FACTOID # 28: Austin, Texas has more people than Alaska.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Saint James the Great
Saint James the Great

Saint James the Moor-slayer.
Note the pilgrim hat
Apostle and Martyr
Born ?
Died AD 44, Judea
Venerated in All Christianity
Major shrine Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela, Spain
Feast July 25
Attributes Scallop, traveller's hat
Patronage Veterinarians, equestrians, furriers, tanners, pharmacists; Guatemala, Nicaragua, Spain, Santiago de Querétaro

Saint James the Great (d. AD 44; יעקב "Holder of the heel; supplanter"; Standard Hebrew Yaʿaqov, Tiberian Hebrew Yaʿăqōḇ), the son of Zebedee and Salome and brother to St. John the Evangelist, was one of the disciples of Jesus. He is called Saint James the Great to distinguish him from the other apostles named James (St. James the Less & James the Just). Saint James is described as one of the first disciples to join Jesus. The Gospel of John relates the two brothers had been followers of John the Baptist, who first introduced them to Jesus (1:29-39). The Synoptic Gospels state they were with their father by the seashore when Jesus called them to begin traveling (Mt.4:21-22, Mk.1:19-20). According to Mark, James and John were called Boanerges, or the "Sons of Thunder" (3:17). In Acts of the Apostles, Luke records that King Herod had James executed by sword (Ac.12:1-2). Download high resolution version (765x733, 100 KB)Statue of Saint James the Great as the Moor slayer. ... The Twelve Apostles (in Koine Greek απόστολος apostolos [1], someone sent forth/sent out, an emissary) were probably Galilean Jewish men (10 names are Aramaic, 4 names are Greek) chosen from among the disciples, who were sent forth by Jesus of Nazareth to preach the Gospel to both Jews and Gentiles... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For alternate uses, see Number 44. ... Judea or Judaea (יהודה Praise, Standard Hebrew , Tiberian Hebrew ) (Greek: Ιουδαία) is a term used for the mountainous southern part of the historic Land of Israel (Hebrew: ארץ ישראל Eretz Yisrael), an area now divided between Israel and the West Bank, and, in a few geographical definitions of Judea, Jordan. ... Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as recounted in the Gospels. ... Eastern Orthodox shrine Buddhist shrine just outside Wat Phnom. ... Santiago de Compostela , (2004 pop. ... July 25 is the 206th day (207th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 159 days remaining. ... Genera See text. ... In several forms of the church of Christianity, but especially in Roman Catholicism, a patron saint has special affinity for a trade or group. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Look up equestrian in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Main Entry: fur•ri•er Pronunciation: f&r-E-&r, f&-rE- Function: noun Etymology: alteration of Middle English furrer, from Anglo-French furrere, from Old French forrer to fur -- more at FUR 1 : a fur dealer 2 a : one that dresses furs b : one that makes, repairs, alters, or... Tanner is a surname, and might refer to Alain Tanner, Swiss film-maker Adam Tanner (Tannerus), Austrian Jesuit mathematician and philosopher Beatrice Stella Tanner, the British actress Mrs Patrick Campbell Charles Albert Tanner, Canadian politician Chuck Tanner, American baseball manager D.J. Tanner, fictional character from Full House Danny Tanner... The mortar and pestle is an international symbol of pharmacists and pharmacies. ... Latitude 20. ... For alternate uses, see Number 44. ... The Modern Hebrew language is a Semitic language of the Afro-Asiatic language family. ... Tiberian Hebrew is an oral tradition of pronunciation for ancient forms of Hebrew, especially the Hebrew of the Bible, that was given written form by masoretic scholars in the Jewish community at Tiberias in the early middle ages, beginning in the 8th century. ... Zebedee is a name used in several contexts. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... John the Apostle (יוחנן The LORD is merciful, Standard Hebrew Yoḥanan, Tiberian Hebrew Yôḥānān) was one of the twelve apostles of Jesus. ... Jesus (8-2 BC/BCE — 29-36 AD/CE),[1] also known as Jesus of Nazareth, is the central figure of Christianity. ... For people and places called Saint James, see the disambiguation page. ... Saint James the Just (יעקב Holder of the heel; supplanter; Standard Hebrew YaÊ¿aqov, Tiberian Hebrew Yaʿăqōḇ), also called James Adelphos or the Brother of the Lord and sometimes identified with James the Lesser, (died AD 62) was an important figure in Early Christianity. ... The Gospel according to John is a gospel document in the canon of the New Testament. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Failure of John the Baptist. ... The Synoptic Gospels is a term used by modern New Testament scholars for the Gospels according to Matthew, Mark, and Luke of the New Testament in the Bible. ... The Gospel of Mark is traditionally the second of the New Testament Gospels. ... The Acts of the Apostles (Greek Praxeis Apostolon) is a book of the Bible, which now stands fifth in the New Testament. ... Luke was, according to tradition, the painter of the first icon Luke the Evangelist (Greek Λουκάς Loukas) is said by tradition to be the author of both the Gospel of Luke and the Acts of the Apostles, the third and fifth books of the New Testament. ... Front and back of a Judean coin from the reign of Agrippa I. Agrippa I also called the Great (10 BC - 44 AD), king of Judea, the grandson of Herod the Great, and son of Aristobulus IV and Berenice. ...

Contents


Saint James and Hispania

Saint James the Great, the apostle, is not to be confused with the author of the Epistle of James. St. James is the brother of John, the sons of Zebedee. Though the Acts of the Apostles gives no hint of it, and though no work of the Patristic literature mentions it, many people believe that James went to Hispania and preached Christianity there, establishing an Apostolic see. He traveled to Galicia, Spain; Guimarães, Portugal; and Rates (Póvoa de Varzim), Portugal. The Epistle of James is a book of the New Testament, best known for its teaching that faith without works is dead (James 2:26 KJV). ... Zebedee is a name used in several contexts. ... The Acts of the Apostles (Greek Praxeis Apostolon) is a book of the Bible, which now stands fifth in the New Testament. ... The (Early) Church Fathers or Fathers of the Church are the early and influential theologians and writers in the Christian Church, particularly those of the first five centuries of Christian history. ... Roman theater at Mérida; the statues are replicas Hispania was the name given by the Romans to the whole of the Iberian Peninsula (modern Portugal, Spain, Andorra and Gibraltar) and to two provinces created there in the period of the Roman Republic: Hispania Citerior and Hispania Ulterior. ... Galicia (Spain) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... District or region Braga Mayor   - Party Magalhães Silva PS Area 241. ... Póvoa de Varzim - Wikipedia /**/ @import /w/skins-1. ...


According to ancient local tradition, on January 2 of the year 40 A.D., the Virgin Mary appeared to St. James the Greater on the bank of the Ebro River at Caesaraugusta, while he was preaching the Gospel in Spain. She supposedly appeared upon a pillar Nuestra Señora del Pilar, and that pillar is conserved and venerated within the present Basilica of Our Lady of the Pillar, in Zaragoza, Spain. Following that apparition, St. James returned to Judea, where he was beheaded by King Herod Agrippa I in the year 44. The term Virgin Mary has several different meanings: Mary, the mother of Jesus, the historical and multi-denominational concept of Mary Blessed Virgin Mary, the Roman Catholic theological and doctrinal concept of Mary Marian apparitions shrines to the Virgin Mary Virgin Mary in Islam, the Islamic theological and doctrinal concept... For alternative meanings, see Zaragoza (disambiguation). ... Nuestra Señora del Pilar (Spanish for Our Lady of the Pillar) is an apparition of Mary, mother of Jesus, whose shrine (Nuestra Señora del Pilar Basilica) is in Zaragoza, Spain, by the river Ebro. ... Nuestra Señora del Pilar Basilica The basilica at night The Basilica-Cathedral of Our Lady of the Pillar or Nuestra Señora del Pilar is a Roman Catholic church in the city of Zaragoza, Aragon, of great importance in Spain. ... Zaragoza (formerly Saragossa in English; Latin Caesaraugusta) is the capital city of the autonomous region and former kingdom of Aragon in Spain, and is located on the river Ebro, and its tributaries the Huerva and Gállego, near the centre of the region, in a great valley with a variety... This entry incorporates text from Eastons Bible Dictionary, 1897, with some modernisation. ...


The translation of his relics from Judea to Galicia in the northwest of Iberia was effected, in legend, by a series of miraculous happenings: decapitated in Jerusalem with a sword by Herod Agrippa himself, his body was taken up by angels, and sailed in a rudderless, unattended boat to Iria Flavia in Spain, where a massive rock closed around his relics, which were later removed to Compostela. The 12th-century Historia Compostellana commissioned by bishop Diego Gelmírez provides a summary of the legend of St. James as it was believed at Compostela. Two propositions are central to it: first, that St. James preached the gospel in Spain as well as in the Holy Land; second, that after his martyrdom at the hands of Herod Agrippa I his disciples carried his body by sea to Spain, where they landed at Padrón on the coast of Galicia, and took it inland for burial at Santiago de Compostela. Galicia (Spain) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... According to many religions, a miracle, derived from the old Latin word miraculum meaning something wonderful, is a striking interposition of divine intervention by God in the universe by which the operations of the ordinary course of Nature are overruled, suspended, or modified. ... Iria Flavia or simply Iria in Galicia, northwestern Spain, was a Celtiberian port, the main seat of the Caporos, on the road between Braga and Astorga, which the Romans rebuilt as via XVIII or Via Nova [1]. The Romans refounded it as Iria Flavia (Flavian Iria) to compliment Vespasian. ... Santiago de Compostela , (2004 pop. ... Santiago de Compostela , (2004 pop. ...


An even later tradition states that he miraculously appeared to fight for the Christian army during the battle of Clavijo during the Reconquista, and was henceforth called Matamoros (Moor-slayer). Santiago y cierra España ("St James and strike for Spain") has been the traditional battle cry of Spanish armies. Battle of Clavijo a legendary battle in 844 AD in Spain between Christians forces led by Ramiro I of Asturias and Muslims, where Saint James is reputed to have aided the Christian Army. ... The Reconquista (Reconquest) refers to the process for which the Christian Kingdoms of northern Hispania, defeated and conquered the southern Muslim and moorish states of the Iberian Peninsula, existing since the Arab invasion of 711. ... It has been suggested that Moor religion be merged into this article or section. ... A battle cry is a yell or chant taken up in battle, usually by members of the same military unit. ...

St. James the Moorslayer, one of the most valiant saints and knights the world ever had … has been given by God to Spain for its patron and protection.
— Cervantes, Don Quixote.

A similar miracle is related about Saint Emilianus (san Millán). The possibility that a cult of James was instituted to supplant the Galician cult of Priscillian (executed in 385) who was widely venerated across the north of Spain as a martyr to the bishops rather than as a heretic should not be overlooked. This was cautiously raised by Henry Chadwick in his book on Priscillian (Chadwick 1976); it is not the official Roman Catholic view. The Catholic Encyclopedia 1908, however, records "Although the tradition that James founded an apostolic see in Spain was current in the year 700, no certain mention of such tradition is to be found in the genuine writings of early writers nor in the early councils; the first certain mention we find in the ninth century, in Notker, a monk of St. Gall (Martyrologia, 25 July), Walafrid Strabo (Poema de XII Apostoli), and others." (The Blessed Notker died in 912.) Don Quixote de la Mancha (now usually spelled Don Quijote by Spanish-speakers; Don Quixote is an archaic spelling) (IPA: ) or El ingenioso hidalgo Don Quixote de la Mancha (The Ingenious Hidalgo Don Quixote of La Mancha) is a novel by the Spanish author Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra. ... Priscillian of Avila (died 385) was a Spanish theologian and the founder of a party which advocated strong asceticism. ... Notker of St. ... Abbey of St. ... Walafrid (also Walahfrid), surnamed Strabo (or Strabus, i. ...

17th century interpretation of saint James as the Moor-killer from the Peruvian school of Cuzco. The pilgrim hat has become a Panama hat and his mantle is that of his military order.
17th century interpretation of saint James as the Moor-killer from the Peruvian school of Cuzco. The pilgrim hat has become a Panama hat and his mantle is that of his military order.

The tradition was not unanimously admitted afterwards, while numerous modern scholars, following L. Duchesne, reject it. The Bollandists however defended it (their Acta Sanctorum, July, VI and VII, gives further sources). The suggestion began to be made from the 9th century that, as well as evangelizing in Spain, his body may have been brought to Compostela. No earlier tradition places the burial of St James in Hispania. A rival tradition, places the relics of the Apostle in the church of St-Saturnin at Toulouse, but it is not improbable that such sacred relics should have been divided between two churches. Download high resolution version (1688x2296, 369 KB)Saint James the Great as a Moor-killer, painting by unknown artist of the Cusco school, presumably 17th century. ... Download high resolution version (1688x2296, 369 KB)Saint James the Great as a Moor-killer, painting by unknown artist of the Cusco school, presumably 17th century. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... The Church of La Compañía on the Plaza de Armas in Cuzco Cuzco is a city in southeastern Peru in the Huatanay Valley (Sacred Valley), of the Andes mountain range. ... Panama Hat made for Harry Truman Panama hats sold on a street market in Ecuador A Panama hat or Panama is a traditional brimmed hat that is made from the plaited leaves of the panama-hat palm (Carludovica palmata). ... The Bollandists are an association of Jesuit scholars publishing the Acta Sanctorum (the Lives of the Saints). ... Acta Sanctorum (Acts of the Saints) is an encyclopedic text in 68 folio volumes of documents examining the lives of Christian saints, in essence a critical hagiography, which is organised according to each saints feast day. ... Saint Saturnin (in Latin Saturninus, now Sernin in France and in Navarra Cernin), with a feast day entered for November 29, was one of the apostles to the Gauls sent out (probably under the direction of Pope Fabian, 236 - 250) during the consulate of Decius and Gratus (250-251 AD...


The authenticity of the sacred relics of Compostela was asserted in the Bull of Pope Leo XIII, "Omnipotens Deus," of November 1, 1884. Thus the possibility that the relics at Santiago de Compostela predate the cult there of St James is no longer open to discussion for believing Roman Catholics. Pope Leo XIII, born Vincenzo Gioacchino Raffaele Luigi Pecci (March 2, 1810 – July 20, 1903), was Pope of the Roman Catholic Church, having succeeded Pope Pius IX (1846–78) on February 20, 1878 and reigning until his death in 1903. ...


The Catholic Encyclopedia (1908) registered several "difficulties" or bases for doubts of this tradition beyond the late appearance of the legend: The Catholic Encyclopedia (also referred to as the Old Catholic Encyclopedia today) is an English-language encyclopedia published in 1913 by the The Encyclopedia Press, designed to give authoritative information on the entire cycle of Catholic interests, action and doctrine. // History The writing of the encyclopedia began on January 11...


St James suffered martyrdom (Acts 12:1-2) in A.D. 44, and according to the tradition of the early Church, he had not yet left Jerusalem at this time (see Clement of Alexandria, Stromateis, VI; Apollonius, quoted by Eusebius, Hist. Eccl. VI.xviii). Clement of Alexandria (Titus Flavius Clemens), was the first member of the Church of Alexandria to be more than a name, and one of its most distinguished teachers. ... Eusebius is the name of several significant historical people: Pope Eusebius - Pope in AD 309 - 310. ...

  • St Paul in his Epistle to the Romans written after A.D. 44, expressed his intention to avoid "building on someone else's foundation" (15:20), and thus visit Spain (15:24), presumably unevangelized.
The Codex Calixtinus promotes the pilgrimage to Santiago.

The official tradition at Compostela placed the discovery of the relics of the saint in the time of king Alfonso II (791-842) and of bishop Theodemir of Iria. These traditions were the basis for the pilgrimage route that began to be established in the 9th century, and the shrine dedicated to James at Santiago de Compostela, in Galicia in Spain, became the most famous pilgrimage site in the Christian world. St James's Way is a tree of routes that cross Western Europe and arrive at Santiago through Northern Spain. Eventually James became the patron saint of Spain. The Epistle to the Romans is one of the epistles, or letters, included in the New Testament canon of the Christian Bible. ... Image File history File links Codex_Calixtinus_(Liber_Sancti_Jacobi)_F0173k. ... Image File history File links Codex_Calixtinus_(Liber_Sancti_Jacobi)_F0173k. ... Detail from the Codex Calixtinus Folio 4r, showing Saint James the Great The Codex Calixtinus is a 12th century illuminated manuscript formerly attributed to Pope Callixtus II, though now believed to have been arranged by the French scholar Aymeric Picaud. ... Santiago de Compostela , (2004 pop. ... Galicia (Spain) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... St James the Moor-killer. ... In several forms of the church of Christianity, but especially in Roman Catholicism, a patron saint has special affinity for a trade or group. ...


The military Order of Santiago or caballeros santiaguistas was founded to fight the Moors and later membership became a precious honour. People like Diego Velázquez longed for the royal favour that allowed to put on their clothes the red cross of St. James (a cross fleury fitchy, with lower part fashioned as the blade of a sword blade). 17th century interpretation of saint James as the Moor-killer from the Peruvian school of Cuzco. ... 17th century interpretation of saint James as the Moor-killer from the Peruvian school of Cuzco. ... Velázquezs 1643 self-portrait Diego Rodríguez de Silva y Velázquez (June, 1599 – August 6, 1660), commonly referred to as Diego Velázquez, was a Spanish painter, the leading artist in the court of King Philip IV. He was an individualistic artist of the contemporary baroque period... The Cross of St. ... These crosses are ones used exclusively or primarily in heraldry, and do not necessarily have any special meanings commonly associated with them. ...

The name "James" in English comes from "Iacobus" (Jacob) in Latin. In eastern Spain, Jacobus became "Jacome" or "Jaime"; in western Spain it became "Iago". "Saint James" ("Sanctus Jacobus") became "Sant' Iago", which was abbreviated to Santiago. This has sometimes been confused with San Diego, which is the Spanish name of Saint Didacus of Alcalá. James's emblem was the scallop shell (or "cockle shell"), and pilgrims to his shrine often wore that symbol on their hats or clothes. The French for a scallop is coquille St. Jacques, which means "cockle (or mollusk) of St. James", and that term also refers to a method of cooking and serving them, on a shell (real or ceramic) in a creamy wine sauce. The German word for a scallop is Jakobsmuschel, which means "mussel (or clam) of St. James"; the Dutch word is Jacobsschelp, meaning "shell of St. James". Image File history File links Stjamescross. ... // This article discusses uses of the name James. For the band, see James (band). ... It has been suggested that Yaqub be merged into this article or section. ... Santiago is one of the names by which Saint James is known in the Hispanic world. ... Flag Seal Nickname: Americas Finest City Location Location of San Diego within San Diego County Coordinates , Government County San Diego Mayor City Attorney         City Council District One District Two District Three District Four District Five District Six District Seven District Eight Jerry Sanders (R) Michael Aguirre Scott Peters Kevin... Saint Didacus of Alcalá, more familiar as San Diego, was a lay brother of the Order of Friars Minor who died at Alcalá, Spain, November 12, 1463. ... Genera See text. ... Genera See text. ...


See also

Saints Portal

Image File history File links Portal. ...

External links

  • Catholic Encyclopedia: St James the Greater
  • R. A. Fletcher, Saint James's Catapult: The Life and Times of Diego Gelmírez of Santiago de Compostela Oxford University Press, 1984: chapter 3, "The Early History of the Cult of St. James"

References

  • Henry Chadwick, Priscillian of Avila. Oxford University Press, 1976.
  • Richard A. Fletcher, 1984. Saint James's Catapult : The Life and Times of Diego Gelmírez of Santiago de Compostela (Oxford University Press) (On-line text)


Apostles of Jesus Christ
Evangelists: John | Matthew | Mark | Luke
Others: Simon Peter | Andrew | James | Philip | Bartholomew | Thomas
James son of Alphaeus | Simon the Zealot | Thaddaeus | Judas Iscariot

  Results from FactBites:
 
Saint James the Great - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1194 words)
Saint James the Great, the apostle, is not to be confused with the author of the Epistle of James.
James is the brother of John, the sons of Zebedee.
The possibility that a cult of James was instituted to supplant the Galician cult of Priscillian (executed in 385) who was widely venerated across the north of Spain as a martyr to the bishops rather than as a heretic should not be overlooked.
James the Just - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2005 words)
Saint James the Just (יעקב "Holder of the heel; supplanter"; Standard Hebrew Yaʿaqov, Tiberian Hebrew Yaʿăqōḇ), also called James Adelphos or the Brother of the Lord and sometimes identified with James the Lesser, (died AD 62) was an important figure in Early Christianity.
James alone is mentioned as a brother of Jesus by Paul in Epistle to the Galatians 1:19.
Eusebius of Caesarea reports the tradition that James the Just was the son of Joseph's brother Clopas, and therefore was of the "brethren" (which he interpretes as "cousin") of Jesus described in the New Testament.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m