nicolas, now in a corner near the church in Demre.
Noel Baba at the square in front of the church in Demre.
Noel Baba at the square in front of the church in Demre.

The metamorphosis of Saint Nicolas into the commercially more lucrative Santa Claus, which took several centuries in Europe and America, has recently been re-enacted in the saint's home town, the city of Demre. This modern Turkish town is built near the ruins of ancient Myra. As St. Nicholas is a very popular Orthodox saint, the city attracts many Russian tourists. A solemn bronze statue of the Saint by the Russian sculptor Gregory Pototsky, donated by the Russian government in 2000, was given a prominent place on the square in front of the medieval church of St. Nicholas. In 2005, mayor Suleyman Topcu had the statue replaced by a red-suited plastic Santa Claus statue, because he wanted the central statue to be more recognizable to visitors from all over the world. Protests from the Russian government against this action were successful only to the extent that the Russian statue was returned, without its original high pedestal, to a corner near the church. Kale is a district of Antalya Province of Turkey. ...


Restoration on Saint Nicholas' original church in Demre is currently under way. In 2007, the Turkish Ministry of Culture finally gave permission for the Divine Liturgy to be celebrated at the site, and has even contributed the sum of forty-thousand Turkish Lira to the project. The Divine Liturgy is the common term for the Eucharistic service of the Byzantine tradition of Christian liturgy. ... ISO 4217 Code TRL User(s) Turkey and the self-proclaimed Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus Subunit 1/100 kuruÅŸ 1/4000 para Symbol TL Coins 5000, 10,000, 25,000, 50,000, 100,000, 250,000 lira Banknotes 250,000, 500,000, 1,000,000, 5,000,000, 10...


See also

Saints Portal
Holidays Portal

Image File history File links Gloriole. ... Image File history File links 500px-Xmas_tree_animated. ... Cover of a 1912 edition of the poem, illustrated by Jessie Willcox Smith. ... Krampus (2003 Perchtenlauf in Woelfnitz, Austria) The Companions of Saint Nicholas (or Father Christmas) are a group of closely related figures who accompany St. ... Ded Moroz is the name of the person who plays the role of Santa Claus for Eastern Slavs. ... The Basilica of San Nicola by night. ... Saint Nicholas of Tolentino (c. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Charles W. Jones, Saint Nicholas of Myra, Bari, and Manhattan: Biography of a Legend (Chicago: University of Chicago Press) 1978.
  2. ^ John Steele Gordon, The Great Game (Scribner) 1999.
  3. ^ David D. Mulroy, Horace, Quintus Horatius Flaccus 1994, “Horace's Odes and Epodes”, p.183
  4. ^ "Saint Nicholas" by Ann Tompert-Carolne house (2000),"The Legend of Saint Nicholas" by Demi-Margaret K. McElerry Books (2003),"The Real Santa Claus"by Marianna Mayer- Phyllis Fogelman Books (2001)
  5. ^ William Smith, A Dictionary of Christian Biography vol. 1, London: John Murray (1887): 41; Virginia Wylie Egbert, "St. Nicholas: The Fasting Child" The Art Bulletin 46.1 (March 1964:69-70) adds a 12-th century French sculptural example to the very few iconic representations of the infant Nicholas turning away from the breast.
  6. ^ Ott, Michael T. (1911), "St. Nicholas of Myra", The Catholic Encyclopedia, vol. XI, New York: Robert Appleton Company, <http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/11063b.htm>. Retrieved on 20 December 2007 
  7. ^ William Smith, A Dictionary of Christian Biography vol. 1, London: John Murray (1887): 41.
  8. ^ Michael Walsh, ed. Butler's Lives of the Saints, (New York: HarperSanFrancisco), p. 405.
  9. ^ "Translation of the relics of St Nicholas the Wonderworker from Myra to Bari", Feasts and Saints, Syosset, NY: Orthodox Church in America Website, <http://ocafs.oca.org/FeastSaintsViewer.asp?SID=4&ID=1&FSID=101336>. Retrieved on 20 December 2007 
  10. ^ Meg Kissinger, Milwaukee Journal Sentinel 1999, “St. Nick's Day can be a nice little surprise”

For other people named Horace, see Horace (disambiguation). ... The Catholic Encyclopedia is an English-language encyclopedia published in 1913 by the Roman Catholic Church, designed to give authoritative information on the entire cycle of Catholic interests, action and doctrine. Starting in 1993, the encyclopedia (now in the public domain) was placed on the Internet through a world-wide... The Orthodox Church in America (OCA) is an autocephalous Eastern Orthodox Church in North America. ... The Milwaukee Journal Sentinel is a daily morning broadsheet printed in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. ...

Further reading

  • Jones, Charles W. Saint Nicholas of Myra, Bari, and Manhattan: Biography of a Legend (Chicago: University of Chicago Press) 1978.

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
This article is about the religious artifacts. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... For other uses, see Christmas (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Christmas (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Christmas (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Christmas (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Christmas (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Christmas (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Christmas (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Christmas (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Christmas (disambiguation). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Juletræet. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... The Nativity by Petrus Christus, c. ... A traditional nativity scene from Naples, Italy A nativity scene, also called a crib or crèche (meaning crib or manger in French) generally refers to any depiction of the birth or birthplace of Jesus. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... Virgin Mary redirects here. ... For other uses, see Saint Joseph (disambiguation). ... This article is about the archangel Gabriel. ... Anbetung der Hirten (Adoration of the Shepherds) by Carlo Crivelli (1490) The Adoration of the shepherds, in Christian iconography, is a scene in which shepherds are near witnesses to the birth of Jesus, at his birthplace, typically depicted as a barn, near Bethlehem. ... Three Kings, or Three Wise Men redirects here. ... Adoration of the Magi by Florentine painter Giotto di Bondone (1267-1337). ... Herod the Great. ... The Holy Innocents by Giotto di Bondone. ... Twelfth Night is a holiday in some branches of Christianity marking the coming of the Epiphany, concluding the Twelve Days of Christmas, and is defined by the Oxford English Dictionary as the evening of the fifth of January, preceding Twelfth Day, the eve of the Epiphany, formerly the last day... The Wise Men (Magi) adoring the infant Jesus. ... μ This article is about the Christian season. ... Christmastide (also Christmas or the Christmas season) is one of the seasons of the liturgical year of some Christian churches. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Excerpt from Josiah Kings The Examination and Tryal of Father Christmas (1686), published shortly after Christmas was reinstated as a holy day in England Father Christmas is the name used in the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, and several other Commonwealth countries, for the gift-bringing figure of Christmas... A typical depiction of Santa Claus. ... Mrs. ... Read psychedelic section for amazing info! on the experiments of real elves good for school projects This article is about the small mythical creature, for the 2003 film, see Elf (film). ... For other uses, see North Pole (disambiguation). ... This article is about the religious period from Christmas to Epiphany. ... For other uses, see Christmas tree (disambiguation). ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see yule log (disambiguation) A chocolate yule log. ... Stockings on a fireplace mantel. ... Christmas bauble (called a Christmas ball in American English) Christmas ornaments are decorations (usually made of glass, metal, wood or ceramics) that are used to festoon a Christmas tree. ... For the ITV Christmas special, see Christmas Lights. ... Alternate meaning: Christmas Card, an album from The Partridge Family. ... The daily Santa icon seen in the 2005 and 2006 websties. ... Santas Grotto is the mythological workshop where Santa Claus makes the toys and presents given out at Christmas. ... Erfurt, Germany A Christmas market, also known as Christkindlmarkt, Christkindlesmarkt, Christkindlmarket, and Weihnachtsmarkt, is a street market associated with the celebration of Christmas. ... Christmas around the world redirects here. ... The Philippines, a dominantly Catholic country, has earned the distinction of celebrating the worlds longest Christmas season. ... In Poland, Christmas Eve is a day first of fasting, then of feasting. ... TV redirects here. ... The following is an incomplete list of Christmas songs (hit singles and tracks) recorded by well known and obscure artists, many of which have hit on various charts around the world. ... Young people interacting within an ethnically diverse society. ... The Christmas Club is a savings program that was first offered by various banks during the Great Depression. ... Christmas controversy refers to publicized controversy surrounding public acknowledgment or celebration of the Christmas holiday in media, advertising, government, and various secular environments. ... Christmas Creep is the commercial phenomenon of merchants advertising for Holiday Specials earlier and earlier every year. ... A cross, left near Ypres in Belgium in 1999, to commemorate the site of the Christmas Truce in 1914. ... Black Friday is the day after Thanksgiving and is the beginning of the traditional Christmas shopping season in the United States. ... The term Cyber Monday refers to the Monday immediately following Black Friday, the ceremonial kick-off of the holiday online shopping season in the United States between Thanksgiving Day and Christmas. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Christmas Day (Trading) Act 2004 is an Act of Parliament of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that prevents shops over 280 sq m/3,000 sq ft from opening on Christmas Day. ... This is an incomplete list of festivals and holidays that take place during the winter in the northern hemisphere, especially those commemorating the season. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Saint Nicholas: Definition and Much More from Answers.com (5232 words)
Saint Nicholas is the patron saint of sailors, merchants, archers, children, and students in both Greece and Russia.
Nicholas was born in Asia Minor during the 3rd century at Patara in the province of Lycia, at a time when the region was Hellenistic in its culture and outlook.
Nicholas' early activities as a priest are said to have occurred during the reign of co-ruling Roman Emperors Diocletian (reigned 284 - 305) and Maximian (reigned 286 - 305) from which comes the estimation of his age.
CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Pope Saint Nicholas I (1252 words)
Pope Nicholas appeared as a conscientious representative of the Roman Primacy in the Church.
Ingiltrud, wife of Count Boso, had left her husband for a paramour; Nicholas commanded the bishops in the dominions of Charles the Bold to excommunicate her unless she returned to her husband.
Yet Nicholas did not waver in his determination; the emperor, after being reconciled with the pope, withdrew from Rome and commanded the Archbishops of Trier and Cologne to return to their homes.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m