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Encyclopedia > Sail training

From its modern interpretations to its antecedents when maritime nations would send young naval officer candidates to sea (e.g., see Outward Bound), sail training provides an unconventional and effective way of building many useful skills on and off the water. Through the unique environment of the sea, contemporary sail trainees learn that what they are doing is important and that their efforts are essential to the operation and safety of the ship. From the latin maritimus, maritime refers to things relating to the sea. ... Outward Bound is an international, non-profit, independent educational organization with approximately 40 schools around the world. ... Sunset at sea Look up Sea in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Look up maritime in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


The daily operation of a sailing ship can be tough and is not for everyone. Airplanes and automobiles have replaced ships and boats as the primary mode of transportation, a fact lamented by educators such as Kurt Hahn. Many people today are more familiar with the loops and turns of a roller coaster than the rhythmic motion of the sea. Traditional wooden cutter beating. ... A Japan Airlines Boeing 747-400. ... A small variety of cars, the most popular kind of automobile. ... For online phenomenon of shipping, see Shipping (fandom). ... A boat, like a ship, is a buoyant vessel designed for the purpose of transporting people and possibly goods across water. ... Kurt Hahn (1886 - 1974) was a German educator who founded such projects such as the Schule Schloss Salem in Germany, Gordonstoun in Scotland, Atlantic College in Wales, the United World Colleges movement, and the Outward Bound schools. ... Vertical loop on the Shockwave coaster at Six Flags over Texas The generic roller coaster vertical loop is the most basic of roller coaster inversions. ... A typical roller coaster The roller coaster is a popular amusement ride developed for amusement parks and modern theme parks. ... Motion sickness is a condition in which the endolymph (the fluid found in the semicircular canals of the inner ears) becomes stirred up, causing confusion between the difference between apparent perceived movement (none or very little), and actual movement. ...

Students learn practical applications of mathematics and geography during a navigation class on the Tole Mour
Students learn practical applications of mathematics and geography during a navigation class on the Tole Mour

Those who overcome their initial consternation will find that wind can be harnessed through physics. Engineering is used to manipulate the sails with various lines and tackle while math and geography are used to calculate the current location and potential destinations. Navigation class on the SSV Tole Mour copyright (c) 2004 Guided Discoveries This work is copyrighted. ... Navigation class on the SSV Tole Mour copyright (c) 2004 Guided Discoveries This work is copyrighted. ... Taking children to sea is the mission and philosophy behind the SSV Tole Mour. ... Wind is the roughly horizontal movement of air (as opposed to an air current) caused by uneven heating of the Earths surface. ... A black hole concept drawing by NASA. Physics (from the Greek, φυσικός (physikos), natural, and φύσις (physis), nature) is the science of the natural world dealing with the fundamental constituents of the universe, the forces they exert on one another, and the results produced by these forces. ... In physics and engineering, mechanical advantage (MA) is the factor by which a machine multiplies the force put into it. ... A sail is a surface intended to generate thrust by being placed in a wind; basically it is a vertically oriented wing. ... á: Rope is also the title of a movie by Alfred Hitchcock Rope is also the name of an open-source firewall programming language A rope is also a data structure used in computer science. ... A block and tackle is a system of two or more pulleys with a rope or cable threaded between them, usually used to lift or pull heavy loads. ... Mathematics is often defined as the study of topics such as quantity, structure, space, and change. ...


Surrounded on all sides by the marine environment, whales and dolphins are frequent visitors and the vessel is itself, a lesson in history. Halyards and sheets require teamwork and discipline to set and, in the isolation created by the sea, the vessel and the crew must become self-sufficient by necessity. Each individual must act independently yet interdependently to cope with the physical, mental and emotional challenges they are faced with. Marine biology is the scientific study of the plants, animals, and other organisms that live in the ocean. ... Whales are the largest species of exclusively aquatic placental mammals, members of the order Cetacea, which also includes dolphins and porpoises. ... This article is about the dolphin mammal. ... HIStory: Past, Present And Future - Book 1 was a double-disc album by Michael Jackson released in 1995. ... In sailing, a halyard is a line (rope) that is used to hoist (pull up) a sail or a yard to which a sail has been attached (bent on). ... In sailing, a sheet is a line attached to the clew of a sail, and is the main control used in trimming the sail. ... Teamwork is the concept of people working together as a team. ... Discipline is any training intended to produce a specific character or pattern of behaviour, especially training that produces moral or mental development in a particular direction. ... Interdependence is a dynamic of being mutually responsible to and dependent on others. ...

Contents


Background

By 1900 most commercial sailing vessels were struggling to turn a profit in the face of competition from more modern steam ships which had become efficient enough to steam shorter great circle routes between ports instead of the longer trade wind routes used by sailing ships. 1900 (MCM) is a common year starting on Monday. ... It has been suggested that paddle steamers be merged into this article or section. ... For the Brisbane bus routes known collectively as the Great Circle Line (598 & 599), see the following list of Brisbane Transport routes A great circle on a sphere A great circle is a circle on the surface of a sphere that has the same diameter as the sphere, dividing the... The trade winds are a pattern of wind found in bands around the Earths equatorial region. ... Traditional wooden cutter beating. ...


Sailing ship owners used a variety of methods to compete. Ships were built larger to carry bulk cargoes more efficiently, their rigs were simplified to reduce manning costs and speed was no longer a premium. Owners shipped cargoes that were non-perishable so that their date of arrival (which steam ships had started to guarantee) were of less importance. Finally as the Panama Canal was opened, sailing ships were used in parts of the world where steam ships still found it hard to operate: principally on the Chilean Nitrate Trade (for fertilizers and explosive production in Europe) and on the Australian grain trade. Both Chile and Australian ports were difficult to supply with coal for steamships to refuel. A canal tug making its way down to the Caribbean end of the canal waits to be joined by a ship in the uppermost chamber of the Gatun Locks. ... In inorganic chemistry, nitrates are the salts of nitric acid. ... Cereal crops are mostly grasses cultivated for their edible seeds (actually a fruit called a grain, technically a caryopsis). ... Coal is a fossil fuel extracted from the ground by underground mining or open-pit mining (strip mining). ...


The end of the First World War saw a brief return to profitability as all ship types were in scare supply due to wartime losses but that boom became bust as many new steam ships were built to replace the sailing ships that were lost. Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ... Paddle steamers - Lucerne-Switzerland Left: original paddlewheel from a paddle steamer on the lake of Lucerne. ...


Genesis in the 1930's

The View along the Main Deck of Parma. photo by Alan Villers c.1932
The View along the Main Deck of Parma. photo by Alan Villers c.1932

While many countries of the world operated sailing ships as training vessels for officers in their Merchant Marine in the 1920’s and 30’s, several sailing ship owners such as Carl Laeisz and Gustav Erickson determined that there was still a profit to be made from the last of the sailing ships. Alan Villiers; The View along the Main Deck of Parma The copyright status of this old image is undetermined; it may still be copyrighted. ... Alan Villiers; The View along the Main Deck of Parma The copyright status of this old image is undetermined; it may still be copyrighted. ... A school ship is a ship used for the training of students as sailors. ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar) // Events January January 7 - Forces of Russian White admiral Kolchak surrender in Krasnoyarsk. ... 1930 (MCMXXX) is a common year starting on Wednesday. ... The Flying P-Liners were the sailing ships of the German F. Laeisz shipping company from Hamburg. ...


Erickson purchased existing ships that required the minimum of capital investment and repaired them with parts cannibalised from other ships. Identifying the bulk cargo routes that would still offer paying freights and, he manned the ships with a smattering of paid experienced officers. Capital has a number of related meanings in economics, finance and accounting. ...


The deckhands were apprentices from steamship lines and other adventurous youth who had all paid a premium to sail while being trained. These crews were considered trainees and were the first formalization of sail trainers with crew drawn from members of the public who just went for the adventure, as opposed to a career. Apprenticeship is a traditional method of training a new generation of skilled crafts practitioners. ...


With manning costs netted out on Erickson's balance sheet, the ships continued to return a paper profit. However Erickson was under no illusions as to the long term profitability of his venture, which depended on ignoring the depreciation on his ships and a shrinking supply of sound hulls and rigs. The company would use their profits to diversify into steam after World War II. Profit is a positive return made on an investment by an individual or by business operations. ... Declining-balance depreciation of a $50,000 asset with $6,500 salvage value over 20 years. ... A hull is the body or frame of a ship or boat. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Combatants Allied Powers Axis Powers Commanders {{{commander1}}} {{{commander2}}} Strength {{{strength1}}} {{{strength2}}} Casualties 17 million military deaths 8 million military deaths {{{notes}}} World War II, also known as the Second World War, was a military conflict that took place between 1939 and 1945. ...


While the shipping companies of Erickson and F. Laeisz gradually turned to steam, the next generation of captains were crawling through up the hawse hole and taking command of their own vessels, redefining sail training as a purely educational endeavour with trainees as the cargo. Shipping is the transport of cargo between seaports by ships, typically large steel vessels powered by diesel engines or steam turbine plants. ... The Flying P-Liners were the sailing ships of the German F. Laeisz shipping company from Hamburg. ... A steam engine is an external combustion heat engine that makes use of the thermal energy that exists in steam, converting it to mechanical work. ...


From 1932 through 1958, Irving Johnson and his wife Electa "Exy" Johnson circumnavigated the world 7 times with amateur youth crews on board their vessels named Yankee. Over the years, their voyages were featured in books they authored, and in National Geographic magazines and TV specials like "Irving Johnson, High Seas Adventurer". Their archives are at Mystic Seaport, Connecticut. 1932 (MCMXXXII) is a leap year starting on Friday. ... 1958 (MCMLVIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Tall ships Irving and Exy Johnson can be found at Irving Johnson (Tall ship) Irving McClure Johnson (July 4, 1905 - 1991). ... To circumnavigate a place, such as an island, a continent, or the Earth, is to travel all the way around it by boat or ship. ... Flag of the National Geographic Society The National Geographic Society was founded in the United States on January 27, 1888, by 33 men interested in organizing a society for the increase and diffusion of geographical knowledge. ... Mystic Seaport is a maritime museum in Mystic, Connecticut. ...


Australian Alan Villiers purchased the old school ship George Stag from Denmark, in 1934. Renaming her the Joseph Conrad, he sailed her round the world with no paying cargo and a crew of youth who had paid to be there. He also took as many non-paying youth as he could afford to fit in the budget, those he considered at risk on the streets of their inner cities and in need of what was then called “character building”. These trip were the genesis of current modern sail training, using manually operated ships and the harsh discipline imposed by the sea to further personal development and taking those disadvantaged by circumstance to benefit from the experience. Captain Alan John Murray Villiers (1903-1982); Author, Adventurer, Photographer and Master Mariner. ... 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... Categories: Stub | Museum ships ...


By the end of World War II, the numbers of traditionally rigged sailing ships left were dwindling and public interest waned. The loss of the Pamir in 1957 and the Albatros in 1961 drew further ill will and seemed to signal the end of an era. The Pamir on a 5p stamp of the Falkland Islands The Pamir was one of the Flying P-Liners, the famous sailing ships of the German shipping company F. Laeisz. ... 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Albatross was a schooner (2m; L/B/D: 82. ... 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ...


Modern sail training

In what was conceived to be last great gathering of square-riggers under sail, Bernard Morgan and Greville Howard persuaded a number of ship owners to join together in a sort of farewell salute in 1956, organizing a race from Torbay on the South Coast of England to race informally across the Bay of Biscay to Lisbon in Portugal. Five square rigged school ships entered the race, Denmarks's Danmark, Norway's Christian Radich and Sorlandet, Belgium's Mercator and Portugal's first Sagres. Square rig is a generic type of sailing vessel in which the main horizontal spars are perpendicular to the keel of the ship. ... 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Torbay is an east facing bay at the western most end of Lyme Bay in the south west of England, situated roughly midway between the cities of Exeter and Plymouth. ... Royal motto (French): Dieu et mon droit (Translated: God and my right) Englands location within the British Isles Official language English de facto Capital London de facto Largest city London Area – Total Ranked 1st UK 130,395 km² Population – Total (mid-2004) – Total (2001 Census) – Density Ranked 1st UK... Map of the Bay of Biscay. ... District Lisbon Mayor   - Party Carmona Rodrigues PSD Area 84. ... A school ship is a ship used for the training of students as sailors. ... The Christian Radich under sail, courtesy of the foundation. ...


The event proved to be anything but a funeral procession as the race would fire the imagination of owners and "owners to be" and the vessels would meet again the following year and every year since in an annual series that would astonish its original organizers today.

Sail training can be great way to build character and teamwork as illustrated by trainees furling on board the Stavros S Niarchos
Sail training can be great way to build character and teamwork as illustrated by trainees furling on board the Stavros S Niarchos

Old vessels were saved or repaired and new purpose built sail training vessels were commissioned. With renewed interest in the age of sail, national sail training associations affiliated to Sail Training International (STI) (formerly "Sail Training Association") were organized and large summer events find upwards of 100 ships racing across the oceans. Furling onboard the Stavros S Niarchos Copyright ©2004 Tallships Limited This file or image is copyrighted. ... Furling onboard the Stavros S Niarchos Copyright ©2004 Tallships Limited This file or image is copyrighted. ... The Stavros S Niarchos is a British brig rigged tall ship owned and operated by the Tall Ships Youth Trust. ... The Cutty Sark Tall Ships Race is a long-distance race for sailing ships. ...


Crew exchanges allow young people from one country to sail with those from another. Long before the end of the Cold War, ships from Russia and Poland joined the International Fleet in 1974 and put the totalitarianism of their regimes behind them. A limited exchange between the East and West was initiated and they put their respective backgrounds behind them, common sailors joined together by the brotherhood of the sea. For the generic term for high-tension and / or indirect struggle between states, falling short of actual open hostilities, see cold war (war). ... 1974 (MCMLXXIV in Roman) is a common year starting on Tuesday (click on link for calendar). ... Eastern bloc During the Cold War, the Eastern Bloc (or Soviet Bloc) comprised the following Central and Eastern European countries: Bulgaria, Romania, Hungary, East Germany, Poland, Albania (until the early 1960s, see below), the Soviet Union, and Czechoslovakia. ... The term Western world or the West can have multiple meanings depending on its context. ...


One of the largest of the affiliate organizations of the STI is the American Sail Training Association (ASTA). Founded in 1973 with a handful of vessels, it has since grown to encompass an international organization with more than 250 tall ships representing 25 different countries. Founded on April 3, 1973, the American Sail Training Association (ASTA) is currently the largest sail training association in the world and a founding member of Sail Training International. ... 1973 (MCMLXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday. ...


While the summer race series are the pinnacle of the sail training experience, most maritime nations have government, private and charitably funded ships preserving the ways of seamen from a time gone by, helping the youth and the “young at heart” find themselves and working somewhere off their coasts on short trips year round.


Square rigged seamanship was almost in danger of becoming a lost art. As the 1997 restoration of the USS Constitution neared completion, the US Navy called on the crew of the HMS Bounty to train her sailors how to sail the vessel as she was originally intended to. 1997 (MCMXCVII in Roman) is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The USS Constitution, known as Old Ironsides, is a wooden-hulled, three-masted frigate of the United States Navy. ... The United States Navy (USN) is the branch of the United States armed forces responsible for naval operations. ...


Many boats are historical vessels and replicas which require coordinated manual labor to sail, operating in the original tradition proposed by Alan Villiers and Irving Johnson such as the Picton Castle while others are purpose built educational platforms carrying out scientific research under sail such as the Robert C. Seamans and the Corwith Cramer of the Sea Education Association. The Picton Castle is a barque employed in sail training. ... Named for former Chairman and Trustee of Sea Education Associations (SEA) board, the Robert C. Seamans is a state of the art 134 foot steel brigantine. ...


Sail training has proven useful in providing at-risk youth with real life challenges that develop the knowledge, skills and attitudes needed to live healthy, productive lives. As the crew of the Irving Johnson and the award winning program at the Los Angeles Maritime Institute like to say "We do not train youth for a life at sea...we use the sea to educate youth for life". The twin brigantines Irving and Exy Johnson are the flagships of the Los Angeles Maritime Institutes (LAMI) TopSail Youth program, a non-profit organization created as a character building organization to help at risk youth prepare for life through the discipline and teamwork required to safely handle a tall...


Vessel classifications

Tall ships have been found to be effective platforms for sail training as they combine many elements fundamental to sail training. A "Tall ship" is not a strictly defined type of vessel. "Tall ship" is commonly used today to define a large, traditionally rigged vessel, whether or not is it technically a ship. For example, the USCGC Eagle is technically a barque and not a fully rigged ship. A tall ship is usually defined by the topmast and topsails she carries as opposed to the modern high aspect ratio rigs and marconi mains carried by the sloops and yawls seen in every harbor today. Kaskalot at the 2004 Bristol Harbour festival in England. ... Italian ship-rigged vessel Amerigo Vespucci in New York Harbor, 1976 A ship is a large, sea-going watercraft, sometimes with multiple decks. ... USCGC Eagle under sail The USCGC Eagle (ex Horst Wessel) is a three masted barque serving as a school ship for the United States Coast Guard. ... In the 18th century, the British Royal Navy used the term Bark for a nondescript vessel which did not fit any of its usual categories. ... A full rigged ship or fully rigged ship is a square rigged sailing vessel with three or more masts, all of them square rigged. ... A topsail is a sail set above another sail; on square-rigged vessels further sails may be set above topsails. ... In sailing, a bermuda rig is: A rig of mainsail or course that consists of a triangular sail set aft of the mast, with its head raised to the top of the mast, its luff running down the mast and normally attached to it for all its length, its tack... A sloop-rigged J-24 sailboat In sailing, a sloop is a vessel with a single mast on which is hoisted a fore-and-aft rigged mainsail and a single jib, plus extras such as a spinnaker. ... Yawl sailing vessel. ...


For the purpose of classification and race rating, the STI divides Tall ships into the following classes :

Class A: All vessels over 160 feet in length overall, regardless of rig, and square rigged vessels over 120 feet in length.
Class A; Division II: All square rigged vessels less than 120 feet in length.
Class B: Fore-and-aft rigged vessels between 100 feet and 160 feet in length
Class C: All other fore-and-aft rigged vessels at least 30 feet long at the waterline.

The United States Coast Guard classifies vessels based on their intended use and structure, prescribing requirements for captain and crew manning, waters the vessel may operate in, number of passengers allowed and minimum safety equipment required. Square rig is a generic type of sailing vessel in which the main horizontal spars are perpendicular to the keel of the ship. ... A fore-and-aft rig is a sailing rig consisting mainly of sails that are set along the line of the keel rather than perpendicular to it. ... Waterline refers to an imaginary line marking the level to which ship or boat submerges in the water. ... Coast Guard shield The United States Coast Guard (USCG) is the coast guard of the United States. ... Captain is both a nautical term and a rank in various uniformed organizations. ...


With the exception of uninspected vessels, all such vessels are inspected annually and issued a Certificate of Inspection (COI) which must be displayed on the vessel and spells out the requirements that vessel must maintain.

Sailing School Vessel (SSV): Inspected under Title 46, Subchapter R of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). An SSV is a vessel of less than 500 gross tons carrying six or more sailing school students or instructors, primarily propelled by sail, and operated by a nonprofit educational organization exclusively for the purpose of sailing education.
Passenger Vessel: Certified according to the size and number of passengers (not engaged in educational activities or in the operation of the vessel) carried under Title 46 of the CFR.
Subchapter C: Uninspected vessels which operate with no more than six passengers.
Subchapter T: Small passenger vessels of under 100 gross tons that carry more than six passengers and are required to pass regular USCG inspection of the ship and all onboard equipment.
Subchapter K: Small passenger vessels of under 100 gross tons that carry more than 150 passengers and are required to pass regular USCG inspection of the ship and all onboard equipment.
Subchapter H: Passenger vessels of more than 100 gross tons that carry passengers for hire and are required to pass regular USCG inspection of the ship and all onboard equipment.
Attraction Vessel: Certification is required whenever a vessel is open to public boarding or conducts dockside programs. The vessel may be permanently moored to a pier, or it may be certified under one or more of the above subchapters, but the Attraction Vessel COI certifies its safety for dockside and visitation only.
Oceanographic Research Vessel (ORV): Certified under Subchapter U of Title 46 of the CFR. An ORV is a vessel employed exclusively in either oceanographic (saltwater) or limnologic (freshwater) instruction and/or research, and is not necessarily equipped for passengers or other non-professionals.

Pros and cons of sail training

Cadets man headsails sheets on the Eagle
Cadets man headsails sheets on the Eagle

Sail training is not intended to be a vacation. The sea has always been associated with some element of risk and if one were looking to stay warm and dry, then a cruise ship would tend to be more appropriate. Sail training is about the excitement and challenge of undertaking a journey the natural maritime elements. Whether they be bitter cold winds turning droplets of spray into needles piercing the exposed flesh of the helmsmen's hands and face or the hot tropical sun beating down upon the sailors hour after hour as the sails hang limply as they hope and pray for the faintest breath of wind, challenge and adventure tends to be the primary goal of those interested in sail training. Image File history File links Cadets man the headsail sheets on the USCGC Eagle. ... Image File history File links Cadets man the headsail sheets on the USCGC Eagle. ... USCGC Eagle under sail The USCGC Eagle (ex Horst Wessel) is a three masted barque serving as a school ship for the United States Coast Guard. ... This article is on vacation as time off. ... Risk is the potential harm that may arise from some present process or from some future event. ... MV Pride of Aloha docked in Port of Nāwiliwili, Kaua‘i in the Hawaiian Islands A cruise ship, or less commonly cruise liner or luxury liner, is a passenger ship used for pleasure voyages, where the voyage itself and the amenities of the ship are considered an essential part... Look up element in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The tropics are the geographic region of the Earth centered on the equator and limited in latitude by the two tropics: the Tropic of Cancer in the northern hemisphere and the Tropic of Capricorn in the southern hemisphere. ...


With many options out there, it can be a difficult choice with interests as varied as marine biology and adventure travel; day, week, or school semesters in length and races across the Atlantic to afternoon cannon battles out in the harbor. Marine biology is the scientific study of the plants, animals, and other organisms that live in the ocean. ... The Atlantic Ocean is Earths second-largest ocean, covering approximately one-fifth of its surface. ... A harbor (AmE), harbour (CwE) or haven is a place where ships may shelter from the weather or are stored. ...


While one can generally expect to handle lines and standing watch, vessels differ as to the degree of responsibility as well as whether the vessels is underway day and night or if the voyage ventures from harbor to harbor and on anchor each night. á: Rope is also the title of a movie by Alfred Hitchcock Rope is also the name of an open-source firewall programming language A rope is also a data structure used in computer science. ... Ships bells are a system to indicate the hour by means of bells, used aboard a ship to regulate the sailors duty watches. ...


Space is also limited and most accommodations involve less privacy than one may be accustomed with. Dormitory style living is most common with several people sharing a single cabin and personal space limited to the area occupied by the individual bunk. For this reason, it is advised that luggage be limited to only what is necessary and carried in duffel bags or soft sided luggage as one may end up having to sleep with a hard suitcase in their bunk as there is no place else to put it. A typical American college dorm room A dormitory or dorm is a place to sleep. ... A typical suitcase A suitcase (a type of luggage - that is, something one lugs, or pulls along heavily) is a narrow box-shaped bag, usually made of cloth or vinyl that has a handle at one end and is used mainly for transporting clothes and other posessions during trips. ...


Cost of delivery needs also to be borne in mind. There are few tall ships around the world, for example, that survive without government subsidy, donors, sponsors or rich clientele.


See also

Kaskalot at the 2004 Bristol Harbour festival in England. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards and appeal to a wider international audience, this article may require cleanup. ... Wooden sailing boat Sailing is the skillful art of controlling the motion of a sailing ship or smaller boat, across a body of water using wind as the source of power. ...

External links

References

  • American Sail Training Association; Sail Tall Ships! 16th ed. (ISBN 096364839X)
  • Spencer Apollonio; Last of the Cape Horners (ISBN 157488283X)
  • Irving Johnson; The Peking Battles Cape Horn (ISBN 0930248066)
  • Thad Koza Tall Ships: A Fleet for the 21st Century 3rd Edition (ISBN 1559497394)
  • Ian Macdonald-Smith Setting Sail for the New Millennium : Tall Ships Race (ISBN 096888380X)
  • Eric Newby; The Last Grain Race (ISBN 0864427689)
  • Daniel S. Parrott; Tall Ships Down (ISBN 007143545X)
  • Rigel Crockett; Fair Wind and Plenty of It (ISBN 1594861609)
  • Alan Villiers; The Cruise of the Conrad (ISBN 0330029894)
  • Richard Henry Dana; Two Years Before the Mast (ISBN 1582182868)

  Results from FactBites:
 
Sail Training International - International Research (1211 words)
Sail Training International invited (May 2005) some 50 Universities and other institutions with relevant experience around the world to submit proposals for the conduct of an international research project into the value and effectiveness of the sail training experience for young people.
Indeed, a single study of any kind as a ‘silver bullet’ to validate sail training in all its forms and for a wide range of audiences and purposes is just not practical.
The study will exclude ‘special purpose’ sail training projects, such as voyages for people with disabilities or those specifically disadvantaged in other ways, or voyages on vessels operated by, for example, a school exclusively for its own pupils (although the study is expected to produce data and conclusions of value to these programmes also).
ASTO - The Association of Sea Training Organisations (864 words)
A sail training voyage these days is still exciting but it may happen on a purpose-built modern yacht carrying a cargo of twelve young trainees on a one-week voyage across the English Channel, or it could be on a 60 metre brig with forty eight trainees on a trans-Atlantic voyage to the Caribbean.
Sail training is an adventure and takes place in a potentially hazardous environment and life at sea can be rough at times, but our Members take all measures to ensure that it is not unnecessarily dangerous.
Sail training is not a sport for the elite as sailing was in the days when millionaires raced their magnificent J Class yachts in opulent regattas.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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