FACTOID # 27: If you're itching to live in a trailer park, hitch up your home and head to South Carolina, where a whopping 18% of residences are mobile homes.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Sailendra" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Sailendra
This article is part of
the History of Indonesia series
See also:
Timeline of Indonesian History
Prehistory
Early kingdoms
Srivijaya (3rd to 14th century)
Sailendra (8th & 9th centuries)
Kingdom of Mataram (752–1045)
Kediri (1045–1221)
Singhasari (1222–1292)
Majapahit Empire (1293–1500)
The rise of Muslim states
The spread of Islam (1200–1600)
Malacca Sultanate (1400–1511)
Sultanate of Demak (1475–1518)
Aceh Sultanate (1496 - 1903)
Mataram Sultanate (1500s to 1700s)
Colonial Indonesia
The Portuguese in Indonesia (1512-1850)
Dutch East India Company (1602–1799)
Dutch East Indies (1800–1942)
The emergence of Indonesia
National Revival (1899–1942)
Japanese Occupation (1942-45)
Declaration of Independence (1945)
National Revolution (1945–1950)
Independent Indonesia
Liberal Democracy (1950-1957)
Guided Democracy (1957-1965)
Transition to the New Order (1965–1966)
The New Order (1966-1998)
Revolution of 1998 (1996–1998)
[Edit this template]

Sailendra ( meaning "Lord of the Mountain" in Sanskrit ) was the name of an Indonesian dynasty, emerging in Central Java at the end of the 8 th century. The name and dynasty ( Sailendra-vamsa ) is first attested in the Kalasan inscription dated 778 ( Casparis , 1956 ) . The Sailendras were very strong promotors of Mahayana Buddhism and are credited for having build several temples on Java. As K.R. Hall states : Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Indonesia is an archipelagic country of 17,508 islands (6,000 inhabited) stretching along the equator in South East Asia. ... Image File history File links Historyofindonesia. ... Main article: History of Indonesia This is a timeline of Indonesian history. ... Indonesia is an archipelagic country of 17,508 islands (6,000 inhabited) stretching along the equator in South East Asia. ... Map of Southeast Asia at end of 12th century. ... This acticle concerns the Hindu Kingdom of Mataram. ... Kediri was a Hindu kingdom based in East Java from 1045 to 1221. ... Singhasari was a kingdom located in east Java between 1222 and 1292. ... The Majapahit Empire was an Indianized kingdom based in eastern Java from 1293 to around 1500. ... Islam is thought to have first been adopted by Indonesians sometime during the eleventh century, although Muslims had visited Indonesia early in the Muslim era. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Sultanate of Demak was founded in the 16th century by Raden Patah (1475-1518), once a vassal of the declining Majapahit Empire. ... Aceh was a sultanate in the region of what is today Aceh Province of Indonesia. ... This article is about a historic kingdom on Java in what is now Indonesia. ... Indonesia is an archipelagic country of 17,508 islands (6,000 inhabited) stretching along the equator in South East Asia. ... This article is about the trading company. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The period of the Dutch Ethical Policy and Indonesian National Revival was a period in Indonesian history spanning from 1899 until the Japanese Invasion in 1942. ... The Japanese occupation of Indonesia refers to the period between 1942 and 1945, during World War II, when the Empire of Japan ruled Indonesia. ... The independece declaration announced by Sukarno The Indonesian Declaration of Independence was officially proclaimed at 10. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... The era of Liberal Democracy (Indonesian: Demokrasi Liberal) was the name for the period in Indonesian history from the dissolution of the United States of Indonesia and the return to a unitary state in 1950, following the Indonesian National Revolution, to the imposition of martial law and the introduction by... Guided Democracy was the political system in place in Indonesia from 1957 until the New Order began in 1966. ... Indonesias Transition to the New Order occurred over 1965-67. ... The New Order (Indonesian: Orde Baru) is the term coined by former Indonesian President Suharto to characterize his regime as he came to power in 1966. ... The Indonesian 1998 Revolution is the term given to a series of protests and political manoeuverings that brought about the end of the rule of the three-decade long New Order government of the autocratic President Suharto of Indonesia. ...

" Patrons of Buddhism, the Sailendras during the height of their power in central Java constructed impressive mounuments and temple complexes, the best known of which is the Borobudur on the Kedu Plain" (K.R. Hall, 1985:109).

Contents

Origins

The earliest Sailendra inscription dates from 778 CE (the Kalasan Inscription). Sailendra power centred on the Kedu Plain in south-central Java, an area where paddy field or sawah cultivation flourished and whose location made it secure from sea-borne raids frequent on the north coast of the island. Kedu Plain Is the high ground that lies between the volcanoes Mount Sumbing and Mount Sundoro to the west, and Mount Merbabu and Mount Merapi to the east on Central Java, Indonesia. ... Terrace of paddy fields in Yunnan Province, southern China. ...


The ecology of the Kedu Plain required cooperation in the allocation of water among rice cultivators. Local ruling lineages emerged to control and coordinate water in each stream or river basin. According to Clifford Geertz, paddy culture requires extensive work on drainage, canals, and terracing. A lineage which can mobilize labor from more than one basin can dominate other local lineages. The Sailendra mobilized labor across the boundaries of each basin by the use of symbolic power associated with the use of Hindu and Buddhist rituals including Sanskrit inscriptions, an Indianized court and the construction of a kraton, temples and monuments. It has been suggested that Kinship be merged into this article or section. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by... The Sanskrit language ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Kraton is one of the two most common names of Javanese palaces (the other being Istana, identical to Malay). ...


The kings of the Sailendra-dynasty had, like other Javanese kings, the concept of the "Dewa-Raja"(God-King). They believed that the King had divine power as a living god among his subjects. This concept was probably applied to assure and exercise the King's immense power over his dominions and to influence the local lineages. A God-king is a monarch who is held in a special religious significance by his subjects. ...

Sailendra "homeland" controversy

Although the Sailendras clearly manifested themselves most strongly on the island of Java, some historians suggested that the Sailendras had their homeland outside Java. Apart from Java itself, a homeland in the Srivijaya kingdom in Sumatra ( c. 670- c.1270 AD ), India and the Funan kingdom (c.100-c. 600 AD ) in Cambodia, have been suggested.


The French scholar George Coedes once proposed that the Sailendras could be related to the Funanese rulers, because their title meaning 'Lord of Mountain' was supposed to resemble a hypothesized 'Lord of Mountain' title of the Funanese rulers (for his theory; Coedes, 1934). The many fallacies in Coedes' hypothesis have been demonstrated by several specialists on Cambodian history like Michael Vickery ( 2003 ), Lawrence Palmer Briggs ( 1951:5) and Claude Jacques (1979:375). Michael Vickery in his article "Funan Reviewed: deconstructing the ancients", comments on Coedes' theory :

" Not only is this a heaping of dubious speculation upon another, "....there is no evidence of the title ' mountain king ' for the Funan rulers, nor were the last ones more Buddhist that Hindu.." ( Michael Vickery, 2003:133)

Borobudur, the largest Buddhist structure in the world built by Sailendra dynasty.

History

After the formation of Srivijaya, The Sailendra maintained close relations, including marriage alliances with Srivijaya. The mutual alliance between the two kingdoms ensured that Srivijaya did not have to fear it's Javanese rival and that the Sailendra had access to the international market. The Sailendra participated in the Spice Route trade between China and India, but their level of participation never rivalled that of Srivijaya. Intensive rice cultivation was the foundation of the Sailendra kingdom. Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Borobudur is a ninth century Buddhist Mahayana monument in Central Java, Indonesia. ... A trade route is the sequence of pathways and stopping places used for the commercial transport of cargo. ... For other uses, see Rice (disambiguation). ...


The Sailendra covered the Kedu Plain with Vajrayana Buddhist shrines and temples celebrating and affirming their power. The Borobudur temple complex, built between 778 and 824 CE was the greatest accomplishment of the Sailendra. Borobudur was the first great Buddhist monument in Southeast Asia and influenced the construction of later monuments, such as Angkor Wat in Cambodia. This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by... Borobudur is a ninth century Buddhist Mahayana monument in Central Java, Indonesia. ... Events Charlemagne fights the Moors in Spain. ... Events Iñigo Arista revolts against the Franks and establishes the kingdom of Navarre (approximate date). ... A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by... Aerial view of Angkor Wat The main entrance to the temple proper, seen from the eastern end of the Naga causeway Angkor Wat (or Angkor Vat) is a temple at Angkor, Cambodia, built for King Suryavarman II in the early 12th century as his state temple and capital city. ...


At its peak the Sailendra kingdom ruled the eastern two-thirds of Java, Bali, Lombok, coastal areas of Kalimantan, southern Sulawesi, and the Funanese successor state of Water Chenla. Around 800 AD, Jayavarman II, the founder of Khmer Empire lived as a prince at the court of Sailendra. He probably lived here as a prisoner or for his education. In 802 he went to Cambodia and declared himself the God-King Jayavarman II and declared full independence from Java. This record gave rise to speculations that Cambodia was a vassal of Java. He was probably influenced by the refined art and culture of the Javanese Sailendras, including the divine Dewa-Raja (God-King) cult practiced by their kings. This article is about the Indonesian island. ... Gunung Rinjani from Gili Trawangan Lombok (1990 pop. ... Kalimantan is the Indonesian part of the island of Borneo. ... Sulawesi (formerly more commonly known as Celebes, IPA: a Portuguese-originated form of the name) is one of the four larger Sunda Islands of Indonesia and is situated between Borneo and the Maluku Islands. ... Tây Sơn Dynasty (1778–1802) Nguyễn Dynasty (1802–1945) French Indochina (1887–1954) Empire of Vietnam (1945) North-South Division During The Indochina Wars (1945–1975) Democratic Republic of Vietnam State of Vietnam Republic of Vietnam Republic of South Vietnam Socialist Republic of Vietnam (from 1976) List... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Succession of states. ... Chenla, known from Chinese records as Zhenla (真腊), was an early Khmer kingdom. ... Jayavarman II was the founder of a local realm in the Angkor region around 800 A.D. He is probably identical with a king called Jayavarman Ibis, mentioned in inscriptions of the years 770 and 781 A. D. The late legend (of the Sdok Kak Thom inscription dated 8th February... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... A God-king is a monarch who is held in a special religious significance by his subjects. ...

Collapse

According to the traditional account, the Sailendra kingdom came to an abrupt end when a prince from the rival Hindu Sanjaya Dynasty, named Rakai Pikatan, displaced them in 832. Rakai Pikatan, who was the crown prince of the Sanjaya Dynasty, wedded Pramodhawardhani, a daughter of Samaratunga, king of Sailendra. This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Events Theophilus forbids the usage of icons, establishing strict punishments. ...

" Casparis proposed that in 856 Balaputra was defeated by Pikatan, where upon Balaputra retreated to Srivijaya, the country of his mother, to become the first Sailandra ruler of Srivijaya. Thus in the late 9th century Srivijaya was ruled by a Buddhist Sailendra ruler, while Java was ruled by Pikatan and his successors who patronized Siva" (cf. Casparis, 1956; Hall, 1985:111).

Some historians describe the Sailendra collapse as a retreat to Sumatra, implying that the dynasty also ruled Srivijaya. It is possible that Balaputra was a Srivijayan prince with a maternal link to the Sailendra and that his attack on Java was a Srivijayan attempt to annex the former Sailendra domain. The hostile relations between Srivijaya and Mataram tend to confirm the thesis. The Sanjaya Dynasty went on to establish the Javanese kingdom of Mataram. The relative chronology of the Sailendra and the Sanjaya dynasty is not well understood. A similar problem exists in defining the respective territories ruled by the Sailendra and Sanjaya. Sumatra (also spelled Sumatera) is the sixth largest island in the world (approximately 470,000 km²) and is the largest island entirely in Indonesia (two larger islands, Borneo and New Guinea, are partially in Indonesia). ... Map of Southeast Asia at end of 12th century. ... Map of Southeast Asia at end of 12th century. ... Mataram was the last major independent Javanese empire on Java before the island was colonized by the Dutch. ... Mataram was an Indianized kingdom based in Central Java between the 8th and 10th centuries CE. The centre of the kingdom was moved from Central Java to East Java by Mpu Sindok. ...

References

  • Briggs, Lawrence Palmer,[ Review of ] Southeast Asia. Crossroad of Religions, by K. P. Landon, The Far Eastern Quarterly, vol. 9 nr. 3 ( 1951) pp. 271-277
  • Casparis, J.G. de. Prasasti Indonesia II : Selected inscriptions from the 7th to the 9th centuries AD. Bandung: Masu Baru, 1956
  • Coedes,G.," On the origins of the Sailendras of Indonesia ", Journal of the Greater India society , I (1934), pp 61-70
  • Hall, K.R., Maritime Trade and State Development in Early South East Asia, Honolulu, University of Hawaii Press, 1985
  • Jacques, Claude. " 'Funan', 'Zhenla '. The Reality Concealed by These Chinese Views of IndoChina", In Early South East Asia. Essays in Archaeology, History and Historical Geography, Ed. by R.B. Smith and W. Watson. New York/Kuala Lumpur, Oxford University Press, 1979, pp. 371-389.
  • Vickery, M., "Funan reviewed: Deconstructing the Ancients ", Bulletin de l' Ecole Francaise d' Extreme Orient, 90-91 (2003-2004 ), pp. 101-143

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Sailendra
Indonesia Portal
  • Sailendra
  • Sailndra at Network Indonesia

  Results from FactBites:
 
Borobudur (239 words)
The Sailendra dynasty is said to hark back indirectly to India by being cousins to the Chandella dynasty, which left numerous monuments in India between the 7th and 8th centuries (most notably, the Khajuraho temples).
The Sailendra dynasty reached its zenith in Indonesia during the 7th, 8th, and 9th centuries.
At the same time, they opened their minds to Buddhist doctrines, effecting a sort of unofficial conversion, which they concretized in the form of a gift of land, money or even pensions to the Buddhist monks who, in return, affected a tolerant and protecting attitude towards the royalty.
Sailendra - Encyclopedia.com (317 words)
Sailendra, name of a dynasty in Indonesia and SE Asia.
The Sailendras, who adopted Buddhism, extended their power over the Sumatran domains of Sri Vijaya and the Malay Peninsula and exerted influence in Siam and Indochina.
The Sailendra power was badly shaken by the Chola war of the 11th cent., but endured in some form until the Javanese invasion of Sumatra and the Malay Peninsula in the 13th cent.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m