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Encyclopedia > Saint Cyril
Saint Cyril

Statue of Saint Cyril at Holy Trinity Column in Olomouc
Patron of Europe
Apostle to the Slavic peoples
Born 827, Thessaloniki, Byzantine Empire (present-day Greece)
Died February 14, 869
Venerated in Roman Catholicism
Orthodox Church
Eastern Catholic Churches
Feast February 14 (Catholic Church)
May 11 (Orthodox Church).
Saints Portal

Saint Cyril (Greek: Κύριλλος , Church Slavonic: Кирилъ) (827 - February 14, 869) was a Byzantine Greek monk, scholar, theologian, and linguist. He is best known today for his work in Christianising the Slavs and, with his brother Saint Methodius, is credited with devising the Glagolithic and rarely also with devising the Cyrillic alphabet. He was known during his life as Constantine (Greek: Κωνσταντίνος Konstantínos); the Greek name Cyril seems to have been given to him only shortly before his death, if not after. Together with his brother Saint Methodius they are the patron saints of Europe. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1728x2304, 1483 KB) en: Statue of Saint Cyril on the Holy Trinity Column in Olomouc in Olomouc (Czech Republic). ... To the glory of God the Almighty, the Virgin Mary and the saints I will build a column that in its height and splendour will be unrivalled in any other town. ... Events Succession of Pope Valentine, then Pope Gregory IV. Arabs invade Sicily. ... Thessaloniki, (Greek: Θεσσαλονίκη), is Greeces second-largest city and the capital of the Greek region of Macedonia and the periphery of Central Macedonia. ... Byzantine Empire at its greatest extent c. ... February 14 is the 45th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Western Emperor Louis II allies with eastern Emperor Basil I against the Saracens. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Eastern Christianity. ... The Eastern Catholic Churches are autonomous particular Churches in full communion with the Pope of Rome. ... The calendar of saints is a traditional Christian method of organising a liturgical year on the level of days by associating each day with one or more saints, and referring to the day as that saints day. ... February 14 is the 45th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... May 11 is the 131st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (132nd in leap years). ... Image File history File links Gloriole. ... Church Slavonic may refer to: Old Church Slavonic language Church Slavonic language This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Events Succession of Pope Valentine, then Pope Gregory IV. Arabs invade Sicily. ... February 14 is the 45th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Western Emperor Louis II allies with eastern Emperor Basil I against the Saracens. ... Byzantine Greeks or Byzantines, is a conventional term used by modern historians to refer to the medieval Greek or Hellenized citizens of the Byzantine Empire, centered mainly in Constantinople, southern Balkans, the Greek islands, the coasts of Asia Minor (modern Turkey) and the large urban centres of Near East and... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Slavic peoples are the most numerous ethnic and linguistic body of peoples in Europe. ... Saint Methodius (Greek: Μεθόδιος; Church Slavonic Мефодии) (b. ... Tablet inscribed with the Glagolitic alphabet The Glagolitic alphabet or Glagolitsa is the oldest known Slavonic alphabet. ... The Cyrillic alphabet (pronounced also called azbuka, from the old name of the first two letters) is an alphabet used for several East and South Slavic languages—Belarusian, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Russian, Rusyn, Serbian, and Ukrainian—and many other languages of the former Soviet Union, Asia and Eastern Europe. ... Saint Methodius (Greek: Μεθόδιος; Church Slavonic Мефодии) (b. ... In several forms of Christianity, a patron saint has special affinity for a trade or group. ... World map showing the location of Europe. ...

Contents

Early life

Cyril and Methodius were born in Thessaloniki to a Greek drungarios (a military officer) named Leon and to Maria. Cyril was reputedly the youngest of seven brothers, according to the Vita Cyrilli ("The Life of Cyril"). He is said to have given himself to the pursuit of heavenly wisdom at the age of seven, but at fourteen was made an orphan by the death of his parents. Saint Methodius (Greek: Μεθόδιος; Church Slavonic Мефодии) (b. ... Thessaloniki, (Greek: Θεσσαλονίκη), is Greeces second-largest city and the capital of the Greek region of Macedonia and the periphery of Central Macedonia. ... Drungarios A Military rank of the Byzantine Army. ...


An influential official, possibly the eunuch Theoktistos (Greek: Θεόκτιστος), brought him to Constantinople where he studied theology and philosophy. Theoktistos was a "Logothetes tou dromou," a powerful Byzantine official, responsible for the postal services and the diplomatic relations of the Empire. He was also responsible, along with the regent Bardas, for initiating a far-reaching educational program within the Empire which culminated in the establishment of the University of Magnaura, where Constantine/Cyril was to teach. Photius is said to have been among his teachers; Anastasius Bibliothecarius mentions their later friendship, as well as a conflict between them on a point of doctrine. Cyril learned an eclectic variety of knowledge including astronomy, geometry, rhetoric and music. Theoktistos Vriennion (Greek: Θεόκτιστος), (d. ... Map of Constantinople. ... At Wikiversity you can learn more and teach others about Theology at: The School of Theology Theology finds its scholars pursuing the understanding of and providing reasoned discourse of religion, spirituality and God or the gods. ... The philosopher Socrates about to take poison hemlock as ordered by the court. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with logothete. ... Bardas was the regent (856-866) of Byzantine Emperor Michael III. Bardas was apparently the son of Marinos Mamikonian and the brother of Theodora, the wife of Byzantine Emperor Theophilus. ... The University of Constantinople, sometimes known as the University of the palace hall of Magnavra Byzantine Empire was recognised as a University in 849. ... Photius (b. ... Anastasius Bibliothecarius, librarian of the Roman Catholic Church, b. ... A giant Hubble mosaic of the Crab Nebula, a supernova remnant Astronomy is the science of celestial objects (such as stars, planets, comets, and galaxies) and phenomena that originate outside the Earths atmosphere (such as auroras and cosmic background radiation). ... Calabi-Yau manifold Geometry (Greek γεωμετρία; geo = earth, metria = measure) is a part of mathematics concerned with questions of size, shape, and relative position of figures and with properties of space. ... Rhetoric (from Greek , rhêtôr, orator, teacher) is generally understood to be the art or technique of persuasion through the use of spoken and written language; however, this definition of rhetoric has expanded greatly since rhetoric emerged as a field of study in universities. ... For other uses, see Music (disambiguation). ...


However, it was in the field of linguistics that Cyril particularly excelled. Besides his native Greek, he was fluent in Latin, Arabic, Hebrew and the Slavonic language; according to the Vita, the Byzantine Emperor Michael III claimed that "all Thessalonians speak perfect Slavonic" (ch. 86). Linguistics is the scientific study of language, which can be theoretical or applied. ... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ... “Hebrew” redirects here. ... Old Church Slavonic (also called Old Church Slavic or Old Bulgarian, incorrectly Old Slavic ) is the first literary Slavic language, developed from the Slavic dialect of Solun (Thessaloniki) by 9th century Byzantine missionaries, Saint Cyril and Saint Methodius. ... This is a list of Byzantine Emperors. ... This coin struck during the regency of Theodora shows how Michael was less prominent than his mother, who is represented as ruler alone on the obverse, and even than his sister Thecla, who is depicted together with the young Michael on the reverse of this coin. ...


After the completion of his education Cyril took holy orders and became a monk. He seems to have held the important position of chartophylax, or secretary to the patriarch and keeper of the archives, with some judicial functions also. After six months' quiet retirement in a monastery he began to teach philosophy and theology. Catholic deacon candidates prostrate before the altar of the Cathedral of Our Lady of the Angels in Los Angeles during a 2004 diaconate ordination liturgy Holy Orders in the Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, Anglican, Assyrian, Old Catholic, and Independent Catholic churches includes three orders: bishop, priest, and deacon. ... A chartophylax is an officer in charge of official documents and records in the household of the Patriarch of Constantinople. ...


Cyril also took an active role in relations with the other two great monotheistic religions, Islam and Judaism. He penned fiercely anti-Jewish polemics, perhaps connected with his mission to the Khazars, a tribe who lived near the Sea of Azov under a Jewish king who allowed Jews, Muslims, and Christians to live peaceably side by side. He also undertook a mission to the Arabs with whom, according to the Vita, he held discussions. He is said to have learned the Hebrew, Samaritan and Arabic languages during this period. The account of his life presented in the Latin Legenda claims that he also learned the Khazar language while in Chersonesos, in Taurica (today Crimea). Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion based upon the teachings of Muhammad, a 7th century Arab religious and political figure. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The word Jew (Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination... The Khazars (Hebrew Kuzari כוזרי Kuzarim כוזרים; Turkish Hazar Hazarlar; Russian Хазары; Tatar sing Xäzär Xäzärlär; Crimean Tatar: ; Greek Χαζάροι/Χάζαροι; Arabic خزر; Persianخزر ; Latin Gazari or Cosri) were a semi-nomadic Turkic people from Central Asia, many of whom converted to Judaism. ... The shallow Sea of Azov is clearly distinguished from the deeper Black Sea. ... The Arabs (Arabic: عرب ) are an ethnic group found throughout the Middle East and North Africa. ... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... The remains of the city of Chersonesos Chersonesos (Greek: , Latin: , Ukrainian: , Russian: ; see also List of traditional Greek place names) also known as Chersonese, Chersonesos, Cherson, Khersones and Korsun was an ancient Greek colony founded approximately 2500 years ago in the southwestern part of Crimea, known then as Taurica. ... The Chersonesus Tauricus of Antiquity, shown on a map printed in London, ca 1770 Taurica (Greek: , Latin: ) also known as Tauris, Taurida, Tauric Chersonese, and Chersonesus Taurica was the name of Crimea in Antiquity. ... Motto: Процветание в единстве - Prosperity in unity Anthem: Нивы и горы твои волшебны, Родина - Your fields and mounts are wonderful, Motherland Location of Crimea (red) on the map of Ukraine. ...


It has been claimed that Methodius also accompanied him on the mission to the Khazars, but this is probably a later invention. His brother had by this time become a significant player in Byzantine political and administrative affairs, and later became abbot of the famous Greek monastery of Polychron.


Mission to the Slavs

In 862, Prince Rastislav of Great Moravia requested that the Emperor Michael III and the Patriarch Photius send missionaries to evangelize his Slavic subjects. His motives in doing so were probably more influenced by political than religious motives. Rastislav had become king with the support of the Frankish ruler Louis the German, but subsequently sought to assert his independence from the Franks. He is said to have expelled missionaries of the Roman Church and instead turned to Constantinople for ecclesiastical assistance and, presumably, a degree of political support. Events Rurik gained control of Novgorod. ... Rastislav (?-870) was the second prince of Great Moravia. ... Great Moravia was a West Slavic entity existing in Central Europe between 833 and the early 10th century. ... Photius (b. ... Statue of Charlemagne (also called Karl der Große, Charles the Great) in Frankfurt, Germany. ... Louis the German (also known as Louis II or Louis the Bavarian or German Ludwig der Deutsche) (804 – August 28, 876), the third son of the emperor Louis the Pious and his first wife, Ermengarde of Hesbaye, was the king of Bavaria from 817, when his father partitioned the empire... The Roman Catholic Church is the largest religious denomination of Christianity with over one billion members. ...


The request provided a convenient opportunity to expand Byzantine influence, and the task was entrusted to Cyril and Methodius. Their first work seems to have been the training of assistants. In 863, they began the task of translating the Bible into the language now known as Old Church Slavonic and travelled to Great Moravia to promote it. They enjoyed considerable success in this endeavour. However, they came into conflict with German ecclesiastics who opposed their efforts to create a specifically Slavic liturgy. Events Constantine I succeeds as king of Scotland. ... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library of Congress. ... Old Church Slavonic (Old Bulgarian, Old Macedonian, or Old Slavic) is the first literary Slavic language, developed from the Slavic dialect of Thessaloniki (Solun) by the 9th century Byzantine missionaries, Saints Cyril and Methodius. ...


It is impossible to determine with certainty what portions of the Bible the brothers translated. The New Testament and the Psalms seem to have been the first, followed by other lessons from the Old Testament. The Translatio speaks only of a version of the Gospels by Cyril, and the Vita Methodii only of the evangelium Slovenicum, though other liturgical selections may also have been translated. Nor is it known for sure which liturgy, that of Rome or that of Constantinople, they took as a source. They may well have used the Roman, as suggested by liturgical fragments which adhere closely to the Latin type. John 21:1 Jesus Appears to His Disciples--Alessandro Mantovani: the Vatican, Rome. ... Psalms (from the Greek: Psalmoi (songs sung to a harp, originally from psallein play on a stringed instrument), Ψαλμοί; Hebrew: Tehilim, תהילים) is a book of the Hebrew Bible, Tanakh or Old Testament. ... Note: Judaism commonly uses the term Tanakh. ... For the genre of Christian-themed music, see gospel music. ...


The Glagolitic alphabet, which was based on the Greek uncial writing of the 9th century, has been traditionally attributed to Cyril's work. That fact has been confirmed explicitly by the papal letter Industriae tuae (880) approving the use of Old Church Slavonic, which says that the alphabet was "invented by Constantine the Philosopher". It is unclear, however, whether Cyril himself was the originator of the eponymous Cyrillic alphabet. More probably, it was invented by later followers of Cyril and Methodius. The Glagolitic alphabet or Glagolitsa is the oldest known Slavic alphabet. ... The Cyrillic alphabet (pronounced also called azbuka, from the old name of the first two letters) is an alphabet used for several East and South Slavic languages—Belarusian, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Russian, Rusyn, Serbian, and Ukrainian—and many other languages of the former Soviet Union, Asia and Eastern Europe. ...


Journey to Rome

In 867, Pope Nicholas I invited the brothers to Rome. Their evangelising mission in Moravia had by this time become the focus of a dispute with Theotmar, the Archbishop of Salzburg and bishop of Passau, who claimed ecclesiastical control of the same territory and wished to see it use the Latin liturgy exclusively. Travelling with the relics of Saint Clement and a retinue of disciples, they were warmly received in Rome on their arrival in 868. Events September - Basil I becomes sole ruler of the Byzantine Empire. ... Nicholas I,(Rome c. ... Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5... The Archbishopric of Salzburg was an ecclesiastical state of the Holy Roman Empire, consisting of roughly of the present_day state of Salzburg in Austria. ... Old Town of Passau Passau (Latin: Batavia) is a town in Niederbayern, Eastern Bavaria, Germany, known also as Dreiflüssestadt (the City of three rivers), because the Danube River is joined there by the Inn River from the South, and the Ilz River coming out of the Bavarian Forest to... Clement is an adjective for clemency, and also the name of a number of notable figures: Saint Clement of Alexandria Saint Clement of Ohrid Pope Clement I Pope Clement II Pope Clement III Pope Clement IV Pope Clement V Pope Clement VI Pope Clement VII Pope Clement VIII Pope Clement... Events 11 May: Printing of The Diamond Sutra, the oldest dated printed book. ...


The brothers were praised for their learning and cultivated for their influence in Constantinople. Their project in Moravia found support from Pope Adrian II, who formally authorized the use of the new Slavic liturgy. However, Cyril fell ill late in 868, retired to a monastery and after fifty days of illness died on February 14, 869. The Translatio asserts that he was made a bishop before his death, but there is little credible evidence for this. Adrian II (also known as Hadrian II), (792–872), pope from 867 to 872, was a member of a noble Roman family, and became pope in 867, at an advanced age. ... February 14 is the 45th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Western Emperor Louis II allies with eastern Emperor Basil I against the Saracens. ...


The disciples of Cyril and Methodius continued the brothers' work in the Slavic lands but were expelled from Great Moravia in 885. They fled to the medieval First Bulgarian Empire to found important seminaries there, which later undertook the evangelization of northern Slavic lands such as Kievan Rus'. Over time, Cyrillic eventually spread through much of the Slavic world to become the standard alphabet in the Orthodox Slavic countries. Their evangelising efforts also paved the way for the spread of Christianity throughout eastern Europe. Events Vikings besiege Paris Stephen VI elected pope Oldest known mentioning of Baky Births Emperor Daigo of Japan Deaths Pope Adrian III April 6: Saint Methodius, bishop and Bible translator Categories: 885 ... The First Bulgarian Empire was founded in 681 AD in the lands near the Danube delta and disintegrated in 1018 AD by annexion to the Byzantine Empire. ... Kievan Rus′ was an early, mostly East Slavic[1] state dominated by the city of Kiev from about 880 to the middle of the 12th century. ...


Cyril was canonized as a saint by the eastern Church, with the Roman Catholic Church canonizing him separately in 1880 along with Methodius. The two brothers are known as the "Apostles of the Slavs" and are still highly regarded by Catholics and Orthodox Christians. Cyril's feast day is celebrated on February 14 (Catholic Church) or May 11 (Orthodox Church). The two brothers were declared "Patrons of Europe" in 1980 (see Epistola Enciclica). St. Cyril Peak on Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica is named for Cyril. Icon of St. ... In traditional Christian iconography, Saints are often depicted as having halos. ... Year 1880 (MDCCCLXXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar). ... February 14 is the 45th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... May 11 is the 131st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (132nd in leap years). ... 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday. ... St. ... Livingston Island (62°36′ S 060°30′ W) is 61 km (38 mi) long and from 3 to 32 km (2 to 20 mi) wide, lying between Greenwich and Snow Islands in the South Shetland Islands. ... The South Shetland Islands or Iles Shetland du Sud or Islas Shetland del Sur or New South Britain or New South Shetland or Shetland Islands or South Shetlands or Sydshetland or Süd-Shetland Inseln are a chain of islands in the Southern Ocean lying about 120 kilometres northward of...


See also

Byzantine Empire at its greatest extent c. ... Saint Methodius (Greek: Μεθόδιος; Church Slavonic Мефодии) (b. ... Saints Cyril and Methodius painted by Jan Matejko. ...

References

  • This article includes content derived from the Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge, 1914, which is in the public domain.
  • "Cyril and Methodius, Saints". The Columbia Encyclopedia, 2004
  • "Cyril and Methodius, Saints." Encyclopædia Britannica, 2005
  • Byzantine Missions among the Slavs. F. Dvornik (1970).
  • "Lettera Apostolica" Pope John Paul II

The Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge is a 1914 religious encyclopedia, published in thirteen volumes. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...

External links


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