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Encyclopedia > Safavids
History of Iran
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The Safavid Empire at its 1512 borders.
The Safavid Empire at its 1512 borders.

The Safavids were a native Iranian dynasty from Azarbaijan that ruled from 1501 to 1736, and which established Shi'a Islam as Iran's official religion and united its provinces under a single Iranian sovereignty, thereby reigniting the Persian identity and acting as a bridge to modern Iran.
File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Iran is one of the worlds oldest continuous major civilizations. ... The following is a comprehensive list of all Persian Empires and their rulers: // Early realms in Iran Elamite Kingdom, 3000-660 BC of the Persian/Median empire that later appeared. ... The Jiroft Kingdom or Jiroft Civilization (تمدن جيرفت) is a relatively recent and ongoing multinational archeological project that aims to uncover an unknown civilization in a series of newly discovered sites in Irans Kerman Province, located at 28° 48 N latitude and 57° 46 E Longitude, known as Jiroft or Halilrud... Elam (Persian: ایلام) is one of the most ancient civilizations on record. ... The Mannaeans (or Mannai, Mannae, Biblical Minni) were an ancient people of unknown origin, who lived in the territory of present-day Iranian Azerbaijan around the 10th to 7th century BC. At that time they were neighbours of the empires of Assyria and Urartu, as well as other small buffer... The Medes(ancient Kurdistan) were an Iranian people, who lived in the north, western, and northwestern portions of present-day Iran, and roughly the areas of present day Tehran, Hamedan, Azarbaijan, north of Esfahan, Zanjan, and Kurdistan. ... Achaemenid empire at its greatest extent The Achaemenid Dynasty (Hakamanishiya in the Old Persian (Avestan ??) language - transliterated Hakamanshee in Modern Persian) - was a dynasty in the ancient Persian Empire. ... The Seleucid Empire was one of several political states founded after the death of Alexander the Great, whose generals squabbled over the division of Alexanders empire. ... Parthia, or known in their native Iranian language as Ashkâniân [2] (also called the Arsacid Empire) was the dominating force on the Iranian plateau beginning in the late 3rd century BCE, and intermittently controlled Mesopotamia between ca 190 BCE and 224 CE. It was the second dynasty of... The Sassanid Empire or Sassanian Empire (Persian: Sassanian) was the name given to the kings of Persia (Iran) during the era of the third Persian Empire from 226 until 651. ... The Islamic conquest of Iran (637-651 CE) destroyed the Sassanid Empire and led to the eventual decline of the Zoroastrian religion in Iran. ... The Tahirid dynasty ruled the northeastern Persian region of Khorasan between AD 821-873. ... The Saffarid dynasty of Persia ruled a short-lived empire centred on Seistan, a border district between modern-day Afghanistan and Iran, between 861-1003. ... The Sāmānid dynasty (875-999) was a Persian dynasty in Central Asia, named after its founder Saman Khoda. ... Tomb of Ghaboos ebne Voshmgir, built in 1007AD, rises 160 ft from its base. ... The Buwayhids or Buyyids or Ä€l-i Buyeh, were a Yazdani tribal confederation from Daylam, a region on the southern shore of the Caspian Sea. ... The Ghaznavid Empire was a state in the region of todays Afghanistan that existed from 963 to 1187. ... The Seljuk Turks (also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuq;in Turkish Selçuklu, in Persian سلجوقيان SaljÅ«qiyān ; in Arabic سلجوق SaljÅ«q, or السلاجقة al-Salājiqa;) were a major branch of the Oghuz Turkics and a dynasty that ruled parts of Central Asia and the Middle East from the 11th to 14th... The Khwarezmid Empire (also known as the Khwarezmian Empire) was a Muslim state in the 11th century in Khwarezmia that lasted until the Mongol invasion in 1220. ... Khanates of Mongolian Empire: Il-Khanate, Chagatai Khanate, Empire of the Great Khan (Yuan Dynasty), Golden Horde The Ilkhanate (also spelled Il-khanate or Il Khanate) was one of the four divisions within the Mongol Empire. ... The Muzaffarids were a Sunni Arab family that came to power in Iran following the breakup of the Ilkhanate in the 14th century. ... Flag of the Timurid Empire according to the Catalan Atlas c. ... Tomb of Nader Shah Afshar, a popular tourist attraction in Mashad. ... Vakeel mosque, Shiraz. ... Mullahs in the royal presence. ... The Pahlavi dynasty began with the crowning of Reza Shah Pahlavi in 1925 and ended with the Iranian Revolution of 1979, and the subsequent collapse of the ancient tradition of Iranian monarchy. ... Protestors take to the street in support of Ayatollah Khomeini. ... Image File history File links The location of the ancient Safavid Empire, an Iranian kingdom, c. ... 1512 was a leap year starting on Monday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Long Live Azerbaijan. ... 1501 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 26 - Stanislaus I of Poland abdicates his throne. ... Shia Islam ( Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite or Shiite) is the second largest Islamic denomination; some 20-25% of all Muslims are said to follow a Shia tradition. ... Islam (Arabic: ; ( (help· info)), submission (to the will of God) is a monotheistic faith and the worlds second-largest religion with approximately 1. ... The term Persian Empire refers to a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau. ...

Contents


Origins

The Safavid dynasty had its origins in a long established Sufi order, called the Safaviyeh, which had flourished in Azarbaijan since the early 14th century. Its founder was the Persian mystic Sheikh Safi al-Din (12521334), after whom it was named. Sufism (Arabic تصوف taṣawwuf) is a system of esoteric philosophy commonly associated with Islam. ... Safaviyeh was the name of the Sufi order founded by the Persian Mystic Sheikh Safi Al-Din of Ardabil (1252-1334). ... This 14th-century statue from south India depicts the gods Shiva (on the left) and Uma (on the right). ... The Persians are an Iranian people who speak the Persian language and share a common culture and history. ... Mysticism (ancient Greek mysticon = secret) is meditation, prayer, or theology focused on the direct experience of union with divinity, God, or Ultimate Reality, or the belief that such experience is a genuine and important source of knowledge. ... The ethnic Persian Safi Al-Din Ardebili (of Ardebil) (1252-1334), eponym of the Safavid Dynasty, was the spiritual heir and son in law of the great Sufi Murshid (Grand Master) Sheikh Zahed Gilani, of Lahijan in Gilan Province in northern Iran. ... For broader historical context, see 1250s and 13th century. ... Events Births January 4 - Amadeus VI of Savoy, Count of Savoy (died 1383) January 13 - King Henry II of Castile (died 1379) May 25 - Emperor Suko of Japan, third of the Northern Ashikaga Pretenders (died 1398) August 30 - King Peter I of Castile (died 1369) James I of Cyprus (died...


Sheikh Safi al-Din Abdul Fath Is'haq Ardabili came from Ardabil, a city in today's Iranian Azerbaijan where his shrine still exists. He was a disciple of the famed Sufi Grand Master Sheikh Zahed Gilani (12161301) of Lahijan. Spiritual heir to Sheikh Zahed, Safi Al-Din transformed the inherited Zahediyeh Sufi Order into the Safaviyeh Order. Originally Safaviyeh was a spiritual response to the upheavals and unrest in northwest Iran/eastern Anatolia in the decades following the Mongol invasion. In the fifteenth century, the Safaviyeh gradually gained political and military clout in the power vacuum precipitated by the decline of the Timurid dynasty. After becoming the Safaviyeh leader in 1447, Sheikh Junayd - a descendant of Sheikh Safi Al-Din - transformed it into a revolutionary Shi'ite movement with the goal of seizing power in Iran. Ardabil (in persian: اردبیل other name: Ardebil ancient name: Artavil ) a historical city in north-western Iran. ... Sufism (Arabic تصوف taṣawwuf) is a system of esoteric philosophy commonly associated with Islam. ... The mystic Taj Al-Din Ebrahim Al-Kordi Al-Sanjani* (1216 - 1301), titled Sheikh Zahed Gilani, was Grandmaster of the famed Zahediyeh Sufi Order at Lahijan. ... Events Prince Louis of France, the future King Louis VIII, invades England in the First Barons War Henry III becomes King of England. ... Events February 7 - Edward of Caernarvon (later King Edward II of England) becomes the first Prince of Wales End of the reign of Emperor Go-Fushimi, emperor of Japan Emperor Go-Nijō ascends to the throne of Japan Dante was sent into Exile in Florence. ... Lahijan is a city in Irans Gilan province, on the shores of Caspian Seaand south of Langroud or Langrood. ... The Arabic word Zahed means Ascetic (adjective and noun). ... The Zahediyeh Sufi Order was founded by Sheikh Zahed Gilani (Zahid Guilani) of Lahijan. ... Asia Minor lies east of the Bosporus, between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean. ... Honorary guard of Mongolia. ... Timurid can refer to several entities, related to Timur: Timurid Dynasty Timurid Empire Timurid Emirates This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Events March 6 - Nicholas V becomes Pope. ...


Ethnic and linguistic controversy

Some sources state that the Safavids were Turkic-speaking of ethnic Azeri background, while others state that they were Turkic-speaking of Persian background. There is also some contention as to whether or not they remained a Turkic-speaking dynasty.


Rise of the Safavid state

Ali Qapu palace, was the celebrated seat of The Safavid capital in Isfahan, Iran.
Ali Qapu palace, was the celebrated seat of The Safavid capital in Isfahan, Iran.

ImageMetadata File history File links IMG_0414_resize. ... ImageMetadata File history File links IMG_0414_resize. ... Ali Qapu (the Sublime Gate) is a grand palace in Isfahan, Iran. ... Part of Shah Abbas large urban project in his new capital, the Chahār Bāgh Four Gardens, is a four-kilometer avenue in the city of Isfahan. ...

Beginnings

During the 15th century, the Ottomans expanded across Anatolia and centralized control by prosecuting Shi'ism. They outlawed it at the turn of the century. In 1501, various disaffected militia from Azerbaijan and eastern Anatolia collectively called the Kizilbash (Azeri for "red heads" due to their red headgear) united with the Ardabil Safaviyeh to capture Tabriz from the then ruling Sunni Turkmen alliance known as Ak Koyunlu (The White Sheep Emirate) under Alwand's leadership. Imperial motto (Ottoman Turkish) Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (the Eternal State) The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power (1683) Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital Sogut (1299-1326), Bursa (1326-1365), Edirne (1365-1453), Ä°stanbul (1453-1922) Imperial anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Sovereigns Padishah of the Osmanlı Dynasty... Asia Minor lies east of the Bosporus, between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean. ... Asia Minor lies east of the Bosporus, between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean. ... Kizilbash Soldier The Kizilbash or Qizilbash (Turkish: KızılbaÅŸ, Azeri for Red Heads due to their red headgear known as Tâje-e Haydari (Persian: Haydars crown) were a religious group of different ethnic backgrounds, who helped found the Safavid Dynasty in what is now Iran. ... Note: This page contains phonetic information presented in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) using Unicode. ... Ardabil (in persian: اردبیل other name: Ardebil ancient name: Artavil ) a historical city in north-western Iran. ... Tabriz City Hall, built in 1895, by Arfaol molk, with the aid of German engineers. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Flag of the Ak Koyunlu (Colours are speculative) The Akkoyunlu or the White Sheep Turkomans (Azeri-Turkish: AÄŸqoyunlular/Akkoyunlular) were a Turkoman tribal federation that ruled present-day Azerbaijan, eastern Anatolia, northern Iraq and western Iran from 1378 to 1508. ...


The Safiviyeh came to be led by a fifteen-year old, Ismail I, who claimed descent from Sheikh Safi Al-Din [1]. To establish political provenance, the Safavid rulers claimed to be descended from Imam Ali and his wife Fatima, daughter of the Prophet Muhammad, through the seventh Imam Musa al-Kazim. To further legitimize his power, Ismail I also added claims of royal Sassanian heritage after becoming Shah. Shah Ismail I, the founder of the Safavid State. ... The ethnic Persian Safi Al-Din Ardebili (of Ardebil) (1252-1334), eponym of the Safavid Dynasty, was the spiritual heir and son in law of the great Sufi Murshid (Grand Master) Sheikh Zahed Gilani, of Lahijan in Gilan Province in northern Iran. ... Ali ibn Abu Talib (Arabic: ) (c. ... Fātima was originally an Arabic name, meaning She who weans, being the name of the only proved surviving daughter of Prophet Muhammad; after the advent of Islam it became a common Muslim name for women. ... For other people named Muhammad, see Muhammad (disambiguation). ... Imam (Arabic: إمام , Persian: امام ) is an Arabic word meaning Leader. The ruler of a country might be called the Imam, for example. ... Imam Musa al Kazim (November 10, 745 - September 4, 799) was the seventh Shia Imam (he is not accepted by the Ismailis as the seventh Imam). ... Head of king Shapur II (Sasanian dynasty A.D. 4th century). ... One of the worlds longest-lasting monarchies, the Iranian monarchy went through many transformations over the centuries, from the days of Persia to the creation of what is now modern day Iran. ...


With the capture of Tabriz, the Safavid dynasty began. In May 1501, Ismail I declared Tabriz his capital and himself Shah of Azerbaijan. Ismail I continued to expand his base in northwestern Iran. He was declared Shah of Iran in 1502. Throughout the rest of the decade Ismail I fended off attacks from the Ottomans, stamped out the remnants of the Ak Koyunlu and continued to expand his territory — Hamadan in 1503, Shiraz and Kerman in 1504, Najaf and Karbala in 1507, Van in 1508, Baghdad in 1509, Khorasan and Herat in 1510. By 1511 the Uzbeks in the north-east were driven across the Oxus River where they captured Samarkand establishing the Shaibanid dynasty, and from which they would continue to attack the Safavids. During his reign, the official language at the royal court was Azeri. Tabriz City Hall, built in 1895, by Arfaol molk, with the aid of German engineers. ... Flag of the Ak Koyunlu (Colours are speculative) The Akkoyunlu or the White Sheep Turkomans (Azeri-Turkish: AÄŸqoyunlular/Akkoyunlular) were a Turkoman tribal federation that ruled present-day Azerbaijan, eastern Anatolia, northern Iraq and western Iran from 1378 to 1508. ... Ganj nameh, Darius the Great inscriptions (5th century BC) This page is about the city of Hamedan. ... Eram Garden, Shiraz most popular garden. ... External links Iran Chamber Societys page on Kerman Tourist information on Kerman Photos of historic sites in Kerman Categories: Iran geography stubs | Cities in Iran ... 1507 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Location of Baghdad within Iraq Baghdad (Arabic: ) (Bexda in Kurdish) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... Khorasan (also spelled Khurasan and Khorassan; Xorasan or Xurasan in Kurdish; خراسان in Persian) is an area, located in eastern and northeastern Iran. ... Herāt (Persian هرات) is a city in western Afghanistan, in the valley of the Hari Rud river in the province also known as Herat, and was traditionally known for wine. ... The Amu Darya (in Persian آمودریا; Darya means river in Persian) rises in the Pamirs and flows mainly north-west through the Hindu Kush, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan to join the Aral Sea in a large river delta. ... Colour photograph of Ulugh Beg Madrasa taken in Samarkand ca. ... Note: This page contains phonetic information presented in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) using Unicode. ...


In the meantime, the navy-less Safavids lost the island of Hormuz to the Portuguese in 1507. Distorted from Persian Ohrmuzd, Ahura Mazda. ...


In 1514, the Ottoman Sultan Selim I invaded western Armenia causing the under-prepared Safavid army to retreat. The Safavids were armed with swords and bows while the Ottomans had muskets and artillery. The Ottomans pushed further and on August 23, 1514 managed to engage the Safavids in the Battle of Chaldiran west of Tabriz. The Safavids were defeated and, as the Ottoman force moved on Tabriz, engaged in scorched-earth combat. Tabriz was taken but the Ottoman army refused to follow the Safavids into the Persian highlands and by winter retreated from Tabriz. This warfare pattern repeated itself under Shah Tahmasp I and Sultan Suleiman I. Sultan Selim I Selim I (1465 – September 22, 1520; also known as the Grim or the Brave, Yavuz in Turkish) (Arabic: سليم الأول) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1512 to 1520. ... The Battle of Chaldiran was a military conflict that occurred on 23 August 1514 and ended with a decisive military victory of the Ottoman Empire over the Safavids. ... Tahmasp I (1514-1576) was an influential Shah of Persia of the Safavid Dynasty. ... Suleiman the Magnificent Suleiman I (November 6, 1494 – September 5/6, 1566); in Turkish Süleyman , (nicknamed the Magnificent in Europe and the Lawgiver in the Islamic World, in Turkish Kanuni) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1520 to 1566 and successor to Selim I. He was born at...


Establishment of Shi'ism as the state religion

Ismail I embraced Shi'a Islam, which he made mandatory for the whole nation upon penalty of death. Ismail forced conversion of the local population to Shi'ism. The Sunni Ulama, the religious authority, were either killed or exiled. Ismail brought in Shi'a religious leaders, granted them land and money in return for loyalty — in effect making them a religious aristocracy and an extension of the government. Despite Safavid's origins, even unofficial Sufi groups were prohibited. This was the first time since the fall of the Fatimid Caliphate in 1171 that this sect had attained such high levels of power in the Islamic world. In the following centuries, this religious schism would both cement both Iran's internal cohesion and nationalistic separateness and provoke attacks by its Sunni neighbors. Ulema is a common romanisation for the plural of Arabic ˤĀlim Scholar, namely ˤUlamā (علماء). The same word appears in Turkish as Ulema and in Persian as Olæma. ... The Fatimids or Fatimid Caliphate (Arabic الفاطميون) is the Ismaili Shiite dynasty that ruled much of North Africa from A.D. 5 January 910 to 1171. ... An Anglicized/Latinized version of the Arabic word خليفة or Khalīfah, Caliph (  listen?) is the term or title for the Islamic leader of the Ummah, or community of Islam. ... // Events Saladin abolishes the Fatimid caliphate, restoring Sunni rule in Egypt. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ...


Iran became a feudal theocracy: there was no separation of religion and state; the Shah was held to be divinely ordained head of both. The Qizilbashi chiefs were assigned the position of Vakil, offices in charge of the provincial administrative. Initially, the Safavids had only indirect control over the provinces, however throughout the sixteenth century the Qizilbash solidified their dominion over the provinces and vied with the Shah for power. The Qizilbashi tribes were essential to the military of Iran and during weak shahs, the vakils were able to elbow more influence and participate in court intrigues (assassinating Shah Ismail II for example). Constant wars with the Ottomans made Shah Tahmasp I move the capital from Tabriz, which was chronically being captured by the Ottoman troops, into the interior city of Qazvin in 1548. Later, Shah Abbas I moved the capital even deeper into central Iranian city of Isfahan, building a new city next to the ancient Persian one. From this time the state began to take on a more Persian character. The Safavids ultimately succeeded in establishing a new Persian national monarchy. Kizilbash Soldier The Kizilbash or Qizilbash (Turkish: Kızılbaş, Azeri for Red Heads due to their red headgear known as Tâje-e Haydari (Persian: Haydars crown) were a religious group of different ethnic backgrounds, who helped found the Safavid Dynasty in what is now Iran. ... Qazvin is an ancient city containing fine examples of Iranian architecture from various ages. ... Shah Abbas I of Safavid at a banquet Detail from a celing fresco; Chehel Sotoun palace; Isfahan Shah Abbas King of the Persians Copper engraving by Dominicus Custos, from his Atrium heroicum Caesarum pub. ...


Shah Abbas

Shah Abbas I of Safavid at a banquet Detail from a celing fresco; Chehel Sotoun Palace; Isfahan
Shah Abbas I of Safavid at a banquet
Detail from a celing fresco; Chehel Sotoun Palace; Isfahan

The greatest of the Safavid monarchs, Shah Abbas I (1587–1629) came to power in 1587 aged 16 following the forced abdication of his father, Shah Muhammad Khudābanda, having survived Qizilbashi court intrigues and murders. He recognized the ineffectualness of his army which was consistently being defeated by the Ottomans who had captured Georgia and Armenia and by Uzbeks who had captured Mashhad and Sistan in the east. First he sued for peace in 1590 with the Ottomans giving away territory in the north-west. Then an English general, Robert Sherley, helped Abbas I to reorganize the Shah's soldiers into an officer-paid and well-trained standing army similar to a European model (which the Ottomans had already adopted). He wholeheartedly adopted the use of gunpowder. The army divisions were: Ghulams ('crown servants or slaves' usually conscripted from Armenian, Georgian and Circassian lands), Tofongchis (musketeers), and Topchis (artillery-men). The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Shah Abbas I (شاه عباس اول) (January 27, 1571?-January 19, 1629?) was the most eminent ruler of the Safavid Dynasty. ... Abdication (from the Latin abdicatio, disowning, renouncing, from ab, from, and dicare, to declare, to proclaim as not belonging to one) is the act of renouncing and resigning from a formal office, especially from the supreme office of state. ... Mashhad from space, January 2003 Goharshad mosque, buitl in 1418. ... Categories: Iran geography stubs | Provinces of Iran ... Sir Anthony Sherley was in Persia from Dec 1, 1599 to May 1600. ... Circassian language is used in a number of ways: as a synonym for the Adyghe language; as a synonym for the Kabardian language; as a term for a distinct language that includes both Adyghe and Kabardian. ...


Abbas I first fought the Uzbeks, recapturing Herat and Mashhad in 1598. Then he turned against the Ottomans recapturing Baghdad, eastern Iraq and the Caucasian provinces by 1622. He also used his new force to dislodge the Portuguese from Bahrain (1602) and, with English navy, from Hormuz (1622) in the Persian Gulf (a vital link in Portuguese trade with India). He expanded commercial links with the English East India Company and the Dutch East India Company. Thus Abbas I was able to break the dependence on the Qizilbash for military might and centralize control. Herāt (Persian هرات) is a city in western Afghanistan, in the valley of the Hari Rud river in the province also known as Herat, and was traditionally known for wine. ... Distorted from Persian Ohrmuzd, Ahura Mazda. ... The British East India Company, popularly known as John Company, was founded by a Royal Charter of Queen Elizabeth I on December 31, 1600. ... Dutch colonial possessions, with the Dutch East India Company possessions marked in a paler green, surrounding the Indian Ocean plus Saint Helena in the mid-Atlantic. ...


The Ottoman Turks and Safavids fought over the fertile plains of Iraq for more than 150 years. The capture of Baghdad by Ismail I in 1509 was only followed by its loss to the Ottoman Sultan Suleiman I in 1534. After subsequent campaigns, the Safavids recaptured Baghdad in 1623 yet lost it again to Murad IV in 1638. Henceforth a treaty, signed in Qasr-e Shirin, was established delineating a border between Iran and Turkey in 1639, a border which still stands in northwest Iran/southeast Turkey. The more than century of tug-of-war accentuated the Sunni and Shi'a rift in Iraq. The Ottoman Turks were the ethnic subdivision of the Turkish people who dominated the ruling class of the Ottoman Empire. ... Location of Baghdad within Iraq Baghdad (Arabic: ) (Bexda in Kurdish) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... 1509 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Suleiman the Magnificent Suleiman I (November 6, 1494 – September 5/6, 1566); in Turkish Süleyman , (nicknamed the Magnificent in Europe and the Lawgiver in the Islamic World, in Turkish Kanuni) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1520 to 1566 and successor to Selim I. He was born at... Events February 27 - Group of Anabaptists of Jan Matthys seize Münster and declare it The New Jerusalem - they begin to exile dissenters and forcible baptize all others May 10 - Jacques Cartier explores Newfoundland while searching for the Northwest Passage. ... Events August 6 - Pope Urban VIII is elected to the Papacy. ... Sultan Murad IV Murad IV (June 16, 1612 – February 9, 1640) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1623 to 1640, known both for restoring the authority of the state and for the brutality of his methods. ... Events March 29 - Swedish colonists establish first settlement in Delaware, called New Sweden. ... Events January 14 - Connecticuts first constitution, the Fundamental Orders, is adopted. ...


In 1609-1610, a long battle broke out between Kurds and Safavid Empire. It took place around a fortress called "Dimdim" located in Beradost region around Lake Urmia in north western Iran. In 1609, the ruined structure was rebuilt by "Emîr Xan Lepzêrîn" (Golden Hand Khan), ruler of Beradost, who sought to maintain the independence of his expanding principality in the face of both Ottoman and Safavid penetration into the region. Rebuilding of Dimdim was considered a move toward independence that could threaten Safavid power in the northwest. Many Kurds, including the rulers of Mukriyan (Mahabad), rallied around Amir Khan. After a long and bloody siege led by the Safavid grand vizier Hatem Beg, which lasted from November 1609 to the summer of 1610, Dimdim was captured. Shah Abbas ordered a general massacre in Beradost and Mukriyan(Mahabad) (Reported by Eskandar Beg Monshi, Safavid Historian (1557-1642) in the Book "Alam Ara Abbasi") and resettled the Turkish Afshar tribe in the region while deporting many Kurdish tribes to Khorasan. (see [2] and [3]). Also see " O. Dzh. Dzhalilov, Kurdski geroicheski epos Zlatoruki Khan" (The Kurdish heroic epic Gold-hand Khan), Moscow, 1967. Nowadays There is a community of nearly 1.7 million people who are descendants of the tribes deported from Kurdistan to Khurasan (Northeastern Iran) by the Safavids. For a map of these areas see [4]. Kurds are one of the Iranian peoples and speak Kurdish, a north-Western Iranian language related to Persian. ... The Safavids were a long-lasting Turkic-speaking Iranian dynasty that ruled from 1501 to 1736 and first established Shiite Islam as Persias official religion. ... Map of Iran showing location of Urmia Urmia Persian: ارومیه, Kurdish: Wurmê), previously called Rezaiyeh (رضائیه), is a city in northwestern Iran, and the capital of the West Azarbaijan province, situated on the western side of Lake Urmia. ... // Events April 4 – King of Spain signs an edit of expulsion of all moriscos from Spain April 9 – Spain recognizes Dutch independence May 23 - Official ratification of the Second Charter of Virginia. ... Imperial motto (Ottoman Turkish) Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (the Eternal State) The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power (1683) Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital Sogut (1299-1326), Bursa (1326-1365), Edirne (1365-1453), Ä°stanbul (1453-1922) Imperial anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Sovereigns Padishah of the Osmanlı Dynasty... The Safavids were a long-lasting Turkic-speaking Iranian dynasty that ruled from 1501 to 1736 and first established Shiite Islam as Persias official religion. ... Mahabad with main street Mahabad (in Persian: مهاباد , in Kurdish: مه‌هاباد, Mehabad); (Old name: سابلاخ: Sablakh, which may be of Mongolian origin) is a city in northwestern Iran. ... // Events April 4 – King of Spain signs an edit of expulsion of all moriscos from Spain April 9 – Spain recognizes Dutch independence May 23 - Official ratification of the Second Charter of Virginia. ... // Events January 7 - Galileo Galilei discovers the Galilean moons of Jupiter. ... Mahabad with main street Mahabad (in Persian: مهاباد , in Kurdish: مه‌هاباد, Mehabad); (Old name: سابلاخ: Sablakh, which may be of Mongolian origin) is a city in northwestern Iran. ... The Kurds are a people inhabiting parts of Iran, Iraq, Syria, and Turkey (a region commonly referred to as Kurdistan). ... Khorasan (also spelled Khurasan and Khorassan; Xorasan or Xurasan in Kurdish; خراسان in Persian) is an area, located in eastern and northeastern Iran. ...


Due to his obsessive fear of assassination, Shah Abbas either put to death or blinded any member of his family who aroused his suspicion. In this way one of his sons was executed and two blinded. Since two other sons had predeceased him, the result was personal tragedy for Shah Abbas. When he died on 19 January 1629, he had no son capable of succeeding him. ( see Encyclopaedia Iranica at [5] under "Abbas I the Great", page 75). The beginning of the 17th century saw the power of the Qizilbash decline, the original militia that had helped Ismail I capture Tabriz and which over the century had insinuated themselves as entitled bureaucrats in the administration. Power was shifting to a new class of merchants, many of them ethnic Armenians, Georgians and Indians. Encyclopædia Iranica is a project in Columbia Universitys Center for Iranian studies, to create an English language encyclopedia about Iran and Persia. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ...


At its zenith, during the long reign of Shah Abbas I the empire's reach comprised Iran, Iraq, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, and parts of Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Afghanistan, and Pakistan.


Conflict between Turkmens and Persians during the Safavid period

Shah Suleiman I and his courtiers, Isfahan, 1670. Painter is Ali Qoli Jabbador, and is kept at The St. Petersburg Institute of Oriental Studies in Russia, ever since it was acquired by Tsar Nicholas II. Note the two Georgian figures with their names at the top left.
Shah Suleiman I and his courtiers, Isfahan, 1670. Painter is Ali Qoli Jabbador, and is kept at The St. Petersburg Institute of Oriental Studies in Russia, ever since it was acquired by Tsar Nicholas II. Note the two Georgian figures with their names at the top left.

A major problem faced by Ismail I after the establishment of the Safavid state was how to bridge the gap between the two major ethnic groups in that state: the Qezelbash Turkmens, the "men of the sword" of classical Islamic society whose military prowess had brought him to power, and the Persian elements, the "men of the pen," who filled the ranks of the bureaucracy and the religious establishment in the Safavid state as they had done for centuries under previous rulers of Persia, be they Arabs, Turkic, Mongols, or Turkmens. As Minorsky put it, friction between these two groups was inevitable, because the Qezelbash "were no party to the national Persian tradition". Between 1508 and 1524, the year of Ismail's death, the shah appointed five successive Persians to the office of vakil. When the second Persian "vakil" was placed in command of a Safavid army in Transoxiana, the Qezelbash, considering it a dishonor to be obliged to serve under him, deserted him on the battlefield with the result that he was slain. The fourth vakil was murdered by the Qezelbash, and the fifth was put to death by them.(see Encyclopedia Iranica) Image File history File linksMetadata Shah_soleiman_safavi. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Shah_soleiman_safavi. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and Petrograd (Петрогра́д, 1914–1924), is a city located in Northwestern Russia on the delta of the river Neva at the east end of the Gulf of Finland... Tsar Nicholas II (18 May 1868 to 17 July 1918)1 was the last crowned Emperor of Russia. ... Shah Ismail I, the founder of the Safavid State. ... Kizilbash Soldier The Kizilbash or Qizilbash (Turkish: KızılbaÅŸ, Azeri for Red Heads due to their red headgear known as Tâje-e Haydari (Persian: Haydars crown) were a religious group of different ethnic backgrounds, who helped found the Safavid Dynasty in what is now Iran. ... The Persians of Iran (officially named Persia by West until 1935 while still referred to as Persia by some) are an Iranian people who speak Persian (locally named Fârsi by native speakers) and often refer to themselves as ethnic Iranians as well. ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... Turkic peoples are Northern and Central Eurasian peoples who speak languages belonging to the Turkic family, and who, in varying degrees, share certain cultural and historical traits. ... The Mongols are an ethnic group that originated in what is now Mongolia, Russia, and China, particularly Inner Mongolia. ... The Persians of Iran (officially named Persia by West until 1935 while still referred to as Persia by some) are an Iranian people who speak Persian (locally named Fârsi by native speakers) and often refer to themselves as ethnic Iranians as well. ... Map showing modern Transoxiana. ...


Economy

What fueled the growth of Safavid economy was Iran's position between the burgeoning civilizations of Europe to its west and India and Islamic Central Asia to its east and north. The Silk Road which led through northern Iran to India revived in the 16th century. Abbas I also supported direct trade with Europe, particularly England and The Netherlands which sought Iranian carpets, silk and textiles. Other exports were horses, goat hair, pearls and an inedible bitter almond hadam-talka used as a specie in India. The main imports were specie, textiles (woolens from Europe, cottons from Gujarat), spices, metals, coffee, and sugar. For other uses, see Silk Road (disambiguation). ...


Culture

Culture flourished under Safavid patronage. Shah Ismail I himself wrote poems in Azeri, as well as in Persian and Arabic, while Shah Tahmasp was a painter. Shah Abbas recognized the commercial benefit of promoting the arts - artisan products provided much of Iran's foreign trade. Persian (known variously as: فارسی Fârsi or پارسی Pârsi, local name in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan, Tajik, a Central Asian dialect, or Dari, another local name in Tajikistan and Afghanistan) is a language spoken in Iran, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Uzbekistan, Bahrain, Iraq, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ... The Arabic language (Arabic: ‎ translit: ), or simply Arabic (Arabic: ‎ translit: ), is the largest member of the Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family (classification: South Central Semitic) and is closely related to Hebrew and Aramaic. ...


In this period, handicrafts such as tilemaking, pottery and textiles developed and great advances were made in miniature painting, bookbinding, decoration and calligraphy. In the sixteenth century, carpet weaving evolved from a nomadic and peasant craft to a well-executed industry with specialization of design and manufacturing. Tabriz was the center of this industry. The carpets of Ardebil were commissioned to commemorate the Safavid dynasty. The elegantly baroque yet famously misnamed 'Polonaise' carpets were made in Iran during the seventeenth century. Tabriz City Hall, built in 1895, by Arfaol molk, with the aid of German engineers. ...


Using traditional forms and materials, Reza Abbasi (1565–1635) introduced new subjects to Persian painting — semi-nude women, youth, lovers. His painting and calligraphic style influenced Iranian artists for much of the Safavid period, which came to be known as the Isfahan school. Increased contact with distant cultures in the 17th century, especially Europe, provided a boost of inspiration to Iranian artists who adopted modeling, foreshortening, spatial recession, and the medium of oil painting (Shah Abbas II sent Zaman to study in Rome). The epic Shahnameh (Book of Kings), a stellar example of manuscript illumination and calligraphy, was made during Shah Tahmasp's reign. Another manuscript is the Khamsa by Nezami executed 1539-43 by Aqa Mirak and his school in Isfahan. Reza Abbasi, in full Aqa Reza Reza-e abbasi, sometimes known as Reza (1565 - 1635) was the most renowned Persian painter and calligrapher of the Isfahan school, which flourished during the Safavid period under the patronage of Shah Abbas I. Princely Youth and Dervish by Reza Abbasi, ca. ... Zaman may refer to: famous [Turkish] newspapers with international editions Zaman, a town in Afghanistan; The Zaman people, one of the Beti-Pahuin ethnic groups of Cameroon. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Shahnama. ... Khamsa used as a pendant The Khamsa (Arabic: خمسة, Hamsa, literally five-fold, Hebrew: חמש, Hamesh, literally five). An alternative Islamic name for this charm is the Hand of Fatima or Eye of Fatima, in reference to Fatima Zahra, the daughter of Mohammed. ... Sassanid king, Bahram Gur is a great favourite in Persian tradition and poetry. ...


Isfahan bears the most prominent samples of the Safavid architecture, all constructed in the years after Shah Abbas I permanently moved the capital there in 1598: the Imperial Mosque, Masjid-e Shah, completed in 1630, the Imami Mosque,Masjid-e Imami, the Lutfullah Mosque and the Royal Palace. Part of Shah Abbas large urban project in his new capital, the Chahār Bāgh Four Gardens, is a four-kilometer avenue in the city of Isfahan. ...


Poetry stagnated under the Safavids; the great medieval ghazal form languished in over-the-top lyricism. Poetry lacked the royal patronage of other arts and was hemmed in by religious prescriptions. In poetry (and as the lyrics in songs), the ghazal (Arabic: غزل; Turkish gazel) is a poetic form consisting of couplets which share a rhyme and a refrain. ...


One of the most renowned Muslim philosophers, Mulla Sadra, lived during Shah Abbas I's reign and wrote the Asfar, a meditation on what he called 'metaphilosophy' which brought to a synthesis the philosophical mysticism of Sufism, the theology of Shi'ism, and the Peripatetic and Illuminationist philosophies of Avicenna and Suhrawardi. Iskander Beg Monshi’s History of Shah Abbas the Great written a few years after its subject's death, achieved a nuanced depth of history and character. ملاصدرا or Mulla Sadra (aka Molla Sadra or Mollasadra) also called Sadr Ad-Din Ash- Shirazi (c. ... Peripatetic means wandering. The Peripatetics were a school of philosophy in ancient Greece. ... The works of Avicenna, the greatest of the medieval Islamic physicians, played a crucial role in the European Renaissance. ... Persian philosopher شهاب الدين يحيى سهروردى or Shihabuddin Yahya as-Suhrawardi (born 1153 in North-West-Iran; died 1191 in Aleppo) was the founder of School of Illumination, one of the most important islamic doctrine in Philosophy. ...


Decline of the Safavid state

As opposed to rival Ottoman architecture, which focuses on scale and grandeur, Safavid architecture aims for refinement through subtlety. View of Chehel-sotoon Palace, Isfahan, Iran.
As opposed to rival Ottoman architecture, which focuses on scale and grandeur, Safavid architecture aims for refinement through subtlety. View of Chehel-sotoon Palace, Isfahan, Iran.

In addition to fighting its perennial enemies, the Ottomans and Uzbeks, as the 17th century progressed Iran had to contend with the rise of two more neighbors. Russian Muscovy in the previous century had deposed two western Asian khanates of the Golden Horde and expanded its influence into the Caucasus Mountains and Central Asia. In the east, the Mughal dynasty of India had expanded into Afghanistan at the expense of Iranian control, taking Kandahar and Herat. Chehel-sotoon palace, Isfahan. ... Chehel-sotoon palace, Isfahan. ... The Ottoman Turks were the ethnic subdivision of the Turkish people who dominated the ruling class of the Ottoman Empire. ... Part of Shah Abbas large urban project in his new capital, the Chahār Bāgh Four Gardens, is a four-kilometer avenue in the city of Isfahan. ... Muscovy (Moscow principality (княжество Московское) to Grand Duchy of Moscow (Великое Княжество Московское) to Russian Tsardom (Царство Русское) is a traditional Western name for the Russian state that existed from the 14th century to the late 17th century. ... This article refers to the medieval Turkic state. ... Extent of Mughal empire in the late 1600s: the Mughals ruled all but the southern tip of the subcontinent. ... For the 2001 movie by Mohsen Makhmalbaf, see Kandahar (film). ... Herāt (Persian هرات) is a city in western Afghanistan, in the valley of the Hari Rud river in the province also known as Herat, and was traditionally known for wine. ...


Furthermore by the 17th century, trade routes between East and West had shifted away from Iran, causing a loss of commerce and trade. Moreover, Shah Abbas's conversion to a ghulam-based military, though expedient in the short term, had, over the course of a century, weakened the country's strength by requiring heavy taxation and control over the provinces.


Except for Shah Abbas II, the Safavid rulers after Abbas I were ineffectual. The end of his reign, 1666, marked the beginning of the end of the Safavid dynasty. Despite falling revenues and military threats, later shahs had lavish lifestyles. Suleiman I is said to have spent eight years straight in his harem; Shah Soltan Hosein drank without end. The shahs imposed heavy taxes that discouraged investment and encouraged corruption among officials. Some of the comments on the British Empire below might need improvements to reach a neutral point of view. ... Events September 2 - Great Fire of London: A large fire breaks out in London in the house of Charles IIs baker on Pudding Lane near London Bridge. ... Suleiman I (reigned 1666-1694) was the penultimate Safavid king of Persia. ...


The country was repeatedly raided on its frontiers — Kerman by Baluchi tribesmen in 1698, Khorasan by Afghans in 1717, constantly in Mesopotamia by peninsula Arabs. Shah Soltan Hosein tried to forcibly convert his Afghan subjects in eastern Iran from Sunni to Shi'a Islam. In response, a Ghilzai Pashtun chieftain named Mir Wais Khan began a rebellion against the Georgian governor, Gurgin Khan, of Kandahar and defeated a Safavid army. Later, in 1722 an Afghan army led by Mir Wais' son Mahmud marched across eastern Iran, besieged, and sacked Isfahan and proclaimed Mahmud 'Shah' of Persia (see the Hotaki dynasty). When referring to central asian peoples, Baluchi is an alernative spalling of Balochi (qv). ... Mesopotamia (Greek: Μεσοποταμία, translated from Old Persian Miyanrudan between rivers; Aramaic name being Beth Nahrain house of rivers) is a region of Southwest Asia. ... The Ghilzais (also known as Khiljis or Ghaljis) are one of two largest groups of Pashtuns, along with the Durrani tribe, found in Afghanistan with a large group also found in neighboring Pakistan. ... The Pashtuns (also Pushtun, Pakhtun, ethnic Afghan, or Pathan) are an ethno-linguistic group consisting mainly of eastern Iranian stock living primarily in eastern and southern Afghanistan, and the North West Frontier Province, Federally Administered Tribal Areas and Baluchistan provinces of Pakistan. ... Mir Wais Khan was a Ghilzai Pashtun/Afghan tribal chieftain (1673-1715) from Kandahar who founded the short-lived Hotaki dynasty that ruled Persia from 1722 to 1736. ... Giorgi XI or Gurgin Khan, as he was known in Persia, was the ruler of eastern Georgian Kingdom of Kartli from Bagrationi dynasty and reigned in 1676-1688 and 1703-1709. ... For the 2001 movie by Mohsen Makhmalbaf, see Kandahar (film). ... Events Abraham De Moivre states De Moivres theorem connecting trigonometric functions and complex numbers Publication of the first book of Bachs Well-Tempered Clavier Fall of Persias Safavid dynasty during a bloody revolt of the Afghani people. ... The Hotaki were a Ghilzai Pashtun (Afghan) dynasty (1709-1738) that ruled the remnants of the Persian Empire (Iran) from 1722 to 1736 following the decline of the Safavids. ...


The Afghans rode roughshod over their conquered territory for a dozen years but were prevented from making further gains by Nadir Shah Afshar, a former slave who had risen to military leadership within the Afshar Turkoman tribe in Khorasan, a vassal state of the Safavids. He wrestled back control over Iran from the Afghans, and proceeded to go on an ambitious military spree, conquering as far as east as Delhi but not fortifying his Persian base and exhausting his army's strength. He had effective control under Shah Tahmasp II and then ruled as regent of the infant Abbas III until 1736 when he had himself crowned shah. Tomb of Nadir Shah, a popular tourist attraction in Mashhad Nadir Shah (Nadir Qoli Beg, also Tahmasp-Qoli Khan) (October 22, 1688 - June, 1747) ruled as shah of Iran (1736–47) and was the founder of the short-lived Afsharid dynasty. ... Khorasan (also spelled Khurasan and Khorassan; Xorasan or Xurasan in Kurdish; خراسان in Persian) is an area, located in eastern and northeastern Iran. ... Known in India as the Lotus Temple, the Baháí House of Worship is one of the most famous landmarks in Delhi. ... Tahmasp II (1704? – 1732) was one of the last Safavid rulers of Persia, which today is known as Iran. ... Abbas III was a son of Shah Tahmasp II of the Safavid dynasty. ... Events January 26 - Stanislaus I of Poland abdicates his throne. ...


Immediately after Nadir Shah's assassination in 1747, the Safavids were re-appointed as shahs of Iran in order to lend legitimacy to the nascent Zand dynasty. However the brief puppet regime of Ismail III ended in 1760 when Karim Khan felt strong enough take nominal power of the country as well and officially end the Safavid dynasty. // Events January 31 - The first venereal diseases clinic opens at London Dock Hospital April 9 - The Scottish Jacobite Lord Lovat was beheaded by axe on Tower Hill, London, for high treason; he was the last man to be executed in this way in Britain May 14 - First battle of Cape... Vakeel mosque, Shiraz. ... 1760 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Karim Khan Zand, (Persian: کریم خان زند), (c. ...


Safavid Shahs of Iran

Shah Ismail I, the founder of the Safavid State. Medieval European rendering
Shah Ismail I, the founder of the Safavid State. Medieval European rendering

Shah Ismail I Medieval European rendering by an unknown Venetian artist. ... Shah Ismail I Medieval European rendering by an unknown Venetian artist. ... Shah Ismail I, the founder of the Safavid State. ... 1501 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Events March 1, 1524/5 - Giovanni da Verrazano lands near Cape Fear (approx. ... Tahmasp I (1514-1576) was an influential Shah of Persia of the Safavid Dynasty. ... Events March 1, 1524/5 - Giovanni da Verrazano lands near Cape Fear (approx. ... Events May 5 - Peace of Beaulieu or Peace of Monsieur (after Monsieur, the Duc dAnjou, brother of the King, who negotiated it). ... Events May 5 - Peace of Beaulieu or Peace of Monsieur (after Monsieur, the Duc dAnjou, brother of the King, who negotiated it). ... Events January 31 - Battle of Gemblours - Spanish forces under Don John of Austria and Alexander Farnese defeat the Dutch. ... Events January 31 - Battle of Gemblours - Spanish forces under Don John of Austria and Alexander Farnese defeat the Dutch. ... 1587 was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar. ... Shah Abbas I (شاه عباس اول) (January 27, 1571?-January 19, 1629?) was the most eminent ruler of the Safavid Dynasty. ... 1587 was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar. ... Events March 4 - Massachusetts Bay Colony is granted a Royal charter. ... Shâh Sâfî (r. ... Events March 4 - Massachusetts Bay Colony is granted a Royal charter. ... Events January 4 - Charles I attempts to arrest five leading members of the Long Parliament, but they escape. ... Events January 4 - Charles I attempts to arrest five leading members of the Long Parliament, but they escape. ... Events September 2 - Great Fire of London: A large fire breaks out in London in the house of Charles IIs baker on Pudding Lane near London Bridge. ... Suleiman I (reigned 1666-1694) was the penultimate Safavid king of Persia. ... Events September 2 - Great Fire of London: A large fire breaks out in London in the house of Charles IIs baker on Pudding Lane near London Bridge. ... Events February 6 - The colony Quilombo dos Palmares is destroyed. ... Husayn (also known as Soltan Hosayn) (1668?–1726) was the last powerful Safavid king of Persia. ... Events February 6 - The colony Quilombo dos Palmares is destroyed. ... Events Abraham De Moivre states De Moivres theorem connecting trigonometric functions and complex numbers Publication of the first book of Bachs Well-Tempered Clavier Fall of Persias Safavid dynasty during a bloody revolt of the Afghani people. ... Tahmasp II (1704? – 1732) was one of the last Safavid rulers of Persia, which today is known as Iran. ... Events Abraham De Moivre states De Moivres theorem connecting trigonometric functions and complex numbers Publication of the first book of Bachs Well-Tempered Clavier Fall of Persias Safavid dynasty during a bloody revolt of the Afghani people. ... Events February 23 - First performance of Handels Orlando, in London June 9 - James Oglethorpe is granted a royal charter for the colony of Georgia. ... Abbas III was a son of Shah Tahmasp II of the Safavid dynasty. ... Events February 23 - First performance of Handels Orlando, in London June 9 - James Oglethorpe is granted a royal charter for the colony of Georgia. ... Events January 26 - Stanislaus I of Poland abdicates his throne. ... Events While in debtors prison, John Cleland writes Fanny Hill (Memoirs of a Woman of Pleasure). ... Events March 2 - Small earthquake in London, England April 4 - Small earthquake in Warrington, England August 23 - Small earthquake in Spalding, England September 30 - Small earthquake in Northampton, England November 16 – Westminster Bridge officially opened Jonas Hanway is the first Englishman to use an umbrella James Gray reveals her sex... Events March 2 - Small earthquake in London, England April 4 - Small earthquake in Warrington, England August 23 - Small earthquake in Spalding, England September 30 - Small earthquake in Northampton, England November 16 – Westminster Bridge officially opened Jonas Hanway is the first Englishman to use an umbrella James Gray reveals her sex... 1760 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ...

References

  • Persian Historiography and Geography: Bertold Spuler on Major Works Produced in Iran, the Caucasus, Central Asia, India and Early Ottoman Turkey, M. Ismail Marcinkowski, Singapore: Pustaka Nasional, 2003, ISBN 9971774887.
  • Mirza Rafi‘a's Dastur al-Muluk: A Manual of Later Safavid Administration. Annotated English Translation, Comments on the Offices and Services, and Facsimile of the Unique Persian Manuscript, M. Ismail Marcinkowski, Kuala Lumpur, ISTAC, 2002, ISBN 9839379267.
  • From Isfahan to Ayutthaya: Contacts between Iran and Siam in the 17th Century, M. Ismail Marcinkowski, Singapore, Pustaka Nasional, 2005, ISBN 9971774917.
  • Adam Olearius, "The Voyages and Travels of the Ambassadors", Translated by John Davies (1662), (excerpts)

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Safavids - definition of Safavids in Encyclopedia (584 words)
The Safavids are regarded as the greatest Persian dynasty since the Arab conquest of Iran some eight hundred years earlier.
The Safavid kingdom was established in northern Iran in 1501 and grew to an empire during the following hundred years.
While the Safavids were of Persian ethnicity, they came to power in Azerbaijan, the northernmost province of Iran, with the aid of a militia of Turkic soldiers (called Qizilbash, Turkic for "Red Heads" due to their red head gear), recruited from Azerbaijan and Anatolia.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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