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Encyclopedia > Sail
A gaff-rigged cutter flying a mainsail, staysail and genoa jib
A gaff-rigged cutter flying a mainsail, staysail and genoa jib

A sail is any type of surface intended to generate thrust by being placed in a wind—in essence a vertically-oriented wing. Sails are used in sailing. wooden sailing boat - (image Uwe Kils) GFDL - 70 year old gaff cutter - operation: Abenraa - Denmark File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... For other uses, see Jib (disambiguation). ... A Sail is a piece of fabric used to catch the wind and propel a boat. ... Thrust is a reaction force described quantitatively by Newtons Second and Third Laws. ... For other uses, see Wind (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Wing (disambiguation). ... For either of the songs named Sailing, see Sailing (song). ...

Contents

Use of sails

Sails are primarily used on the water by sailing ships and sail boats as a propulsion system. For purposes of commerce, sails have been greatly superseded by other forms of propulsion, such as the internal combustion engine. For recreation, however, sailing vessels remain popular. INS Tarangini, the only sail ship currently in-service with the Indian Navy. ... A modern yacht A yacht was originally defined as a light, fast sailing vessel used to convey important persons. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... A colored automobile engine The internal combustion engine is an engine in which the combustion of fuel and an oxidizer (typically air) occurs in a confined space called a combustion chamber. ... Fun redirects here. ...


The most familiar type of sailboat, a small pleasure yacht, usually has a sail-plan called a sloop. This has two sails in a fore-and-aft arrangement: the mainsail and the jib. This article or section needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling. ... A sail-plan is a formal set of drawings, usually prepared by a marine architect. ... For the military definition of sloop see: Sloop-of-war. ... A mainsail is the most important sail raised from the main (or only) mast of a sailing vessel. ... For other uses, see Jib (disambiguation). ...


The mainsail extends aftward and is secured the whole length of its edges to the mast and to a boom also hung from the mast. The sails of tall ships are attached to wooden timbers or "spars". mizzen mast, mainmast and foremast Grand Turk The mast of a sailing ship is a tall vertical pole which supports the sails. ... In sailing, a boom is a spar (pole) usually made of aluminum or wood, is connected to the foot of the mainsail and allows the crew to control the angle of the sail to the wind. ... For other uses, see Spar (disambiguation). ...


The jib is secured along its leading edge to a forestay (strong wire) strung from the top of the mast to the bowsprit on the bow (nose) of the boat. A genoa is also used on some boats. It is a type of jib that is larger, and cut so that it is fuller than an ordinary jib. For other uses, see Jib (disambiguation). ... On a sailing vessel, a forestay is a piece of standing rigging which keeps a mast from falling backwards. ... Bowsprit of the Falls of Clyde, showing the dolphin striker, the use of chain for the bobstays, and three furled jibs. ... A genoa (pronounced like the city, or as jenny) is a type of large headsail used on bermuda rigged craft, commonly the single-masted sloop and twin-masted boats such as yawl and ketch. ...


Fore-and-aft sails can be switched from one side of the boat to the other in order to provide propulsion as the sailboat changes direction relative to the wind. When the boat's stern crosses the wind, this is called jibing; when the bow crosses the wind, it is called tacking. Tacking repeatedly from port to starboard and/or vice versa, called "beating", is done in order to allow the boat to follow a course into the wind. A jibe or gybe is when a sailing boat (yacht) turns its stern through the wind, such that the direction of the wind changes from one side of the boat to the other. ... Tack is a term, that depending on its application has several different meanings. ...


A primary feature of a properly designed sail is an amount of "draft", caused by curvature of the surface of the sail. When the leading edge of a sail is oriented into the wind, the correct curvature helps maximise lift while minimising turbulence and drag, much like the carefully designed curves of aircraft wings. Modern sails are manufactured with a combination of broadseaming and non-stretch fabric (ref New technology below). The former adds draft, while the latter allows the sail to keep a constant shape as the wind pressure increases. The draft of the sail can be reduced in stronger winds by use of a cunningham and outhaul, and also by bending the mast and increasing the downward pressure of the boom by use of a boom vang. In nautical parlance, the draft or draught of a sail is a degree of curvature in a horizontal cross-section. ... Broadseam is a term particular to the making of a sail. ... In sailing, a cunningham or cunninghams eye is a type of downhaul used on a Bermuda rigged sailboat to change the shape of a sail. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... A boom vang is an item of rigging in a sail-powered vessel (usually small ones, but it is sometimes found on larger ones as well). ...


Other sail powered machines include ice yachts, windmills, kites, signs, hang gliders, electric generators, windsurfers , and land sailing vehicles. This article is about devices that perform tasks. ... An ice yacht or ice boat is a vehicle for travel over frozen lakes and sea, driven by a sail. ... This article is about machines that convert wind energy into mechanical energy. ... For other uses, see Kite (disambiguation). ... Hang gliding is one of the windsports. ... Windsurfing in Essex, England Windsurfing (also called boardsailing) is a sport involving travel over water on a small 2-4. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Land yacht. ...


Sail construction is governed by the science of aerodynamics. For the Daft Punk song, see Aerodynamic (song). ...


Sail aerodynamics

Sails propel the boat in one of two ways. When the boat is going in the direction of the wind (i.e. downwind - see Points of sail), the sails may be set merely to trap the air as it flows by. Sails acting in this way are aerodynamically stalled. In stronger winds, turbulence created behind stalled sails can lead to aerodynamic instability, which in turn can manifest as increased downwind rolling of the boat. Spinnakers and square-rigged sails are often trimmed so that their upper edges become leading edges and they operate as airfoils again, but with airflow directed more or less vertically downwards. This mode of trim also provides the boat with some actual lift and may reduce both wetted area and the risk of 'digging in' to waves. Points of sail is the term used to describe a sailing boats course in relation to the wind direction. ... In aerodynamics, a stall is a condition in which an excessive angle of attack causes loss of lift due to disruption of airflow. ...


The other way sails propel the boat occurs when the boat is traveling across or into the wind. In these situations, the sails propel the boat by redirecting the wind coming in from the side towards the rear. In accordance with the law of conservation of momentum, air is redirected backwards, making the boat go forward. This driving force is called lift although it acts largely horizontally. In physics, a conservation law states that a particular measurable property of an isolated physical system does not change as the system evolves. ... The lift force, or simply lift, is a mechanical force, generated by a solid object as it moves through a fluid, directed perpendicular to the flow direction. ...


On a sailing boat, a keel or centreboard helps to prevent the boat from moving sideways. The shape of the keel has a much smaller cross section in the fore and aft axis and a much larger cross section on the athwart axis (across the beam of the boat). The resistance to motion along the smallest cross section is low while resistance to motion across the large cross section is high, so the boat moves forward rather than sideways. In other words it is easier for the sail to push the boat forward rather than sideways. However, there is always a small amount of sideways motion, or "leeway". 2 GP14s, a Topper and a Graduate Dinghy sailing is the activity of sailing small boats by using (1) the sails and (2) underwater foils (centreboard and rudder). ... For other uses, see Keel (disambiguation). ...


Forces across the boat are resolved by balancing the sideways force from the sail with the sideways resistance of the keel or centerboard. Also, if the boat heels, there are restoring forces due to the shape of the hull and the mass of the ballast in the keel being raised against gravity. Forward forces are balanced by velocity through the water and friction between the hull, keel and the water.


Parts of the sail

Main article: Parts of a sail
Diagram showing the names of the parts of a Bermudian-style mainsail.
Diagram showing the names of the parts of a Bermudian-style mainsail.

The lower edge of a triangular sail is called the "foot" of the sail, while the upper point is known as the "head". The lower two points of the sail, on either end of the foot, are called the "tack" (forward) and "clew" (aft). The forward edge of the sail is called the "luff" (from which derives the term "luffing", a rippling of the sail when the angle of the wind fails to maintain a good aerodynamic shape near the luff). The aft edge of a sail is called the "leech". diagram showing the names of the parts of a sail The lower edge of a triangular sail is called the foot of the sail, while the upper point is known as the head. ...


Modern sails are designed such that the warp and the weft of the sailcloth are oriented parallel to the luff and foot of the sail. This places the most stretchable axis of the cloth along the diagonal axis (parallel to the leech), and makes it possible for sailors to reduce the draft of the sail by tensioning the sail, mast and boom in various ways. WaRp. ... WEFT Champaign 90. ...


Often tell-tales, small pieces of yarn, are attached to the sail. They are used as a guide when trimming the sail. This article is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


An alternative approach to sail design is that used in Junks, originally an oriental design. It uses horizontal sail curving to produce an efficient and easily controlled sail-plan. [1]. The Junk is a Chinese sailing vessel. ...


Sail types

Modern sails can be classified into three main categories: Mainsail, Headsail, and Spinnaker or downwind sail (also termed Kite). Special-purpose sails are often a variation of the three main categories. Most modern yachts including bermuda rig, ketch and yawl boats have a sail "inventory" which usually includes more than one of these types of sails. Although the mainsail is “permanently” hoisted while sailing, headsails and spinnakers can be changed depending on the particular weather conditions to allow better handling and speed. A mainsail is the most important sail raised from the main (or only) mast of a sailing vessel. ... A headsail is any sail set forward of the foremost mast of a sailing vessel. ... For other uses, see Spinnaker (disambiguation). ... In sailing, a bermuda rig is: A rig of mainsail or course that consists of a triangular sail set aft of the mast, with its head raised to the top of the mast, its luff running down the mast and normally attached to it for all its length, its tack... Square Topsl Gaff Ketch Hawaiian Chieftain on San Francisco Bay A ketch is a sailing craft with two masts: A main mast, and a mizzen mast abaft the main mast. ... Yawl sailing vessel. ...


Mainsails as the name implies are the main element of the sailplan. A "motor" as well as a rudder for the boat, mainsails can be as simple as a traditional triangle-shaped, cross-cut sail (see Sail Construction below). In most cases, the mainsail isn’t changed while sailing although there are mechanisms to reduce its surface if the wind is very strong (a technique called reefing). In extreme weather, a mainsail can be folded and a trysail hoisted to allow steerage without endangering the boat. Reefed mainsail on a Bavaria 36 yacht, genoa fully rolled up. ... A small fore-and-aft sail hoisted abaft the foremast and mainmast in a storm to keep a ships bow to the wind. ...


Headsails are the main driving sails when going upwind (sailing towards the wind). There are many types of headsails with Genoa and Jib being the most commonly used. Both these types have different subtypes depending on their intended use. Headsails are usually classified according to their weight (that is, the relative weight of the sailcloth used) and size or total area of the sail. A common classification is numbering from 1 to 3 (larger to smaller) with a description of the use for example: #1 Heavy or #1 Medium/Light. Special types of headsails include the Gennaker (also named Code 0 by some sailmakers), the drifter (a type of Genoa that is used like an asymmetrical spinnaker), the screecher (essentially a large Genoa), the windseeker and storm jib. Certain Genoas and Jibs also have battens which assist in maintaining an optimal shape for the sail. A genoa (pronounced like the city, or as jenny) is a type of large headsail used on bermuda rigged craft, commonly the single-masted sloop and twin-masted boats such as yawl and ketch. ... For other uses, see Jib (disambiguation). ... A gennaker is a downwind sail that can be described as a cross between a genoa and a spinnaker. ...


Spinnakers are used for reaching and running (downwind sailing). They are very light and have a balloon-like shape. As with headsails there are many types of spinnakers depending on the shape, area and cloth weight. Symmetrical spinnakers are most efficient on runs and dead runs (sailing with wind coming directly from behind) while asymmetric spinnakers are very efficient in reaching (the wind coming from the rear but at an angle to the boat or from the side).


Sail construction

A sail might look flat when lying on the floor but once it's hoisted, it becomes a three-dimensional, curved surface, in essence an airfoil. In order for a sail to be "built", it has to be designed in a number of elements (or panels) which are cut and sewn together to form the foil. In older days, this was rightfully considered an art which was later complemented (and arguably overshadowed) by technology. With the advent of computers, sail manufacturers were able to model their sails using special computer-aided design (CAD) programs and directly feed the data to very accurate laser plotters/cutters which cut the panels from rolls of sail cloth, replacing the traditional manual process (scissors). For the kite, see foil kite. ... CADD and CAD redirect here. ...


The key features that distinguish a "fast" from a "slow" sail are its shape related to the particular boat and rig and its ability to consistently maintain that shape. These two features rely mostly on the design of the sail (the way that the panels are placed with one another) and the sail cloth used.


The traditional parallel-panel (cross-cut) gave way to more complex (radial) designs where the panels have different shapes for the top, mid, and lower sections of the sail depending on pressure of the air caused by its flow over the sail surface. Again aided by CAD and special modelling software the sailmakers use cloths of different weight, placing heavier cloth panels where there is more stress and lighter cloth where there is less to make savings in weight.


Older fabrics (especially cotton and low budget synthetic), have the tendency to stretch with wind pressure which results in distorted and consequently inefficient sail shapes. Moreover, the cloth itself is heavy which adds to the inefficiency. Synthetic materials such as Nylon and Dacron were followed by advanced sail cloths made from exotic material yarns such as Aramid (e.g. Twaron, Technora or kevlar), carbon fiber, HMPE (e.g. Spectra/Dyneema), Zylon (PBO) and Vectran (see also Sailcloth). These materials were a breakthrough in sail technology as they provided the raw material in the manufacture of low-stretch, low-weight and long-life sail cloths. Manufacturers were able to use different weights of yarn to weave cloths with exceptional properties. Canvas is an extremely heavy-duty fabric used for making sails, tents, marquees, and other functions where sturdiness is required. ... For other uses of this word, see nylon (disambiguation). ... The term plastics covers a range of synthetic or semi-synthetic organic condensation or polymerization products that can be molded or extruded into objects or films or fibers. ... Aramid fiber (1961) is a fire-resistant and strong synthetic fiber. ... Chemical structure of Kevlar. ... Technora is the brandname of Teijin Twaron for a aromatic copolyamid. ... Kevlars molecular structure; BOLD: monomer unit; DASHED: hydrogen bonds. ... Carbon fiber composite is a strong, light and very expensive material. ... Ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE), also known as high modulus polyethylene (HMPE) or high performance polyethylene (HPPE), is a thermoplastic. ... poly(p-phenylene-2,6-benzobisoxazole) Zylon is a trademarked name for a range of thermoset polyurethane materials manufactured by the Toyobo Corporation. ... Vectran is a manufactured fibre, spun from a liquid crystal polymer created by Celanese Acetate LLC. These fibres are noted for thermal stability at high temperatures, high strength, and good chemical stability. ... Canvas is an extremely heavy-duty fabric used for making sails, tents, marquees, and other functions where sturdiness is required. ...


Once the panels are sewn together, the sailmakers complete the sail by placing the finishing elements such as the leech and foot lines, protective patches in the areas where the sail will scrape against hardware (stanchions, spreaders), steel rings and straps at the tack and clew, cleats, batten pockets (if required) and sail numbers.


Lamination

Woven cloth or ribbons of high tensile fabric inserts can be "sandwiched" between two films of Mylar and placed in special ovens under pressure to bond into a single body, a process called lamination. The inserts provide the strength and the mylar the continuity and wind resistance. An alternative method is to sandwich a sheet of Mylar between two layers of woven cloth. The latter process is popular when using cloth with high strength and UV tolerance, but an open weave. In the latter process the cloth protects the more brittle mylar. A more complex sail may combine the processes. See also sailcloth. Mylar is a trade name of DuPont Teijin Films of Hopewell, VA, United States, for biaxially-oriented polyethylene terephthalate (BOPET) polyester film used for its high tensile strength, chemical and dimensional stability, transparency, and electrical insulation. ... A laminate is a material constructed by uniting two or more layers of material together. ... Canvas is an extremely heavy-duty fabric used for making sails, tents, marquees, and other functions where sturdiness is required. ...


History of sails

Sails were invented in the ancient age, and were the most important source of propulsion during the age of sail. For the span of recorded history starting roughly 5,000-5,500 years ago, see Ancient history. ... The age of sail is the period in which international trade and naval warfare were both dominated by sailing ships. ...


Advances in sail materials and manufacture

In addition to advances in the exotic materials and consequent cloths themselves, manufacturers have also progressed the manufacturing process with the creation of glued and molded sails.


Glued sails are regular paneled sails but instead of sewing the pieces together, the sailmaker uses a special, ultra-strong polymer glue which bonds through the use of ultrasound. In molding, a curved mold is designed and created in the optimum (three dimensional) shape of the sail that the sailmaker wants to produce. A film of Mylar is placed on the mold and a special gantry hovers over the film laying the yarns based on instructions of a computer that has the model of the sail. Once this is done, a second sheet of Mylar film is placed on top and the whole mold (with the sail) is placed in a vacuum oven which causes the materials to bond (curing). The result is a smooth sail which is lighter and has a wider effective wind range (the minimum and maximum wind speed that the sail can withstand and be effective). For other uses, see Ultrasound (disambiguation). ... Mylar is a trade name of DuPont Teijin Films of Hopewell, VA, United States, for biaxially-oriented polyethylene terephthalate (BOPET) polyester film used for its high tensile strength, chemical and dimensional stability, transparency, and electrical insulation. ... In polymer chemistry and Process Engineering, curing refers to the toughening or hardening of a polymer material by cross-linking of polymer chains, brought about by chemical additives, ultraviolet radiation, Electron beam (EB) or heat. ...


Molding initially targeted high-end competition boats because of the costs of the sails produced but has steadily moved on to cover cruising yachts although panelled (woven) sails account for the majority of sails (racing or recreational) used around the world. The concept of molded sails was introduced by Sobstad Sails with its Genesis line but did not maintain consistent product performance. North Sails introduced its successful 3DL product line which also resulted in a legal battle with Sobstad. Variations of the molding sailmaking process are used by other leading sail manufacturers such as Quantum with the Fusion-M line and Doyle Sailmakers with the Stratis line and Dimension-Polyant with D4 which is available to all sailmakers. Other sailmakers are producing lines which make use of molding concepts although not necessarily the production process itself such as the UK-Halsey TapeDrive line.


Alternatives To Traditional Sails

Kites are currently being tested as an alternative to traditional sail technology. MS Beluga Skysails is the first ship [1] to use this technology which will has the potential to provide supplemental propulsion to both ships and boats [2].


See also

Types of sails

For either of the songs named Sailing, see Sailing (song). ... Canvas is an extremely heavy-duty fabric used for making sails, tents, marquees, and other functions where sturdiness is required. ... A cruising sailboat anchored in the San Blas Islands, in Panama. ... Points of sail is the term used to describe a sailing boats course in relation to the wind direction. ... A sail-plan is a formal set of drawings, usually prepared by a marine architect. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... For other uses, see Wing (disambiguation). ... Stern-mounted steering oar of an Egyptian riverboat depicted in the Tomb of Menna (c. ... A fin is a surface used to produce lift and thrust or to steer while traveling in water, air, or other fluid media. ... A artists depiction of a Cosmos 1 type spaceship in orbit Solar sails (also called light sails or photon sails, especially when they use light sources other than the Sun) are a proposed form of spacecraft propulsion using large membrane mirrors. ... Sail twist is a phenomenon in sailing where the head of the sail is at a different point of sail from the foot of the sail. ... There are many types, or classes of sailing boat. ... Marine canvas refers to the field of work concerned with the design and fabrication of functional canvas products (usually custom) for sail and motor boats. ... Baggywrinkle is a soft covering for cables (or any other obstructions) that prevents sail chafing from occuring. ... For other uses, see Kite (disambiguation). ... Hang gliding is one of the windsports. ... // For the bird of prey, see Laggar Falcon. ... A royal is a sail flown immediately above the topgallant, below the skysail on the royal mast on square rigged sailing ships. ... A moonsail, also known as a skysail or moonraker, is a sail flown immediately above the royals (see sail-plan) on large, square rigged sailing ships. ... A wingsail is a form of marine propulsion similar to conventional sails. ... A turbosail is a device that uses generated lift to propel a boat. ... The Rottorschiff Buckau, in 1923. ...

References

  1. ^ "Kite to pull ship across Atlantic", BBC, 2008-01-22. Retrieved on 2008-01-22. 
  2. ^ A Comprehensive Look at SkySails and Green Propulsion.

For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

  • Sailboats database: sailing yacht data sheets all over the world
  • Sail Design Software
  • The quest for the perfect sailshape
For other uses, see Spar (disambiguation). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... In sailing, a course sail is the principal sail on a mast. ... A driver is a kind of sail used on some sailboats. ... In sailing, an extra is a sail that is not part of the working sail plan. ... A genoa (pronounced like the city, or as jenny) is a type of large headsail used on bermuda rigged craft, commonly the single-masted sloop and twin-masted boats such as yawl and ketch. ... A gennaker is a downwind sail that can be described as a cross between a genoa and a spinnaker. ... For other uses, see Jib (disambiguation). ... A vessel (xebec) with three lateens Dhow with lateen sail in bad tack with the sail pressing against the mast, in Mozambique. ... A mainsail is the most important sail raised from the main (or only) mast of a sailing vessel. ... A moonsail, sailing on the moon also known as a moonraker or hope-in-heaven, is a sail flown immediately above the skysail (see sail-plan) on the very top of the royal mast on large, square rigged sailing ships. ... A royal is a sail flown immediately above the topgallant, below the skysail on the royal mast on square rigged sailing ships. ... A sail-plan is a formal set of drawings, usually prepared by a marine architect. ... A spanker is either of two kinds of sail. ... For other uses, see Spinnaker (disambiguation). ... A form of sailing rig mainly employed on the Thames Sailing Barge, which uses two similarly sized spars to form the framework for the sail area. ... A staysail is a fore-and-aft rigged sail whose luff is affixed to a stay running forward (and most often but not always downwards) from a mast to the deck, the bowsprit or to another mast. ... USS Monongahela with a full set of studding sails set A studding sail or studsail is a sail used to increase the sail area of a square rigged vessel in light winds. ... On a square rigged sailing vessel, a topgallant sail is the square-rigged sail or sails immediately above the topsail or topsails. ... A topsail is a sail set above another sail; on square-rigged vessels further sails may be set above topsails. ... A small fore-and-aft sail hoisted abaft the foremast and mainmast in a storm to keep a ships bow to the wind. ... diagram showing the names of the parts of a sail The lower edge of a triangular sail is called the foot of the sail, while the upper point is known as the head. ... diagram showing the names of the parts of a sail The lower edge of a triangular sail is called the foot of the sail, while the upper point is known as the head. ... diagram showing the names of the parts of a sail The lower edge of a triangular sail is called the foot of the sail, while the upper point is known as the head. ... diagram showing the names of the parts of a sail The lower edge of a triangular sail is called the foot of the sail, while the upper point is known as the head. ... diagram showing the names of the parts of a sail The lower edge of a triangular sail is called the foot of the sail, while the upper point is known as the head. ... diagram showing the names of the parts of a sail The lower edge of a triangular sail is called the foot of the sail, while the upper point is known as the head. ... diagram showing the names of the parts of a sail The lower edge of a triangular sail is called the foot of the sail, while the upper point is known as the head. ... diagram showing the names of the parts of a sail The lower edge of a triangular sail is called the foot of the sail, while the upper point is known as the head. ... PETE redirects here. ... Technora is the brandname of Teijin Twaron for a aromatic copolyamid. ... Kevlars molecular structure; BOLD: monomer unit; DASHED: hydrogen bonds. ... Chemical structure of Kevlar. ... In sailing, a boom is a spar (pole) usually made of aluminum or wood, is connected to the foot of the mainsail and allows the crew to control the angle of the sail to the wind. ... Bowsprit of the Falls of Clyde, showing the dolphin striker, the use of chain for the bobstays, and three furled jibs. ... Dolphin striker is a small vertical spar attached under the bowsprit to provide support for it and the jib boom. ... mizzen mast, mainmast and foremast Grand Turk The mast of a sailing ship is a tall vertical pole which supports the sails. ... Gaff rig is a sailing rig in which the mainsail is a four-cornered fore-and-aft rigged sail controlled at its head by a spar called the gaff. ... First Navy Jack being raised on a jackstaff A jackstaff is a small vertical spar (pole) in the bow of a ship, on which a particular type of flag, know as a jack, is flown. ... mizzen mast, mainmast and foremast Grand Turk The mast of a sailing ship is a tall vertical pole which supports the sails. ... Jury rigging (or jerry rigging) refers to makeshift repairs or substitutes, made with only the tools and materials that happen to be on hand. ... mizzen mast, mainmast and foremast Grand Turk The mast of a sailing ship is a tall vertical pole which supports the sails. ... mizzen mast, mainmast and foremast Grand Turk The mast of a sailing ship is a tall vertical pole which supports the sails. ... mizzen mast, mainmast and foremast Grand Turk The mast of a sailing ship is a tall vertical pole which supports the sails. ... A masthead truck is a nautical term for a wooden cap at the top of a mast, with holes in it through which halyards are passed. ... A spinnaker pole being used to set a conventional symmetric spinnaker A spinnaker pole is a spar used in sailboats (both dinghys and yachts) to help support and control a variety of headsails, particularly the spinnaker. ... A traditional ships mast, consisting of lower (ie Main-, Fore- or Mizzen-) mast, topmast and topgallant/royal mast. ... The fore royal yard on the Prince William. ... On a sailing vessel, a backstay is a piece of standing rigging which runs from the mast to the transom of the boat, counteracting the forestay and jib. ... In sailing, a block is a pulley or a number of pulleys enclosed in sheaves so as to be fixed to the end of a line or to a spar or surface. ... A boom vang is an item of rigging in a sail-powered vessel (usually small ones, but it is sometimes found on larger ones as well). ... The starboard main-brace and main-topsail-braces are clearly visible over the sea in this photo of the Prince Williams bridge and stern deck from her masthead. ... Clewlines and buntlines are lines used to handle the sails of a square rigged ship. ... A digram showing three cleats. ... A clevis pin inside a shackle A clevis pin is a type of fastener that will allow rotation of the connected parts about the axis of the pin. ... Clewlines and buntlines are lines used to handle the sails of a square rigged ship. ... In sailing, a cunningham or cunninghams eye is a type of downhaul used on a Bermuda rigged sailboat to change the shape of a sail. ... The downhaul is a line (or rope) which is part of the rigging on a sailboat; it applies downward force on a spar or sail. ... On a sailing vessel, a forestay is a piece of standing rigging which keeps a mast from falling backwards. ... A gasket holding the main-royal on a modern square-rigged training ship. ... Categories: Move to Wiktionary | Stub ... A guy is a term for a line (rope) attached to and intended to control the end of a spar on a sailboat. ... In sailing, a halyard is a line (rope) that is used to hoist (pull up) a sail or a yard to which a sail has been attached (bent on). ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Parrel beads (also spelled parral[1] or parrell) are an element of sailing rigging, usually deployed at the jaws of a gaff on a gaff rigged or gunter rigged craft[2], or on the tack of a spinnaker rigged over a furled jib[3]. A set of parrel beads is... In sailing, the peak halyard (or peak for short) is a line that raises the end of a gaff further from the mast, as opposed to the throat halyard which raises the end nearer to the mast. ... A Preventer is a mechanical device on a sailing vessel which limits the booms ability to swing dangerously across the boat during an accidental gybe. ... Ratlines, pronounced rattlins, are lengths of thin line tied between the shrouds of a sailing ship to form a ladder. ... Running rigging is the term for the rigging of a sailing vessel that is used for raising, lowering and controlling the sails - as opposed to the standing rigging, which supports the mast and other spars. ... A shackle is a U-shaped piece of metal secured with a pin or bolt across the opening, or a hinged metal loop secured with a quick-release locking pin mechanism. ... On a sailing boat, the standing rigging is that collection of lines which are fixed. ... The piece of chain running diagonally up and right from the bottom-left of this picture to the upper of the two yards is the fore-lower-topsail sheet. ... On a sailboat, the shrouds are pieces of standing rigging which hold the mast up from side to side. ... On a sailing ship, stay mouse refers to the bulge in a part of the standing rigging called a stay. ... Stays are the heavy ropes on sailing vessels that run from the masts to the hull. ... In sailing, the throat halyard (or throat for short) is a line that raises the end of a gaff nearer to the mast, as opposed to the peak halyard which raises the end further from the mast. ... The topping lift (more rarely known as an uphaul) is a line which is part of the rigging on a sailboat; it applies upward force on a spar or boom. ... A 49er with both skipper and crew on the trapeze In Sailing, the trapeze refers to a wire that comes from a point high on the mast, usually where the shrouds are fixed, to a hook on the crew members harness at approximately waist level. ...

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US SAILING - National Governing Body of Sailing in the U.S. (310 words)
US SAILING, national governing body for the sport of sailing, has announced today that its Board of Directors last night voted to withdraw a proposal that would require US SAILING membership of racing sailors.
"Many sailors and sailing organizations have told us that racing sailors should be members, but that their membership should be voluntary.
We also appreciate that many of these sailing organizations have indicated their willingness to help grow our membership.
Sailing - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4750 words)
Sailing is the skillful art of controlling the motion of a sailing ship or smaller boat, across a body of water.
Sailing vessels are propelled by the force of the wind on sails.
Slab reefing, which involves lowering the sail by about one-quarter to one-third of its luff length and tightening the lower part of the sail using an outhaul or a pre-loaded reef line through a cringle at the new clew, and hook through a cringle at the new tack.
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