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Encyclopedia > Saffron
Saffron crocus
A saffron crocus flower with red stigma.
A saffron crocus flower with red stigma.
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Liliopsida
Order: Asparagales
Family: Iridaceae
Genus: Crocus
Species: C. sativus
Binomial name
Crocus sativus
L.

Saffron (pronounced /ˈsæfrən/, /ˈsæfrɒn/) is a spice derived from the flower of the saffron crocus (Crocus sativus), a species of crocus in the family Iridaceae. The flower has three stigmas, which are the distal ends of the plant's carpels. Together with its style, the stalk connecting the stigmas to the rest of the plant, these components are often dried and used in cooking as a seasoning and colouring agent. Saffron is characterised by a bitter taste and an iodoform- or hay-like fragrance; these are caused by the chemicals picrocrocin and safranal.[1][2] It also contains a carotenoid dye, crocin, that gives food a rich golden-yellow hue. These traits make saffron a much-sought ingredient in many foods worldwide. Saffron also has medicinal applications. Saffron may refer to the saffron spice Saffron is also occasionally a first name; the lead singer of Republica, Samantha Sprackling, is also known as Saffron; Saffron is a recurring guest character in the television series Firefly was also named Saffron. ... Image File history File links Saffran_crocus_sativus_moist. ... Scientific classification redirects here. ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... Classes Magnoliopsida - Dicots Liliopsida - Monocots The flowering plants or angiosperms are the most widespread group of land plants. ... Liliopsida is the botanical name for a class. ... Families according to the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group Agapanthus Agavaceae Alliaceae Amaryllidaceae Aphyllanthaceae Asparagaceae Asphodelaceae Asteliaceae Blandfordiaceae Boryaceae Doryanthaceae Hemerocallidaceae Hyacinthaceae Hypoxidaceae Iridaceae Ixioliriaceae Lanariaceae Laxmanniaceae Orchidaceae Ruscaceae Tecophilaeaceae Themidaceae Xanthorrhoea Xeronema Asparagales is an order of monocots which includes a number of families of non-woody plants. ... Genera Many, see text Iridaceae is a family of plants in Order Asparagales, taking its name from the Irises. ... Species See text. ... Latin name redirects here. ... Carl Linnaeus, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 13, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... For other uses, see Spice (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Flower (disambiguation). ... Species See text. ... Genera Many, see text Iridaceae is a family of plants in Order Asparagales, taking its name from the Irises. ... Amaryllis style and stigmas A carpel is the outer, often visible part of the female reproductive organ of a flower; the basic unit of the gynoecium. ... In sciences dealing with the anatomy of animals, precise anatomical terms of location are necessary for a variety of reasons. ... Amaryllis style and stigmas A carpel is the outer, often visible part of the female reproductive organ of a flower; the basic unit of the gynoecium. ... Various preserved foods Food preservation is the process of treating and handling food in such a way as to stop or greatly slow down spoilage to prevent foodborne illness while maintaining nutritional value, density, texture and flavor. ... Cooking is the act of preparing food. ... Seasoning is the process of adding flavours, or enhancing natural flavour of any type of food. ... Food coloring spreading on a thin water film. ... Sour redirects here. ... The compound iodoform is a yellow, crystalline, volatile substance, I3CH, having a penetrating odor (in older chemistry texts, the smell is sometimes referred to as the smell of hospitals) and sweetish taste, and analogous to chloroform. ... For other uses, see Hay (disambiguation). ... A chemical substance is any material substance used in or obtained by a process in chemistry: A chemical compound is a substance consisting of two or more chemical elements that are chemically combined in fixed proportions. ... Picrocrocin is a glycoside formed from glucose and safranal. ... Safranal is an organic compound isolated saffron, the spice consisting of the stigmas of crocus flowers (Crocus sativas). ... The orange ring surrounding Grand Prismatic Spring is due to carotenoid molecules, produced by huge mats of algae and bacteria. ... Chemical structure of crocin. ... For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ...

Contents

Biology

Saffron crocus morphology
Crocus sativus (saffron crocus) botanical illustration from Kohler's Medicinal Plants
 →  Stamens (male organs).
 →  Corolla (whorl of petals).
 →  Corm (propagation organ).

The domesticated saffron crocus C. sativus is an autumn-flowering perennial plant unknown in the wild, and is a sterile triploid mutant of the eastern Mediterranean autumn-flowering Crocus cartwrightianus.[3] According to botanical research, C. cartwrightianus originated in Crete, not—as was once generally believed—in Central Asia.[2] The saffron crocus resulted when C. cartwrightianus was subjected to extensive artificial selection by growers who desired elongated stigmas. Being sterile, the saffron crocus's purple flowers fail to produce viable seeds—thus, reproduction is dependent on human assistance: the corms (underground bulb-like starch-storing organs) must be manually dug up, broken apart, and replanted. A corm survives for only one season, reproducing via division into up to ten "cormlets" that eventually give rise to new plants.[3] The corms are small brown globules up to 4.5 centimetres (1.8 in) in diameter and are shrouded in a dense mat of parallel fibers. Image File history File links Koeh-194. ... Stamens of the Amaryllis with prominent anthers carrying pollen Insects, while collecting nectar, unintentionally transfer pollen from one flower to another, bringing about pollination The stamen (from Latin stamen meaning thread of the warp) is the male organ of a flower. ... It has been suggested that Corolla be merged into this article or section. ... Taro corms for sale in a Réunion market A corm is a short, vertical, swollen underground plant stem that serves as a storage organ used by some plants to survive winter or other adverse conditions such as summer drought and heat (estivation). ... Classes Magnoliopsida - Dicots Liliopsida - Monocots The flowering plants or angiosperms are the most widespread group of land plants. ... Red Valerian, a perennial plant. ... Polyploidy refers to cells or organisms that contain more than two copies of each of their chromosomes. ... Binomial name Crocus cartwrightianus Crocus cartwrightianus is an eastern Mediterranean autumn-flowering species of crocus, and is of the family Iridaceae (irises). ... For other uses, see Crete (disambiguation). ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... This Chihuahua mix and Great Dane show the wide range of dog breed sizes created using artificial selection. ... Taro corms for sale in a Réunion market A corm is a short, vertical, swollen underground plant stem that serves as a storage organ used by some plants to survive winter or other adverse conditions such as summer drought and heat (estivation). ...


After a period of aestivation in summer, five to eleven narrow and nearly vertical green leaves—growing up to 40 cm (16 in) in length—emerge from the ground. In autumn, purple buds appear. Only in October, after most other flowering plants have released their seeds, does it develop its brilliantly hued flowers, ranging from a light pastel shade of lilac to a darker and more striated mauve.[4] Upon flowering, it averages less than 30 cm (12 in) in height.[5] Inside each flower is a three-pronged style; in turn, each prong terminates with a crimson stigma 25–30 mm in length.[3] Estivation or aestivation (from Latin aestas, summer) is a state of dormancy similar to hibernation. ... Lilac is a color that is a pale shade of violet. ... This is an article about the color mauve. ... This article is about the unit of length. ...


Global Production

Iran (Persia) ranks first in the world production of saffron, with more than 81 percent of the world yield.[6] Iran's annual saffron production is expected to hit 300 tons by the end of 2009. Other minor producers of saffron are Spain, India, Greece, Azerbaijan, Morocco, and Italy. Persia redirects here. ...


Iran produced 213,800 Kg of saffron in 2004. Most of this saffron is exported to Spain, UAE & ... and there, it is repacked in small packs and re-exported to different international markets.
30.2% of Persian (Iranian) saffron has been imported to Spain in 2003 (42,320 Kg), 50.2% to UAE, 4.6% to Italy and 3.7% to France.
[7]


Cultivation

Two saffron crocus flowers in Osaka Prefecture, Japan.
Two saffron crocus flowers in Osaka Prefecture, Japan.

The saffron crocus thrives in climates similar to that of the Mediterranean maquis or the North American chaparral, where hot, dry summer breezes blow across arid and semi-arid lands. Nevertheless, the plant can tolerate cold winters, surviving frosts as cold as −10 °C (14 °F) and short periods of snow cover.[8][3] However, if not grown in wet environments like Kashmir (where rainfall averages 1000–1500 mm annually), irrigation is needed—this is true in the saffron-growing regions of Greece (500 mm of rainfall annually) and Spain (400 mm). Rainfall timing is also key: generous spring rains followed by relatively dry summers are optimal. In addition, rainfall occurring immediately prior to flowering also boosts saffron yields; nevertheless, rainy or cold weather occurring during flowering promotes disease, thereby reducing yields. Persistently damp and hot conditions also harm yields,[9] as do the digging actions of rabbits, rats, and birds. Parasites such as nematodes, leaf rusts, and corm rot also pose significant threats.[10] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (678x787, 155 KB) Scientific name Crocus sativus サフラン Place:Osaka-fu Japan Description: Crocus sativus Source: KENPEIs photo Date: 2005-11-04 Author: KENPEI Permission: GFDL,Creative Commons Attribution ShareAlike 2. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (678x787, 155 KB) Scientific name Crocus sativus サフラン Place:Osaka-fu Japan Description: Crocus sativus Source: KENPEIs photo Date: 2005-11-04 Author: KENPEI Permission: GFDL,Creative Commons Attribution ShareAlike 2. ... Osaka Prefecture (大阪府 ÅŒsaka-fu) is part of the Kinki region on Honshu island, Japan. ... Maquis (French) or macchia (Italian; plural macchie) is a shrubland biota in Mediterranean countries, typically consisting of densely-growing evergreen shrubs such as sage, juniper and myrtle. ... North American redirects here. ... Chaparral is a shrubland plant community found primarily in California, USA, that is shaped by a Mediterranean climate (mild, wet winters and hot dry summers) and wildfire. ... Irrigation is the artificial application of water to the soil usually for assisting in growing crops. ... Classes Adenophorea    Subclass Enoplia    Subclass Chromadoria Secernentea    Subclass Rhabditia    Subclass Spiruria    Subclass Diplogasteria The roundworms or nematodes (Phylum Nematoda from Gr. ... Families Pucciniaceae Melampsoraceae Coleosporiaceae Cronartiaceae Phragmidiaceae Pucciniastraceae Rusts are fungi of the order Uredinales. ...

Saffron crocus flower yields[*] of smaller producers
Country Yield (kg/ha)
Spain 6–29
Italy 10–16
Greece 4–7
India 2–7
Morocco 2.0–2.5
Source: Deo 2003, p. 3
[*]—Yields specify flower weight, not final dry saffron weight.

Saffron plants grow best in strong and direct sunlight, and fare poorly in shady conditions. Thus, planting is best done in fields that slope towards the sunlight (i.e. south-sloping in the Northern Hemisphere), maximizing the crocuses' sun exposure. In the Northern Hemisphere, planting is mostly done in June, with corms planted some 7–15 cm deep. Planting depth and corm spacing—along with climate—are both critical factors impacting plant yields. Thus, mother corms planted more deeply yield higher-quality saffron, although they produce fewer flower buds and daughter corms. With such knowledge, Italian growers have found that planting corms 15 centimetres (5.9 in) deep and in rows spaced 2–3 cm apart optimizes threads yields, whereas planting depths of 8–10 cm optimizes flower and corm production. Meanwhile, Greek, Moroccan, and Spanish growers have devised different depths and spacings to suit their own climates.[9] Kg redirects here. ... A hectare (symbol ha) is a unit of area, equal to 10 000 square metres, commonly used for measuring land area. ... Northern hemisphere highlighted in yellow. ...


Saffron crocuses grow best in friable, loose, low-density, well-watered, and well-drained clay-calcareous soils with high organic content. Raised beds are traditionally used to promote good drainage. Historically, soil organic content was boosted via application of some 20–30 tonnes of manure per hectare. Afterwards—and with no further manure application—corms were planted.[10] After a period of dormancy through the summer, the corms send up their narrow leaves and begin to bud in early autumn. Only in mid-autumn do the plants begin to flower. Harvesting of flowers is by necessity a speedy affair: after their flowering at dawn, flowers quickly wilt as the day passes.[11] Furthermore, saffron crocuses bloom within a narrow window spanning one or two weeks.[12] Approximately 150 flowers yield 1 g of dry saffron threads; to produce 12 g of dried saffron (72 g freshly harvested), 1 kg of flowers are needed (1 lb for 0.2 oz of dried saffron). On average, one freshly picked flower yields 0.03 g of fresh saffron, or 0.007 g of dried saffron.[10] Calcareous formed from or containing a high proportion of Calcium carbonate. ... A hectare (symbol ha) is a unit of area, equal to 10 000 square metres, commonly used for measuring land area. ... BIC pen cap, about 1 gram. ...


Chemistry

Crocin formation

Esterification reaction between crocetin and gentiobiose.
 —  β-D-gentiobiose.
 —  Crocetin.
Picrocrocin and safranal

Chemical structure of picrocrocin.[13]
 —  Safranal moiety.
 —  β-D-glucopyranose derivative.

Saffron contains more than 150 volatile and aroma-yielding compounds. It also has many nonvolatile active components,[14] many of which are carotenoids, including zeaxanthin, lycopene, and various α- and β-carotenes. However, saffron's golden yellow-orange colour is primarily the result of α-crocin. This crocin is trans-crocetin di-(β-D-gentiobiosyl) ester (systematic (IUPAC) name: 8,8-diapo-8,8-carotenoic acid). This means that the crocin underlying saffron's aroma is a digentiobiose ester of the carotenoid crocetin.[14] Crocins themselves are a series of hydrophilic carotenoids that are either monoglycosyl or diglycosyl polyene esters of crocetin.[14] Meanwhile, crocetin is a conjugated polyene dicarboxylic acid that is hydrophobic, and thus oil-soluble. When crocetin is esterified with two water-soluble gentiobioses (which are sugars), a product results that is itself water-soluble. The resultant α-crocin is a carotenoid pigment that may comprise more than 10% of dry saffron's mass. The two esterified gentiobioses make α-crocin ideal for colouring water-based (non-fatty) foods such as rice dishes.[15]
Chemical structure of crocin. ... Image File history File links Crocetin_safranal_esterification. ... Esterification is the general name for a chemical reaction in which two chemicals (typically an alcohol and an acid) form an ester as the reaction product. ... Chemical structure of crocetin. ... Gentiobiose is a disaccharide composed of two units of D-glucose. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Anomeric carbon. ... Monosaccharides are the simplest form of carbohydrates. ... Image File history File links Picrocrocin_safranal_highlighted. ... Picrocrocin is a glycoside formed from glucose and safranal. ... Safranal is an organic compound isolated saffron, the spice consisting of the stigmas of crocus flowers (Crocus sativas). ... Look up moiety in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Anomeric carbon. ... Monosaccharides are the simplest form of carbohydrates. ... Zeaxanthin is one of the two carotenoids contained within the retina. ... Lycopene is a bright red carotenoid pigment, a phytochemical found in tomatoes and other red fruits. ... β-Carotene represented by a 3-dimensional stick diagram Carotene is responsible for the orange colour of the carrots and many other fruits and vegetables. ... Chemical structure of crocetin. ... Gentiobiose is a disaccharide composed of two units of D-glucose. ... For other uses, see Ester (disambiguation). ... IUPAC nomenclature is a system of naming chemical compounds and of describing the science of chemistry in general. ... Hydrophile, from the Greek (hydros) water and φιλια (philia) friendship, refers to a physical property of a molecule that can transiently bond with water (H2O) through hydrogen bonding. ... A glycosyl group is a structure obtained by removing the hydroxy group from the hemiacetal function of a monosaccharide and, by extension, of a lower oligosaccharide. ... Polyenes are poly-unsaturated organic compounds that contain one or more sequences of alternating double and single carbon-carbon bonds. ... A chemically conjugated system, is a system of atoms covalently bonded with alternating single and double bonds (e. ... Structure of a carboxylic acid The 3D structure of the carboxyl group A space-filling model of the carboxyl group Carboxylic acids are organic acids characterized by the presence of a carboxyl group, which has the formula -C(=O)OH, usually written -COOH or -CO2H. [1] Carboxylic acids are Bronsted... Hydrophile, from the Greek (hydros) water and φιλια (philia) friendship, refers to a physical property of a molecule that can transiently bond with water (H2O) through hydrogen bonding. ... Esterification is the general name for a chemical reaction in which two chemicals (typically an alcohol and an acid) form an ester as the reaction product. ... Lactose is a disaccharide found in milk. ...

Chemical composition of saffron
Component Mass %
carbohydrates 12.0–15.0
water 9.0–14.0
polypeptides 11.0–13.0
cellulose 4.0–7.0
lipids 3.0–8.0
minerals 1.0–1.5
miscellaneous
non-nitrogenous
40.0
Source: Dharmananda 2005
Proximate analysis of saffron
Component Mass %
Water-soluble components 53.0
  →  Gums 10.0
  →  Pentosans 8.0
  →  Pectins 6.0
  →  Starch 6.0
  →  α–Crocin 2.0
  →  Other carotenoids 1.0
Lipids 12.0
  →  Non-volatile oils 6.0
  →  Volatile oils 1.0
Protein 12.0
Inorganic matter ("ash") 6.0
  →  HCl-soluble ash 0.5
Water 10.0
Fiber (crude) 5.0
Source: Goyns 1999, p. 46

The bitter glucoside picrocrocin is responsible for saffron's flavour. Picrocrocin (chemical formula: C16H26O7; systematic name: 4-(β-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-2,6,6- trimethylcyclohex-1-ene-1-carboxaldehyde) is a union of an aldehyde sub-element known as safranal (systematic name: 2,6,6-trimethylcyclohexa-1,3-dien-1- carboxaldehyde) and a carbohydrate. It has insecticidal and pesticidal properties, and may comprise up to 4% of dry saffron. Significantly, picrocrocin is a truncated version (produced via oxidative cleavage) of the carotenoid zeaxanthin and is the glycoside of the terpene aldehyde safranal. The reddish-coloured[16] zeaxanthin is, incidentally, one of the carotenoids naturally present within the retina of the human eye. Lactose is a disaccharide found in milk. ... This article is about the properties of water. ... Peptides (from the Greek πεπτος, digestible), are the family of short molecules formed from the linking, in a defined order, of various α-amino acids. ... Cellulose as polymer of β-D-glucose Cellulose in 3D Cellulose (C6H10O5)n is a polysaccharide of beta-glucose. ... Some common lipids. ... For other uses, see Mineral (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... Natural gums are polysaccharides of natural origin, capable of causing a large viscosity increase in solution, even at small concentrations. ... Pectin, a white to light brown powder, is a heterosaccharide derived from the cell wall of higher terrestrial plants. ... Starch (CAS# 9005-25-8, chemical formula (C6H10O5)n,[1]) is a mixture of amylose and amylopectin (usually in 20:80 or 30:70 ratios). ... Chemical structure of crocin. ... The orange ring surrounding Grand Prismatic Spring is due to carotenoid molecules, produced by huge mats of algae and bacteria. ... Some common lipids. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin showing coloured alpha helices. ... Hydrochloric acid is the aqueous solution of hydrogen chloride gas (HCl). ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Fiber. ... A glucoside is a glycoside that is derived from glucose. ... A chemical formula is an easy way of expressing information about the atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound. ... An aldehyde. ... ed|other uses|reduction}} Illustration of a redox reaction Redox (shorthand for reduction/oxidation reaction) describes all chemical reactions in which atoms have their oxidation number (oxidation state) changed. ... Zeaxanthin is one of the two carotenoids contained within the retina. ... A glycoside is a molecule where a sugar group is bonded through its anomeric carbon to a nonsugar group by either an oxygen or a nitrogen atom. ... Many terpenes are derived from conifer resins, here a pine. ... An aldehyde. ... Human eye cross-sectional view. ... For other uses, see Eye (disambiguation). ...


When saffron is dried after its harvest, the heat, combined with enzymatic action, splits picrocrocin to yield D-glucose and a free safranal molecule.[13] Safranal, a volatile oil, gives saffron much of its distinctive aroma.[1][17] Safranal is less bitter than picrocrocin and may comprise up to 70% of dry saffron's volatile fraction in some samples.[16] A second element underlying saffron's aroma is 2-hydroxy-4,4,6-trimethyl-2,5-cyclohexadien-1-one, the scent of which has been described as "saffron, dried hay like".[18] Chemists found this to be the most powerful contributor to saffron's fragrance despite its being present in a lesser quantity than safranal.[18] Dry saffron is highly sensitive to fluctuating pH levels, and rapidly breaks down chemically in the presence of light and oxidizing agents. It must therefore be stored away in air-tight containers in order to minimise contact with atmospheric oxygen. Saffron is somewhat more resistant to heat. Monosaccharides are the simplest form of carbohydrates. ... Glucose (Glc), a monosaccharide (or simple sugar), is an important carbohydrate in biology. ... An essential oil is any concentrated, hydrophobic liquid containing volatile aroma compounds from plants, which are called aromatic herbs or aromatic plants. ... For other uses, see PH (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Light (disambiguation). ... ed|other uses|reduction}} Illustration of a redox reaction Redox (shorthand for reduction/oxidation reaction) describes all chemical reactions in which atoms have their oxidation number (oxidation state) changed. ...


Crocus sativus has been shown to have antidepressant effects; two active ingredients are crocin and safranal.[19] Chemical structure of crocin. ... Safranal is an organic compound isolated saffron, the spice consisting of the stigmas of crocus flowers (Crocus sativas). ...


History

A detail of the "Saffron Gatherers" fresco from the "Xeste 3" building. The fresco is one of many dealing with saffron that were found at the bronze age settlement of Akrotiri, Santorini.
Main article: History of saffron

The history of saffron cultivation reaches back more than 3,000 years.[3] The wild precursor of domesticated saffron crocus was Crocus cartwrightianus. Human cultivators bred wild specimens by selecting for unusually long stigmas. Thus, a sterile mutant form of C. cartwrightianus, C. sativus, emerged in late Bronze Age Crete.[20] Experts believe saffron was first documented in a 7th century BC Assyrian botanical reference compiled under Ashurbanipal. Since then, documentation of saffron's use over the span of 4,000 years in the treatment of some 90 illnesses has been uncovered.[21] Saffron has been used as a spice and medicine in the Mediterranean region since then, with usage and cultivation slowly spreading to other parts of Eurasia as well as North Africa and North America. In the last several decades, saffron cultivation has spread to Oceania. Image File history File links Saffron_gatherers_detail_Thera_Santorini. ... Image File history File links Saffron_gatherers_detail_Thera_Santorini. ... Santorini (Greek Σαντορίνη, IPA: ) is a small, circular archipelago of volcanic islands located in southern Aegean Sea, about 200 km south-east from Greeces mainland. ... Saffron crocus flowers, represented as small red tufts, are gathered by two women in a fragmentary Minoan fresco from the Aegean island of Santorini. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... For other uses, see Crete (disambiguation). ... BC may stand for: Before Christ (see Anno Domini) : an abbreviation used to refer to a year before the beginning of the year count that starts with the supposed year of the birth of Jesus. ... For other uses, see Assyria (disambiguation). ... Ashurbanipal, Assurbanipal or Sardanapal, in Akkadian AÅ¡Å¡ur-bāni-apli, (b. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... North American redirects here. ... For other uses, see Oceania (disambiguation). ...


Mediterranean

Minoans portrayed saffron in their palace frescoes by 1500–1600 BC, showing saffron's use as a therapeutic drug.[22][21] Later, Greek legends told of sea voyages to Cilicia. There, adventurers hoped to procure what they believed was the world's most valuable saffron.[8] Another legend tells of Crocus and Smilax, whereby Crocus is bewitched and transformed into the original saffron crocus.[23] Ancient Mediterranean peoples—including perfumers in Egypt, physicians in Gaza, townspeople in Rhodes,[24] and the Greek hetaerae courtesans—used saffron in their perfumes, ointments,[25] potpourris, mascaras, divine offerings, and medical treatments.[25] The Minoan civilization was a bronze age civilization which arose on the island of Crete. ... The Kingdom of Cilician Armenia, 1199-1375. ... Not to be confused with the Spanish name Garza or the Egyptian town of Giza. ... This article is about the Greek island of Rhodes. ... In ancient Greece, Hetaerae were courtesans, that is to say, sophisticated companions and prostitutes. ...

This ancient Minoan fresco from Knossos, Crete shows a monkey (stooped blue figure) gathering the saffron harvest.
This ancient Minoan fresco from Knossos, Crete shows a monkey (stooped blue figure) gathering the saffron harvest.

In late Hellenistic Egypt, Cleopatra used saffron in her baths so that lovemaking would be more pleasurable.[26] Egyptian healers used saffron as a treatment for all varieties of gastrointestinal ailments.[27] Saffron was also used as a fabric dye in such Levant cities as Sidon and Tyre.[28] Aulus Cornelius Celsus prescribes saffron in medicines for wounds, cough, colic, and scabies, and in the mithridatium.[29] Such was the Romans' love of saffron that Roman colonists took their saffron with them when they settled in southern Gaul, where it was extensively cultivated until Rome's fall. Competing theories state that saffron only returned to France with 8th century AD Moors or with the Avignon papacy in the 14th century AD.[30] Image File history File links Man_gathering_saffron_Knossos_Crete_crocus_sativus_fresco. ... Image File history File links Man_gathering_saffron_Knossos_Crete_crocus_sativus_fresco. ... The Minoan civilization was a bronze age civilization which arose on the island of Crete. ... A portion of Arthur Evans reconstruction of the Minoan palace at Knossos. ... For other uses, see Crete (disambiguation). ... The term Hellenistic (derived from Héllēn, the Greeks traditional self-described ethnic name) was established by the German historian Johann Gustav Droysen to refer to the spreading of Greek culture over the non-Greek people that were conquered by Alexander the Great. ... Cleopatra was a co-ruler of Egypt with her father (Ptolemy XII Auletes), her brothers/husbands Ptolemy XIII and Ptolemy XIV, consummated a liaison with Gaius Julius Caesar that solidified her grip on the throne, and, after Caesars assassination, aligned with Mark Antony, with whom she produced twins. ... The Levant The Levant (IPA: ) is an imprecise geographical term historically referring to a large area in the Middle East south of the Taurus Mountains, bounded by the Mediterranean Sea on the west, and by the northern Arabian Desert and Upper Mesopotamia to the east. ... View of the new city the Sea Castle. ... The Triumphal Arch Tyre (Arabic , Phoenician , Hebrew Tzor, Tiberian Hebrew , Akkadian , Greek Týros) is a city in the South Governorate of Lebanon. ... Aulus Cornelius Celsus Aulus Cornelius Celsus (25 BC—50) was a Roman encyclopedist and possibly, although not likely, a physician. ... Elaborately-gilded drug jar for storing mithridate. ... For other uses, see moor. ... For the Municipality in Quebec, see Avignon Regional County Municipality, Quebec. ...


Asia

The 17.8 m monolith of Jain Tirthankara Bhagavan Gomateshwara Bahubali, which was carved between 978–993 AD and is located in Shravanabelagola, India, is anointed with saffron every 12 years by thousands of devotees as part of the Mahamastakabhisheka festival.
The 17.8 m monolith of Jain Tirthankara Bhagavan Gomateshwara Bahubali, which was carved between 978–993 AD and is located in Shravanabelagola, India, is anointed with saffron every 12 years by thousands of devotees as part of the Mahamastakabhisheka festival.

Saffron-based pigments have been found in 50,000 year-old depictions of prehistoric beasts in what is today Iraq.[23][31] Later, the Sumerians used wild-growing saffron in their remedies and magical potions.[32] Saffron was thus an article of long-distance trade before the Minoan palace culture's 2nd millennium BC peak. Saffron was also honored in the Hebrew Song of Solomon.[33] Ancient Persians cultivated Persian saffron (Crocus sativus 'Hausknechtii') in Derbena, Isfahan, and Khorasan by the 10th century BC. At such sites, saffron threads were woven into textiles,[23] ritually offered to divinities, and used in dyes, perfumes, medicines, and body washes.[34] Thus, saffron threads would be scattered across beds and mixed into hot teas as a curative for bouts of melancholy. Non-Persians also feared the Persians' usage of saffron as a drugging agent and aphrodisiac.[25] During his Asian campaigns, Alexander the Great used Persian saffron in his infusions, rice, and baths as a curative for battle wounds. Alexander's troops mimicked the practice and brought saffron-bathing back to Greece.[35] Image File history File links The image shows the 58 foot, 8 inch statue of the Jain prophet Gomatheswara. ... Image File history File links The image shows the 58 foot, 8 inch statue of the Jain prophet Gomatheswara. ... This article is about the unit of length. ... For other uses, see Monolith (disambiguation). ... Jain and Jaina redirect here. ... In Jainism, a Tirthankara (Fordmaker) is a human who achieved enlightenment, became a Jiva, and whose religious teachings have formed the canon of Jainism; although not Gods, statues of Tirthankaras are found in temples. ... Bhagavan, also written Bhagwan or Bhagawan, from the Sanskrit nt-stem (nominative/vocative ) (hindi sandhi vichchhed:भ्+अ+ग्+अ+व्+आ+न्+अ)literally means: भ bh=bhoo soil अ a=agni fire ग g=gagan sky वा va=vaayu air न n=neer water BHAGAVAN is said to be composed up of all five matters other meanings possessing fortune, blessed, prosperous... The statue of Gomatheswara dates from 978-993 AD. Gomateshwara is a monolithic statue standing at 60 feet above a hill in a place called Shravanabelagola in the Hassan district of Karnataka state, India. ... As per Jain Scriptures, Bahubali (also known as Gommateshvara) was the younger of the two sons of the first Tirthankara, Lord Rishabha and king of Podanpur. ... The statue of Gomatheswara dates from 978-993 AD. Shravanabelagola is a city located in the Hassan district, in the Indian state of Karnataka. ... The Mahamasthakabhisheka (or Mahamasthak Abhishek) is an important Jain festival held once every twelve years in the town of Shravanabelagola in Karnataka state, India. ... Hebrew redirects here. ... For other uses, see Song of Solomon (disambiguation). ... The Persians of Iran (officially named Persia by West until 1935 while still referred to as Persia by some) are an Iranian people who speak Persian (locally named Fârsi by native speakers) and often refer to themselves as ethnic Iranians as well. ... Part of Shah Abbas large urban project in his new capital, the Chahār Bāgh Four Gardens, is a four-kilometer avenue in the city of Isfahan. ... Map showing the pre-2004 Khorasan Province in Iran Khorasan (Persian: خراسان) (also transcribed as Khurasan and Khorassan, anciently called Traxiane during Hellenistic and Parthian times is currently a region located in north eastern Iran, but historically referred to a much larger area east and north-east of the Persian Empire... Melancholia (Greek μελαγχολια) was described as a distinct disease as early as the fifth and fourth centuries BC in the Hippocratic writings. ... This article is about agents which increase sexual desire. ... For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ...


Theories explaining saffron's arrival in South Asia conflict. Traditional Kashmiri and Chinese accounts date its arrival anywhere between 900–2500 years ago.[36][37] Meanwhile, historians studying ancient Persian records date the arrival to sometime prior to 500 BC,[15] attributing it to either Persian transplantation of saffron corms to stock new gardens and parks[38] or to a Persian invasion and colonization of Kashmir. Phoenicians then marketed Kashmiri saffron as a dye and a treatment for melancholy.[25] From there, saffron use in foods and dyes spread throughout South Asia. For example, Buddhist monks in India adopted saffron-coloured robes after the Buddha Siddhartha Gautama's death.[39] However, the robes were not dyed with costly saffron but turmeric, a less expensive dye, or jackfruit. [40] Map of South Asia (see note on Kashmir). ... Kashmir (or Cashmere) may refer to: Kashmir region, the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent India, Kashmir conflict, the territorial dispute between India, Pakistan, and the China over the Kashmir region. ... Kashmir (or Cashmere) may refer to: Kashmir region, the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent India, Kashmir conflict, the territorial dispute between India, Pakistan, and the China over the Kashmir region. ... A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by... Siddhartha and Gautama redirect here. ... Binomial name Linnaeus Turmeric (Curcuma longa) is a rhizomatous herbaceous perennial plant of the ginger family, Zingiberaceae which is native to tropical South Asia. ... Binomial name Lam. ...


Some historians believe that saffron first came to China with Mongol invaders by way of Persia.[41] On the other hand, saffron is mentioned in ancient Chinese medical texts, including the forty-volume Shennong Bencaojing (神農本草經—"Shennong's Great Herbal", also known as Pen Ts'ao or Pun Tsao) pharmacopoeia, a tome dating from 200–300 BC. Traditionally attributed to the legendary Yan ("Fire") Emperor (炎帝) Shennong, it documents 252 phytochemical-based medical treatments for various disorders.[42][43][39] Yet around the 3rd century AD, the Chinese were referring to saffron as having a Kashmiri provenance. For example, Wan Zhen, a Chinese medical expert, reported that "[t]he habitat of saffron is in Kashmir, where people grow it principally to offer it to the Buddha." Wan also reflected on how saffron was used in his time: "The [saffron crocus] flower withers after a few days, and then the saffron is obtained. It is valued for its uniform yellow colour. It can be used to aromatise wine." Shennong‎ Shennong (traditional Chinese: ; simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ), also known as the Yan Emperor (炎帝) or the Emperor of the Five Grains (traditional Chinese: ; simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ), is a legendary ruler of China and culture hero of Chinese mythology who is believed to had lived some 5,000 years ago, and taught... For other uses, see Wine (disambiguation). ...


Europe

Medieval European illuminated manuscripts, such as this 13th century depiction of Archbishop of Canterbury Thomas Becket's assassination, often used saffron dyes to provide hues of yellow and orange.
Medieval European illuminated manuscripts, such as this 13th century depiction of Archbishop of Canterbury Thomas Becket's assassination, often used saffron dyes to provide hues of yellow and orange.

In Europe, saffron cultivation declined steeply following the Roman Empire's fall. Saffron was reintroduced when Moorish civilization spread to Spain, France, and Italy.[44] During the 14th century Black Death, demand for saffron-based medicine skyrocketed, and much saffron had to be imported via Venetian and Genoan ships from southern and Mediterranean lands[45] such as Rhodes. The theft of one such shipment by noblemen sparked the fourteen-week long "Saffron War".[45] The conflict and resulting fear of rampant saffron piracy spurred significant saffron cultivation in Basel, which grew prosperous.[46] Cultivation and trade then spread to Nuremberg, where epidemic levels of saffron adulteration brought on the Safranschou code, under which saffron adulterers were fined, imprisoned, and executed.[47] Soon after, saffron cultivation spread throughout England, especially Norfolk and Suffolk. The Essex town of Saffron Walden, named for its new specialty crop, emerged as England's prime saffron growing and trading center. However, an influx of more exotic spices such as chocolate, coffee, tea, and vanilla from newly contacted Eastern and overseas countries caused European cultivation and usage of saffron to decline.[48][49] Only in southern France, Italy, and Spain, did significant cultivation endure.[50] Image File history File links Thomas_Becket_Murder. ... Image File history File links Thomas_Becket_Murder. ... In the strictest definition of illuminated manuscript, only manuscripts decorated with gold or silver, like this miniature of Christ in Majesty from the Aberdeen Bestiary (folio 4v), would be considered illuminated. ... The Archbishop of Canterbury is the spiritual leader and senior clergyman of the Church of England, recognized by convention as the head of the worldwide Anglican Communion. ... Saint Thomas Becket, St. ... This article is about the color. ... See also Orange (disambiguation) for other meanings of the word. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... This article concerns the mid fourteenth century pandemic. ... This article is about the Greek island of Rhodes. ... For other uses, see Basel (disambiguation). ... Nürnberg redirects here. ... Norfolk (pronounced ) is a low-lying county in East Anglia in the east of southern England. ... Suffolk (pronounced ) is a large historic and modern non-metropolitan county in East Anglia, England. ... Saffron Walden is a small market town in the Uttlesford district of Essex, England. ... For other uses, see Chocolate (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Coffee (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Tea (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Vanilla (disambiguation). ...


Europeans brought saffron to the Americas when immigrant members of the Schwenkfelder Church left Europe with a trunk containing saffron corms; indeed, many Schwenkfelders had widely grown saffron in Europe.[51] By 1730, the Pennsylvania Dutch were cultivating saffron throughout eastern Pennsylvania. Spanish colonies in the Caribbean bought large amounts of this new American saffron, and high demand ensured that saffron's list price on the Philadelphia commodities exchange was set equal to that of gold.[52] The trade with the Caribbean later collapsed in the aftermath of the War of 1812, when many saffron-transporting merchant vessels were destroyed.[53] Yet the Pennsylvania Dutch continued to grow lesser amounts of saffron for local trade and use in their cakes, noodles, and chicken or trout dishes.[54] American saffron cultivation survived into modern times mainly in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania.[51] World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas in an equal-area projection The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World, consisting of the continents of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... The Schwenkfelder Church is a small but unique American Christian body rooted in the 16th century reformation teachings of Caspar Schwenkfeld von Ossig (1489-1561). ... The Pennsylvania Dutch (perhaps more strictly Pennsylvania Deitsch or Pennsylvanian German) are the descendants of German immigrants who came to Pennsylvania prior to 1800. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... For other uses, see Philadelphia (disambiguation) and Philly. ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... This article is about the U.S.–U.K. war. ... Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, known as the Garden Spot of America since the 18th century, is located in the southeastern part of the state of Pennsylvania, in the United States. ...


Trade and use

Saffron is one of the three essential ingredients in the Spanish paella valenciana, and is responsible for its characteristic brilliant yellow colouring.
Saffron is one of the three essential ingredients in the Spanish paella valenciana, and is responsible for its characteristic brilliant yellow colouring.
Main article: Trade and use of saffron

Saffron's aroma is often described by connoisseurs as reminiscent of metallic honey with grassy or hay-like notes, while its taste has also been noted as hay-like and somewhat bitter. Saffron also contributes a luminous yellow-orange colouring to foods. Saffron is widely used in Iranian (Persian), Arab, Central Asian, European, Indian,Turkish, Moroccan and Cornish cuisines. Confectionaries and liquors also often include saffron. Common saffron substitutes include safflower (Carthamus tinctorius, which is often sold as "Portuguese saffron" or "assafroa") and turmeric (Curcuma longa). Medicinally, saffron has a long history as part of traditional healing; modern medicine has also discovered saffron as having anticarcinogenic (cancer-suppressing),[14] anti-mutagenic (mutation-preventing), immunomodulating, and antioxidant-like properties.[55][14][56] Saffron has also been used as a fabric dye, particularly in China and India, and in perfumery. A Valencia Paella File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... A Valencia Paella File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Spanish cuisine is made of very different kinds of dishes due to the differences in geography, culture and climate. ... Valencian paella A giant seafood paella cooked on the 2003 Catalonian National Day in the village square of Cornudella de Montsant, Catalonia, Spain Closeup of the dish Vegan paella Paella (IPA: ) is a typical valencian rice dish from Spain. ... Saffron crocuses flowering in a garden in Osaka Prefecture (大阪府), Kansai, Honshū, Japan. ... For other uses, see Grass (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Hay (disambiguation). ... The cuisine of Iran is diverse, with each province featuring dishes, as well as culinary traditions and styles, distinct to their regions. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Iranian cuisine. ... Arab cuisine is the cuisine of the Arab countries. ... Asian cuisine is a term for the various cuisines of South, East and Southeast Asia and for fusion dishes based on combining them. ... See the individual entries for: // Belarusian cuisine Bulgarian cuisine Czech cuisine Hungarian cuisine Jewish cuisine Polish cuisine Romanian cuisine Russian cuisine Slovak cuisine Slovenian cuisine Ukrainian cuisine British cuisine English cuisine Scottish cuisine Welsh cuisine Anglo-Indian cuisine Modern British cuisine Nordic cuisine Danish cuisine Finnish cuisine Icelandic cuisine Lappish... For other uses, see Cornwall (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Carthamus tinctorius (Mohler, Roth, Schmidt & Boudreaux, 1967) Safflower is a highly branched, herbaceous, thistle-like annual, usually with many long sharp spines on the leaves. ... Binomial name Linnaeus Turmeric (Curcuma longa) is a rhizomatous herbaceous perennial plant of the ginger family, Zingiberaceae which is native to tropical South Asia. ... An anticarcinogen is any chemical which reduces the occurrence of cancers, reduces the severity of cancers that do occur, or acts against cancers that do occur, based on evidence from in vitro studies, animal models, epidemiological studies and/or clinical studies. ... Space-filling model of the antioxidant metabolite glutathione. ... Look up dye in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

World saffron cultivation patterns

A map showing the primary saffron-producing nations.
 —  Major growing regions.
 —  Major producing nations.
 —  Minor growing regions.
 —  Minor producing nations.
 —  Major trading centres (current).
 —  Major trading centres (historical).

Most saffron is grown in a belt of land ranging from the Mediterranean in the west to Kashmir in the east. Annually, around 300 tonnes of saffron are produced worldwide.[2] Iran ranks first in the world production of saffron, with more than 81 percent of the world yield.[57] Iran's annual saffron production is expected to hit 300 tons by the end of the nation's Fourth Five-Year Socioeconomic Development Plan in 2009. Other minor producers of saffron are Spain, India, Greece, Azerbaijan, Morocco, and Italy. A pound of dry saffron (0.45 kg) requires 50,000–75,000 flowers, the equivalent of a football field's area of cultivation.[58][59] Some forty hours of frenetic day-and-night labour are needed to pick 150,000 flowers.[60] Upon extraction, stigmas are dried quickly and (preferably) sealed in airtight containers.[61] Saffron prices at wholesale and retail rates range from US$500/pound to US$5,000/pound (US$1100–US$11,000 per kilogram)—equivalent to £250/€350 per pound or £5,500/€7,500 per kilo. In Western countries, the average retail price is $1,000/£500/€700 per pound (US$2200/£1100/€1550 per kilogram).[62] A pound comprises between 70,000 and 200,000 threads. Vivid crimson colouring, slight moistness, elasticity, recent harvest date, and lack of broken-off thread debris are all traits of fresh saffron. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1357x628, 29 KB) Summary Author: Myself, using Adobe Illustrator. ...


Cultivars

Saffron threads (red-coloured stigmas) mixed with styles (yellow) from Iran.
Saffron threads (red-coloured stigmas) mixed with styles (yellow) from Iran.

Several saffron cultivars are grown worldwide. Spain's varieties, including the tradenames 'Spanish Superior' and 'Creme', are generally mellower in colour, flavour, and aroma; they are graded by government-imposed standards. Italian varieties are more potent, while the most intense varieties tend to be Macedonian Greek (Krokos Kozanis), Iranian, and Indian in origin. Westerners may face significant obstacles in obtaining saffron from India. For example, India has banned the export of high-grade saffron abroad. Aside from these, various "boutique" crops are available from New Zealand, France, Switzerland, England, the United States, and other countries, some organically grown. In the U.S., Pennsylvania Dutch saffron—known for its earthy notes—is marketed in small quantities.[51][63] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1613x1545, 497 KB) // Summary Image of Iranian saffron threads. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1613x1545, 497 KB) // Summary Image of Iranian saffron threads. ... This Osteospermum Pink Whirls is a successful cultivar. ... This article is about the region of Greece. ... A saffron crocus flower. ... Kozani (Greek: ), is a city in northern Greece, capital of Kozani Prefecture and of West Macedonia periphery. ... Organically Grown products, or simply Organic products are products which are produced using entirely natural methods, and products that are not genetically modified in any way. ...

Close-up of a single crocus thread (the dried stigma). Actual length is about 20 millimeters (0.8 in).
Close-up of a single crocus thread (the dried stigma). Actual length is about 20 millimeters (0.8 in).

Consumers regard certain cultivars as "premium" quality. The "Aquila" saffron (zafferano dell'Aquila)—defined by high safranal and crocin content, shape, unusually pungent aroma, and intense colour—is grown exclusively on eight hectares in the Navelli Valley of Italy's Abruzzo region, near L'Aquila. It was first introduced to Italy by a Dominican monk from Inquisition-era Spain. But in Italy the biggest saffron cultivation, for quality and quantity, is in San Gavino Monreale, Sardinia. There, saffron is grown on 40 hectares (60% of Italian production); it also has very high crocin, picrocrocin, and safranal content. Another is the Kashmiri "Mongra" or "Lacha" saffron (Crocus sativus 'Cashmirianus'), which is among the most difficult for consumers to obtain. Repeated droughts, blights, and crop failures in Kashmir, combined with an Indian export ban, contribute to its high prices. Kashmiri saffron is recognisable by its extremely dark maroon-purple hue, among the world's darkest, which suggests the saffron's strong flavour, aroma, and colourative effect. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1400x800, 523 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Saffron ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1400x800, 523 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Saffron ... “Abruzzi” redirects here. ... City centre. ... This article is about one of the historical Inquisitions. ... Sardinia (pronounced ; Italian: ; Sardinian: or ) is the second-largest island in the Mediterranean Sea (after Sicily). ...


Grades

Minimum saffron colour
grading standards (ISO 3632)
ISO Grade
(category)
Crocin-specific
absorbance (Aλ) score
(at λ=440 nm)
I > 190
II 150–190
III 110–150
IV 80–110
Source: Tarvand 2005b

Saffron types are graded by quality according to laboratory measurements of such characteristics as crocin (colour), picrocrocin (taste), and safranal (fragrance) content. Other metrics include floral waste content (i.e. the saffron spice sample's non-stigma floral content) and measurements of other extraneous matter such as inorganic material ("ash"). A uniform set of international standards in saffron grading was established by the International Organization for Standardization, which is an international federation of national standards bodies. Namely, ISO 3632 deals exclusively with saffron. It establishes four empirical grades of colour intensity: IV (poorest), III, II, and I (finest quality). Saffron samples are then assigned to one of these grades by gauging the spice's crocin content, which is revealed by measurements of crocin-specific spectroscopic absorbance. Absorbance is defined as Aλ = − log(I / I0), with Aλ as absorbance (Beer-Lambert law). It is a measure of a given substance's transparency (I / I0, the ratio of light intensity passing through sample to that of the incident light) to a given wavelength of light. “ISO” redirects here. ... In spectroscopy, the absorbance A is defined as , where is the intensity of light at a specified wavelength λ that has passed through a sample (transmitted light intensity) and is the intensity of the light before it enters the sample or incident light intensity. ... A nanometre (American spelling: nanometer) is 1. ... “ISO” redirects here. ... In spectroscopy, the absorbance A is defined as , where is the intensity of light at a specified wavelength λ that has passed through a sample (transmitted light intensity) and is the intensity of the light before it enters the sample or incident light intensity. ... In optics, the Beer-Lambert law, also known as Beers law or the Lambert-Beer law or the Beer-Lambert-Bouguer law is an empirical relationship that relates the absorption of light to the properties of the material through which the light is traveling. ...

Spanish federal saffron
grading standards
Grade ISO score
Coupe > 190
La Mancha 180–190
Río 150–180
Standard 145–150
Sierra < 110
Source: Tarvand 2005b

For saffron, absorbance is determined for the crocin-specific photon wavelength of 440 nm in a given dry sample of spice.[64] Higher absorbances at this wavelength imply greater crocin concentration, and thus a greater colourative intensity. These data are measured through spectrophotometry reports at certified testing laboratories worldwide. These colour grades proceed from grades with absorbances lower than 80 (for all category IV saffron) up to 190 or greater (for category I). The world's finest samples (the selected most red-maroon tips of stigmas picked from the finest flowers) receive absorbance scores in excess of 250. Market prices for saffron types follow directly from these ISO scores.[64] However, many growers, traders, and consumers reject such lab test numbers. They prefer a more holistic method of sampling batches of thread for taste, aroma, pliability, and other traits in a fashion similar to that practiced by practised wine tasters.[65] “ISO” redirects here. ... In modern physics the photon is the elementary particle responsible for electromagnetic phenomena. ... For other uses, see Wavelength (disambiguation). ... A nanometre (American spelling: nanometer) is 1. ... Spectrophotometer In physics, spectrophotometry is the quantitative study of electromagnetic spectra. ...


Despite such attempts at quality control and standardisation, an extensive history of saffron adulteration—particularly among the cheapest grades—continues into modern times. Adulteration was first documented in Europe's Middle Ages, when those found selling adulterated saffron were executed under the Safranschou code.[66] Typical methods include mixing in extraneous substances like beet, pomegranate fibers, red-dyed silk fibers, or the saffron crocus's tasteless and odorless yellow stamens. Other methods included dousing saffron fibers with viscid substances like honey or vegetable oil. However, powdered saffron is more prone to adulteration, with turmeric, paprika, and other powders used as diluting fillers. Adulteration can also consist of selling mislabeled mixes of different saffron grades.[39] Thus, in India, high-grade Kashmiri saffron is often sold mixed with cheaper Iranian imports; these mixes are then marketed as pure Kashmiri saffron, a development that has cost Kashmiri growers much of their income.[67][68] Binomial name Carolus Linnaeus Beta vulgaris, commonly known as beet is a flowering plant species in the family Chenopodiaceae. ... For other uses of this word, see Silk (disambiguation). ...


Notes

Saffron crocuses flowering in a garden in Osaka Prefecture (大阪府), Kansai, Honshū, Japan.
Saffron crocuses flowering in a garden in Osaka Prefecture (大阪府), Kansai, Honshū, Japan.
A saffron crocus flower.
A saffron crocus flower.
  1. ^ a b McGee 2004, p. 423.
  2. ^ a b c Katzer 2001.
  3. ^ a b c d e Deo 2003, p. 1.
  4. ^ Willard 2001, p. 3.
  5. ^ DPIWE 2005.
  6. ^ www.FAO.org
  7. ^ Who is the first?. www.paradisesaffron.com/. Retrieved on 2008-05-25.
  8. ^ a b Willard 2001, pp. 2–3.
  9. ^ a b Deo 2003, p. 2.
  10. ^ a b c Deo 2003, p. 3.
  11. ^ Willard 2001, pp. 3–4.
  12. ^ Willard 2001, p. 4.
  13. ^ a b Deo 2003, p. 4.
  14. ^ a b c d e Abdullaev 2002, p. 1.
  15. ^ a b McGee 2004, p. 422.
  16. ^ a b Leffingwell 2001, p. 1.
  17. ^ Dharmananda 2005.
  18. ^ a b Leffingwell 2001, p. 3.
  19. ^ Antidepressant effect of Crocus sativus L. stigma extracts and their constituents, crocin and safranal, in mice.. www.cababstractsplus.org. Retrieved on 2008-03-02.
  20. ^ Goyns 1999, p. 1.
  21. ^ a b Honan 2004.
  22. ^ Ferrence 2004, p. 1.
  23. ^ a b c Willard 2001, p. 2.
  24. ^ Willard 2001, p. 58.
  25. ^ a b c d Willard 2001, p. 41.
  26. ^ Willard 2001, p. 55.
  27. ^ Willard 2001, pp. 34–35.
  28. ^ Willard 2001, p. 59.
  29. ^ Celsus, de Medicina, ca. 30 AD, transl. Loeb Classical Library Edition, 1935 [1]
  30. ^ Willard 2001, p. 63.
  31. ^ Humphries 1998, p. 20.
  32. ^ Willard 2001, p. 12.
  33. ^ Humphries 1998, p. 19.
  34. ^ Willard 2001, pp. 17–18.
  35. ^ Willard 2001, pp. 54–55.
  36. ^ Lak 1998b.
  37. ^ Fotedar 1998–1999, p. 128.
  38. ^ Dalby 2003, p. 256.
  39. ^ a b c Tarvand 2005.
  40. ^ Finlay, Victoria. "Color; A Natural History of the Palette", page 224. Random House 2002.
  41. ^ Fletcher 2005, p. 11.
  42. ^ Hayes 2001, p. 6.
  43. ^ Shen-Nong Limited 2005.
  44. ^ Willard 2001, p. 70.
  45. ^ a b Willard 2001, p. 99.
  46. ^ Willard 2001, p. 101.
  47. ^ Willard 2001, pp. 103–104.
  48. ^ Willard 2001, p. 117.
  49. ^ Willard 2001, pp. 132–133.
  50. ^ Willard 2001, p. 133.
  51. ^ a b c Willard 2001, p. 143.
  52. ^ Willard 2001, p. 138.
  53. ^ Willard 2001, pp. 138–139.
  54. ^ Willard 2001, pp. 142–146.
  55. ^ Assimopoulou 2005, p. 1.
  56. ^ Chang, Kuo & Wang 1964, p. 1.
  57. ^ www.FAO.org
  58. ^ Hill 2004, p. 273.
  59. ^ Rau 1969, p. 35.
  60. ^ Lak 1998.
  61. ^ Goyns 1999, p. 8.
  62. ^ Hill 2004, p. 272.
  63. ^ Willard 2001, p. 201.
  64. ^ a b Tarvand 2005b.
  65. ^ Hill 2004, p. 274.
  66. ^ Willard 2001, pp. 102–104.
  67. ^ Australian Broadcasting Corporation 2003.
  68. ^ Hussain 2005.

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (683x729, 143 KB) Scientific name Crocus sativus サフラン Place:Osaka-fu Japan Description: Crocus sativus Source: KENPEIs photo Date: 2005-11-03 Author: KENPEI Permission: GFDL,Creative Commons Attribution ShareAlike 2. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (683x729, 143 KB) Scientific name Crocus sativus サフラン Place:Osaka-fu Japan Description: Crocus sativus Source: KENPEIs photo Date: 2005-11-03 Author: KENPEI Permission: GFDL,Creative Commons Attribution ShareAlike 2. ... Osaka Prefecture (大阪府 Ōsaka-fu) is part of the Kinki region on Honshu island, Japan. ... The Kansai (Japanese: 関西) region of Japan, also known as the Kinki region (近畿地方, Kinki-chihō), lies in the Southern-Central region of Japans main island, Honshu. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Image File history File links Crocus_sativus_sahuran. ... Image File history File links Crocus_sativus_sahuran. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 61st day of the year (62nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

The Australian Broadcasting Corporation or ABC is Australias national non-profit public broadcaster. ... is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 194th day of the year (195th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Dyeing is the process of changing the colour of a yarn or cloth by treatment with a dye. ... This article is about the textile dyeing technique. ... Dyeing is the process of changing the colour of a yarn or cloth by treatment with a dye. ... Look up Mordant in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Categories: Stub ... A kalamkari representing two Indian dancers. ... Resist dyeing, resist-dyeing and variants is a term for a number of traditional methods of dyeing textiles with patterns. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 449 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (599 × 799 pixel, file size: 149 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Look up dye in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Acid dye is a member of a class of dye that is applied from an acidic solution. ... In a reactive dye a chromophore contains a substituent that is activated and allowed to directly react to the surface of the substrate. ... A solvent dye is a dye soluble in organic solvents. ... Dye molecules are attracted by physical forces at the molecular level to the textile. ... Sulfur dyes are the biggest volume dyes manufactured for cotton. ... ♣Vat dyes are an ancient class of dyes, based on the natural dye, indigo, which is now produced synthetically. ... Brazilin Brazilin is a red pigment obtained from the wood of the brazilwood family (Caesalpinia sp), and is also known as Natural red 24. ... Binomial name Costa, 1835 Synonyms Coccus cacti Linnaeus, 1758 Pseudococcus cacti Burmeister, 1839 Cochineal is the name of both crimson or carmine dye and the cochineal insect (Dactylopius coccus), a scale insect in the suborder Sternorrhyncha, from which the dye is derived. ... Cudbear is a dye extracted from lichens that produces colours in the purple range. ... Binomial name Caesalpinia echinata Lam. ... Old Fustic (Morus tinctoria), produces a yellow dye. ... Indigo dye indigo molecule Indigo dye is an important dyestuff with a distinctive blue color (see indigo). ... Kermes (or chermes), meaning red insect in the Persian language, is the dried bodies of the females of a scale insect (Kermes ilices), formerly Coccus ilicis, allied to the cochineal insect, and found on several species of oak near the Mediterranean. ... Binomial name Haematoxylum campechianum The Logwood tree (Haematoxylum campechianum) was once an important source of red dye. ... Species See text. ... Binomial name Porphyrophora polonica Linnaeus, 1758 Area where the Polish cochineal was found in commercial quantities[2] Synonyms Coccus polonicus Linnaeus, 1758 Coccus radicum Beckmann, 1790 Coccionella polonica Hahnemann, 1793 Porphyrophora frischii Brandt, 1835 Porphyrophora fritchii Signoret, 1869 Margarodes polonicus Cockerell, 1902 Polish cochineal (Porphyrophora polonica L.), also known as... Murex brandaris, also known as the Spiny dye-murex The chemical structure of 6,6′-dibromoindigo, the main component of Tyrian Purple A space-filling model of 6,6′-dibromoindigo Tyrian purple (Greek: , porphura), also known as royal purple or imperial purple, is a purple-red dye made by the... Binomial name L. Synonyms Isatis indigotica Fortune Woad (or glastum) is the common name of the flowering plant Isatis tinctoria in the family Brassicaceae. ... Saffron crocuses flowering in a garden in Osaka Prefecture (大阪府), Kansai, HonshÅ«, Japan. ... The following are the principal native vegetable dyes used in Scottish Gaeldom, with the colours they produce. ... Dylon International Ltd is a British manufacturer of textile dyes and other household chemicals. ... Categories: Food and drink stubs | Kraft brands | Beverages ... Procion is a brand of fibre reactive dyes. ... For other uses, see Herb (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Spice (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Angelica archangelica L. Garden Angelica (Angelica archangelica) is a biennial plant from the umbelliferous family Apiaceae. ... For other uses, see Basil (disambiguation). ... Binomial name L. Synonyms Ocimum sanctum L. Ocimum tenuifolium (known as Holy basil in English, and Tulasi in Sanskrit), is a well known aromatic plant in the family Lamiaceae. ... Thai Basil is a cultivar of basil and is a major ingredient in many Thai dishes. ... bay leaves Bay leaf in Greek Daphni (plural bay leaves) is the aromatic leaf of several species of the Laurel family (Lauraceae). ... Boldo (Peumus boldus Molina) is a plant native to the coastal region of Chile. ... Binomial name Porophyllum ruderale Bolivian Coriander or Quillquiña (also spelled Quirquiña/Quilquiña) or Killi is an herb plant whose leaves can be used as a seasoning. ... Binomial name L. Borage (Borago officinalis L.), also known as starflower (Ú¯Ù„ گاوزبان in Persian) is an annual herb originating in Syria, but naturalized throughout the Mediterranean region, as well as most of Europe, North Africa, and Iran. ... This article is about the plant genus Cannabis. ... Binomial name Anthriscus cerefolium (L.) Hoffm. ... Binomial name Allium schoenoprasum L. Chives (Allium schoenoprasum), is the smallest species of the onion family[1] Alliaceae, native to Europe, Asia and North America[2]. They are referred to only in the plural, because they grow in clumps rather than as individual plants. ... Cicely (Myrrhis odorata) is a plant belonging to the Apiaceae, or parsley, family. ... For other uses, see Coriander (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Lepidium sativum L. Garden cress (Lepidium sativum) is a fast-growing, edible plant botanically related to watercress and mustard and sharing their peppery, tangy flavor and aroma. ... Binomial name Murraya koenigii (L.) Sprengel The Curry Tree or Curry-leaf Tree (Murraya koenigii; syn. ... For other uses, see Dill (disambiguation). ... Binomial name L. Epazote, Wormseed, Jesuits Tea, Mexican Tea, or Herba Sancti Mariæ (Chenopodium ambrosioides) is an herb native to Central America, South America, and southern Mexico. ... Binomial name L. Eryngium foetidum (also known as Bhandhanya, Chandon benit, Culantro, Culantro Coyote, (Fitweed, Long coriander, Mexican coriander, Wild coriander, Recao, Shado beni (English-speaking Caribbean), Spiritweed, (Ngò gai (Vietnam), Sawtooth), )Saw-leaf herb, or Cilantro cimarron) is a tropical perennial and annual herb in the family Apiaceae. ... Binomial name Piper auritum Kunth Hoja santa (Piper auritum, synonymous with Piper sanctum[1]) is an aromatic herb with a heart shaped leaf which grows in tropic Mesoamerica. ... Genera See text. ... Species See text Hyssop (Hyssopus) is a genus of about 10-12 species of herbaceous or semi-woody plants in the family Lamiaceae, native from the Mediterranean east to central Asia. ... Binomial name Mill. ... Binomial name Melissa officinalis Linnaeus Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis), not to be confused with bee balm, Monarda species, is a perennial herb in the mint family Lamiaceae, native to southern Europe and the Mediterranean region. ... Species About 55, see text Cymbopogon (lemon grass, lemongrass, citronella grass or fever grass) is a genus of about 55 species of grasses, native to warm temperate and tropical regions of the Old World. ... Binomial name Aloysia triphylla (LHér. ... Binomial name Limnophila aromatica (Lam. ... Binomial name Levisticum officinale L. Koch. ... Binomial name L. Marjoram (Origanum majorana, Lamiaceae) is a somewhat cold-sensitive perennial herb or undershrub with sweet pine and citrus flavours. ... “Mint” redirects here. ... Species See text. ... Binomial name Origanum vulgare L. Oregano or Pot Marjoram (Origanum vulgare) is a species of Origanum, native to Europe, the Mediterranean region and southern and central Asia. ... This article is about the herb. ... Perilla is a genus of annual herb that is a member of the mint family, Lamiaceae. ... For other uses, see Rosemary (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Ruta graveolens L. The Common Rue (Ruta graveolens), also known as Herb-of-grace, is a species of rue grown as a herb. ... Binomial name L. Painting from Koehlers Medicinal Plants (1887) Common sage (Salvia officinalis) is a small evergreen subshrub, with woody stems, grayish leaves, and blue to purplish flowers native to southern Europe and the Mediterranean region. ... Species About 30, see text Satureja is a genus of aromatic plants of the family Lamiaceae, related to rosemary and thyme. ... Binomial name Rumex acetosa L. The common sorrel, or spinach dock, Ambada bhaji is a perennial herb, which grows abundantly in meadows in most parts of Europe and is cultivated as a leaf vegetable. ... Species About 150 species, including: Stevia eupatoria Stevia ovata Stevia plummerae Stevia rebaudiana Stevia salicifolia Stevia serrata Stevia is a genus of about 150 species of herbs and shrubs in the sunflower family (Asteraceae), native to subtropical and tropical South America and Central America. ... This article is about the herb; for the Freedom Call CD see Taragon. ... Species About 350 species, including: Thymus adamovicii Thymus altaicus Thymus amurensis Thymus bracteosus Thymus broussonetii Thymus caespititius Thymus camphoratus Thymus capitatus Thymus capitellatus Thymus camphoratus Thymus carnosus Thymus cephalotus Thymus cherlerioides Thymus ciliatus Thymus cilicicus Thymus cimicinus Thymus comosus Thymus comptus Thymus curtus Thymus disjunctus Thymus doerfleri Thymus glabrescens Thymus... Binomial name Persicaria odorata Lour. ... This article is about a type of plant. ... Ajwain seeds Ajwain (also known as carom seeds or bishops weed), is an uncommon spice except in certain areas of Asia. ... The Aleppo Pepper is a variety of Capsicum annuum named after the town Aleppo in northern Syria. ... Binomial name (L.) Merr. ... Species About 35 species, including: Mangifera altissima Mangifera applanata Mangifera caesia Mangifera camptosperma Mangifera casturi Mangifera decandra Mangifera foetida Mangifera gedebe Mangifera griffithii Mangifera indica Mangifera kemanga Mangifera laurina Mangifera longipes Mangifera macrocarpa Mangifera mekongensis Mangifera odorata Mangifera pajang Mangifera pentandra Mangifera persiciformis Mangifera quadrifida Mangifera siamensis Mangifera similis Mangifera... This article is about the Pimpinella species, but the name anise is frequently applied to Fennel. ... Binomial name (Linn. ... Binomial name L. Asafoetida (Ferula assafoetida, family Apiaceae), alternative spelling asafetida (also known as devils dung, stinking gum, asant, food of the gods, hing, and giant fennel) is a species of Ferula native to Iran. ... Binomial name Cinnamomum camphora (L.) Sieb. ... Categories: | | | | ... This article is about the herbs. ... Binomial name Amomum subulatum Roxb. ... Binomial name Cinnamomum aromaticum Nees Cassia (Cinnamomum aromaticum, synonym ), also called Chinese cinnamon, is an evergreen tree native to southern China and mainland Southeast Asia west to Myanmar. ... A large red cayenne The Cayenne is a red, hot chili pepper used to flavor dishes, and for medicinal purposes. ... Binomial name L. Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... For other uses, see Chili. ... Binomial name J.Presl Cassia (Chinese cinnamon) is also commonly called (and sometimes sold as) cinnamon. ... Binomial name (L.) Merrill & Perry A single dried clove flower bud Cloves (Syzygium aromaticum, syn. ... For other uses, see Coriander (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Piper cubeba L. Cubeb (Piper cubeba), or tailed pepper, is a plant in genus Piper, cultivated for its fruit and essential oil. ... Geerah redirects here. ... Binomial name Bunium persicum (Boiss. ... For other uses, see Dill (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Foeniculum vulgare Mill. ... Binomial name L. Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) or menthya (Kannada)or Venthayam (Tamil) belongs to the family Fabaceae. ... Binomial name (L.) Mansf. ... Binomial name Alpinia galanga (L.) Willd. ... This article lacks an appropriate taxobox. ... Binomial name L. Allium sativum L., commonly known as garlic, is a species in the onion family Alliaceae. ... For other uses, see Ginger (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Aframomum melegueta K. Schum. ... The term Grains of Selim refers to the seeds of a shrubby tree, Xylopia aethiopica, found in Africa. ... Binomial name P.G. Gaertn. ... Juniper berries, here still attached to a branch, are actually modified conifer cones. ... Binomial name L. Liquorice or licorice (see spelling differences) (IPA: , or ) is the root of Glycyrrhiza glabra, from which a sweet flavour can be extracted. ... For other uses, see Nutmeg (disambiguation). ... Mahlab, Mahleb, or Mahlepi, is an aromatic spice from the puverized pit of the black cherry, Cerasus mahaleb or (Prunus mahaleb). ... Malabathrum, also known as Malabar leaf is the name used in classical and medieval texts for the leaf of the plant Cinnamomum tamala. ... Binomial name Brassica nigra L. Black mustard (Brassica nigra) is an annual weedy plant cultivated for its seeds, which are commonly used as a spice. ... Binomial name Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. ... Binomial name Sinapis alba White mustard (Sinapis alba) is a plant of the family Cruciferae. ... Binomial name L. Nigella sativa is an annual flowering plant, native to southwest Asia. ... For other uses, see Nutmeg (disambiguation). ... Capsicum fruit which comes in various shapes and colours can be used to make paprika. ... Binomial name L.[1] Black pepper (Piper nigrum) is a flowering vine in the family Piperaceae, cultivated for its fruit, which is usually dried and used as a spice and seasoning. ... Binomial name L.[1] Black pepper (Piper nigrum) is a flowering vine in the family Piperaceae, cultivated for its fruit, which is usually dried and used as a spice and seasoning. ... Binomial name L. Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Piper longum Long pepper (Piper longum), sometimes called Javanese Long Pepper or Indian Long Pepper, is a flowering vine in the family Piperaceae, cultivated for its fruit, which is usually dried and used as a spice and seasoning. ... Binomial name Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi Brazilian Pepper (Schinus terebinthifolius; also known as Aroeira or Florida Holly) is a sprawling shrub or small tree 7-10 m tall, native to subtropical and tropical South America, in southeastern Brazil, northern Argentina and Paraguay. ... Binomial name Schinus molle Raddi Peruvian Pepper (Schinus molle, also known as California pepper tree, molle, pepper tree, pepperina, Peruvian mastictree and Peruvian peppertree) is a tree or shrub that grows to between 5 and 18 m tall. ... Binomial name L.[1] Black pepper (Piper nigrum) is a flowering vine in the family Piperaceae, cultivated for its fruit, which is usually dried and used as a spice and seasoning. ... Binomial name L. The Pomegranate (Punica granatum) is a fruit-bearing deciduous shrub or small tree growing to 5–8 m tall. ... This article is about the plant. ... Binomial name Killip & Morton Sarsaparilla (Smilax regelii and other closely related species of Smilax) is a plant that comes in vine and, in the case of Aralia nudicaulis L., bush variants that bears roots with many useful properties. ... This article is about the Sassafras tree. ... Binomial name Sesamum indicum L. Sesame (Sesamum indicum) is a flowering plant in the genus Sesamum. ... Sichuan pepper (or Szechuan pepper) is the outer pod of the tiny fruit of a number of species in the genus Zanthoxylum (most commonly Zanthoxylum piperitum, Zanthoxylum simulans, and Zanthoxylum sancho), widely grown and consumed in Asia as a spice. ... Binomial name Hook. ... Species About 250 species; see text Rhus is a genus approximately 250 species of woody shrubs and small trees in the family Anacardiaceae. ... Species (not a complete list) Tasmannia is a genus of woody, evergreen flowering plants of the family Winteraceae. ... Binomial name L. This article refers to the tree. ... The tonka bean is the seed of Dipteryx odorata, a legume tree in the neotropics, of the Fabaceae family. ... Binomial name Linnaeus Turmeric (Curcuma longa) is a rhizomatous herbaceous perennial plant of the ginger family, Zingiberaceae which is native to tropical South Asia. ... For other uses, see Vanilla (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Matsum. ... Binomial name Curcuma zedoaria (Christm. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Saffron Walden - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (907 words)
However, in the 17th and 18th centuries the saffron crocus (crocus sativus) became widely grown in the area.
The flower was precious, as extract from the stigmas, the saffron, was used in medicines, as a condiment, as a perfume and as an expensive yellow dye.
Saffron Walden also features the ruins of the 12th century Walden Castle, which is thought to have been built by Geoffrey de Mandeville, the Second Earl of Essex.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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