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Encyclopedia > Saint
In traditional Christian iconography, Saints are often depicted as having halos. Note that Judas is depicted without a halo.
In traditional Christian iconography, Saints are often depicted as having halos. Note that Judas is depicted without a halo.
Saints Portal 

A saint is a particularly good, holy person. The term is used within Christianity and, with definitions varying by denomination, but English-language publications will sometimes use saint to describe a revered person from another religion. The word itself means “holy” and is derived from the Latin sanctus. The concept originates in early Greek Christian literature with the use of the word aghios (Greek άγιος meaning “holy” or “holy one”) and in the New Testament, where it is used to describe the followers of Jesus of Nazareth.[1] (In the Old Testament, the word cognate to "holy" is the Hebrew word qodesh, קדש) Look up saint in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Image File history File links Last Supper 1685 Uploaded from http://www. ... Image File history File links Last Supper 1685 Uploaded from http://www. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christian... A halo (Greek: ; also known as a nimbus, glory, or Gloriole) is a ring of light that surrounds an object. ... Judas (Greek: Ιούδας) is the anglicized Greek rendering of the Hebrew name Yehudah (Hebrew: יְהוּדָה), also rendered in English as Judah. ... Image File history File links Gloriole. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      A denomination... This article is about the Christian scriptures. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... Hebrew (Natzrat or Natzeret) Arabic الناصرة (an-Nāṣira) Government City District North Population 64,800[1] Metropolitan Area: 185,000 (2006) Jurisdiction 14 200 dunams (14. ...


Other religions also recognize certain individuals as having particular holiness or enlightenment.

Contents

Characteristics and definitions

The anthropologist [2] Lawrence Babb in an article about Sathya Sai Baba asks the question "Who is a saint?", and responds by saying that in the symbolic infrastructure of some religions, there is the image of certain extraordinary spiritual persons who are "commonly believed to possess miraculous powers", and to whom frequently a certain moral presence is attributed. These saintly figures, he asserts, are "the focal points of spiritual force-fields," exerting "powerful attractive influence on followers but touch the inner lives of others in transforming ways as well."[3] Sathya Sai Baba (born Sathyanarayana Raju on 23 November 1926,[1][2] — with the family name of Ratnakara) is a guru from southern India, religious leader, orator and philosopher often described as a godman[3][4] and a miracle worker. ...


History

According to the Church of England, a saint is one who is sanctified, as it translates in the Authorised King James Version (1611) 2 Chronicles 6:41 The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[3] in England, the Mother Church of the worldwide Anglican Communion and the oldest among the communions thirty-eight independent national churches. ... (Redirected from 2 Chronicles) The Book of Chronicles is a book in the Hebrew Bible (also see Old Testament). ...

Now therefore arise, O LORD God, into thy resting place, thou, and the ark of thy strength: let thy priests, O LORD God, be clothed with salvation, and let thy saints rejoice in goodness.

The early Christians were all called saints (Book of Hebrews 13:24; Jude 1:3; Philemon 1:5, 7). This is based on the mistranslated 1917 version of The Jewish Publication Society of America Hebrew Bible which translated "Hasidism" in that verse as "saints", rather then as "pious" (from the Hebrew root word חסד chesed meaning "lovingkindness").[4] The Epistle to the Hebrews (abbreviated Heb. ... Look up Jude in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Philemon is the recipient of the Epistle to Philemon, which is a book of the Bible from the New Testament. ... This article is about the term Hebrew Bible. For the Jewish scriptures see Tanakh. ... This article is about the Hasidic movement originating in Poland and Russia. ...


The concept of sainthood is rooted in the Christian belief that aligning one’s motives and actions with the will of God makes one more perfect and holy, and that it is possible in life to approach perfection. From early days of Christianity, Paul the Apostle and others used the word agios (“holy”) to refer not only to all living believers (as in Philippians 4:21-22 or Revelation 20:9) but, at times, also to those in heaven (as in 1 Thessalonians 3:13). [5] As Christianity developed, the word saint came to be used more commonly to designate specific individuals who were held to be exemplars of the faith, and who were commemorated or venerated as an inspiration to other Christians. Initially, the term was used to describe those who had been martyrs for the faith. Other believers would gather at the martyr’s grave, and celebrate the Eucharist there. The ceremony took the form of a joyful, triumphant celebration. The first recorded instance of such ceremonies is the annual celebrations at the grave of Polycarp in the second century.[6] From the beginning of Christianity, Christians prayed to departed friends and relatives to intercede on their behalf, and such prayers were soon extended to those regarded as saints. Rather quickly, the saints' intercession was sought more frequently than that of departed personal friends. Bishops and martyrs tended to be the most frequently venerated during these early years. Examples of early requests for intercession can be found in the Catacombs of Rome.[6] St. ... For other uses, see Martyr (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Eucharist (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Polycarp (disambiguation). ... // Christianity In Christian practice, intercessory prayer is the act of one person praying for or on behalf of another person or situation. ... Diocesan College, or Bishops as it is commonly known, is a private school situated in the leafy suburb of Rondebosch in Cape Town, South Africa, at the foot of Table Mountain. ... Historically, a martyr is a person who dies for his or her religious faith. ... A procession in the catacomb of Callistus. ...


Shortly thereafter, another type of saint became recognized. This was the anchorite or hermit, of the type of Anthony of Egypt. Although hermits did not die in the physical sense, they did resolve to die to the pleasures of the world, making them effectively martyrs. Subsequently, after the formation of monasteries, monks came under consideration as saints. When convents were formed, nuns began to be canonized. Also, outstanding laymen became more frequently considered as saints. Anchorites cell in Skipton The church at Shere, Surrey, England had a cell for an anchoress St Anthony the Great, father of Christian Monasticism and early anchorite This article is about a form of ancient religious living and modern Consecrated life. For other uses, see Anchorite (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Hermit (disambiguation). ... Saint Anthony the Great (251 - 356), also known as Saint Anthony Abbot, Saint Anthony of Egypt, Saint Anthony of the Desert, Saint Anthony the Anchorite, and The Father of All Monks, was an Egyptian Christian saint and the outstanding leader among the Desert Fathers, who were Christian monks in the... Buddhist monastery near Tibet A monastery is the habitation of monks. ... A Beguine convent in Amsterdam. ...


To assist in the differentiation of the various kinds of saints, terms were invented to differentiate between them. In addition to the existing bishop, martyr, and hermit, Virgin and Matron for women, Confessor, Abbott and Abbess, Priest, and other words were added. Since then, churches have created additional such terms to assist in differentiating the ever-proliferating types. In Roman times, Vestal Virgins were strictly celibate or they were punished by death. ... Matron is the job title of a very senior nurse in several countries, including the United Kingdom. ... The title confessor is used in the Christian Church in two separate ways. ... Abbott as a placename may mean: Abbott, Arkansas (United States), located in Scott County Abbott, California (United States), located in Sutter County Abbott, Iowa (United States), located in Hardin County Abbott, Mississippi (United States), located in Clay County Abbott, Nebraska (United States), located in Hall County Abbott, New Mexico (United... An Abbess (Latin abbatissa, fem. ... This article is about religious workers. ...


Within the Roman Catholic tradition, a formal process of canonization developed for identifying individuals as saints. Within Orthodox tradition, some saints are universally recognized, while others are defined and remembered only by local churches. The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... This article is about the process of declaring saints. ...


Within some Protestant traditions, saint is also used to refer to any born-again Christian. In Christianity, the term born again or regenerated is synonymous with spiritual rebirth—salvation. ...


Abbreviation for the term Saint is usually St; in cases where multiple Saints are referenced “SS.” is the norm. An abbreviation (from Latin brevis short) is a shortened form of a word or phrase. ... ST or St may stand for: Abbreviation for Street (St. ...


Christianity

Roman Catholicism

Saints of the Roman Catholic church.
Saints of the Roman Catholic church.

There are more than 10,000 Roman Catholic saints. [7] The older term for saint is martyr, meaning someone who would rather die than give up their faith, or more specifically, witness for God. However, as the word martyr took on more and more the meaning of "one who died for the Faith," the term saint, meaning holy, became more common to describe the whole of Christian witnesses, both martyrs and confessors. The Catholic Church teaches that it does not, in fact, make anyone a saint. Rather, it recognizes a saint. In the Roman Catholic church, the title of Saint - with a capital 'S' - refers to a person who has been formally canonized (officially recognised) by the Church. File links The following pages link to this file: University of Santo Tomas Categories: Images with unknown source ... File links The following pages link to this file: University of Santo Tomas Categories: Images with unknown source ... For other uses, see Martyr (disambiguation). ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... The title confessor is used in the Christian Church in two separate ways. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... This article is about the process of declaring saints. ...


Also, by this definition there are many people believed to be in heaven who have not been formally declared as Saints (most typically due to their obscurity and the involved process of formal canonization) but who may nevertheless generically be referred to as saints (lowercase 's'). Anyone in heaven is, in the technical sense, a saint. Unofficial devotions to uncanonised individuals take place in certain regions. For other uses, see Heaven (disambiguation). ...


The veneration of saints, in Latin, cultus, or the cult of the saints, describes a particular popular devotion to the saints. Although the term "worship" is often used, it is intended in the old sense meaning to honor or give respect (dulia). Divine Worship is properly reserved only for God (latria) and never to the Saints. In Roman Catholic theology, since God is the God of the Living, then it follows that the saints are alive in Heaven. As "special friends of God" they can be asked to intercede or pray for those still on earth. A saint may be designated as a patron saint of particular causes or professions, or invoked against specific illnesses or disasters. They are not thought to have power of their own, but only that granted by God. Relics of saints are respected in a similar manner to holy images and icons. The practices of past centuries in calling upon relics of saints for healing is taken from the early Christian church. The worship of saints is referred to as 'hagiolatry'. Veneration is a religious symbolic act giving honor to someone by honoring an image of that person, particularly applied to saints. ... Taken during a Hindu prayer ceremony on the eve of Diwali. ... Saint Quentin is the patron saint of locksmiths and is also invoked against coughs and sneezes. ... Relics can be: Relics: the remains of saints (usually bones), honored in the Catholic and Orthodox churches. ... The Savior Not Made By Hands (1410s, by Andrei Rublev) An icon (from Greek εικων, eikon, image) is an artistic visual representation or symbol of anything considered holy and divine, such as God, saints or deities. ...


"So extraordinary were the mighty deeds God accomplished at the hands of Paul that when face cloths or aprons that touched his skin were applied to the sick, their diseases left them and the evil spirits came out of them." (Acts 19:12)


Once a person has been declared a saint, the body of the saint is considered holy. The remains of saints are called holy relics and are usually used in Churches. The saints' personal belongings may also be used as relics. Some of the saints have a symbol that represents their life. Relics can be: Relics: the remains of saints (usually bones), honored in the Catholic and Orthodox churches. ...


Canonization

Main article: Canonization

In the Roman Catholic tradition, a person that is seen as exceptionally holy can be declared a saint by a formal process, called canonization. This particular form of recognition formally allows the person so canonized to be listed in the official Litany of the Saints during Mass. Formal canonization is a lengthy process often taking many years, even centuries. The first step in this process is an investigation of the candidate's life, undertaken by an expert. After this, the report on the candidate is given to the bishop of the area and more studying is done. It is then sent to the Congregation for the Causes of Saints in Rome. If they approve it, then the person may be granted the title of "Venerable", further investigations may lead to the candidate's beatification and given title of "Blessed." At a minimum, two important miracles are required to be formally declared a saint. The Church, however, places special weight on those miracles or instances of intercession that happened after the individual died and which are seen to demonstrate the saint's continued special relationship with God after death. Finally, when all of this is done the Pope canonises the saint. This article is about the process of declaring saints. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... This article is about the process of declaring saints. ... The Litany of the Saints or Litaniae Sanctorum is a sacred prayer of the Roman Catholic Church and its Eastern Rite. ... For other uses of Mass, see Mass (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Miracle (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Pope (disambiguation). ...


Eastern Orthodoxy

Further information: Glorification

In the Eastern Orthodox Church a Saint is defined as anyone who is in Heaven, whether recognized here on earth, or not. By this definition, Adam and Eve, Moses, the various Prophets, the Angels and Archangels are all given the title of "Saint". This article is about the process of declaring saints. ... Eastern Orthodoxy (also called Greek Orthodoxy and Russian Orthodoxy) is a Christian tradition which represents the majority of Eastern Christianity. ... For other uses, see Heaven (disambiguation). ... Michelangelos Creation of Adam, from the Sistine Chapel. ... Moses with the Tablets, 1659, by Rembrandt This article is about the Biblical figure. ... For other senses of this word, see Prophet (disambiguation). ... The Annunciation - the Angel Gabriel announces to Mary that she will bear Jesus (El Greco, 1575) An angel is an ethereal being found in many religions, whose duties are to assist and serve God. ... An archangel is a supernatural being of Zoroastrian Persian, Judaic, Christian, and Islamic theology, counted among the angels. ...


Orthodox belief considers that God reveals his Saints through answered prayers and other miracles. Saints are usually recognized by a local community, often by people who directly knew them. As their popularity grows they are often then recognized by the entire church. The formal process of recognition involves deliberation by a synod of Bishops. If successful, this is followed by a service of Glorification in which the Saint is given a day on the church calendar to be celebrated by the entire church. This does not however make the person a saint; the person already was a saint and the Church ultimately recognized it. This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ...


It is believed that one of the ways the holiness (saintliness) of a person is revealed is through the condition of their relics (remains). In some Orthodox countries (such as Greece, but not in Russia) graves are often reused after 3 to 5 years because of limited space. Bones are washed and placed in an ossuary, often with the person's name written on the skull. Occasionally when a body is exhumed something miraculous is reported as having occurred; exhumed bones are claimed to have given off a fragrance, like flowers, or a body is reported as having remained free of decay, despite not having been embalmed (traditionally the Orthodox do not embalm the dead) and having been buried for some years in the earth. Ossuary in Hallstatt (see the article for details). ... Embalming, in most modern cultures, is a process used to temporarily preserve a human cadaver to forestall decomposition and make it suitable for display at a funeral. ...


The reason relics are considered sacred is because, for the Orthodox, the separation of body and soul is unnatural. Body and soul both comprise the person, and in the end, body and soul will be reunited; therefore, the body of a saint shares in the “Holiness” of the soul of the saint. As a general rule only clergy will touch relics in order to move them or carry them in procession, however, in veneration the faithful will kiss the relic to show love and respect toward the saint. Every altar in every Orthodox church contains relics, usually of martyrs. Church interiors are covered with the Icons of saints. Clergy is the generic term used to describe the formal religious leadership within a given religion. ... Veneration is a religious symbolic act giving honor to someone by honoring an image of that person, particularly applied to saints. ... Look up Altar in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Historically, a martyr is a person who dies for his or her religious faith. ... The Savior Not Made By Hands (1410s, by Andrei Rublev) An icon (from Greek εικων, eikon, image) is an artistic visual representation or symbol of anything considered holy and divine, such as God, saints or deities. ...


Because the Church shows no true distinction between the living and the dead (the Saints are considered to be alive in Heaven), saints are referred to as if they were still alive. Saints are venerated but not worshipped. They are believed to be able to intercede for salvation and help mankind either through direct communion with God, or by personal intervention.


When a person is baptized in the Orthodox Church, he or she is given a new name, always the name of a saint. Regardless of the name a person was born with, the person begins to use his saint's name as his own during Communion, to help indicate that through his baptism the person has begun his life anew. This saint becomes one's personal patron, and his saint's day is also celebrated as a personal holiday. After infant baptism became widespread, though, the child usually received the name in a ceremony held 8 days after the birth, inside the house. Nowadays this service has almost become obsolete and the child is named at baptism. For other uses, see Eucharist (disambiguation). ...


Anglicanism

Main article: Saints in Anglicanism

In the Anglican Church, the title of Saint - with a capital 'S' - refers to a person who has been elevated by popular opinion as a pious and holy person. The saints are seen as models of holiness to be imitated, and as a 'cloud of witnesses' that strengthen and encourage the believer during his or her spiritual journey (Hebrews 12:1). The saints are seen as elder brothers and sisters in Christ. Official Anglican creeds recognise the existence of the saints in heaven. The provinces of the Anglican Communion commemorate many of the same saints as those in the Roman Catholic calendar, often on the same days, but also commemorate various famous (often post-Reformation and/or English) Christians who have not been canonized. ... The Anglican Communion is a world-wide organisation of Anglican Churches. ...


So far as saintly intercession is concerned, Article XXII of Anglicanism's Articles of Religion "Of Purgatory" condemns "the Romish Doctrine concerning...(the) Invocation of Saints" as "a fond thing vainly invented, and grounded upon no warranty of Scripture, but rather repugnant to the Word of God". Although in practice a minority of Anglicans, particularly Anglo-Catholics, may personally ask prayers of the saints, such a practice is not found in any Anglican liturgy. Anglicanism believes that the only effective intercessor between the believer and the Father is the Son, Jesus Christ. Christ personally enjoined his followers to ask for his intercession when praying (John 15:16). The Thirty-Nine Articles are the defining statements of Anglican doctrine. ... Illustration for Dantes Purgatorio (18), by Gustave Doré, an imaginative picturing of Purgatory. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... This page is about the title, office or what is known in Christian theology as the Divine Person. ...


Anglican Catholic denominations understand sainthood in a more Roman Catholic or orthodox way, often praying for intercessions from the saints and celebrating their feast days. The terms Anglo-Catholic and Anglo-Catholicism describe people, groups, ideas, customs and practices within Anglicanism that emphasise continuity with Catholic tradition. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... “Orthodox” redirects here. ...


Protestantism

In many Protestant churches, the word "Saint" is used more generally to refer to anyone who is a Christian. This is similar in usage to Paul's numerous references in the New Testament of the Bible. In this sense, anyone who is within the Body of Christ (i.e., a professing Christian) is a 'saint' because of their relationship with Jesus. Because of this, many Protestants consider prayers to the saints to be idolatry or even necromancy. Protestantism encompasses the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated with the doctrines of the Reformation. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... St. ... The Body of Christ is a term used by Christians to describe believers in Christ. ... Intercession of the saints is a Christian doctrine common to the Catholic and Orthodox Churches. ... The Adoration of the Golden Calf by Nicolas Poussin Idolatry is a major sin in the Abrahamic religions regarding image. ... This article is about the general subject of necromancy. ...


There are some groups which are generally classified as Protestants who do not accept the idea of the communion of saints. These groups, which are often more specifically referred to as Restorationists, do not believe in the efficacy of the intercession of saints. This is primarily due to two distinct, but opposing beliefs found within the various "Restorationists". Some believe all of the departed are in soul sleep until the final resurrection on Judgment Day. Others believe that the departed go to either Paradise or Tartarus, to await the day in which the living and the dead are judged. The Communion of Saints is the doctrine that the saints (i. ... Restorationism is not a single religious movement, but a wave of comparably motivated movements that arose in the eastern United States and Canada in the early 19th century in the wake of the Second Great Awakening. ... Soul sleep is a belief held by some Christians claiming that between death and the resurrection of the dead, the body and soul rest together in unconsciousness. ... Look up Resurrection in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article or section should be merged with End times and Last judgment The Last Judgement - Tympanum sculpture at the Abbey Church of Ste-Foy, Conques-en-Rouergue, France In Christian eschatology, the Last Judgement is the ethical-judicial trial, judgement, and punishment/reward of individual humans (assignment to heaven... Paradise, Jan Bruegel Paradise is an English word from Persian roots that is generally identified with the Garden of Eden or with Heaven. ... This article is about the deity and the place in Greek mythology. ...


High church Lutherans may use the term "saint" similarly to the manner in which other Catholics use it. High Church relates to ecclesiology and liturgy in Christian theology and practice. ... The Lutheran movement is a group of denominations of Protestant Christianity by the original definition. ...

Further information: Priesthood of all believers

The priesthood of all believers is a Christian doctrine based on several passages of the New Testament. ...

Latter-day Saints

The beliefs of members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints or Mormons with regard to saints are similar to the Protestant tradition described above. In the New Testament the saints are all those who have entered into the Christian covenant. The qualification "Latter-Day" Saints refers to the doctrine that members are living in the "latter days" before the second coming of Jesus Christ, and is used to distinguish the modern church from the ancient Christian church. Therefore members refer to themselves as "Latter-day Saints", or simply "Saints", most often among themselves. For other uses, see The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (disambiguation). ... This article is about the history and use of the word Mormon. For information about the religious beliefs and culture of Mormons, see Mormonism. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... This page is about the title, office or what is known in Christian theology as the Divine Person. ...


Santeria - Voodoo

The veneration of Roman Catholic saints forms the basis of the Cuban Santería religion. In Santería, saints are syncretised with Yoruban deities, and are equally worshipped in churches (where they appear as saints) and in Santería religious festivities, where they appear as deities (orishas); however, this practice is condemned vehemently by the Roman Catholic Church as sacrilegious and contrary to Catholic practice. Veneration is a religious symbolic act giving honor to someone by honoring an image of that person, particularly applied to saints. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... For other uses, see Santeria (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The mythology of the Yorùbá is sometimes claimed by its supporters to be one of the worlds oldest widely practised religions. ... This article is about the term Deity in the context of mysticism and theology. ... This article is about a type of spirit. ...


Santeria, Haitian Vodou, Brazilian Umbanda and other similar religions adopted the Roman Catholic Saints, or the images of the saints, as representations of their own spirits/deities or 'Orishas' in Santeria and 'Lwa' in Vodoun. Although there are many similarities between Vodoun and Santeria, they are different in respect to origin and language (Vodou is French, Santeria is Spanish). The adoption of Catholic Saints was fairly common in the religions that were adapted by the slaves in the New World. It can be understood as an example of faux-Catholicism. This article is about the West African religion. ... Umbanda is a religion that blends Catholicism, Kardecist Spiritualism, and Afro-Brazilian religions . ...


Other religions

Caitanya Mahaprabhu (1486–1534)

The concept of sainthood developed in the Christian tradition. However, there are parallel concepts in other religions that recognize certain individuals as having particular holiness (or enlightenment). Judaism speaks of a class of (unidentified) individuals known as Tzadikkim. Some other faiths honor individuals as "saints" or equivalent as well. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Deities of Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu (right) and Sri Nityananda (left) at Radha-Krishna temple in Radhadesh, Belgium Chaitanya Mahaprabhu (also transliterated Chaitanya) (1486 - 1534), was an ascetic Hindu monk and social reformer in 16th century Bengal, India (present-day West Bengal and Bangladesh). ... Tzadik - צדיק (plural: Tzadikkim) is the Hebrew word for righteous one, and is a title which is generally given to those whom are considered to be righteous such as a spiritual master or Rebbe. ...


There are individuals who have been described as being Hindu saints, most of whom have also been more specifically identified by the terms Mahatma, Paramahamsa, or Swami, or with the titles Sri or Srila. However, modern use of these terms has been strongly influenced by Theosophy[citation needed]. Buddhists hold the Arhats and Arahants in special esteem. Some groups of Islam hold the hadrat in similar esteem. Saints are recognized in Hinduism although it does not require canonization or similar formal process to acknowledge a person as one. ... Mahatma is Sanskrit for Great Soul (महात्मा mahātmā: महा mahā (great) + आत्मं or आत्मन ātman (soul)). This epithet is applied to people like Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, though sources vary on who first gave him this name. ... Paramahamsa (also paramahansa and paramhansa) -- This is a religio/theological title associated with particular Hindu saints, by their devotees; one thus sees these religious figures referred to as -- Ramakrishna Paramahamsa and Paramahansa Yogananda. Hamsa is only an allegory. ... Swami playing the Harmonium Swami is a primarily Hindu honorific, loosely akin to master. It is derived from the Sanskrit language and means owner of oneself, denoting complete mastery over instinctive and lower urges. ... An acronym SRI may refer to one of the following: Socially Responsible Investment. ... Theosophy is a word and a concept known anciently, commonly understood in the modern era to describe the studies of religious philosophy and metaphysics originating with Helena Petrovna Blavatsky from the 1870s. ... A Chinese Luohan statue from the Liao Dynasty in Hebei Province, China In the sramanic traditions of ancient India (most notably those of Mahavira and Gautama Buddha) arhat (Sanskrit) or arahant (Pali) signified a spiritual practitioner who had—to use an expression common in the tipitaka—laid down the burden... A garden featuring depictions of various arhats (Hsi Lai Temple, California) An arhat (also arahat or arahant; Chinese: 阿羅漢, aluohan; Tibetan: dgra-bcom-pa; Jp. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Hadrat or Hazrat (Arabic: حضرات) is an honorific Arabic title used to honor a person. ...


Anthropologists have also noted the parallels between the regard for some Sufi figures in popular Muslim observance and Christian ideas of sainthood. In some Muslim countries there are shrines at the tombs of Sufi "saints", with the observation of festival days on the anniversary of death, and a tradition of miracle-working. In some cases, the rites are observed according to the solar calendar, rather than the normal Islamic lunar calendar.[8] Sufism is a mystic tradition within Islam that encompasses a diverse range of beliefs and practices dedicated to Divine love and the cultivation of the elements of the Divine within the individual human being. ...


While there are parallels between these (and other) concepts and that of sainthood, it is important to remember that each of these concepts has specific meanings within their given religion, and not all of those meanings are identical with the meaning of the idea of sainthood. Also, several religions which are at times considered to be new religious movements have taken to using the word, sometimes in cases where the people so named were not even Christians. Some of the Cao Dai saints and Saints of Ecclesia Gnostica Catholica are examples of such. A new religious movement or NRM is a term used to refer to a religious faith, or an ethical, spiritual or philosophical movement of recent origin that isnt part of an established denomination, church, or religious body. ... Cao Dais Holy See, called the Tay Ninh Holy See, is located in Tay Ninh, Viet Nam Caodaism (Vietnamese:  ) is a relatively new, syncretist, monotheistic religion, officially established in Tây Ninh, southern Vietnam, in 1926. ... The Gnostic Saints of Ecclesia Gnostica Catholica are listed in Liber XV, also known as the Gnostic Mass, which is the central rite of Ordo Templi Orientis and its ecclesiastical arm, Ecclesia Gnostica Catholica. ...


The concept of sant or bhagat found in North Indian religious tradition, is unrelated and a false cognate of "saint". Figures such as Kabir, Ravidas, Nanak, and others are widely regarded as belonging to the Sant tradition. Some of their mystical compositions are incorporated in the Guru Granth Sahib. The term "Sant" is still sometimes loosely applied to living individuals in the Sikh and related communities. Sant Mat translates from Hindi into English as The Religion of the Saints. ... Bhagat refers to a Holy Person who leads humanity towards God. ... The term false cognate is sometimes used incorrectly for false friend. ... A painting of Kabir KabÄ«r (also KabÄ«ra) (Hindi: कबीर, GurmukhÄ«: ਕਬੀਰ, Urdu: ) (1440—1518[1]) (born in 1398 according to some accounts[1][2]) was a mystic poet or poet sants of India, whose literature has greatly influenced the Bhakti as well as Sufi movements of India. ... This box:      Indian religious leader and founder Satguru of the Ravidasi beliefs, revered by most Hindus as a Sant, by Nirankari sect, Balmiki sect as a Guru, by Radhasoami organization as a Sant and as a Bhagat by Sikhs, which is a somewhat lesser station than that attributed to him... Guru Nanak (गुरु नानक) (20 October 1469 - 7 May 1539), the founder of Sikhism and the first of the ten Gurus of the Sikhs, was born in the village of Talwandi, now called Nankana Sahib, near Lahore in present-day Pakistan. ... The Shri Guru Granth Sahib (Punjabi: , ) is the 11th Guru of Sikhism, the holy book of Sikhism, which is revered as a living Guru by the Sikhs. ...


See also

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Saints

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The calendar of saints is a traditional Christian method of organising a liturgical year on the level of days by associating each day with one or more saints, and referring to the day as that saints day. ... For the General Roman Calendar as it was in 1955, see Traditional Catholic Calendar. ... The Communion of Saints is the doctrine that the saints (i. ... The Congregation for the Causes of Saints (Congregatio de Causis Sanctorum) is the congregation of the Roman Curia which oversees the complex process which leads to the canonization of saints, passing through the steps of a declaration of heroic virtues and beatification. ... This article is about Christian saints. ... . ... A martyrology is a catalogue or list of martyrs, or, more exactly, of saints, arranged in the order of their anniversaries. ... Saint Quentin is the patron saint of locksmiths and is also invoked against coughs and sneezes. ... Intercession of the saints is a Christian doctrine common to the Catholic and Orthodox Churches. ... Many religions keep lists of departed holy people or saints who are revered. ... Hagiography is the study of saints. ... Saint symbology was important to people who couldnt read because they can figure out what symbols mean. ... Egypt was one of the first countries to know Christianity and the Copts belive in Christianty goes back to the first cetury A.D. Coptic saints have been a part of history of Christianity since its beginings and a lot of them are recognised by other Churches like the Catholic... This is a collection of Roman Catholic individuals that are reported to have had the stunning ability to rise into the air in spite of their weight. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Look up icon in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Bibliography

  • Cunningham, Lawrence S. The Meaning of Saints. San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1980.
  • Hawley, John Stratton, ed. Saints and Virtues. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1987.
  • Hein, David. "Saints: Holy, Not Tame." Sewanee Theological Review 49 (2006): 204–17.
  • Hein, David. "Farrer on Friendship, Sainthood, and the Will of God." In Captured by the Crucified: The Practical Theology of Austin Farrer. Edited by David Hein and Edward Hugh Henderson. New York and London: T & T Clark / Continuum, 2004. 119-48.
  • O'Malley, Vincent J. "Ordinary Suffering of Extraordinary Saints", 1999. ISBN 0-87973-893-6
  • Perham, Michael. The Communion of Saints. London: Alcuin Club / SPCK, 1980.
  • Woodward, Kenneth L. Making Saints. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1996.
  • Jean-Luc Deuffic (éd.), Reliques et sainteté dans l'espace médiéval [1]

Austin Farrer (1904-1968) English theologian, biblical scholar, and philosopher. ...

References

  1. ^ F.W. Danker, et al., A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and other Early Christian Literature, 3rd edition (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000), entry for άγιος esp. definition 2.d.β.
  2. ^ Hawley, John Stratton, ed. Saints and Virtues Berkeley: University of California Press, 1987. page 239
  3. ^ Babb, Lawrence A. "Sathya Sai Baba's Saintly Play" in Hawley, John Stratton, ed. Saints and Virtues Berkeley: University of California Press, 1987. pp 168-170
  4. ^ p.486, Jastrow
  5. ^ Attwater, Donald and Catherine Rachel John. Dictionary of Saints, page 1. London: Penguin Books, 3rd ed., 1995. ISBN 978-0-14-051312-7.
  6. ^ a b Attwater & John (1995) page 2
  7. ^ All About Saints
  8. ^ Michael Gilsenan (1973). Saint and Sufi in Modern Egypt. Oxford. ISBN 0-19-823181-4. 

University of California Press, also known as UC Press, is a publishing house associated with the University of California that engages in academic publishing. ... University of California Press, also known as UC Press, is a publishing house associated with the University of California that engages in academic publishing. ...

External links

Stages of Canonization in the Roman Catholic Church
  Servant of God   →   Venerable   →   Blessed   →   Saint  
This article is about the process of declaring saints. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... Servant of God is the title given to a person of the Roman Catholic Church upon whom a pope has opened a cause of sainthood. ... A Stained Glass image of Venerable Father Samuel Mazzuchelli in St. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

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