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Encyclopedia > Saint Methodius
Saint Methodius

Statue of Saint Methodius at Holy Trinity Column in Olomouc
"Apostle to the Slavs"
Born 826, Thessaloniki, Byzantine Empire (present-day Greece)
Died 6 April 885, Great Moravia
Feast 14 February
Attributes depicted with Saint Cyril; Oriental bishop holding up a church with Saint Cyril; Oriental bishop holding a picture of the Last Judgment[1]
Patronage Bulgaria, Czech Republic(including Bohemia, and Moravia), Slovakia, ecumenism, Europe, unity of the Eastern and Western Churches[1]
Saints Portal

Saint Methodius (Greek: Μεθόδιος; Church Slavonic Мефодии) (b. Thessaloniki, Byzantine Empire, 826; d. in Great Moravia, April 6, 885) was a Byzantine Greek scholar, archbishop of Great Moravia, and the main translator of the Bible into Old Church Slavonic using the Glagolitic alphabet created by his brother and collaborator Saint Cyril. Since 1980 the two brothers are the patron saints of Europe. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1728 × 2304 pixel, file size: 1. ... To the glory of God the Almighty, the Virgin Mary and the saints I will build a column that in its height and splendour will be unrivalled in any other town. ... Events The Danish king accepts Christianity. ... Thessaloniki, (Greek: Θεσσαλονίκη), is Greeces second-largest city and the capital of the Greek region of Macedonia and the periphery of Central Macedonia. ... Byzantine Empire at its greatest extent c. ... April 6 is the 96th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (97th in leap years). ... Events Vikings besiege Paris Stephen VI elected pope Oldest known mentioning of Baky Births Emperor Daigo of Japan Deaths Pope Adrian III April 6: Saint Methodius, bishop and Bible translator Categories: 885 ... Great Moravia was a West Slavic entity existing in Central Europe between 833 and the early 10th century. ... The calendar of saints is a traditional Christian method of organising a liturgical year on the level of days by associating each day with one or more saints, and referring to the day as that saints day. ... February 14 is the 45th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Saint symbology was important to people who couldnt read because they can figure out what symbols mean. ... Saint Cyril (Greek: Κύριλλος , Church Slavonic: Кирилъ) (827 - February 14, 869) was a Byzantine Greek monk, scholar, theologian, and linguist. ... The term the Orient - literally meaning sunrise, east - is traditionally used to refer to Near, Middle, and Far Eastern countries. ... This article is about a title or office in religious bodies. ... It has been suggested that Ecclesia (Church) be merged into this article or section. ... Look up icon in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Last Judgment. ... Saint Quentin is the patron saint of locksmiths and is also invoked against coughs and sneezes. ... Flag of Bohemia Bohemia (Czech: ; German: ) is a historical region in central Europe, occupying the western and middle thirds of the Czech Republic. ... Flag of Moravia Moravia (Czech and Slovak: Morava; German: ; Hungarian: ; Polish: ) is a historical region in the east of the Czech RepublicCzechia. ... The word ecumenism (also oecumenism, Å“cumenism) is derived from Greek (oikoumene), which means the inhabited world, and was historically used with specific reference to the Roman Empire. ... World map showing the location of Europe. ... For the later Papal Schism in Avignon, see Western Schism. ... Eastern Christianity refers collectively to the Christian traditions and churches which developed in Greece, Russia, Armenia, the Balkans, Eastern Europe, Asia Minor, the Middle East, northeastern Africa and southern India over several centuries of religious antiquity. ... Western Christianity is a form of Christianity that consists of the Latin Rite of the Catholic Church and Protestantism. ... Image File history File links Gloriole. ... Church Slavonic may refer to: Old Church Slavonic language Church Slavonic language This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Thessaloniki, (Greek: Θεσσαλονίκη), is Greeces second-largest city and the capital of the Greek region of Macedonia and the periphery of Central Macedonia. ... Byzantine Empire at its greatest extent c. ... Events The Danish king accepts Christianity. ... Great Moravia was a West Slavic entity existing in Central Europe between 833 and the early 10th century. ... April 6 is the 96th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (97th in leap years). ... Events Vikings besiege Paris Stephen VI elected pope Oldest known mentioning of Baky Births Emperor Daigo of Japan Deaths Pope Adrian III April 6: Saint Methodius, bishop and Bible translator Categories: 885 ... Byzantine Greeks or Byzantines, is a conventional term used by modern historians to refer to the medieval Greek or Hellenized citizens of the Byzantine Empire, centered mainly in Constantinople, southern Balkans, the Greek islands, the coasts of Asia Minor (modern Turkey) and the large urban centres of Near East and... In Christianity, an archbishop is an elevated bishop. ... Great Moravia was a West Slavic entity existing in Central Europe between 833 and the early 10th century. ... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library of Congress. ... Old Church Slavonic (Old Bulgarian, Old Macedonian, or Old Slavic) is the first literary Slavic language, developed from the Slavic dialect of Thessaloniki (Solun) by the 9th century Byzantine missionaries, Saints Cyril and Methodius. ... The Glagolitic alphabet or Glagolitsa is the oldest known Slavic alphabet. ... Saint Cyril (Greek: Κύριλλος , Church Slavonic: Кирилъ) (827 - February 14, 869) was a Byzantine Greek monk, scholar, theologian, and linguist. ... 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday. ... In several forms of Christianity, a patron saint has special affinity for a trade or group. ... World map showing the location of Europe. ...

Contents

Mission to the Slavs

Both brothers were now to enter upon the work which gives them their historical importance. Rastislav, the Slavic prince of Great Moravia, desired to strengthen his political independence from Eastern Francia by asserting also the ecclesiastical independence of his state, which had been, at least externally, Christianized from the German side. Hauck accepts the statement of Theotmar that Rastislav expelled the Teutonic clergy at the beginning of his contest with the Franks. He then turned to Constantinople to find teachers for his people. It is obvious that the opportunity to extend Byzantine influence among the Slavs would be there; and the task was entrusted to Cyril and Methodius. Their first work seems to have been the training of assistants. The assertion that Cyril now undertook his translation of part of the Bible contradicts the statement of the Legenda that it had already been made before his undertaking of the Great Moravian mission; and the oldest Slavonic documents have a southern character. Cyril is designated by both friends and opponents of contemporary date as the inventor of the Slavonic script. This would not exclude the possibility of his having made use of earlier letters, but implies only that before him the Slavs had no distinct script of their own for use in writing books. The so-called Glagolitic script can be traced back at least to the middle of the tenth century, possibly even into the ninth; it presupposes a man of some education as its originator, and is evidently derived principally from the Greek, but also partly from the Latin cursive. The Cyrillian script is undoubtedly later in origin, and apparently was first used in Bulgaria. It is impossible to determine with certainty what portions of the Bible the brothers translated. Apparently the New Testament and the Psalms were the first, followed by other lessons from the Old Testament. The Translatio speaks only of a version of the Gospels by Cyril, and the Vita Methodii only of the evangelium Slovenicum; but this does not prove that Cyril did not translate other liturgical selections (see BIBLE VERSIONS, B, XVI., § 1). The question has been much discussed which liturgy, that of Rome or that of Constantinople, they took as a source. Since, however, the opposition objected only to the liturgical use of the Slavonic language, not to any alleged departure from the Roman type of liturgy, it is probable that the Western source was used. This view is confirmed by the "Prague Fragments" and by certain Old Glagolitic liturgical fragments brought from Jerusalem to Kiev and there discovered by Saresnewsky-- probably the oldest document for the Slavonic tongue; these adhere closely to the Latin type, as is shown by the words "mass", "preface", and the name of one Felicitas. In any case, the circumstances were such that the brothers could hope for no permanent success without obtaining the authorization of Rome. Rastislav (?-870) was the second prince of Great Moravia. ... Distribution of Slavic people by language The Slavic peoples are a linguistic and ethnic branch of Indo-European peoples, living mainly in Europe, where they constitute roughly a third of the population. ... John 21:1 Jesus Appears to His Disciples--Alessandro Mantovani: the Vatican, Rome. ... Psalms (from the Greek: Psalmoi (songs sung to a harp, originally from psallein play on a stringed instrument), Ψαλμοί; Hebrew: Tehilim, תהילים) is a book of the Hebrew Bible, Tanakh or Old Testament. ... Note: Judaism commonly uses the term Tanakh. ... For other uses, see Gospel (disambiguation). ... Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5... Map of Constantinople. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted Coordinates: Country Ukraine Oblast Kiev City Municipality Raion Municipality Government  - Mayor Leonid Chernovetskyi Elevation 179 m (587. ...


Appeal to Rome

Accordingly, they went to Rome after three and a half years of labor, passing through Pannonia (the Balaton Principality), where they were well received by Prince Koceľ (Kocelj, Kozel). The account of a discussion in Venice on the use of Slavonic in the liturgy is doubtful. But there is no question of their welcome in Rome, due partly to their bringing with them the relics of Saint Clement; the rivalry with Constantinople, too, as to the jurisdiction over the territory of the Slavs would incline Rome to value the brothers and their influence. The learning of Cyril was also prized; Anastasius calls him not long after "the teacher of the Apostolic See". The ordination of the brothers' Slav disciples was performed by Formosus and Gauderic, two prominent bishops, and the newly made priests officiated in their own tongue at the altars of some of the principal churches. Feeling his end approaching, Cyril put on the monastic habit and died fifty days later (14 February 869). There is practically no basis for the assertion of the Translatio (ix.) that he was made a bishop; and the name of Cyril seems to have been given to him only after his death. Position of the Roman province of Pannonia Pannonia is an ancient country bounded north and east by the Danube, conterminous westward with Noricum and upper Italy, and southward with Dalmatia and upper Moesia. ... Map of the main part of the Balaton principality (parts of the Dudleb County, of the Ptuj County and the whole former Principality of Etgar are not shown on this map) The Balaton Principality (also called Pannonian or Transdanubian Principality, in Slovak: Blatenské kniežatstvo, in Bulgarian: Blatensko Knezevstvo, in... Statue of Koceľ Koceľ (also Kocel, Kocelj, Gozil, Chezil, Chezilo, Chezul, born ?, died 876) was second Prince of the Balaton Principality from 860/861 until 876. ... Venice (Italian: Venezia, Venetian: Venezsia) is the capital of region Veneto, and has a population of 271,663 (census estimate January 1, 2004). ... February 14 is the 45th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Western Emperor Louis II allies with eastern Emperor Basil I against the Saracens. ...


Methodius as bishop

Methodius now continued the work among the Slavs alone; not at first in Great Moravia, but in Pannonia (in the Balaton Principality), owing to the political circumstances of the former country, where Rastislav had been taken captive by his nephew Svatopluk, then delivered over to Carloman, and condemned in a diet of the empire at the end of 870. Friendly relations, on the other hand, had been established with Koceľ on the journey to Rome. This activity in Pannonia, however, made a conflict inevitable with the German episcopate, and especially with the bishop of Salzburg, to whose jurisdiction Pannonia had belonged for seventy-five years. In 865 Bishop Adalwin is found exercising all episcopal rights there, and the administration under him was in the hands of the archpriest Riehbald. The latter was obliged to retire to Salzburg, but his superior was naturally disinclined to abandon his claims. Methodius sought support from Rome; the Vita asserts that Koceľ sent him thither with an honorable escort to receive episcopal consecration. The letter given as Adrian's in chap. viii., with its approval of the Slavonic mass, is a pure invention. It is noteworthy that the pope named Methodius not bishop of Pannonia, but archbishop of Sirmium, thus superseding the claims of Salzburg by an older title. The statement of the Vita that Methodius was made bishop in 870 and not raised to the dignity of an archbishop until 873 is contradicted by the brief of Pope John VIII, written in June, 879, according to which Adrian consecrated him archbishop; John includes in his jurisdiction not only Great Moravia and Pannonia, but Serbia as well. Map of the main part of the Balaton principality (parts of the Dudleb County, of the Ptuj County and the whole former Principality of Etgar are not shown on this map) The Balaton Principality (also called Pannonian or Transdanubian Principality, in Slovak: Blatenské kniežatstvo, in Bulgarian: Blatensko Knezevstvo, in... Svatopluk (-modern Czech name; modern Slovak name: Svätopluk; Old Slavic Свѧтопълкъ; reconstructed name: Sventopluk; some names in Latin texts: Suentopolcus, Zventopluk, Suatopluk, Zwentibald) (around 830 - 894) from the Mojmírs dynasty was the prince of the Nitrian principality (850s - 871) and then the king of Great Moravia (871 - 894). ...   is the fourth-largest city in Austria and the capital of the federal state of Salzburg. ... Events Ethelred succeeds as king of Wessex (or 866). ... Events February 28 - End of the Fourth Council of Constantinople. ... Events Viking raid of Dorestad. ... John VIII was pope from 872 to 882. ... Events Wilfred the Hairy, Count of Barcelona, founded the benedictine monastery at Ripoll. ...


Methodius and the Germans

The archiepiscopal claims of Methodius were considered such an injury to the rights of Salzburg that he was forced to answer for them at a synod held at Regensburg in the presence of King Louis. The assembly, after a heated discussion, declared the deposition of the intruder, and ordered him to be sent to Germany, where he was kept a prisoner for two and a half years. In spite of the strong representations of the Conversio Bagoariorum et Carantanorum, written in 871 to influence the pope, though not avowing this purpose, Rome declared emphatically for Methodius, and sent a bishop, Paul of Ancons, to reinstate him and punish his enemies, after which both parties were commanded to appear in Rome with the legate. The papal will prevailed, and Methodius secured his freedom and his archiepiscopal authority over both Great Moravia and Pannonia, though the use of Slavonic for the mass was still denied to him. His authority was restricted in Pannonia when after Koceľ's death the principality was administered by German nobles; but Svatopluk now ruled with practical independence in Great Moravia, and expelled the German clergy. This apparently secured an undisturbed field of operation for Methodius; and the Vita (x.) depicts the next few years (873–879) as a period of fruitful progress. Methodius seems to have disregarded, wholly or in part, the prohibition of the Slavonic liturgy; and when Frankish clerics again found their way into the country, and the archbishop's strictness had displeased the licentious Svatopluk, this was made a cause of complaint against him at Rome, coupled with charges regarding the Filioque. Methodius vindicated his orthodoxy at Rome, the more easily as the creed was still recited there without the Filioque clause, and promised to obey in regard to the liturgy. The other party was conciliated by giving him a Swabian, Wiching, as his coadjutor. When relations were strained between the two, John VIII steadfastly supported Methodius; but after his death (December 882) the archbishop's position became insecure, and his need of support induced Goetz to accept the statement of the Vita (xiii.) that he went to visit the Eastern emperor. It was not, however, until after his death, which is placed, though not certainly, on 8 April 885, an open conflict eventuated. Gorazd, whom he had designated as his successor, was not recognised by Pope Stephen V, and was soon expelled, with the other followers of Methodius. In Christian theology the filioque clause or filioque controversy (filioque meaning and [from] the son in Latin) is a heavily disputed addition to the Nicene Creed, that forms a divisive difference in particular between the Catholic and Eastern Orthodox traditions. ... Events Carloman, King of the West Franks becomes sole king upon the death of his brother. ... April 8 is the 98th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (99th in leap years). ... Events Vikings besiege Paris Stephen VI elected pope Oldest known mentioning of Baky Births Emperor Daigo of Japan Deaths Pope Adrian III April 6: Saint Methodius, bishop and Bible translator Categories: 885 ... Stephen V, Pope from June 816-January 817, succeeded Leo III, whose policy he continued. ...


St. Methodius Peak on Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica is named for Methodius. St. ... Livingston Island (62°36′ S 060°30′ W) is 61 km (38 mi) long and from 3 to 32 km (2 to 20 mi) wide, lying between Greenwich and Snow Islands in the South Shetland Islands. ... The South Shetland Islands or Iles Shetland du Sud or Islas Shetland del Sur or New South Britain or New South Shetland or Shetland Islands or South Shetlands or Sydshetland or Süd-Shetland Inseln are a chain of islands in the Southern Ocean lying about 120 kilometres northward of...


Notes

  1. ^ a b Jones, Terry. Methodius. Patron Saints Index. Retrieved on 2007-02-18.

2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the CE era. ... February 18 is the 49th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also

Byzantine Empire at its greatest extent c. ... Saint Cyril (Greek: Κύριλλος , Church Slavonic: Кирилъ) (827 - February 14, 869) was a Byzantine Greek monk, scholar, theologian, and linguist. ... Saints Cyril and Methodius painted by Jan Matejko. ...

External links

  • Epistola Enciclica
  • Sources on St Cyril and Methodios' Ethnicity

References

  • This article includes content derived from the Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge, 1914, which is in the public domain.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Saint Methodius - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1293 words)
Saint Methodius (Greek: Άγιος Μεθόδιος) was a Byzantine bishop of Great Moravia ("Moravia") (born Thessaloniki, Byzantine Empire (today Greece), 826; he died in the (unknown) capital of Great Moravia, April 6, 885).
Saint Methodius was the main translator of the Bible into Old Church Slavonic (see also Slavic languages) using the Glagolitic alphabet created by his brother and collaborator Saint Cyril.
Methodius seems to have disregarded, wholly or in part, the prohibition of the Slavonic liturgy; and when Frankish clerics again found their way into the country, and the archbishop's strictness had displeased the licentious Svatopluk, this was made a cause of complaint against him at Rome, coupled with charges regarding the Filioque.
May 11: Orthodox saints (1912 words)
Saint Methodius was at first in the military profession and was governor in one of the Slavic principalities dependent to the Byzantine empire -- probably Bulgaria, which made it possible for him to learn the Slavic language.
Saint Methodius entreated the pope of Rome to send the body of his brother for burial in their native land, but the pope commanded the relics of Saint Cyril to be placed in the church of Saint Clement, where miracles began to occur from them.
Saint Methodius was summoned to Rome, but he justified himself before the pope, and preserved in its purity the Orthodox teaching, and was sent off again to the capital of Moravia, Velehrad.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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