FACTOID # 16: In the 2000 Presidential Election, Texas gave Ralph Nader the 3rd highest popular vote count of any US state.
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 


FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:



(* = Graphable)



Encyclopedia > Saint Liudger

Saint Ludger (also Lüdiger or Liudger) (b at Zuilen near Utrecht about 742; d 26 March 809 at Billerbeck) was a missionary among the Frisians and Saxons, founder of Werden Abbey and first Bishop of Münster in Westphalia. Utrecht is a municipality and the capital city of the Dutch province of Utrecht. ... Events Chinese poet Li Po is presented before the emperor and given a position in the Imperial court. ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (86th in leap years). ... Events Saga succeeds Heizei as emperor of Japan. ... The Roman historian Tacitus, in his Germania, mentioned the Frisians among people he grouped together as the Ingvaeones. ... This article is about the Saxons, a Germanic people. ... Kloster Werden or Werden Abbey is a Benedictine monastery in Essen-Werden (Germany), situated on the Ruhr. ... Position - Münster in Germany Town Hall at Prinzipalmarkt Münster: Prinzipalmarkt Münster is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. ... Westphalia (German: Westfalen) is a region in Germany, centred on the cities of Dortmund, Gelsenkirchen, Münster, Bielefeld, and Osnabrück and included in the states of North Rhine-Westphalia and Lower Saxony. ...


Education, and Early Life to Ordination

Ludger's parents, Thiadgrim and Liafburg, were wealthy Christian Frisians of noble lineage.

In 753 Ludger saw the great apostle of Germany, Saint Boniface, and this sight and the subsequent martyrdom of the saint made deep impressions on his youthful mind. At his own request he was sent to the Utrecht Cathedral School (Martinsstift), founded by Saint Gregory in 756 or 757, and made good progress. Events Synod of Constantinople called by Emperor Constantine V. Samarkand conquered by Arabs. ... For the Roman general of this name, see Bonifacius. ... Events Abd-ar-rahman I conquers Iberia and establishes a new Umayyad dynasty. ... Events March 9 - A major earthquake strikes Palestine and Syria Offa becomes king of Mercia. ...

In 767 Gregory, who did not wish to receive episcopal consecration himself, sent Alubert, who had come from England to assist him in his missionary work, to York to be consecrated bishop. Ludger accompanied him to be ordained into the diaconate, which he duly was by Ethelbert of York, and to study under Alcuin, but after a year he returned to Utrecht. Some time later he was granted an opportunity to continue his studies in the same school, and then contracted a friendship with Alcuin which lasted throughout life. For the aircraft, see Boeing 767. ... York is a city in northern England, at the confluence of the Rivers Ouse and Foss. ... The diaconate is one of three ordained offices in the Roman Catholic, Anglican, Eastern Orthodox, and Oriental Orthodox churches. ... Ethelbert, Archbishop of York (unknown - November 8, 780) (according to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle or 781), was the teacher and intimate friend of Alcuin, whose poem on the saints and prelates of the Church of York, De Sanctis et Pontificibus Ecclesiæ Eboracensis, is the principal source of information concerning Ethelbert... Flaccus Albinus Alcuin (about 735 - May 19, 804) was a monk from York, England. ...

In 772 friction arose between the Anglo-Saxons and the Frisians, and Ludger, to provide for his personal safety, left for home, taking with him a number of valuable books. He remained in the Martinsstift until the death of Gregory in 775, in whose honour he wrote the biography Vita Gregorii. Events Pope Adrian I succeeds Pope Stephen IV. Adrian I turns to Charlemagne for support against king Desiderius of the Lombards. ... A map showing the general locations of the major Anglo-Saxon kingdoms The Anglo-Saxons were originally a collection of differing Germanic tribes from Angeln—a peninsula in the southern part of Schleswig, protruding into the Baltic Sea, and what is now Lower Saxony, in the north-west coast of... Events Leo IV succeeds Constantine V as Byzantine Emperor. ...

He was then sent to Deventer to restore the chapel destroyed by the heathen Saxons and to find the relics of Saint Lebwin, who had laboured there as missionary, built the chapel, and died there in 773. Ludger was successful in his undertaking, and then returned to teach in the Martinsstift. He and some others were next sent north to destroy the heathen places of worship west of the Lauwers Zee. Deventer is a municipality and a city in the eastern Netherlands in the province of Overijssel on the east bank of the IJssel river. ... Events Charlemagne crosses the Alps and invades the kingdom of the Lombards. ...

From Ordination to 787

After Ludger had been ordained at Cologne on 7 July 777 the missions of Ostergau (or Ostracha, i.e., East Frisia) were committed to his charge, of which missions Dokkum, the place of the martyrdom of Saint Boniface, was made the centre. Every autumn however he came back to Utrecht to teach at the cathedral school. In this manner he worked for about seven years, until Widukind, the indomitable leader of the Saxons, in 784 induced the Frisians to drive out the missionaries, burn the churches, and return to the heathen gods. Ludger escaped with his disciples. Cologne skyline at night with river Rhine in the foreground and famous Cologne Cathedral on the right. ... July 7 is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 177 days remaining. ... Events Huai Tsu got drunk and created the Running Grass (also known as the Startled Snake Slithering Through Grass in Fury of Whirlwind and Driving Rain) style of Chinese Writing. ... East Frisia (Ostfriesland) is a coastal region in the northwest of the German federal state of Lower Saxony. ... Dongeradeel is a municipality in the northern Netherlands. ... Widukind or Wittekind was a Saxon leader, duke of Saxony and one of the heads of the nobility of Westphalia. ... Events August 31 - Paul IV abdicates as Patriarch of Constantinople December 25 - Tarasius elected Patriarch of Constantinople The Japanese capital moved away from Nara. ...

In 785 he visited Rome, where he was well received by Pope Adrian I, and obtained from him good counsel and special faculties. From Rome he went to Monte Cassino, where he lived according to the Rule of Saint Benedict, but did not bind himself by vows. Events Widukind and many other Saxons are baptized. ... City motto: Senatus Populusque Romanus – SPQR (The Senate and the People of Rome) Founded 21 April 753 BC mythical, 1st millennium BC Region Latium Mayor Walter Veltroni (Democratici di Sinistra) Area  - City Proper  1290 km² Population  - City (2004)  - Metropolitan  - Density (city proper) 2,546,807 almost 4,000,000 1... Adrian, or Hadrian I, (died December 25, 795) was pope from 772 to 795. ... The restored Abbey Monte Cassino is a rocky hill about eighty miles (130 km) south of Rome, Italy, a mile to the west of the town of Cassino (the Roman Cassinum having been on the hill) and about 1700 ft (520 m) altitude. ... The Rule of St Benedict by Benedict of Nursia (fl. ...

The news of Widukind's submission, and the arrival of Charlemagne at Monte Cassino in 787, put an end to Ludger's peaceful retirement. He was appointed missionary to the five districts at the mouth of the Ems, which was still occupied almost entirely by heathens. With his usual energy and unbounded confidence in God he began his work; and, knowing the language and habits of the people, he was able to turn to advantage many national traits in effecting their conversion. Charlemagne is also the name of a column in The Economist on European affairs. ... This article is about the year 787. ... EMS may stand for: Eastern Mountain Sports, an outdoor retailer The Edinburgh Mathematical Society Electromagnetic Spectrum Electronic Manual Special, a special edition Saab 99 automobile Electronics Manufacturing Services Electronic Muscle Stimulation Electronic Music Studios (London) Ltd Element management system (telecommunications) Emergency medical service EMS Group or Ems-Chemie Energy Management...

His zeal knew no bounds; the island of Bant, long since swallowed by the sea, is mentioned as the scene of his apostolic work. He visited Heligoland (Fossitesland), where Saint Willibrord had preached; he destroyed the remaining vestiges of heathenism, and built a Christian temple. The well once sacred to the heathen gods became his baptismal font. On his return he met the blind bard Berulef, cured his blindness, and made him a devout Christian. Heligoland during World War I. Heligoland (in German, Helgoland and in North Frisian, Lun, Hålilönj) is a small, carfree German island in the North Sea. ... Saint Willibrord (c. ...


In 793 Charlemagne wished to make Ludger Bishop of Trier, but he declined the honour, while declaring himself willing to undertake the evangelizing of the Saxons. Charlemagne gladly accepted the offer, and North-western Saxony was thus added to Ludger's missionary field. To defray necessary expenses the income of the Abbey of Leuze in the present Belgian province of Hainault, was given him, and he was told to pick his fellow-labourers from the members of that abbey. Events Vikings sack the monastery of Lindisfarne, Northumbria. ... The Archbishopric of Trier was one of the important ecclesiastical principalities of the Holy Roman Empire. ... The virtually independent county of Hainaut emerged from chaotic conditions at the end of the 9th century as a semi-independent state, at first a vassal of the crown of Lotharingia. ...

As Mimigernaford (also Mimigardeford or Miningarvard) had been designated the centre of the new district, Ludger built a monastery there, from which the place took its name Münster. Here he lived with his monks according to the rule of Saint Chrodegang of Metz, which in 789 had been made obligatory in the Frankish territories. Position - Münster in Germany Town Hall at Prinzipalmarkt Münster: Prinzipalmarkt Münster is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. ... Saint Chrodegang, bishop of Metz, was born in the early eighth century at Hasbania (now Belgian Limburg) of a noble Frankish family, and died at Metz, March 6, 766. ... City motto: Si paix dedans, paix dehors (French: If peace inside, peace outside) City proper (commune) Région Lorraine Département Moselle (57) Mayor Jean-Marie Rausch Area 41. ... Events Uprising in Japan leads to a major defeat for Emperor Kammu, alongside a severe drought and famine Constantine becomes king of the Picts Herford founded by Charlemagne Fes founded by Idris I Eadburh marries Beorhtric of Wessex Births Deaths Categories: 789 ... Statue of Charlemagne (also called Karl der Große, Charles the Great) in Frankfurt, Germany. ...

He also built a chapel on the left bank of the Aa in honour of the Blessed Virgin, besides the churches of Billerbeck, Coesfeld, Herzfeld, Nottuln and others. Near the church of Nottuln he built a home for his sister, Saint Gerburgis, who had consecrated herself to God. Many pious virgins soon gathered about her, and so arose the first convent in Westphalia (c803). Aa is the name of a large number of small European rivers. ... Blessed Virgin Mary A traditional Catholic picture displayed sometimes in homes. ... Coesfeld is a town in North Rhine-Westphalia, capital of the district Coesfeld. ... Events Nicephorus I and Charlemagne settle their imperial boundaries. ...

Better known however among his foundations is the abbey at Werden, founded (after an abortive attempt to establish a religious house at Wichmond on the Erft) in c800 and consecrated in 804, on ground which Ludger himself had acquired, in fulfilment of his desire, formed since his stay at Monte Cassino, to found a Benedictine house.. Kloster Werden or Werden Abbey is a Benedictine monastery in Essen-Werden (Germany), situated on the Ruhr. ... The Erft is a river in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. ... For other uses, see number 800. ... Events March 25 - The Inscription of Sukabumi from Eastern Java marks the beginning of the Javanese language. ...

From Consecration to Death

At the request of Charlemagne, Ludger received episcopal consecration, from Hildebold, Archbishop of Cologne, on 30 March 1805. His principal care was to have a good and efficient clergy. To a great extent he educated his students personally, and generally took some of them on his missionary tours. The Archbishopric of Cologne was one of the major ecclesiastical principalities of the Holy Roman Empire. ... March 30 is the 89th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (90th in Leap years). ... 1805 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ...

On Passion Sunday 809, Ludger heard mass at Coesfeld early in the morning and preached, then went to Billerbeck, where at nine o'clock he again preached, and said his last mass. That evening he expired peacefully amidst his faithful followers. Passion Sunday is a term formerly used to denote the fifth Sunday of Lent in the Christian liturgical calendar; since 1970, when the new church calendar approved by the Second Vatican Council went into effect, the term has been applied to the following Sunday, until then officially called Palm Sunday... Events Saga succeeds Heizei as emperor of Japan. ... Joseph Cardinal Ratzinger (now Pope Benedict XVI) presiding at the 2005 Easter Vigil Mass in place of the dying Pope John Paul II. Mass is the term used of the celebration of the Eucharist in the Latin rites of the Roman Catholic Church. ...

A dispute arose between Münster and Werden for the possession of his body. His brother Hildegrim being appealed to, after consultation with the Emperor, decided in favour of Werden, and here the relics have rested for eleven centuries. Portions have however been brought to Münster and Billerbeck. The Holy Roman Emperor was, with some variation, the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire, the predecessor of modern Germany, during its existence from the 10th century until its collapse in 1806. ...


The successive Vitae, beginning with the serious contemporary biographical work of Altfrid and passing through the Vita Secunda and Tertia to the Libellus Monasteriensis de miraculis sancti Liudgeri (The Little Book of Münster on the Miracles of Saint Ludger) of c 1170, demonstrate the growth of the legend. Votive practice in Münster seems to have focussed on a very large and elaborate cross containing a number of relics of the saint. The cult seems to have remained mostly local, and largely to have faded in the later Middle Ages. Events December 29: Assassination of Thomas Beckett, Archbishop of Canterbury, in Canterbury cathedral Eleanor of Aquitaine leaves the court of Henry II because of a string of infidelities. ...

Ludger is represented either as a bishop reciting his breviary or as standing between two geese (occasionally described as swans). Feast: 26 March. A breviary (from Latin brevis, short or concise) is a liturgical book containing the public or canonical prayers, hymns, the Psalms, readings, and notations for everyday use, especially for priests, in the Divine Office (i. ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (86th in leap years). ...


(mostly in German):

  • Butler, Lives of the Saints
  • Börsting, Heinrich, Borger, Hugo, Elbern, Victor H.: Sankt Liudger 809-1959. Gedenkschrift zum 1150. Todestage des Heiligen, Essen-Werden 1959
  • Boser, Am Grabe des hl. Ludger (Münster, 1908).
  • Buhlmann, Michael: Liudger an der Ruhr, in: Ich verkünde euch Christus. St. Liudger, Zeuge des Glaubens 742-809 [1998], S.22-42
  • Buhlmann, Michael: Liudger und Karl der Große, in: Ich verkünde euch Christus. St. Liudger, Zeuge des Glaubens 742-809 [2001], S.5-48
  • Buhlmann, Michael: Liudger in den Münsteraner Chroniken des Mittelalters und der frühen Neuzeit, in: Ich verkünde euch Christus. St. Liudger, Zeuge des Glaubens 742-809 [2002], S.76-100
  • Buhlmann, Michael: Liudger und sein bischöfliches Wirken in der Zeit. Sächsischer Missionsbezirk und Münsteraner Bistum Liudgers in der Kirchenorganisation des karolingischen Frankenreichs, in: Seid Zeugen des Glaubens [2005], S.55-89
  • Diekamp, Wilhelm (Hg.): Die Vitae sancti Liudgeri (= Die Geschichtsquellen des Bistums Münster, Bd.4), Münster 1881
  • Ficker, Julius (Hg.): Die Münsterischen Chroniken des Mittelalters (= Die Geschichtsquellen des Bistums Münster, Bd.1), Münster 1859
  • Freise, Eckhard, Vom vorchristlichen Mimigernaford zum "honestum monasterium" Liudgers, in: Geschichte der Stadt Münster, hg. v. FRANZ-JOSEF JAKOBI, Bd.1: Von den Anfängen bis zum Ende des Fürstbistums, Münster 3. Aufl. 1994, S.1-51
  • Das Jahrtausend der Mönche. KlosterWelt - Werden 799-1803, hg. v. Jan Gerchow (= Ausstellungskatalog), Essen-Köln 1999
  • Kaus, Eberhard: Zu den Liudger-Viten des 9. Jahrhunderts, Westfälische Zeitung, 142 (1992), S.9-55
  • Liudger, bearb. v. Eckhard Freise, in: Lexikon des Mittelalters, Bd.5, Sp.2038
  • Liudger und sein Erbe, hg. v. Heinrich Börsting u. Alois, Schröer, 2 Bde. (= Westfalia Sacra, Bd.1-2), Münster 1948-1950
  • Löwe, Heinz: Liudger als Zeitkritiker, in: HJb 74 (1955), S.79-91
  • Pingsmann, Der hl. Ludgerus (Freiburg, 1879)
  • Revue Benedictine, III, 107; VII, 412
  • Senger, Basilius (Hg.): Liudger in seiner Zeit. Altfrid über Liudger. Liudgers Erinnerungen, Münster 4. Aufl. 1986
  • Stadler, Heiligenlexikon

This article incorporates text from the Catholic Encyclopedia, which is in the public domain. Some points in this article are translated from that in the German Wikipedia The Catholic Encyclopedia is an English-language encyclopedia published in 1913 by the The writing of the encyclopedia began on January 11, 1905 under the supervision of five editors: Charles G. Herbermann, Professor of Latin and Librarian of the College of the City of New York Edward A. Pace, then... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...

  Results from FactBites:
Patron Saints Index: Saint Ludger (374 words)
Saw Saint Boniface preach in 753, and was greatly moved.
Studied at Utrecht under Saint Gregory of Utrecht.
Sent to Deventer in 775 to restore a chapel destroyed by pagan Saxons, and to recover the relics of Saint Lebwin, who had built the chapel.
  More results at FactBites »



Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m