FACTOID # 18: Alaska spends more money per capita on elementary and secondary education than any other state.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Safe sex

Safe sex (also called safer sex or protected sex) is a set of practices that are designed to reduce the risk of infection during sexual intercourse to avoid developing sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Conversely, unsafe sex refers to engaging in sexual intercourse without the use of any barrier contraception or other preventive measures against STDs. An infection is the detrimental colonization of a host organism by a foreign species. ... It has been suggested that Duration of sexual intercourse be merged into this article or section. ... Sexually-transmitted infections (STIs), also known as sexually-transmitted diseases (STDs), are diseases that are commonly transmitted between partners through some form of sexual activity, most commonly vaginal intercourse, oral sex, or anal sex. ... This page is a candidate to be copied to Wiktionary. ...


Safe sex practices became prominent in the late 1980s as a result of the AIDS epidemic. Promoting safe sex is now a principal aim of sex education. From the viewpoint of society, safer sex can be regarded as a harm reduction strategy. Safe sex is about risk reduction, not complete risk elimination. Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... For other uses, see AIDS (disambiguation). ... An early 20th century post card documents the problem of unwanted pregnancy. ... Harm reduction is a philosophy of public health, intended to be a progressive alternative to the prohibition of certain potentially dangerous lifestyle choices. ...


Although safe sex practices can be used as a form of family planning, the term refers to efforts made to prevent infection rather than conception. Many effective forms of contraception do not offer protection against STDs. Oral contraceptives. ... STD is a three-letter abbreviation used in several different contexts that stand for different terms. ... The term conception can refer to more than one meaning: Concept Fertilisation This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...

Poster for AIDS education campaign in Laos
Poster for AIDS education campaign in Laos

Contents

Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ...

Terminology

Recently, and mostly within Canada and the United States, the use of the term safer sex rather than safe sex has gained greater use by health workers, with the realization the grounds that risk of transmission of sexually transmitted infections in various sexual activities is a continuum rather than a simple dichotomy between risky and safe. However, in most other countries, including the United Kingdom and Australia, the term safe sex is still mainly used by sex educators. Because these terms are virtually synonymous with each other, they are used interchangeably throughout this article. Sexual behavior is a form of physical intimacy that may be directed to reproduction (one possible goal of sexual intercourse) and/or to the enjoyment of activity involving sexual gratification. ...


Focus on HIV/AIDS

Much attention has focused on controlling HIV, the virus that causes AIDS, through the use of condoms, but each STD presents a different problem. However, sex educators recommend that some form of barrier protection as a harm reduction measure should be used for all sexual activities which might potentially result in the exchange of body fluids. Species Human immunodeficiency virus 1 Human immunodeficiency virus 2 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, a condition in humans in which the immune system begins to fail, leading to life-threatening opportunistic infections). ... This article is about biological infectious particles. ... For other uses, see AIDS (disambiguation). ... A standard latex condom still rolled up This article is about the contraceptive device. ... Harm reduction is a philosophy of public health, intended to be a progressive alternative to the prohibition of certain potentially dangerous lifestyle choices. ... Bodily fluids are fluids, which are generally excreted or secreted from the human body. ...


Safe sex precautions

Shunga print by Kunisada depicting masturbation
Shunga print by Kunisada depicting masturbation

Image File history File linksMetadata Kunisada_surimono. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Kunisada_surimono. ... Shunga ) is a Japanese term for erotic pictures. ... Utagawa Kunisada (1786 - 1865) (Japanese: 歌川国貞, known as Utagawa Tokokuni III 三代歌川豊国 later in his career) was known in his time as the most popular and successful ukiyo-e designer in Japan, ahead of Kuniyoshi and Hiroshige. ...

Sex by yourself

Known as Autoeroticism, solitary sexual activity (including "phone sex" and "cybersex") is relatively safe. However, some practices, such as self-bondage and autoerotic asphyxia, are made considerably more dangerous by the absence of people who can intervene if something goes wrong. Masturbation is safe, so long as contact is not made with other persons discharged bodily fluids. Autoeroticism is the practice of fulfilling ones own sexual needs without a partner. ... Phone sex refers to sexually explicit conversation between two or more persons via telephone, especially when at least one of the participants masturbates or engages in sexual fantasy. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Self-bondage is the practice of sexual bondage without a partner; that is to say, tying or otherwise restraining oneself for the purpose of sexual pleasure. ... Autoerotic asphyxiation is the practice of self-strangulation, typically by the use of a ligature, while masturbating. ... Woman masturbating, 1913 drawing by Gustav Klimt. ...


Non-penetrative Sex

Main article: Non-penetrative sex

A range of sex acts, sometimes called outercourse can be enjoyed by lovers with significantly reduced risks of infection and no risk of pregnancy. U.S. President Bill Clinton's surgeon general, Dr. Joycelyn Elders, tried to encourage the use of these practices in the U.S.A. but criticism by the religious right forced her to resign. Non-penetrative sex (also known as outercourse) is sexual activity without vaginal, anal, and possibly oral penetration, as opposed to intercourse. ... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... Joycelyn Elders Minnie Joycelyn Elders (born August 13, 1933) was the United States Surgeon General from September 8, 1993 to December 31, 1994, most famous for her outspokenness on sensitive issues of public health. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Limiting fluid exchange

Various devices are used to avoid contact with blood, vaginal fluid, and semen during sexual activity: Image File history File links Size of this preview: 222 × 598 pixel Image in higher resolution (416 × 1120 pixel, file size: 56 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) (Uploaded using CommonsHelper or PushForCommons) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 222 × 598 pixel Image in higher resolution (416 × 1120 pixel, file size: 56 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) (Uploaded using CommonsHelper or PushForCommons) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are... Condom vending machine outside Italian pharmacy A condom machine is a vending machine for the sale of condoms. ... Human blood smear: a - erythrocytes; b - neutrophil; c - eosinophil; d - lymphocyte. ... Vaginal lubrication is the naturally produced lubricating fluid that reduces friction during sexual intercourse. ... Horse semen being collected for breeding purposes. ...

  • Condoms cover the penis during sexual activity. They are most frequently made of latex, but can also be made out of polyurethane. Polyurethane is thought to be a safe material for use in condoms, since it is nonporous and viruses cannot pass through it. However, there is less research on its effectiveness than there is on latex.

During a year of typical condom use, 14 out of 100 women will become pregnant. During a year of perfect condom use, that number drops to 3 out of 100 women becoming pregnant. As such it is crucial to understand how to use a condom consistently and correctly if this method of safe sex is chosen.
To use condoms consistently and correctly:
- Use a new condom each time you have sex.
- Store condoms in a cool, dry place, out of direct sunlight.
- Don't use a condom if it is damaged, discolored, deflated, brittle, or sticky from lubricant.
- Check the expiration date before you use it.
- Carefully open the condom package, being sure not to tear the condom.
- Put it on the erect penis before you have intercourse.
- When placing the condom on the penis, leave space at the tip for ejaculate (pinch an inch), and gently squeeze this tip as you unroll the condom all the way down the shaft.
- Use water-based lubricants.
- If the condom breaks during sexual intercourse, withdraw the penis immediately and put on a new condom before resuming intercourse.
- While the penis is still erect, withdraw it immediately after ejaculation: grasp the rim of the condom between the fingers and slowly pull out (with the condom still on) so that no semen is spilled.
This article is about the male contraceptive device. ... This article is about the typesetting system. ... A polyurethane is any polymer consisting of a chain of organic units joined by urethane links. ...

  • Female condoms are inserted into the vagina prior to intercourse. They may also be used for anal sex, although they are less effective.
  • A dental dam (originally used in dentistry) is a sheet of latex used for protection when engaging in oral sex. It is typically used as a barrier between the mouth and the vulva during cunnilingus or between the mouth and the anus during anilingus.
  • Medical gloves made out of latex, vinyl, nitrile, or polyurethane may be used as an ersatz dental dam during oral sex, or to protect the hands during mutual masturbation. Hands may have invisible cuts on them that may admit pathogens that are found in the semen or the vaginal fluids of STD infectees. Although the risk of infection in this manner is thought to be low [citation needed], gloves can be used as an extra precaution.
  • Another way to avoid contact with blood and semen is penetration, but not by the penis, such as using (properly cleaned) dildos or other sex toys. If a sex toy is to be used in more than one orifice, a condom can be used over it and changed when the toy is moved. Fisting (penetration by the hand), has its own risks, but the risk of HIV transfer can be reduced by latex gloves or a condom. Pegging, female-to-male anal sex with a strap-on dildo, as promoted by sex educator Carol Queen does not involve fluid transfer.

If a latex barrier is being used, any lubrication must not be oil based, as this can break down the structure of the latex and undo the protection it gives. A female condom is a device that is used during sexual intercourse. ... The vagina, (from Latin, literally sheath or scabbard ) is the tubular tract leading from the uterus to the exterior of the body in female placental mammals and marsupials, or to the cloaca in female birds, monotremes, and some reptiles. ... Roman men having anal sex. ... Dental dams or rubber dams are essentially rectangular sheets of latex used in dentistry, specifically endodontic therapy. ... Oral sex consists of all sexual activities that involve the use of the mouth, which may include use of the tongue, teeth, and throat, to stimulate genitalia. ... The external genital organs of the female are collectively known as the vulva (plural vulvae or vulvas)[1]. In common speech, the term vagina is often used improperly to refer to the vulva or female genitals generally, even though, strictly speaking, the vagina is a specific internal structure, whereas the... Watercolour painting depicting cunnilingus by Achille Devéria Cunnilingus is the act of performing oral sex, using the mouth, lips, and tongue to stimulate the female genitals. ... 14th century manuscript illustration of the accusations of sodomy against the Knights Templar Anal_oral contact (commonly referred to as anilingus and colloquially known as rimming or tossing salad) is sexual activity involving contact between the anus or perianal areas of one person and the mouth of another. ... A blue nitrile medical glove. ... Nitrile rubber is a synthetic rubber co-polymer of acrylonitrile (ACN) and butadiene. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Horse semen being collected for breeding purposes. ... Vaginal lubrication is the naturally produced lubricating fluid that reduces friction during sexual intercourse. ... Human blood smear: a - erythrocytes; b - neutrophil; c - eosinophil; d - lymphocyte. ... Horse semen being collected for breeding purposes. ... The penis (plural penises, penes) is an external male sexual organ. ... A 7-inch silicone dildo A dildo (or dildoe, a rare alternate spelling) is a sex toy, often explicitly phallic in appearance, intended for bodily interaction during masturbation or sexual intercourse. ... A sex toy is a term for any object or device that is primarily used in facilitating human sexual pleasure. ... Fisting or fist fucking (FF) is a sexual activity that involves inserting the hand and forearm into the vagina or anus. ... For other uses, see Pegging (disambiguation). ... A 2-strap harness with a multi-function dildo and an internal vibrating egg A strap-on dildo (also strap-on, dildo harness) is a dildo designed to be worn (usually in a harness) by one partner and used to penetrate another partner vaginally, anally or orally, used by both... Carol Queen is a notable American author, editor, and sexologist active in the sex-positive feminist movement. ... Personal lubricants are specialized lubricants which serve to reduce friction with the vagina, the anus, or other body parts. ...


Other Precautions

Acknowledging that it is usually impossible to have entirely risk-free sex with another person, proponents of safer sex recommend that some of the following methods be used to minimize the risks of STD transmission and unwanted pregnancy.

  • Monogamy or polyfidelity, practiced faithfully, is very safe (as far as STDs are concerned) when all partners are non-infected. However, many monogamous people have been infected with sexually transmitted diseases by partners who are sexually unfaithful, have used injection drugs, or were infected by previous sexual partners; the same risks apply to polyfidelitous people, who face slightly higher risks depending on how many people are in the polyfidelitous group.
  • For those who are not monogamous, reducing the number of one's sexual partners, particularly anonymous sexual partners, may also reduce one's potential exposure to STDs. Similarly, one may restrict one's sexual contact to a community of trusted individuals - this is the approach taken by some pornographic actors and other non-monogamous people.
  • Communication with one's sexual partner(s) makes for greater safety. Before initiating sexual activities, partners may discuss what activities they will and will not engage in, and what precautions they will take. This can reduce the chance of risky decisions being made "in the heat of passion".
  • Refraining from the use of recreational drugs, including alcohol, before and during sexual activity can protect against associated risks such as lowered inhibitions, decreased immune response, impaired judgment, and loss of consciousness.
  • If a person is sexually active with a number of partners, it is important that they get regular check-ups from a doctor. Anyone noticing unusual symptoms should get medical advice quickly. Unfortunately HIV is almost symptom free until AIDS develops.

Faithfulness redirects here. ... Polyfidelity, a form of polyamory, is the restricting of ones sexual activities nonpreferentially to a single group of people, each of whom follows the same rules and has sex only within the group. ... Adultery is generally defined as consensual sexual intercourse by a married person with someone other than their lawful spouse. ... A pornographic actor/actress or a porn star (also spelled as pornstar) is somebody who appears in pornographic films or photographs, live sex shows or peep shows. ... Nonmonogamy is a blanket term covering several different types of interpersonal relationship in which some or all participants have multiple marital, sexual, and/or romantic partners. ... Communication is a process that allows organisms to exchange information by several methods. ... Recreational drug use is the use of psychoactive drugs for recreational rather than medical or spiritual purposes, although the distinction is not always clear. ... Alcoholic beverages An alcoholic beverage (also known as booze in slang term) is a drink containing ethanol, commonly known as alcohol, although in chemistry the definition of alcohol includes many other compounds. ... A sexual health clinic is a clinic that specializes in treatment of sex-related problems. ...

Ineffective methods

Note that most methods of contraception other than the barrier methods mentioned above are not effective at preventing the spread of STDs. This includes the "rhythm method", which is also commonly known as Natural Family Planning.


The spermicide Nonoxynol-9 has been claimed to reduce the likelihood of STD transmission. However a recent study by the World Health Organization [1] has shown that Nonoxynol-9 is an irritant and can produce tiny tears in mucous membranes, which may increase the risk of transmission by offering pathogens more easy points of entry into the system. As a result condoms with a Nonoxynol-9 lubricant are not to be promoted. Spermicide is a substance that kills sperm, inserted vaginally prior to intercourse to prevent pregnancy. ... Nonoxynol-9, sometimes abbreviated as N-9, is a non-ionic nonoxynol surfactant that is used as an ingredient in various cleaning and cosmetic products, but is also widely used in contraceptives for its spermicidal properties. ... “WHO” redirects here. ... A pathogen (literally birth of pain from the Greek παθογένεια) is a biological agent that can cause disease to its host. ...


Coitus interruptus (or "pulling out"), in which the penis is removed from the vagina, anus, or mouth before ejaculation, is not safe sex and can result in STD transmission. This is because of the formation of pre-ejaculate, a fluid that oozes from the urethra before actual ejaculation. In opposition to conventional wisdom, some recent studies awaiting confirmation suggest that pre-ejaculate may not contain sperm; it can, however, contain pathogens such as HIV.[1][2] In addition, open sores on either partner can permit transmission, as can microscopic breaks in the skin which arise due to friction, or other irregularities in the skin of either partners genitalia or other body parts. Coitus interruptus, also known as withdrawal or the pull out method, is a method of contraception in which, during sexual intercourse, the penis is removed from the vagina prior to ejaculation, primarily to avoid introducing semen into the vagina. ... The penis (plural penises, penes) is an external male sexual organ. ... The vagina, (from Latin, literally sheath or scabbard ) is the tubular tract leading from the uterus to the exterior of the body in female placental mammals and marsupials, or to the cloaca in female birds, monotremes, and some reptiles. ... This article is about the bodily orifice. ... For other uses, see Mouth (disambiguation). ... Ejaculation is the ejecting of semen from the penis, and is usually accompanied by orgasm. ... Pre-ejaculate (also known as pre-ejaculatory fluid or Cowpers fluid, and colloquially as precum) is the clear, colorless, viscous fluid that is issued from the urethra of a mans penis when he is sexually aroused. ... In anatomy, the urethra is a tube which connects the urinary bladder to the outside of the body. ...


Dangers of anal sex

Unprotected anal sex is a high risk activity regardless of sexual orientation. Research suggests that although gay men are more likely to engage in anal sex, heterosexual couples are more likely not to use condoms when doing so.[3] Roman men having anal sex. ...


Anal sex is more risky than vaginal, since being very thin tissues of anus and rectum can be easily damaged during such sex activities as anal intercourse or use of anal toys. Even slight injuries can become "open gates" for various bacteria and viruses, including HIV. This implies that anal sex does require some certain safety measures. First of all, any partners who practice anal sex should be aware of the necessity of using a condom. The condom must be put on properly, otherwise it does not provide reliable protection. Users should keep in mind that oil-based lubricants damage latex. For this reason water-based lubricants should be used for anal sex. Those who have allergy to latex should consider use of non-latex condoms, for instance polyurethane condoms that are compatible with both oil-based and water-based lubricants. The rectum (from the Latin rectum intestinum, meaning straight intestine) is the final straight portion of the large intestine in some mammals, and the gut in others, terminating in the anus. ... A sex toy is a term for any object or device that is primarily used in facilitating human sexual pleasure. ... This article is about the typesetting system. ... A lubricant (colloquially, lube) is a substance (often a liquid) introduced between two moving surfaces to reduce the friction and wear between them. ... A polyurethane is any polymer consisting of a chain of organic units joined by urethane links. ...


Condoms should also be used with sex toys. Through putting a condom on the sex toy a user provides better hygiene and prevents transmission of infections if the sex toy is shared. Cleaning of anal sex toys is also a very important matter as many anal sex toys are made of porous materials. Pores retain viruses and bacteria. For this reason users should clean anal toys (plugs, anal vibrators) thoroughly, preferably with use of special sex toy cleaners. Glass sex toys are more preferred for sexual uses because of their non-porus nature and ability to be sterilized between uses.


Abstinence as an alternative to safe sex

One way to avoid the risks associated with sexual contact is to abstain from sexual activity entirely, which nearly eliminates the chances of contracting STDs (the only alternative methods of infection being non-sexual as described below). Sexual behavior is a form of physical intimacy that may be directed to reproduction (one possible goal of sexual intercourse) and/or to the enjoyment of activity involving sexual gratification. ... Sexually-transmitted infections (STIs), also known as sexually-transmitted diseases (STDs), are diseases that are commonly transmitted between partners through some form of sexual activity, most commonly vaginal intercourse, oral sex, or anal sex. ...


Some groups, notably some American evangelical Christians and the Roman Catholic Church oppose sex outside marriage, and object to safe-sex education programs because they believe that providing such education promotes promiscuity. Virginity pledges and sexual abstinence education programs are often promoted in lieu of contraceptives and safe-sex education programs. This can place some teenagers at higher risk of unintended pregnancy and STDs, because up to 60 percent of teenagers who pledge virginity until marriage do engage in pre-marital sex and are then one-third less likely to use contraceptives than their peers who have received more traditional sex education.[4] Evangelicalism, in a strictly lexical, but rarely used sense, refers to all things that are implied in belief that Jesus is the savior. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... Marriage is an interpersonal relationship with governmental, social, or religious recognition, usually intimate and sexual, and often created as a contract, or through civil process. ... “Promiscuous” redirects here. ... Virginity pledges (or abstinence pledges) are commitments made by teenagers and young adults to refrain from sexual intercourse until marriage. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Teenagers is the fourth single and eleventh track from My Chemical Romances third studio album, The Black Parade. ... This article is about human pregnancy in biological females. ... Virgin redirects here. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


STDs may also be transmitted through non-sexual means. Thus, abstinence from sexual behavior does not guarantee complete protection against STDs. For example, HIV may be transmitted through contaminated needles used in tattooing, body piercing, or injections. Medical or dental procedures using contaminated instruments can also spread HIV, while some health-care workers have acquired HIV through occupational exposure to accidental injuries with needles.[5] Abstinence is a voluntary restraint from indulging a desire or appetite for certain bodily activities that are widely experienced as giving pleasure. ... Species Human immunodeficiency virus 1 Human immunodeficiency virus 2 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, a condition in humans in which the immune system begins to fail, leading to life-threatening opportunistic infections). ... For other uses, see Tattoo (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... An injection is a method of putting liquid into the body with a hollow needle and a syringe which is pierced through the skin long enough for the material to be forced into the body. ...


References

  1. ^ Researchers find no sperm in pre-ejaculate fluid. Contraceptive Technology Update. Volume 14, Number 10, October 1993, pp.154-6.
  2. ^ Zukerman, Z. et al. Short Communication: Does Preejaculatory Penile Secretion Originating from Cowper's Gland Contain Sperm? Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics. Volume 20, Number 4, April 2003, pp. 157-159(3).
  3. ^ "Gay men's dream: A 'magic' lube: Researchers discuss rectal microbicide development at NIAID workshop", Bob Roehr, (June 15, 2001) Bay Area Reporter http://www.aegis.com/news/bar/2001/BR010617.html
  4. ^ Recent Findings from The 'Add Health' Survey: Teens and Sexual Activity
  5. ^ Do AN, Ciesielski CA, Metler RP, Hammett TA, Li J, Fleming PL (2003). "Occupationally acquired human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection: national case surveillance data during 20 years of the HIV epidemic in the United States". Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 24 (2): 86-96. PMID 12602690. 

See also

For other uses, see Birth control (disambiguation). ... The spread of HIV and AIDS has affected millions of people worldwide; According to the 2006 AIDS Epidemic Update, published by the UNAIDS/World Health Organization, there were an estimated 39. ... Condom fatigue is a term used by medical professionals and safer sex educators to refer to the phenomenon of decreased condom use. ... The safe sex makespan problem is used in operations research as an example that the cheapest capital cost often leads to dramatic increase in operational time, but that the shortest operational time need not be given by the most expensive capital cost. ... The Terrence Higgins Trust is a British charity that campaigns on various issues related to AIDS and HIV. In particular, the Trust aims to reduce the spread of HIV and promote good sexual health (including safe sex); to provide services on a national and local level to people with, affected...

External links

  • "Guide to Safer Sex" from the Society for Human Sexuality's sexuality.org site. Very explicit information on making various sexual practices safer:
  • Safer-Sex Methods from HIV InSite
  • SexInfo's Methods of Contraception For Men and Women - Detailed information on contraception (also includes a step-by-step guide with pictures on how to make a dental dam out of a condom)
  • Tiny Nibbles Safer Sex Chart - Presents risk levels of a variety of sexual activities and most major STDs.
  • Condoms4Life
  • STD Advice
  • (French) Condom use — with many pictures.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Safe Sex and the Facts (3045 words)
I must now take a hard look at the message of safe sex which is being taught to teens at school and through the media.
Studies are beginning to show that school-based sex education that includes condom use as the central message, does not work.
Sex is a wonderful gift, but if uncontrolled, it has a great capacity for evil as well as good.
Safe Sex: What Does It Really Mean? - Men's Health News Story - WSB Atlanta (962 words)
Safe sex means taking precautions during sex that can keep you from getting a sexually transmitted disease (STD), or from giving an STD to your partner.
Ideally, before having sex with a new partner, each of you should get screened for STDs, especially HIV and hepatitis B, and share the test results with one another.
In summary, safe sex requires prior planning and good communication between partners.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m