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Encyclopedia > Saint Anthony Falls
Aerial view of Saint Anthony Falls with the upper dam; there is also a lower dam.
Aerial view of Saint Anthony Falls with the upper dam; there is also a lower dam.

Saint Anthony Falls, or the Falls of Saint Anthony, located near downtown Minneapolis, Minnesota, was the only waterfall on the Upper Mississippi River until it was replaced by a concrete apron after they partially collapsed in 1869 and, later, a series of dams in the 1950s and 1960s. The indigenous people who lived in their vicinity called the falls by various names. The Ojibway used the term Kakabikah (the severed rock) and the Dakota used Minirara (curling water) and Owahmenah (falling water).[1] In 1680, the falls became known to the rest of the world when they were observed by Father Louis Hennepin, a Catholic friar of Belgian birth,[2] who also brought the existence of Niagara Falls to the world's attention. Hennepin named Saint Anthony Falls after his patron Saint, Anthony of Padua.[3] Later explorers include Jonathan Carver and Zebulon Montgomery Pike. The region around the falls was added to the National Register of Historic Places as the Saint Anthony Falls Historic District in 1971. Aerial view of Saint Anthony Falls on the Mississippi River in Minneapolis, Minnesota. ... Aerial view of Saint Anthony Falls on the Mississippi River in Minneapolis, Minnesota. ... Nickname: City of Lakes Motto: En Avant Location in Hennepin County and the state of Minnesota. ... Hopetoun Falls near Otway National Park, Victoria, Australia A waterfall is usually a geological formation resulting from water, often in the form of a stream, flowing over an erosion-resistant rock formation that forms a sudden break in elevation. ... See also: Mississippi River The Upper Mississippi River is the portion of the Mississippi River upstream of Cairo, Illinois. ... The Mississippi River, derived from the old Ojibwe word misi-ziibi meaning great river (gichi-ziibi big river at its headwaters), is the second-longest river in the United States; the longest is the Missouri River, which flows into the Mississippi. ... Scrivener Dam, in Canberra, Australia, was engineered to withstand a once-in-5000-years flood A dam is a barrier across flowing water that obstructs, directs or retards the flow, often creating a reservoir, lake or impoundment. ... Indigenous peoples are: Peoples living in an area prior to colonization by a state Peoples living in an area within a nation-state, prior to the formation of a nation-state, but who do not identify with the dominant nation. ... For other uses of Chippewa, see Chippewa (disambiguation). ... Louis Hennepin, baptized Antoine, (12 May 1626 Ath, province of Hainaut, Belgium - 1705?) was a Catholic priest and missionary of the Franciscan Recollect order (French: Récollet) and a French explorer of the interior of North America. ... For other uses, see Niagara Falls (disambiguation). ... Saint Anthony of Padua (August 15, 1195 – June 13, 1231), also venerated (particularly in Portugal) as Saint Anthony of Lisbon (Santo António de Lisboa), is a Catholic saint who was born in Lisbon, Portugal as Fernando de Bulhões (pron. ... Jonathan Carver Jonathan Carver (1710-1780) was an explorer of the North American continent. ... Zebulon Montgomery Pike (January 5, 1779–April 27, 1813) was an American soldier and explorer for whom Pikes Peak in Colorado is named. ... The National Register of Historic Places is the USAs official list of districts, sites, buildings, structures, and objects worthy of preservation. ...

Graphic shows quick recession of the falls
Graphic shows quick recession of the falls

Contents

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (934x1403, 311 KB) taken by William Wesen 09/13/06 I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (934x1403, 311 KB) taken by William Wesen 09/13/06 I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ...

Geology

Plaque describing portaging
Plaque describing portaging

Geologists say that the falls first appeared roughly 10,000 years ago several miles downstream near the confluence of the Minnesota River, around modern-day Saint Paul.[4] Estimates are that the falls were about 180 feet high at that time. The massive River Warren, a precursor of today's Minnesota River, had a waterfall that is said to have been twice as wide as Niagara Falls. Over the millennia, the falls moved upstream, breaking off into several smaller waterfalls as tributaries were reached. Minnehaha Falls in south Minneapolis is one of several such examples. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (949x837, 163 KB) taken by William Wesen 09/13//06 I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (949x837, 163 KB) taken by William Wesen 09/13//06 I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... World geologic provinces Oceanic crust  0-20 Ma  20-65 Ma  >65 Ma Geologic provinces  Shield  Platform  Orogen  Basin  Large igneous province  Extended crust Geology (from Greek γη- (ge-, the earth) and λογος (logos, word, reason))[1] is the science and study of the solid matter of a celestial body, its composition... The Minnesota River is a tributary of the Mississippi River, approximately 332 miles (534 km) long, in the state of Minnesota in the United States. ... Location in Ramsey County and the state of Minnesota. ... The Minnesota River is a tributary of the Mississippi River, approximately 332 miles (534 km) long, in the state of Minnesota in the United States. ... This article belongs in one or more categories. ... Minnehaha Falls Minnehaha Creek is a short tributary of the Mississippi River located in Hennepin County, Minnesota that extends from Lake Minnetonka in the west and flows east for 22 miles (35 km). ...


From its origins near Fort Snelling, St. Anthony Falls relocated upstream at a rate of about 4 feet per year until it reached its present location in the early 1800s. When Father Louis Hennepin documented the falls he estimated the falls' height to be 50 or 60 feet. Later explorers described it as being in the range of 16 to 20 feet high.[5] Fort Snelling is a former military fortification located at the confluence of the Minnesota and Mississippi Rivers in Hennepin County, Minnesota. ...


As Minneapolis (and its former neighbor across the river, St. Anthony) developed, the water power at the falls became a source of power for several industries. Water power was used by sawmills, textile mills, and flour mills. Due to the excavation of the underlying sandstone and the driving of shafts through the bedrock by the millers, the falls' retreat upriver acceleated to 26 feet per year between 1857 and 1868 quickly approaching the edge of the limestone cap.[6] Undershot water wheels on the Orontes River in Hama, Syria Saint Anthony Falls Prior to the widespread availability of commercial electricity, hydropower was used for milling, textile manufacture, and the operation of sawmills. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... The cotton mill is a type of factory that was created to house spinning and weaving machinery. ... A grist mill is a place where grains are ground into flour. ...

The falls in the early 1900s
The falls in the early 1900s
The canyon of the river is banked by a layer of sandstone under limestone
Enlarge
The canyon of the river is banked by a layer of sandstone under limestone

In 1868, the falls were in danger of collapse due to the weakness of the underlying structure. Logs from upstream logging operations fell over the waterfall, damaging the limestone ledge that overlaid a more fragile layer of sandstone. At one point, the Eastman tunnel (under construction by William Eastman and John Merriam) that was being dug under the upper part to supply water to nearby mills collapsed, creating a whirlpool that caused the downriver tip of nearby Nicollet Island to erode quickly. During the spring of 1870 flood water and debris caused the limestone cap to collapse, and several mills and other buildings fell into the river.[7] Image File history File links Pillsbury_and_Phoenix_mills. ... Image File history File links Pillsbury_and_Phoenix_mills. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1200x1600, 539 KB) taken by William Wesen 9/26/2006 I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1200x1600, 539 KB) taken by William Wesen 9/26/2006 I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Limey shale overlaid by limestone. ... Red sandstone interior of Lower Antelope Canyon, Arizona, worn smooth due to erosion by flash flooding over millions of years Sandstone is a sedimentary rock composed mainly of sand-size mineral or rock grains. ... A disused railway tunnel now converted to pedestrian and bicycle use, near Houyet, Belgium A tunnel is an underground passage. ... Saltstraumen off Norway. ... Nicollet Island is an island in the Mississippi River just North of downtown Minneapolis. ...


To protect the falls and to prevent it from degenenerating into a series of rapids, hundreds of volunteers worked swiftly to build a series of dams that would prevent further collapse of the falls. The United States government also assisted in shoring up the falls, in an effort to preserve navigation on the river. By 1884, an apron was completed, the tunnel was sealed, and a dike protected the sandstone from water seepage. The United States government spent $615,000 on this effort, with an additional expense of $334,500 borne by Minneapolis and St. Anthony. [1]


St. Anthony Falls was the upper limit of commercial navigation on the Mississippi until two dams and a series of locks were built between 1948 and 1963 by the United States Army Corps of Engineers. The locks make commercial navigation possible above Minneapolis but, since the locks in Minneapolis are smaller than most of the locks on the river, the practical limit for many commercial tows is farther downriver. Few barges go past St. Paul. Head of navigation is a term used to describe the farthest point above the mouth of a river that can be navigated by ships. ... United States Army Corps of Engineers logo The United States Army Corps of Engineers, or USACE, is made up of some 34,600 civilian and 650 military men and women. ... Location in Ramsey County and the state of Minnesota. ...


St. Anthony Falls locks and dams

Completed in 1963, the upper St. Anthony Falls dam is a horseshoe-shaped hydro-electric dam 93 feet (28 m) in height. The upper pool has a normal capacity of 3,150 acre feet (3,885,000 m³) and a normal level of 799 feet (244 m) above sea level. The navigation channel required alteration of the historic Stone Arch Bridge, which now has a metal truss section to allow ships to pass below. Hydraulic turbine and electrical generator. ... Scrivener Dam, in Canberra, Australia, was engineered to withstand a once-in-5000-years flood A dam is a barrier across flowing water that obstructs, directs or retards the flow, often creating a reservoir, lake or impoundment. ... For considerations of sea level change, in particular rise associated with possible global warming, see sea level rise. ... The Stone Arch Bridge at dusk The Great Northern Railroad crossed the Mississippi River on the Stone Arch Bridge near the Saint Anthony Falls (the only waterfall on the Mississippi) in Minneapolis. ...


Completed in 1956, the lower St. Anthony Falls dam is a gravity-type hydro-electric dam 60 feet (18 m) in height, consisting of a 275 foot (84 m) long concrete spillway with 4 tainter gates. The lower pool (sometimes called the intermediate pool) has a normal capacity of 375 acre-feet (463,000 m³) and a normal level of 750 feet (229 m) above sea level. This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


The pool below the lower dam has a normal level of 725 feet (221 m) above sea level.


The upper and lower locks are each 56 feet (17 m) wide by 400 feet (122 m) long.


Even though the falls often don't look very dangerous, the current is swift and people sometimes find themselves very bad situations in the area. In 1991, a small boat drifted too close and fell over one part of the dam. Two people onboard were killed, and two others had to be rescued by helicopter. Rescues at the site are usually much less dramatic, but continue to happen occasionally. Robinson Helicopter Company (USA) R44, a four seat development of the R22 A helicopter is an aircraft which is lifted and propelled by one or more horizontal rotors, each having two or more rotor blades. ...


Jesse Ventura's brother Jan Janos has been a dam operator at the site for many years. Jesse Ventura (born 15 July 1951, as James George Janos), also known as The Body, The Star, The Mind, and Governor Body, is an American politician, Navy UDT, professional wrestler, actor, and radio talk show host. ...

The concrete apron over St. Anthony Falls
The concrete apron over St. Anthony Falls
The concrete apron over St. Anthony Falls
The concrete apron over St. Anthony Falls

Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (900x297, 57 KB)I took this photo on April 14, 2001. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (900x297, 57 KB)I took this photo on April 14, 2001. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1565x1127, 245 KB) taken by William Wesen 09/13/06 I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1565x1127, 245 KB) taken by William Wesen 09/13/06 I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ...

See also

Saint Anthony Main is a shopping and office complex located on Main Street in Southeast Minneapolis, Minnesota, along the Mississippi River, adjacent to and integrated with Riverplace, a housing and office complex, next to the St. ...

References

  1. ^ Pennefeather, Shannon M. (2003). Mill City: A Visual History of the Minneapolis Mill District. St. Paul, Minnesota: Minnesota Historical Society.

External links

  • U.S. Army Corps of Engineers St. Paul District: Upper St. Anthony Falls
  • U.S. Army Corps of Engineers St. Paul District: Lower St. Anthony Falls
  • Engineering the Falls: The Corps Role at St. Anthony Falls - an article on the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers website covering the history and geology of St. Anthony Falls.
Upstream:
Locks and dams on the Upper Mississippi River Downstream:
Meeker Island Lock and Dam (demolished)


See also: Mississippi River The Upper Mississippi River is the portion of the Mississippi River upstream of Cairo, Illinois. ... The Mississippi River, derived from the old Ojibwe word misi-ziibi meaning great river (gichi-ziibi big river at its headwaters), is the second-longest river in the United States; the longest is the Missouri River, which flows into the Mississippi. ... The Meeker Island Lock and Dam circa 1910 The Meeker Island Lock and Dam (originally known as Lock and Dam No. ...

The Twin Cities Campus of the University of Minnesota  v  d  e 
Carlson School of ManagementCoffman Memorial UnionDinkytownEastcliffGAPSAThe Gopher WayLaw SchoolMariucci ArenaMcNamara Alumni CenterMemorial Stadium (demolished) • MetrodomeNorthrop AuditoriumNorthrop MallRidder ArenaSchool of Social WorkSiebert FieldStadium VillageSuperblockTCF Bank Stadium (planned) • Washington Ave. BridgeWeisman Art MuseumWilliams Arena

  Results from FactBites:
 
Saint Anthony Falls - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (744 words)
Saint Anthony Falls, or the Falls of Saint Anthony, located near downtown Minneapolis, Minnesota, was the only waterfall on the Mississippi River until it was replaced by a concrete apron after they partially collapsed in 1869 and, later, a series of dams in the 1950s and 1960s.
In the late 19th century, the falls were in danger of collapse due to the weakness of the underlying structure.
Anthony Falls was the upper limit of commercial navigation on the Mississippi until two dams and a series of locks were built between 1948 and 1963 by the United States Army Corps of Engineers.
Saint Anthony Falls - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (744 words)
Aerial view of Saint Anthony Falls with the upper dam; there is also a lower dam.
Minnehaha Falls in south Minneapolis is one of several such examples.
Completed in 1963, the upper St. Anthony Falls dam is a horseshoe-shaped hydro-electric dam 93 feet (28 m) in height.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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