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Encyclopedia > Safavid dynasty
Safavid Empire at its Greatest Extent
History of Greater Iran
Empires of Persia · Kings of Persia
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The Safavids (Persian: صفویان; Azerbaijani: Səfəvi) were an Iranian[1] Shia dynasty of mixed Azeri[2] and Kurdish[3] origins, which ruled Persia from 1501/1502 to 1722. Safavids established the greatest Iranian empire[4] since the Islamic conquest of Persia, and established the Ithnāˤashari school of Shi'a Islam[5] as the official religion of their empire, marking one of the most important turning points in the history of Islam. Image File history File links Acap. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Farvahar_background. ... After Islamic Conquest  Modern SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Uzbekistan  This box:      Greater Iran (in Persian: Irān-e Bozorg, or Irān-zamÄ«n; the Encyclopedia Iranica uses the term Iranian Cultural Continent[1]) is a term for the Iranian plateau in addition to... 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The name Bahrain comes from Arabic Bahárayn, literally meaning two seas, which is thought to be an inaccurate folk etymology for the much older, non-Semitic term, Bahran; according to some scholars Bahran originates from Varahrdn, the later form of the old Avestan Verethragna - a Zoroastrian divinity that is... Anthem بحريننا Bahrainona Our Bahrain Capital (and largest city) Manama Official languages Arabic Government Constitutional Monarchy  -  King Hamad ibn Isa Al Khalifah  -  Prime Minister Khalifah ibn Sulman Al Khalifah Independence from UK   -  Date 15 August 1971  Area  -  Total 665 km² (189th) 253 sq mi   -  Water (%) 0 Population  -  2007 estimate 708,573... Vakeel mosque, Shiraz. ... edit The Qajar dynasty ( ) (Persian: - or دودمان قاجار) was a ruling Persian dynasty[1] of Turkic descent[2], that ruled Iran (Persia) from 1781 to 1925. ... 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State motto: Пролетарҳои ҳамаи мамлакатҳо, як шавед! Official language None. ... State motto: Пролетарҳои ҳамаи мамлакатҳо, як шавед! Official language None. ... Farsi redirects here. ... Shiʻa Islam (Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite) makes up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%–35% of all Muslim. ... This article is about the Azerbaijani ethnic group. ... Look up Kurdish in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... 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The Safavid dynasty had its origin in the "Safawiyyah" which was established in the city of Ardabil in the Azerbaijan region of Iran. From their base in Ardabil, the Safavids established control over all of Persia and reasserted the Iranian identity of the region[6], thus becoming the first native dynasty since the Sassanids to establish a unified Iranian state. Safaviyeh was the name of a Sufi order founded by the Persian mystic Sheikh Safi al-Din of Ardabil (1252-1334). ... Ardabil (Persian: اردبیل; Azeri: اردبيل; also known as Ardebil; Old Persian: Artavil) is a historical city in north-western Iran. ... Iranian Azerbaijan or Iranian Azarbaijan (Persian: آذربایجان ایران; Āzārbāijān-e Irān), (Azeri: اذربایجان, c. ... Ardabil (Persian: اردبیل; Azeri: اردبيل; also known as Ardebil; Old Persian: Artavil) is a historical city in north-western Iran. ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Head of king Shapur II (Sasanian dynasty A.D. 4th century). ...


Despite their demise in 1722, the Safavids have left their mark down to present era by establishing and spreading Shi'a Islam in major parts of the Caucasus and West Asia, especially in Iran. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ...

Contents

Background and Origin

Unlike many other dynasties founded by warlords and military chiefs, one of the unique aspects of the Safavids in the post-Islamic Iran was their origin in the Islamic Sufi order called the Safaviyeh. This uniqueness makes the Safavid dynasty comparable to the pre-Islamic Sassanid dynasty, which made Zoroastrianism into an official religion, and whose founders were from a priestly class. It should be noted that the Safaviyeh was not originally Shia but it was from the Shafii branch of Sunni Islam[7][8][9]. The Safavid dynasty was Azerbaijani speaking but their father-line has been classified as Kurdish, Azerbaijani and Arabic by various scholars. Nevertheless, what is certain is that the Safavids were a mixture of ethnic Azerbaijani, Kurdish, and Greek[10] lines. The Safavid Kings themselves claimed to be Seyyeds[11], family descendants of the prophet Muhammad, although many scholars have cast doubt on this claim[12]. There seems now to be a consensus among scholars that the Safavid family hailed from Persian Kurdistan[5], and later moved to Azerbaijan, finally settling in the 5th/11th century at Ardabil. But even before their ascent to political power in the 15th century, the Safavids had become Turkic-speaking and used Azerbaijani Turkish as a medium of communication with their followers[13] as well the official language of their court. Sufism (Arabic تصوف taṣawwuf) is a system of esoteric philosophy commonly associated with Islam. ... Safaviyeh was the name of a Sufi order founded by the Persian mystic Sheikh Safi al-Din of Ardabil (1252-1334). ... Sassanid Empire at its greatest extent The Sassanid dynasty (also Sassanian) was the name given to the kings of Persia during the era of the second Persian Empire, from 224 until 651, when the last Sassanid shah, Yazdegerd III, lost a 14-year struggle to drive out the Umayyad Caliphate... Safaviyeh was the name of a Sufi order founded by the Persian mystic Sheikh Safi al-Din of Ardabil (1252-1334). ... Shiʻa Islam (Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite) makes up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%–35% of all Muslim. ... The Shafi`i madhab (Arabic: شافعي) is one of the four schools of fiqh, or religious law, within Sunni Islam. ... Look up Kurdish in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... Look up Kurdish in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Sayyid (Arabic: سيد also rendered as syed, seyyed, sayyed, saiyed, or sayed) is an honorific title often given to descendants of Muhammad through his grandsons, Hussein and Hasan, the sons of his daughter Fatima Zahra and his son-in-law Ali ibn Abi Talib (who was Muhammads younger cousin and... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... Ardabil (Persian: اردبیل; Azeri: اردبيل; also known as Ardebil; Old Persian: Artavil) is a historical city in north-western Iran. ... The Azerbaijani language, also called Azeri, Azari, Azeri Turkish, or Azerbaijani Turkish, is the official language of the Republic of Azerbaijan. ...

Excerpt from the Safvat Al-Safa, which describes the lineage of Shaykh Safi al-Din as being Kurdish
Excerpt from the Safvat Al-Safa, which describes the lineage of Shaykh Safi al-Din as being Kurdish

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 391 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3400 × 5216 pixel, file size: 421 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Taken from pg 347 of Z. V. Togan, Sur l’Origine des Safavides, in Melanges Louis Massignon, Damascus , 1957. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 391 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3400 × 5216 pixel, file size: 421 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Taken from pg 347 of Z. V. Togan, Sur l’Origine des Safavides, in Melanges Louis Massignon, Damascus , 1957. ...

Azerbaijani Turkic father-line

According to Lawrence Davidson et al [14]:

Even though most Turkish nomads and Persian peasants under the Safavid rule were Sunni, Ismail was determined to unite the country politically and religiously. Within a decade the Safavids, though Turkish by race, had taken control of all of Persia.

According to Richard Frye[2], Richard Nelson Frye (c. ...

The Turkish speakers of Azerbaijan (q.v.) are mainly descended from the earlier Iranian speakers, several pockets of whom still exist in the region. A massive migration of Oghuz Turks in the 11th and 12th centuries not only Turkified Azerbaijan but also Anatolia. Azeri Turks were the founders of Safavid dynasty

Some other scholars have also claimed Azerbaijani origin[15][16][17].


Kurdish Father-line

Wa chon Nisbat Birooz bâ Kurd raft translates to "Since the origin of Birooz was Kurdish"
Wa chon Nisbat Birooz bâ Kurd raft translates to "Since the origin of Birooz was Kurdish"

The oldest extant book on the genealogy of the Safavid family and the only one that is pre-1501 is titled "Safwat as-Safa"[3] and was written by Ibn Bazzaz, a disciple of Sheikh Sadr-al-Din Ardabili, the son of the Sheikh Safi ad-din Ardabili. According Ibn Bazzaz, the Sheikh was a descendant of a noble Kurdish man named Firuz Shah Zarin Kolah the Kurd of Sanjan[18]. The male lineage of the Safavid family given by the oldest manuscript of the Safwat as-Safa is:"(Shaykh) Safi al-Din Abul-Fatah Ishaaq the son of Al-Shaykh Amin al-din Jebrail the son of al-Saaleh Qutb al-Din Abu Bakr the son of Salaah al-Din Rashid the son of Muhammad al-Hafiz al-Kalaam Allah the son of ‘avaad the son of Birooz al-Kurdi al-Sanjani (Piruz Shah Zarin Kolah the Kurd of Sanjan)"[18]. The Safavids, in order to further legitimize their power in the Shi'ite Muslim world, claimed descent from the prophet Muhammad[3] and revised Ibn Bazzaz's work [3]. Accordingly, these scholars have considered the Safavids to be of Kurdish descent based on the origins of Sheykh Safi al-Din and that the Safavids were originally a Iranic speaking clan [18][19][20][21][22][23][3] [24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31]. Shaykh Safi al-Din was a Shafii Muslim, which is the sect that is followed by Sunni Kurds today[32]. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 339 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2903 × 5136 pixel, file size: 517 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Taken from pg 349 of Z. V. Togan, Sur l’Origine des Safavides, in Melanges Louis Massignon, Damascus , 1957. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 339 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2903 × 5136 pixel, file size: 517 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Taken from pg 349 of Z. V. Togan, Sur l’Origine des Safavides, in Melanges Louis Massignon, Damascus , 1957. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... The Shafi`i madhab (Arabic: شافعي) is one of the four schools of fiqh, or religious law, within Sunni Islam. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ...


Sheikh Safi al-Din

Safavid history begins with the establishment of the Safaviyeh Sufi Order by its eponymous founder Safī al-Dīn Abul Fath Is'haq Ardabilī (1252-1334). In 700/1301, Safi al-Din assumed the leadership of the Zahediyeh, a significant Sufi order in Gilan, from his spiritual master Sheikh Zahed Gilani who was also his father-in-law. Due to the great spiritual charisma of Sheikh Safi al-Din, the order was later known as the Safaviyeh. The Safavid order soon gained great influence in the city of Ardabil and Hamdullah Mustaufi remarks that most of the people of Ardabil are followers of Shaykh Safi al-Din. Safaviyeh was the name of a Sufi order founded by the Persian mystic Sheikh Safi al-Din of Ardabil (1252-1334). ... Sheikh Safi al-Dins tomb Sheikh Safi al-Din Ardebili (of Ardebil) (1252-1334), eponym of the Safavid dynasty, was the spiritual heir and son in law of the great Sufi Murshid (Grand Master) Sheikh Zahed Gilani, of Lahijan in Gilan Province in northern Iran. ... The Zahediyeh Sufi Order was founded by Sheikh Zahed Gilani (Zahid Guilani) of Lahijan. ... Sufism (Arabic تصوف taṣawwuf) is a system of esoteric philosophy commonly associated with Islam. ... The mystic Taj Al-Din Ebrahim Al-Kordi Al-Sanjani* (1216 - 1301), titled Sheikh Zahed Gilani, was Grandmaster of the famed Zahediyeh Sufi Order at Lahijan. ... Safaviyeh was the name of a Sufi order founded by the Persian mystic Sheikh Safi al-Din of Ardabil (1252-1334). ...


Extant religious poetry from him, written in Old Tati[33][23] - a now distinct Northwestern Iranian language[23] - and accompanied by a paraphrase in Persian which helps their understanding[23], has survived to this day and has linguistic importance.[23] Azari, also spelled Adari, Adhari or (Ancient) Azeri, is the name used for the Iranian language which was spoken in Azerbaijan before it was replaced by the modern Azeri or Azerbaijani language, which is of Turkic language. ... The Iranian languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family. ...


From Sheikh Safi al-Din to Ismail I

After Safī al-Dīn, the leadership of the Safaviyeh passed onto Sheikh Sadr ud-Dīn Mūsā († 794/1391-92). The order at this time was transformed into a religious movement which conducted religious propaganda throughout Persia, Syria and Asia Minor, and most likely had maintained its Sunni Shaf’ite origin at that time. The leadership of the order passed on from Sadr ud-Dīn Mūsā to his son Khwādja Ali († 1429) and in turn to his son Ibrāhīm († 1429-47). Safaviyeh was the name of a Sufi order founded by the Persian mystic Sheikh Safi al-Din of Ardabil (1252-1334). ...


When Sheikh Junāyd, the son of Ibrāhīm, assumed the leadership of Safaviyeh in 1447, the history of the Safavid movement was radically changed. According to R.M. Savory, "Sheikh Junayd was not content with spiritual authority and he sought material power". At that time, the most powerful dynasty in Persia was that of the Qara Qoyunlu, the "Black Sheeps", whose ruler Jahān Shāh ordered Junāyd to leave Ardabil or else he would bring destruction and ruin upon the city.[5] Junāyd sought refuge with the rival of Qara Qoyunlu Jahan Shah, the Aq Qoyunlu Khan Uzun Hassan and cemented his relationship by marrying Khadija Begum, Uzun Hassan's sister. Junāyd was killed during an incursion into the territories of the Shīrvanshāhs and his son Sheikh Haydar assumed the leadership of the Safaviyeh. Sheikh Haydar married Martha[34], Uzun Hassan's daughter, who gave birth to Ismāil, the founder of the Safavid dynasty. Martha's mother, named Theodora - better known as Despina Khatun[35] - was a Pontic Greek princess and the daughter of the Grand Komnenos John IV of Trebizond. She had been married to Uzun Hassan[36] in exchange to protection of the Grand Komnenos from the Ottomans. Flag of the Kara Koyunlu For the district in Turkey, see Karakoyunlu. ... Jahan Shah (died 1467), was a leader of Turkmen tribal federation Kara Koyunlu. ... Ardabil (Persian: اردبیل; Azeri: اردبيل; also known as Ardebil; Old Persian: Artavil) is a historical city in north-western Iran. ... Flag of the Kara Koyunlu For the district in Turkey, see Karakoyunlu. ... Jahan Shah (died 1467), was a leader of Turkmen tribal federation Kara Koyunlu. ... Flag of the Ak Koyunlu (Colours are speculative) The Akkoyunlu or the White Sheep Turkomans (Azeri-Turkish: AÄŸqoyunlular/Akkoyunlular) were a Turkoman tribal federation that ruled present-day Azerbaijan, eastern Anatolia, northern Iraq and western Iran from 1378 to 1508. ... This article is about the title. ... Uzun Hasan (1423 - January 6, 1478), prince of the Ak Koyunlu dynasty, or White Sheep Turkmen, he ruled in parts of western Persia, Iraq and Turkey between 1453 and 1478. ... Uzun Hasan (1423 - January 6, 1478), prince of the Ak Koyunlu dynasty, or White Sheep Turkmen, he ruled in parts of western Persia, Iraq and Turkey between 1453 and 1478. ... // History The role of Shirvanshah (Shirvan) state in national development of Azerbaijan (especially of northern Azerbaijan) is hard to underestimate. ... Uzun Hasan (1423 - January 6, 1478), prince of the Ak Koyunlu dynasty, or White Sheep Turkmen, he ruled in parts of western Persia, Iraq and Turkey between 1453 and 1478. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Pontic Greek is a Greek language which was originally spoken on the shores of the Black Sea (Pontus). Pontics linguistic lineage stems from Attic Greek, and contains influences from Byzantine Greek, Turkish influence and some Persian and Caucasian borrowings. ... Byzantine emperor Alexios I Komnenos The Komnenos or Comnenus (Greek: Κομνηνοί) family was an important dynasty in the history of the Byzantine Empire. ... John IV Megas Komnenos (Greek: Ιωάννης Δ΄ Μέγας Κομνηνός, IōannÄ“s IV Megas KomnÄ“nos), (c. ...


After Uzun Hassan's death, his son Yāqub felt threatened by the growing Safavid religious influence. Yāqub allied himself with the Shīrvanshāh and killed Shaykh Haydar in 1488. By this time, the bulk of the Safaviyeh followers were Turkish-speaking clans from Asia Minor and Azerbaijan, and were collectively known as Qizilbāsh ("Red Heads") because of their distinct red headgear. The Qizilbāsh were warriors, spiritual followers of Sheikh Haydar, and a source of the Safavid military and political power. After the death of Haydar, the spiritual followers of the Safaviyeh gathered around his son Ali, who was also pursued and subsequently killed by Yāqub. According to official Safavid history, before passing away, Ali had designated his young brother Ismāil as the spiritual leader of the Safavid Order[5]. Safaviyeh was the name of a Sufi order founded by the Persian mystic Sheikh Safi al-Din of Ardabil (1252-1334). ... Iranian Azerbaijan or Iranian Azarbaijan (Persian: آذربایجان ایران; Ä€zārbāijān-e Irān), (Azeri: اذربایجان, c. ... Qizilbash or Kizilbash (Ottoman Turkish/Persian: Qezelbāš, Turkish: KızılbaÅŸ, Azerbaijani: QızılbaÅŸ) - Turkish for Red Heads - name given to a wide variety of extremist Shiite militant groups (ghulāt) who helped found the Safavid Dynasty of Iran. ...


Founding of the dynasty by Shāh Ismāil I

Main article: Ismail I

Part of a series on Shi'a Islam
Twelvers
Shah Ismail I, the founder of Safavid Dynasty of Iran pictured at battle against Abul-khayr Khan in a scene from the Tarikh-i alam-aray-i Shāh Ismāil Abul-Mozaffar bin Sheikh Haydar bin Sheikh Junayd Safawī (Persian: - Azerbaijani: ) (July 17, 1487 - May 23, 1524), Shah... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Twelvers ( Ithnāˤashariyyah) are those Shiˤa Muslims who believe there were twelve Imāms, as distinct from Ismaili & Zaidi Shiite Muslims, who believe in a different number of Imams or in a different path of succession. ...


Islam Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ...

Schools

Usuli · Shaykhi · Akhbari Usulis are Twelver Shia Muslims who favor fatwas over hadith when trying to determine what the Sunnah says about any specific topic. ... Shaykhis, religious movement in Iran. ... Akhbaris are Twelver Shia Muslims who favor hadith over fatwas when trying to determine what the Sunnah says about any specific topic. ...

The Twelve Imams

Ali · Hassan · Husayn
al-Sajjad · al-Baqir · al-Sadiq
al-Kazim · al-Rida · al-Taqi
al-Hadi · al-Askari · al-Mahdi
The Shia Imam is considered by the Shia sect of Islam to be the rightful successor to Muhammad, and is similar to the Caliph in Sunni Islam only with regards to the aspect of political leadership. ... Ali ibn Abu Talib (Arabic: علي بن أبي طالب translit: ‘Alī ibn Abu Ṭālib Persian: علی پسر ابو طالب) ‎ (599 – 661) is an early Islamic leader. ... Hasan ibn Ali ibn Abu Talib (c. ... This article is about Husayn ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib (626 – 680). ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Muhammad al-Baqir Imam Muhammad al-Baqir (676 - January 31, 743) was the fifth Shia Imam. ... Jafar Al-Sadiq (Arabic: جعفر الصادق in full Jafar ibn Muhammad ibn Ali ibn Husayn (702 AD - 765 AD ) is the sixth infallible Imam and one of Ahl al-Bayt of the Shia Muslims. ... Imam Musa al Kazim (November 10, 745 - September 4, 799) was the seventh Shia Imam (he is not accepted by the Ismailis as the seventh Imam). ... Imām ˤAlī ibn-Mūsā ar-Riđā (Arabic: علي بن موسى الرضا) (January 1, 766 - May 26, 818) was the eighth Shīˤa Imām. ... Imam Muhammad al-Taqi (Arabic: امام محمد التقي)(April 12, 811 - November 27, 835) was the ninth Shia Imam in the Ithna Ashari (Twelver) tradition. ... Imam Ali al-Hadi (September 8, 828 _ July 1, 868) was the tenth Shia Imam. ... Hasan al-Askari (Arabic: الإمام الحسن بن علي العسكري) (December 6, 846 – January 1, 874), was the eleventh Shia Imam. ... It has been suggested that Mahdi be merged into this article or section. ...

Concepts & Titles

The Fourteen Infallibles
The Occultation (Minor · Major)
Four Deputies · Karbala Martyrs
Akhbar · Usul · Ijtihad · 'Aql · Irfan
Clergy · Marja list · Ayatollah list
Ayatollah · Grand Ayatollah
Hojatoleslam · Mujtahid
Taqleed · Marja · Allamah
Ja'fari jurisprudence
Mut'ah · Taqiyya
Vilayat-e Faqih According to Twelver Shia Islam The Fourteen Infallibles (Maasumin - معصومين) are Historical figures that commited no sins and never made a mistake. ... Main article: Battle of Karbala The Battle of Karbala took place in the year 680,[1] between 108 and 136 men of Husayn ibn Ali (the grandson of Muhammad). ... Uṣūl al-fiqh (Arabic: ‎ ) is a term which literally translates to the roots of the law and refers to the study of the origins, sources, and practice of Islamic jurisprudence. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... In Shia Islamic jurisprudence, aql is the process of using intellect or logic to deduce law. ... Irfan (Arabic/Persian: عرفان) literally means knowing. ... Shia Muslims believe that the study of Islamic literature is a continual process, and is necessary for identifying all of Gods laws. ... This is a list of Marja Taqleeds (Grand Ayatollahs),or the Mujtahdins which are followed by Usuli Shia Muslims around the world. ... This is a partial list of Ayatollahs, a title given to high ranked Shia Muslims clerics. ... For other uses, see Ayatollah (disambiguation). ... Ayatollah (Arabic: آية الله; Persian: آیت‌الله) is a high title given to major Shia clergymen. ... Hojatoleslam (or hojatalislam) is an honorific title meaning proof of Islam, given to middle-ranking Shia clerics of the rank of mujtahid. ... ijtihad is a technical term of the Islamic law and means the process of making a legal decision by independent interpretation of the sources of the law, the Quran and the Sunna. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Marja (Arabic/Persian: مرجع), also appearing as Marja Taqlid or Marja Dini (Arabic/Persian: مرجع تقليد / مرجع ديني), literally means Source of Emulation or Religious Reference. It is the label provided to Shia authority, a Grand Ayatollah with the authority to make legal decisions within the confines of Islamic law for followers and less-credentialed... An Allamah (Persian: علامه), also spelled Allameh and Allama, is an honorary title carried by only the very highest scholars (marjas) of Islamic thought, jurisprudence, and philosophy. ... Jafari school of thought, Jafari jurisprudence or Jafari Fiqh is the name of the jurisprudence of the Shia Twelvers Muslims, derived from the name of Jafar al-Sadiq, the 6th Shia Imam. ... Mutah is an Arabic word meaning literally joy. As a term, its main connotation is Temporary Marriage (Arabic: Nikah Mutah). ... Within Islamic tradition, the concept of Taqiyya (التقية - fear, guard against)[1] refers to a controversial dispensation allowing believers to conceal their faith when under threat, persecution or compulsion. ... For other uses, see Vilayat-e Faqih. ...

Usul al-Din

Monotheism · Judgement Day
Justice · Prophethood · Imamate In Shia Islam, Theology of Shia (UsÅ«l al-DÄ«n) is the five main beliefs that Shia Muslims must possess. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Yawm al-QÄ«yāmah (Arabic: literally: Day of the Resurrection) is the Last Judgement in Islam. ... Adalah means Justice and denotes The Justice of God The Shias consider Justice of God as part of Usool-e-Deen (Roots of Religion). ... Nubuwwah means Prophethood and denotes that God has appointed perfect Prophets and Messengers to teach mankind Gods religion. ... This is a sub-article to Imamah (Shia doctrine) and is specifically about the Shia twelver conception of the term. ...

Furu al-Din

Prayer · Fasting · Pilgramage
Charity · Taxes · Jihad
Command Justice · Forbid Evil
Love the Family
Hate their Enemies
In Shia Islam, the ten Branches of Religion (Furū al-Dīn) are the ten practices that Shia Muslims must perform. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Sawm (Arabic: صوم) is an Arabic word for fasting regulated by Islamic jurisprudence. ... A supplicating pilgrim at Masjid Al Haram, the mosque which was built around the Kaaba (the cubical building at center). ... This is a sub-article of Islamic economical jurisprudence. ... Khums (خمس) is the Arabic word for One Fifth (1/5). ... For other uses, see Jihad (disambiguation). ... Commanding the Just (Arabic: Amr bil Marūf امر بامعرف) is a part of Shia Islams Branches of Religion and means to encourage people to do the necessary good in life, when they forget to do so; for example forgeting Salah. ... Forbidding what is Evil (Arabic: ‎, Nahy an al-Munkar), is a part of Islam and means, for example, to oppose injustice. ... Tawalla - Loving the Ahl al-Bayt, is a part of the Shia Branches of Religion and is derived from a Quranic verse. ... AS SALAM AU ALIKUM, not to mistaken, this salam was not for shias its only for muslims. ...

Holy Sites

Mecca · Medina
Karbala · Najaf · Qom
Samarra · Mashhad · Kazamayn
Mecca, Medina and Jerusalem are generally recognized as the three most important cities in Islam according to interpretations of scriptures in the Quran and Hadith. ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... // Karbala (Arabic: ; BGN: Al-Karbalā’; also spelled Karbala al-Muqaddasah) is a city in Iraq, located about 100 km southwest of Baghdad at 32. ... For other uses, see Najaf (disambiguation). ... Qom (Persian: قم, also known as Qum or Kom) is a city in Iran and the Qom (River) flows through the town. ... Map showing Samarra near Baghdad Sāmarrā (سامراء) is a town in Iraq ( ). It stands on the east bank of the Tigris in the Salah ad Din Governorate, 125 km north of Baghdad and, in 2002, had an estimated population of 201,700. ... Mashhad (Persian: , literally the place of martyrdom) is the second largest city in Iran and one of the holiest cities in the Shiah world. ...

Related Movements

Nimatullahi · Safaviya
Qizilbash · Alevism · Alawism
Bektashi · Ahl-e Haqq
The Nimatullahi order (also spelled Nimatollahi or Nematollahi) is a Sufi Order or Tariqa originating in Persia. ... Qizilbash or Kizilbash (Ottoman Turkish/Persian: Qezelbāš, Turkish: Kızılbaş, Azerbaijani: Qızılbaş) - Turkish for Red Heads - name given to a wide variety of extremist Shiite militant groups (ghulāt) who helped found the Safavid Dynasty of Iran. ... Alevis or Alevi-Bektashis (Turkish: or Alevilik, Kurdish: ) are an ethnic, religious, and cultural community in Turkey numbering around 20 million, making up approximately 20% of the population of the country and 10% of the world total Shia Muslim population. ... Alawite is a Middle Eastern Syria. ... The Bektashism (Turkish: Bektaşilik) is an Islamic Sufi order (tariqat). ... Also referred to as Yarsan or Yaresan and also Ali-Ilahis or Aliullahis by outsiders, is one of many Sufi orders in Iran, combining various syncretistic and Islamic ideas with a veneration of Ali Ibn Abi Talib, the son-in-law of Muhammad. ...

Hadith Collections // These books include discussions about Theology (Tawhīd, Nubuwwah, Imamah, etc ) of Shia. ...

Peak of Eloquence
The Pslams of Islam
Book of Fundamentals
Oceans of Light
Book of Sulaym ibn Qays
Wasael ush-Shia
Reality of Certainty
Keys of Paradise
It has been proposed below that Nahj al Balagha be renamed and moved to Nahj al-Balagha. ... Al-Sahifa al-Sajjadiyya is said to be the oldest prayer manual in Islamic sources and one of the most seminal works of Islamic spirituality of the early period. ... The Kitab al-Kafi is a Shia hadith collection compiled by Mohammad Yaqub Kulainy. ... Oceans of Light (Arabic: Bihar ul Anwar) is a holy scripture of Shia Islam. ... The Book of Sulaym ibn Qays is a Hadith collections, collected by Sulaym ibn Qays who entrusted it to Aban ibn abi-Ayyash. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Reality of Certainty (Arabic: Haqq al-Yaqeen) is a Shia Twelver hadith collection authoured by Allamah al-Majlisi [1]. It has been criticized by Shia in the words: Haqq al-Yaqeen has many weak narrators, none of the Hadith scholars have graded the narration as Sahih. ...

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The Safavid ruling dynasty was founded by Ismāil, from now known as Shāh Ismāil I.[37] The language used by Shah Ismail is not identical with that of his "race" or "nationality" and he was bilingual at birth[38]. Ismāil was of mixed Turkic, Iranic, and Pontik Greek descent[39], although others speculate that he was non-Turkic[38], and was a direct descendant of Sheikh Safi al-Din. As such, he was the last in the line of hereditary Grand Masters of the Safaviyeh oder, prior to its ascent to a ruling dynasty. Ismāil was a brave and charismatic youth, zealous with regards to his Shi’a faith, and believed himself to be of divine descent. Practically worshipped by his Qizilbāsh followers, Ismāil invaded Shirvan and avenged the death of his father. Afterwards, he went on a conquest campaign, capturing Tabriz in July 1501, where he enthroned himself the Shāh of Azerbaijan[40][41][42] and minted coins in his name, proclaiming Shi’ism the official religion of his domain[5]. Although initially the masters of Azerbaijan only, the Safavids had, in fact, won the struggle for power in Persia which had been going on for nearly a century between various dynasties and political forces. A year after his victory in Tabriz, Ismāil proclaimed most of Persia as his domain[5], and within 10 years established a complete control over all of it, showing extraordinary valor in battle. Ismāil continued to expand his territory adding Hamadan in 1503, Shiraz and Kerman in 1504, Najaf and Karbala in 1507, Van in 1508, Baghdad in 1509, and Herat, as well as other parts of Khorasan, in 1510. By 1511, the Uzbeks in the north-east, led by their Khan Muhammad Shaybāni, were driven across the Oxus River where they continued to attack the Safavids. His decisive victory over the Uzbeks, who had occupied most of Khorasan, ensured Iran’s eastern borders and the Uzbeks never since expanded beyond the Hindukush. Although the Uzbeks continued to make occasional raids to Khorasan, the Safavid empire throughout their whole reign was able to keep them at bay. This article needs cleanup. ... This article is about the various peoples speaking one of the Turkic languages. ... Language(s) Persian, Kurdish, Pashto, Balouchi, Ossetian and various other Iranian languages. ... The term Pontic Greeks, Pontian Greeks, Pontians or Greeks of Pontus (Greek: or , Turkish: ) can refer to Greeks specifically from the area of Pontus in the region of the former Empire of Trebizond on the Black Sea coast of Eastern Turkey, or in other cases more generally all Greeks from... Sheikh Safi al-Dins tomb Sheikh Safi al-Din Ardebili (of Ardebil) (1252-1334), eponym of the Safavid dynasty, was the spiritual heir and son in law of the great Sufi Murshid (Grand Master) Sheikh Zahed Gilani, of Lahijan in Gilan Province in northern Iran. ... Shia Islam, also Shiite Islam, or Shiism (Arabic:شيعة, Persian:شیعه translit: ) is a denomination of the Islamic faith. ... Qizilbash or Kizilbash (Ottoman Turkish/Persian: Qezelbāš, Turkish: KızılbaÅŸ, Azerbaijani: QızılbaÅŸ) - Turkish for Red Heads - name given to a wide variety of extremist Shiite militant groups (ghulāt) who helped found the Safavid Dynasty of Iran. ... Tabriz (Azeri and Persian: تبریز; is the largest city in north-western Iran with an estimated population of 1,597,319 (2007 est. ... Avicennas tomb in Hamedan Hamadan or Hamedan ( Persian: همدان ) is the capital city of Hamadan Province of Iran. ... Eram Garden, Shiraz most popular garden. ... For the U.S. city, see Kerman, California. ... For other uses, see Najaf (disambiguation). ... // Karbala (Arabic: ; BGN: Al-Karbalā’; also spelled Karbala al-Muqaddasah) is a city in Iraq, located about 100 km southwest of Baghdad at 32. ... Year 1507 was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... This article is about the road vehicle. ... Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... Herāt (Persian: ‎ ) is a city in western Afghanistan, in the province also known as Herāt. ... Friday Mosque in Herat, Afghanistan, a city which was known in the past as the Pearl of Khorasan. ... Portrait of Muhammad Shaybani Abu I-Fath Muhammad Shaybani Khan (c. ... The Amu Darya (in Persian آمودریا; Darya means river in Persian) rises in the Pamirs and flows mainly north-west through the Hindu Kush, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan to join the Aral Sea in a large river delta. ... The Hindu Kush or Hindukush (هندوکش in Persian) is a mountain range in Afghanistan as well as in the Northern Areas of Pakistan. ...


Clashes with the Ottomans

Main articles: Battle of Chaldiran and Qizilbash

More problematic for the Safavids was the powerful Ottoman Empire. The Ottomans, a Sunni dynasty, considered the active recruitment of Turkmen tribes of Anatolia for the Safavid cause as a major threat. To counter the rising Safavid power, in 1502, Sultan Bayezid II forcefully deported many Shi'as from Anatolia to other parts of the Ottoman realm. In 1514, Bayezid's son, Sultan Selim I marched through Anatolia and reached the plain of Chaldiran near the city of Khoy, and a decisive war was fought there. Most sources agree that the Ottoman army was at least double the size of that of Ismāil[37], however, what gave the Ottomans the advantage was the artillery which the Safavid army lacked. According to R. M. Savory, "Salim's plan was to winter at Tabriz and complete the conquest of Persia the following spring. However, a mutiny among his officers who refused to spend the winter at Tabriz forced him to withdraw across territory laid waste by the Safavid forces, eight days later"[37]. Although Ismāil was defeated and his capital was captured, the Safavid empire survived. The war between the two powers continued under Ismāil's son, Shāh Tahmāsp I (q.v.), and the Ottoman Sultan Suleiman I, until Shāh Abbās (q.v.) retook the area lost to the Ottomans by 1602. The Battle of Chaldiran was a military conflict that occurred on 23 August 1514 and ended with a decisive military victory of the Ottoman Empire over the Safavids. ... Qizilbash or Kizilbash (Ottoman Turkish/Persian: Qezelbāš, Turkish: KızılbaÅŸ, Azerbaijani: QızılbaÅŸ) - Turkish for Red Heads - name given to a wide variety of extremist Shiite militant groups (ghulāt) who helped found the Safavid Dynasty of Iran. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Sultan Beyazid II Bayezid II (1447/48 – May 26, 1512) (Arabic: بايزيد الثاني) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1481 to 1512. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... Sultan Beyazid II Bayezid II (1447/48 – May 26, 1512) (Arabic: بايزيد الثاني) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1481 to 1512. ... Selim I (Ottoman: سليم الأول, Turkish:) (also known as the Grim or the Brave, Yavuz in Turkish, the long name is Yavuz Sultan Selim)(October 10, 1465 – September 22, 1520) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1512 to 1520. ... Khoy (Persian: , Azerbaijani: , Kurdish: ), also spelt Khoi or Khvoy, is a city in West Azarbaijan Province, Iran. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Tahmasp I (1514-1576) was an influential Shah of Persia of the Safavid Dynasty. ... Suleiman the Magnificent Suleiman I (November 6, 1494 – September 5/6, 1566); in Turkish Süleyman , (nicknamed the Magnificent in Europe and the Lawgiver in the Islamic World, in Turkish Kanuni) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1520 to 1566 and successor to Selim I. He was born at...


The consequences of the defeat at Chaldiran were also psychological for Ismāil: the defeat destroyed Ismāil's belief in his invincibility, based on his claimed divine status[5]. His relationships with his Qizilbāsh followers were also fundamentally altered. The tribal rivalries between the Qizilbāsh, which temporarily ceased before the defeat at Chaldiran, resurfaced in intense form immediately after the death of Ismāil, and led to ten years of civil war (930-40/1524-33) until Shāh Tahmāsp regained control of the affairs of the state.


Early Safavid power in Iran was based on the military power of the Qizilbāsh. Ismāil exploited the first element to seize power in Iran. But eschewing politics after his defeat in Chaldiran, he left the affairs of the government to the office of the Wakīl (q.v.). Ismāil's successors, and most ostensibly Shāh Abbās I successfully diminished the Qizilbāsh's influence on the affairs of the state.


Ismāil's poetry

Ismāil is also known for his poetry using the pen-name Khatāī (Arabic خطائی: sinner)[37]. He is considered an important figure in the literary history of Azerbaijani and has left approximately 1400 verses in this language, which he chose to use for political reasons, as most of his followers at the time spoke Turkmen Turkish[38]. Approximately 50 verses of his Persian poetry have also survived. According to Encyclopædia Iranica, "Ismail was a skillful poet who used prevalent themes and images in lyric and didactic-religious poetry with ease and some degree of originality". He was also deeply influenced by the Persian literary tradition of Iran, particularly by the "Shāhnāma" of Ferdowsi, which probably explains the fact that he named all of his sons after Shāhnāma-characters. Dickson and Welch suggest that Ismāil's "Shāhnāmaye Shāhī" was intended as a present to the young Tahmāsp[43]. After defeating Muhammad Shaybāni's Uzbeks, Ismāil asked Hātefī, a famous poet from Jam (Khorasan), to write a Shāhnāma-like epic about his victories and his newly established dynasty. Although the epic was left unfinished, it was an example of mathnawis in the heroic style of the Shāhnāma written later on for the Safavid kings[5]. Persian literature is literature written in Persian, or by Persians in other languages. ... Encyclopædia Iranica is a project of Columbia University started in 1974 at its Center for Iranian (Persian) Studies with the goal to create a comprehensive and authoritiative English language encyclopedia about the history, culture, and civilization of Iranian peoples from prehistory to modern times. ... Kelileh va Demneh Persian manuscript copy dated 1429, from Herat, depicts the Jackal trying to lead the Lion astray. ... Shâhnameh Shāhnāmé, or Shāhnāma (Persian: )(alternative spellings are Shahnama, Shahnameh, Shahname, Shah-Nama, etc. ... Tomb of Ferdowsi in Tus HakÄ«m Abol-Qāsem FerdowsÄ« TÅ«sÄ« (Persian: ), more commonly transliterated as Ferdowsi, (935–1020) was a highly revered Persian poet. ... Ghowr province (sometimes spelled Ghor) is one of the thirty-four provinces of Afghanistan. ... The Masnavi or Masnavi I Manavi (مثنوی معنوی in Persian), also written Mathnawi or Mesnevi, written in Persian by Jalal al-Din Muhammad Rumi, the well known Persian Sufi saint and poet, is one of the best known and most influential works of Muslim mysticism. ...


Legacy

Ismāil's greatest legacy established an enduring empire which lasted over 200 years. Even after the fall of Safavids in 1722, their cultural and political influence endured through the era of Afsharid, Zand, Qajar, and Pahlavi dynasties into the modern Islamic Republic of Iran, where Shi’a Islam is still the official religion as it was during the Safavids. Afsharid Dynasty (1723-1735) Bronze statue of Nader Shah, by Master Sadighi. ... Vakeel mosque, Shiraz. ... The Qajar dynasty was the ruling family of Persia from 1796 to 1925. ... The Pahlavi dynasty (in Persian: دودمان پهلوی) of Iran began with the crowning of Reza Shah Pahlavi in 1925 and ended with the Iranian Revolution of 1979, and the subsequent collapse of the ancient tradition of Iranian monarchy. ... Iran (Persian: ایران) is a Middle Eastern country located in southwestern Asia. ... Shia Islam, also Shiite Islam, or Shiism (Arabic:شيعة, Persian:شیعه translit: ) is a denomination of the Islamic faith. ...


Political scene in Persia prior to Ismāil's rule

After the decline of the Timurid Empire (1370–1506), there were many local states prior to the Iranian state established by Ismāil.[44] The most important local rulers about 1500 were: Flag of the Timurid Empire according to the Catalan Atlas c. ... 1500 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Ismāil was able to unite all these lands under the Iranian Empire he created. Husayn Bayqarah (1438 - May 4, 1506), was a Timurid ruler of Herat from 1469 to his death, with a brief interruption in 1470. ... Timurid Dynasty at its Greatest Extent The Timurids, self-designated GurkānÄ« (Persian: ), were a Persianate Central Asian Sunni Muslim dynasty of originally Turko-Mongol[4][5][6][7] descent whose empire included the whole of Central Asia, Iran, modern Afghanistan and Pakistan, as well as large parts of Mesopotamia... Herāt (Persian: ‎ ) is a city in western Afghanistan, in the province also known as Herāt. ... ... This article is about the title. ... Tabriz (Azeri and Persian: تبریز; is the largest city in north-western Iran with an estimated population of 1,597,319 (2007 est. ... ... Farrukh Yassar Shirvanshah of Shirvan (1465-1500). ... // History The role of Shirvanshah (Shirvan) state in national development of Azerbaijan (especially of northern Azerbaijan) is hard to underestimate. ... Today Balkh (Persian: بلخ) is a small town in the Province of Balkh, Afghanistan, about 20 kilometers northwest of the provincial capital, Mazari Sharif, and some 74 km (46 miles) south of the Amu Darya, the Oxus River of antiquity, of which a tributary formerly flowed past Balkh. ... Semnan may refer to: Semnan province Semnan (city) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Yazd or Yezd (In Persian: یزد), is the capital of Yazd province, one of the most ancient and historic cities in Iran and a centre of Zoroastrian culture. ...


Shāh Tahmāsp

Main article: Shah Tahmasp

Shāh Tahmāsp, the young governor of Herat, succeeded his father Ismāil in 1524, when he was ten years and three months old.[5] He was the ward of the powerful Qizilbash amir Ali Beg Rūmlū (titled "Div Soltān") who saw himself as the de facto ruler of the state.[5] For around ten years, rival Qizilbāsh factions fought amongst themselves for the control of the empire until Shāh Tahmāsp reasserted his authority effectively and ended up by reigning for 52 years, the longest reign in Safavid history.[5] The Uzbeks, during the reign of Tahmāsp, attacked the eastern provinces of the kingdom five times and the Ottomans under Soleymān I made four invasions of Persia. As a result, Persia lost territory in Iraq, and Tahmāsp was forced to move his capital from Tabriz to Qazvin. Using diplomacy, he negotiated with the Ottomans the treaty of Amasya and peace remained unbroken during the rest of his era.[5] Shah Tahmasp greets the exiled Humayun Tahmasp I (3 March 1514-1576) was an influential Shah of Persia of the Safavid Dynasty. ... Herāt (Persian: ‎ ) is a city in western Afghanistan, in the province also known as Herāt. ... In law, a ward is someone placed under the protection of a legal guardian. ... Friday Mosque in Herat, Afghanistan, a city which was known in the past as the Pearl of Khorasan. ... Suleiman I (Ottoman Turkish: Sulaymān, Turkish: ; almost always Kanuni Sultan Süleyman) (November 6, 1494 – September 5/6, 1566), was the tenth and longest-reigning Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, from 1520 to his death in 1566. ...


After the death of Tahmāsp in 984/1576, the struggle for a dominant position in the state was complicated by rival groups and factions.[5] Dominant political factions vied for power and support three different candidates. The mentally unstable Ismāil, the son of Tahmāsp and the purblind Muhammad Khudābanda were some of the candidates but did not get the support of all the Qizilbāsh chiefs. The Turkmen Ustājlū tribe, one of the most powerful tribes among the Qizilbāsh, threw its support behind Haydar, who was of a Georgian mother, but the majority of the Qizilbāsh chiefs saw this as a threat to their own, Turkmen-dominated power[5]. Instead, they first placed Ismāil II. on the throne (1576-1577) and after him Muhammad Shāh Khudābanda (1578-1588). Ismail II (1576–1578) was third Safavid Shah of Persia. ... Mohammed Khodabānda of Khudabānda, also known as Mohammed Shah, was the fourth Safavid Shah of Iran(Persia) (1578–1587) . He succeeded to the throne of Persia upon his brother Ismail IIs death in 1578. ...


Shah Abbas

Main article: Shah Abbas I

The greatest of the Safavid monarchs, Shah Abbas I (1587–1629) came to power in 1587 aged 16 following the forced abdication of his father, Shah Muhammad Khudābanda, having survived Qizilbashi court intrigues and murders. He recognized the ineffectualness of his army which was consistently being defeated by the Ottomans who had captured Georgia and Armenia and by Uzbeks who had captured Mashhad and Sistan in the east. First he sued for peace in 1590 with the Ottomans giving away territory in the north-west. Then two Englishmen, Robert Sherley and his brother Anthony, helped Abbas I to reorganize the Shah's soldiers into an officer-paid and well-trained standing army similar to a European model (which the Ottomans had already adopted). He wholeheartedly adopted the use of gunpowder (See Military history of Iran). The army divisions were: Ghulams غلام (crown servants or slaves[45] usually conscripted from Armenian, Georgian and Circassian lands), Tofongchis تفگنچى (musketeers), and Topchis توپچى (artillery-men). Shah Abbas I (شاه عباس اول) (January 27, 1571?-January 19, 1629?) was the most eminent ruler of the Safavid Dynasty. ... Shah Abbas I (شاه عباس اول) (January 27, 1571?-January 19, 1629?) was the most eminent ruler of the Safavid Dynasty. ... Look up abdication in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Mohammed Khodabānda of Khudabānda, also known as Mohammed Shah, was the fourth Safavid Shah of Iran(Persia) (1578–1587) . He succeeded to the throne of Persia upon his brother Ismail IIs death in 1578. ... Mashhad (Persian: , literally the place of martyrdom) is the second largest city in Iran and one of the holiest cities in the Shiah world. ... Categories: Iran geography stubs | Provinces of Iran ... Sir Anthony Sherley was in Persia from Dec 1, 1599 to May 1600. ... Sir Anthony Shirley (or Sherley) (1565 - 1635) was an English traveller. ... Ancient Iranian Women-Warriors. ... Ghulam (Translates as Slave in English) is a 1998 Bollywood film directed by Vikram Bhatt. ... Circassian language is used in a number of ways: as a synonym for the Adyghe language; as a synonym for the Kabardian language; as a term for a distinct language that includes both Adyghe and Kabardian. ...


Abbas I first fought the Uzbeks, recapturing Herat and Mashhad in 1598. Then he turned against the Ottomans recapturing Baghdad, eastern Iraq and the Caucasian provinces by 1622. He also used his new force to dislodge the Portuguese from Bahrain (1602) and the English navy from Hormuz (1622), in the Persian Gulf (a vital link in Portuguese trade with India). He expanded commercial links with the English East India Company and the Dutch East India Company. Thus Abbas I was able to break the dependence on the Qizilbash for military might and therefore was able to centralize control. Herāt (Persian: ‎ ) is a city in western Afghanistan, in the province also known as Herāt. ... Distorted from Persian Ohrmuzd, Ahura Mazda. ... Map of the Persian Gulf. ... The British East India Company, popularly known as John Company, was founded by a Royal Charter of Queen Elizabeth I on December 31, 1600. ... This article is about the trading company. ...


The Ottoman Turks and Safavids fought over the fertile plains of Iraq for more than 150 years. The capture of Baghdad by Ismail I in 1509 was only followed by its loss to the Ottoman Sultan Suleiman I in 1534. After subsequent campaigns, the Safavids recaptured Baghdad in 1623 yet lost it again to Murad IV in 1638. Henceforth a treaty, signed in Qasr-e Shirin, was established delineating a border between Iran and Turkey in 1639, a border which still stands in northwest Iran/southeast Turkey. The 150 year tug-of-war accentuated the Sunni and Shi'a rift in Iraq. The Ottoman Turks were the ethnic subdivision of the Turkish people who dominated the ruling class of the Ottoman Empire. ... Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... 1509 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Suleiman the Magnificent Suleiman I (November 6, 1494 – September 5/6, 1566); in Turkish Süleyman , (nicknamed the Magnificent in Europe and the Lawgiver in the Islamic World, in Turkish Kanuni) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1520 to 1566 and successor to Selim I. He was born at... 1534 (MDXXXIV) was a common year in the 16th century. ... Year 1623 (MDCXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Murad IV (Arabic: مراد الرابع) (June 16, 1612 – February 9, 1640) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1623 to 1640, known both for restoring the authority of the state and for the brutality of his methods. ... Events March 29 - Swedish colonists establish first settlement in Delaware, called New Sweden. ... Qasr-e Shirin, literally translated from Persian as Palace of Shirin, is a historical city in Kermanshah province which was built during the Sassanid dynastic era (226-651 AD). ... Events January 14 - Connecticuts first constitution, the Fundamental Orders, is adopted. ...


In 1609-1610, a war broke out between Kurdish tribes and the Safavid Empire. After a long and bloody siege led by the Safavid grand vizier Hatem Beg, which lasted from November 1609 to the summer of 1610, the Kurdish stronghold of Dimdim was captured. Shah Abbas ordered a general massacre in Beradost and Mukriyan(Mahabad) (Reported by Eskandar Beg Monshi, Safavid Historian (1557-1642) in the Book "Alam Ara Abbasi") and resettled the Turkish Afshar tribe in the region while deporting many Kurdish tribes to Khorasan.[46] Nowadays, there is a community of nearly 1.7 million people who are descendants of the tribes deported from Kurdistan to Khurasan (Northeastern Iran) by the Safavids.[47] Languages Kurdish Religions Predominantly Sunni Muslim also some Shia, Yazidism, Yarsan, Judaism, Christianity Related ethnic groups other Iranian peoples (Talysh Baluch Gilak Bakhtiari Persians) The Kurds are an ethnic group who consider themselves to be indigenous to a region often referred to as Kurdistan, an area which includes adjacent parts... // Events April 4 – King of Spain signs an edit of expulsion of all moriscos from Spain April 9 – Spain recognizes Dutch independence May 23 - Official ratification of the Second Charter of Virginia. ... // Events January 7 - Galileo Galilei discovers the Galilean moons of Jupiter. ... The Battle of DimDim was the name for some battles between the kurds and the Savavid empire between 1609 and 1610. ... View over Mahabad Mahabad (in Persian: مهاباد , in Kurdish: Mehabad or Mihabad, alternative name: سابلاخ, Sablax) is a city in northwestern Iran with an estimated population of 168,328 inhabitants in 2006. ... The Afshar tribe of Iran are a Turkic-speaking ethnic group. ... Languages Kurdish Religions Predominantly Sunni Muslim also some Shia, Yazidism, Yarsan, Judaism, Christianity Related ethnic groups other Iranian peoples (Talysh Baluch Gilak Bakhtiari Persians) The Kurds are an ethnic group who consider themselves to be indigenous to a region often referred to as Kurdistan, an area which includes adjacent parts... Map showing the pre-2004 Khorasan Province in Iran Khorasan (Persian: خراسان) (also transcribed as Khurasan and Khorassan, anciently called Traxiane during Hellenistic and Parthian times is currently a region located in north eastern Iran, but historically referred to a much larger area east and north-east of the Persian Empire...


Due to his obsessive fear of assassination, Shah Abbas either put to death or blinded any member of his family who aroused his suspicion. In this way one of his sons was executed and two blinded. Since two other sons had predeceased him, the result was personal tragedy for Shah Abbas. When he died on 19 January 1629, he had no son capable of succeeding him.[48]. The beginning of the 17th century saw the power of the Qizilbash decline, the original militia that had helped Ismail I capture Tabriz and which had gained many administrative powers over the centuries. Power was shifting to a new class of merchants, many of them ethnic Armenians, Georgians and Indians. is the 19th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events March 4 - Massachusetts Bay Colony is granted a Royal charter. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... The Georgians (ქართველი ერი (Kartveli Eri) or ქართველები (Kartvelebi) in the Georgian language) are a nation or an ethnic group, originating in the Caucasus. ...


At its zenith, during the long reign of Shah Abbas I the empire's reach comprised Iran, Iraq, Armenia, Azerbaijan Republic, Georgia, and parts of Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Afghanistan, and Pakistan. Azerbaijan or Azerbeijan (Azerbaijani: Azərbaycan, Azərbeycan) is a country in the Caucaus region, adjacent to the Caspian Sea. ...


Decline of the Safavid state

Main articles: Hotaki and Afsharids
View of Chehel-sotoon Palace, Isfahan, Iran.
View of Chehel-sotoon Palace, Isfahan, Iran.

In addition to fighting its perennial enemies, the Ottomans and Uzbeks, as the 17th century progressed Iran had to contend with the rise of two more neighbors. Russian Muscovy in the previous century had deposed two western Asian khanates of the Golden Horde and expanded its influence into the Caucasus Mountains and Central Asia. In the east, the Mughal dynasty of India had expanded into Afghanistan at the expense of Iranian control, taking Qandahar. The Hotaki dynasty (1709-1736) was founded by Afghans (Pashuns) from the Ghilzai clan. ... edit Afsharid Dynasty (1723-1735) The Afsharids (Persian: سلسله افشار) were an Iranian dynasty from Khorasan that ruled the Persian Empire in the 18th century. ... Chehel-sotoon palace, Isfahan. ... Chehel-sotoon palace, Isfahan. ... Part of Shah Abbas large urban project in his new capital, the Chahār Bāgh Four Gardens, is a four-kilometer avenue in the city of Isfahan. ... Muscovy (Moscow principality (княжество Московское) to Grand Duchy of Moscow (Великое Княжество Московское) to Russian Tsardom (Царство Русское)) is a traditional Western name for the Russian state that existed from the 14th century to the late 17th century. ... The Golden Horde (Mongolian: Altan Ordyn Uls; Tatar: ; Russian: ) is a Russian designation for the Mongol[1][2][3] — later Turkicized[4] — khanate established in the western part of the Mongol Empire after the Mongol invasion of Rus in the 1240s: present-day Russia, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, and the Caucasus. ... Capital Delhi / Agra Language(s) Persian (initially also Chagatai, Turkish; later also Urdu) Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1526-1530 Babur  - 1530–1539 and after restoration 1555–1556 Humayun  - 1556–1605 Akbar  - 1605–1627 Jahangir  - 1628–1658 Shah Jahan  - 1659–1707 Aurangzeb History  - Established April 21, 1526  - Ended September 21, 1857 Area... This article is about the city in Afghanistan. ...


Furthermore by the 17th century, trade routes between the East and West had shifted away from Iran, causing a loss of commerce and trade. Moreover, Shah Abbas had a conversion to a ghulam-based military, though expedient in the short term. The term Eastern world refers very broadly to the various cultures, social structures and philosophical systems of the East, namely Asia (including China, India, Japan, and surrounding regions). ... Occident redirects here. ...


Except for Shah Abbas II, the Safavid rulers after Abbas I were ineffectual. The end of his reign, 1666, marked the beginning of the end of the Safavid dynasty. Despite falling revenues and military threats, later shahs had lavish lifestyles. Shah Soltan Hosain (1694-1722) in particular was known for his love of wine and disinterest in governance.[49] Shah Abbas II was Shah of Iran from 1642 to 1666. ... 1666 is often called Annus Mirabilis. ...


The country was repeatedly raided on its frontiers — Kerman by Baloch tribesmen in 1698, Khorasan by Afghans in 1717, constantly in Mesopotamia by peninsula Arabs. Shah Sultan Hosein tried to forcibly convert his Afghan subjects in eastern Iran from Sunni to the Shi'a sect of Islam. In response, a Ghilzai Pashtun chieftain named Mir Wais Khan began a rebellion against the Georgian governor, Gurgin Khan, of Kandahar and defeated the Safavid army. Later, in 1722 an Afghan army led by Mir Wais' son Mahmud marched across eastern Iran, besieged, and sacked Isfahan. Mahmud proclaimed himself 'Shah' of Persia. The Baloch (Persian: بلوچ alternative transliterations Baluch, Balouch, Balooch, Balush, Balosh, Baloosh, Baloush et al. ... Map showing the pre-2004 Khorasan Province in Iran Khorasan (Persian: خراسان) (also transcribed as Khurasan and Khorassan, anciently called Traxiane during Hellenistic and Parthian times is currently a region located in north eastern Iran, but historically referred to a much larger area east and north-east of the Persian Empire... An Afghan or an Afghani is the name used to describe a person from the country of Afghanistan. ... Mesopotamia was a cradle of civilization geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, largely corresponding to modern-day Iraq. ... The Ghilzais (also known as Khiljis or Ghaljis) are one of two largest groups of Pashtuns, along with the Durrani tribe, found in Afghanistan with a large group also found in neighboring Pakistan. ... The Pashtuns (also Pushtun, Pakhtun, ethnic Afghan, or Pathan) are an ethno-linguistic group consisting mainly of eastern Iranian stock living primarily in eastern and southern Afghanistan, and the North West Frontier Province, Federally Administered Tribal Areas and Baluchistan provinces of Pakistan. ... It has been suggested that Mir Wais Khan be merged into this article or section. ... Giorgi XI or Gurgin Khan, as he was known in Persia, was the ruler of eastern Georgian Kingdom of Kartli from Bagrationi dynasty and reigned in 1676-1688 and 1703-1709. ... // Events Abraham De Moivre states De Moivres theorem connecting trigonometric functions and complex numbers Publication of the first book of Bachs Well-Tempered Clavier Fall of Persias Safavid dynasty during a bloody revolt of the Afghani people. ... Mir Mahmud Hotaki (b. ...


The Afghans rode roughshod over their conquered territory for a dozen years but were prevented from making further gains by Nadir Shah, a former slave who had risen to military leadership within the Afshar tribe in Khorasan, a vassal state of the Safavids. Nadir Shah defeated the Afghans in the Battle of Damghan, 1729. He had driven out the Afghans, who were still occupying Persia, by 1730. In 1738, Nadir Shah reconquered Eastern Persia, starting with Qandahar; in the same year he occupied Ghazni, Kabul, and Lahore, later conquering as far as east as Delhi, but not fortifying his Persian base and exhausting his army's strength. He had effective control under Shah Tahmasp II and then ruled as regent of the infant Abbas III until 1736 when he had himself crowned shah. Nadir Shah’s portrait from the collection of Smithsonian Institute Nadir Shah (Persian: نادر شاه) (Nadir Qoli Beg (Persian: نادر قلی بیگ), also Tahmasp-Qoli Khan (Persian: تهماسپ قلی خان) also Nadir Shah Afshar (Persian: نادر شاه افشار) ) (October 22, 1688 - June 19, 1747) ruled as Shah of Iran (1736–47) and was the founder of the short-lived Turkic Afsharid... The Afshar tribe of Iran are a Turkic-speaking ethnic group. ... Combatants Persia Afghans Commanders Nadir Shah Mahmud Ghilzay Strength Casualties The Battle of Damghan was fought in 1729 between Persian and Afghan forces. ... Events July 30 - Baltimore, Maryland is founded. ... Events Pope Clement XII elected September 17 - Change of emperor of the Ottoman Empire from Ahmed III (1703-1730) to Mahmud I (1730-1754) Anna Ivanova (Anna I of Russia) became czarina Births April 16 - Henry Clinton, British general (d. ... Events February 4 - Court Jew Joseph Suss Oppenheimer is executed in Württenberg April 15 - Premiere in London of Serse, an Italian opera by George Frideric Handel. ... Ghazni (Persian: غزنی , ÄžaznÄ«) is a city in eastern Afghanistan, with an estimated population of 149,998 people. ... For other places with the same name, see Kabul (disambiguation). ...   (Urdu: لاہور, Punjabi: لہور, pronounced ) is the capital of the Punjab and is the second largest city in Pakistan after Karachi. ... , For other uses, see Delhi (disambiguation). ... Tahmasp II (1704? – 1740) was one of the last Safavid rulers of Persia (Iran). ... Abbas III was a son of Shah Tahmasp II of the Safavid dynasty. ... Events January 26 - Stanislaus I of Poland abdicates his throne. ...


Immediately after Nadir Shah's assassination in 1747, the Safavids were re-appointed as shahs of Iran in order to lend legitimacy to the nascent Zand dynasty. However the brief puppet regime of Ismail III ended in 1760 when Karim Khan felt strong enough take nominal power of the country as well and officially end the Safavid dynasty. Year 1747 (MDCCXLVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Vakeel mosque, Shiraz. ... 1760 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Karim Khan Zand, (Persian: کریم خان زند), (c. ...


Shia Islam as the state religion

Shah Abbas I of Safavid at a banquet. Detail from a celing fresco; Chehel Sotoun Palace; Isfahan.

Even though Safavids were not the first Shia rulers in Iran, they played a crucial role in making Shia Islam the official religion in the whole of Iran. There were large Shia communities in some cities like Qom and Sabzevar as early as 8th century. In the 10th and 11th centuries the Buwayhids, who were of Zeydi a branch of Shia, ruled in Fars, Isfahan and Baghdad. As a result of Mongol conquest and the relative religious tolerance of the Ilkhanids, Shia dynasties were re-established in Iran - Sarbedaran in Khorasan being the most important. Shah Öljeitü - the sultan of Ilkhanate converted to Twelver Shiism in 13th century, however the population of Iran stayed largely Sunni until the Safavid period. The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Qom (Persian: قم, also known as Qum or Kom) is a city in Iran and the Qom (River) flows through the town. ... Tomb of Meulana Hosein Kashefi, Sabzevar. ... The Buwayhids or Buyyids or Ä€l-i Buyeh, were a Yazdani tribal confederation from Daylam, a region on the southern shore of the Caspian Sea. ... // Introduction Fars is one of the 30 provinces of Iran. ... Part of Shah Abbas large urban project in his new capital, the Chahār Bāgh Four Gardens, is a four-kilometer avenue in the city of Isfahan. ... Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... The Ilkhanate (also spelled Il-khanate or Il Khanate) was one of the four divisions within the Mongol Empire. ... The Sarbadars (from sarbadar, head on gallows; also known as Sarbadalan) were a mixture of religious dervishes and secular rulers that came to rule over part of western Khurasan in the midst of the disintegration of the Mongol Ilkhanate in the mid-14th century. ... Map showing the pre-2004 Khorasan Province in Iran Khorasan (Persian: خراسان) (also transcribed as Khurasan and Khorassan, anciently called Traxiane during Hellenistic and Parthian times is currently a region located in north eastern Iran, but historically referred to a much larger area east and north-east of the Persian Empire... Öljeitü (1280 - December 16, 1316, in Soltaniyeh, near Kazvin), was the eight Ilkhanate ruler in Iran, resigned from 1304 to 1316. ... Khanates of Mongolian Empire: Il-Khanate, Chagatai Khanate, Empire of the Great Khan (Yuan Dynasty), Golden Horde The Ilkhanate (also spelled Il-khanate or Il Khanate) was one of the four divisions within the Mongol Empire. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ...


Following his conquest of Iran, Ismail I made conversion mandatory for the largely Sunni population. The Sunni Ulema or clergy were either killed or exiled. Ismail I, despite his heterodox Shia beliefs (Momen, 1985), brought in Shi'a religious leaders and granted them land and money in return for loyalty. Later, during the Safavid and especially Qajar period, the Shia Ulema's power increased and they were able to exercise a role, independent of or compatible with the government. Despite Safavid's Sufi origins, most Sufi groups were prohibited, bar the Nimatullahi order. Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Ulema (, transliteration: , singular: , transliteration: , scholar) (The people of Islamic Knowledge) refers to the educated class of Muslim legal scholars engaged in the several fields of Islamic studies. ... The Qajar dynasty was the ruling family of Persia from 1796 to 1925. ... The Nimatullahi order (also spelled Nimatollahi or Nematollahi) is a Sufi Order or Tariqa originating in Persia. ...


Iran became a feudal theocracy; the Shah was held to be the divinely ordained head of both. In the following centuries, this religious stance would cement both Iran's internal cohesion and national feelings and provoke attacks by its Sunni neighbors. Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ...


Constant wars with the Ottomans made Shah Tahmasp I move the capital from Tabriz to the interior city of Qazvin in 1548. Later, Shah Abbas I moved the capital to Isfahan, even deeper into central Iran. Abbas I built a new city next to the ancient Persian one. From this time the state began to take on a more Persian character. The Safavids ultimately succeeded in establishing a new Persian national monarchy. craftsmanship at Shazdeh Hosein shrine. ... Shah Abbas I of Safavid at a banquet Detail from a celing fresco; Chehel Sotoun palace; Isfahan Shah Abbas King of the Persians Copper engraving by Dominicus Custos, from his Atrium heroicum Caesarum pub. ...


Turcoman-Persian conflict

Main article: Kizilbash
Shah Suleiman I and his courtiers, Isfahan, 1670. Painter is Ali Qoli Jabbador, and is kept at The St. Petersburg Institute of Oriental Studies in Russia, ever since it was acquired by Tsar Nicholas II. Note the two Georgian figures with their names at the top left.
Shah Suleiman I and his courtiers, Isfahan, 1670. Painter is Ali Qoli Jabbador, and is kept at The St. Petersburg Institute of Oriental Studies in Russia, ever since it was acquired by Tsar Nicholas II. Note the two Georgian figures with their names at the top left.

A major problem faced by Ismail I after the establishment of the Safavid state was how to bridge the gap between the two major ethnic groups in that state: the Qizilbash(turkish:red headed) Turkmens, the "men of sword" of classical Islamic society whose military prowess had brought him to power, and the Persian elements, the "men of the pen," who filled the ranks of the bureaucracy and the religious establishment in the Safavid state as they had done for centuries under previous rulers of Persia, be they Arabs, Mongols, or Turkmens. As Vladimir Minorsky put it, friction between these two groups was inevitable, because the Qizilbash "were no party to the national Persian tradition". Between 1508 and 1524, the year of Ismail's death, the shah appointed five successive Persians to the office of vakil. When the second Persian "vakil" was placed in command of a Safavid army in Transoxiana, the Qizilbash, considering it a dishonor to be obliged to serve under him, deserted him on the battlefield with the result that he was slain. The fourth vakil was murdered by the Qizilbash, and the fifth was put to death by them [37]. Kizilbash (Turkish: KızılbaÅŸ, Azerbaijani: QızılbaÅŸ, Persian: قزلباش Qezelbāsh) - Red Heads - name given to a wide variety of extremist Shiite militant groups (ghulāt) who helped found the Safavid Dynasty of Iran. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Shah_soleiman_safavi. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Shah_soleiman_safavi. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and Petrograd (Петрогра́д, 1914–1924), is a city located in Northwestern Russia on the delta of the river Neva at the east end of the Gulf of Finland... Tsar Nicholas II (18 May 1868 to 17 July 1918)1 was the last crowned Emperor of Russia. ... Shah Ismail I, the founder of Safavid Dynasty of Iran pictured at battle against Abul-khayr Khan in a scene from the Tarikh-i alam-aray-i Shāh Ismāil Abul-Mozaffar bin Sheikh Haydar bin Sheikh Junayd SafawÄ« (Persian: - Azerbaijani: ) (July 17, 1487 - May 23, 1524), Shah... Kizilbash (Turkish: KızılbaÅŸ, Azerbaijani: QızılbaÅŸ, Persian: قزلباش Qezelbāsh) - Red Heads - name given to a wide variety of extremist Shiite militant groups (ghulāt) who helped found the Safavid Dynasty of Iran. ... The Persians of Iran (officially named Persia by West until 1935 while still referred to as Persia by some) are an Iranian people who speak Persian (locally named Fârsi by native speakers) and often refer to themselves as ethnic Iranians as well. ... Languages Arabic other minority languages Religions Predominantly Sunni Islam, as well as Shia Islam, Greek Orthodoxy, Greek Catholicism, Roman Catholicism, Alawite Islam, Druzism, Ibadi Islam, and Judaism Footnotes a Mainly in Antakya. ... For other uses, see Mongols (disambiguation). ... Vladimir Minorsky (1877-1966) was a famous Russian Iranologist. ... The Persians of Iran (officially named Persia by West until 1935 while still referred to as Persia by some) are an Iranian people who speak Persian (locally named Fârsi by native speakers) and often refer to themselves as ethnic Iranians as well. ... Map showing modern Transoxiana. ...


The Qizilbashi tribes were essential to the military of Iran until the rule of Shah Abbas I- their leaders were able to exercise enormous influence and participate in court intrigues (assassinating Shah Ismail II for example). Shah Abbas I (شاه عباس اول) (January 27, 1571?-January 19, 1629?) was the most eminent ruler of the Safavid Dynasty. ... Ismail II (1576–1578) was third Safavid Shah of Persia. ...


Economy

Persian Ambassador Mechti Kuli Beg during his entry into Kraków for the wedding ceremonies of King Sigismund III of Poland in 1605.

What fueled the growth of Safavid economy was Iran's position between the burgeoning civilizations of Europe to its west and India and Islamic Central Asia to its east and north. The Silk Road which led through northern Iran to India revived in the 16th century. Abbas I also supported direct trade with Europe, particularly England and The Netherlands which sought Persian carpet, silk and textiles. Other exports were horses, goat hair, pearls and an inedible bitter almond hadam-talka used as a spice in India. The main imports were spice, textiles (woolens from Europe, cottons from Gujarat), metals, coffee, and sugar. For other uses, see Krakow (disambiguation). ... Reign in Poland From September 18, 1587 until April 19, 1632 Reign in Sweden From November 17, 1592 until July 24, 1599 Elected in Poland On September 18, 1587 in Wola, today suburb of Warsaw, Poland Coronation in Poland On December 27, 1587 in the Wawel Cathedral, Kraków, Poland... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... For other uses, see Silk Road (disambiguation). ... The Persian carpet (Pahlavi bōb[1] Persian farš فرش, meaning to spread and Arabic qāli, Turkish hali)[2] is an essential part of Persian art and culture. ...


The languages of the Court, Military, Administrative and Culture

The Safavids by the time of their rise were Azerbaijani-speaking although they also used Persian as a second language. The language chiefly used by the Safavid court and military establishment was Azerbaijani[50][51]. But the administration language as well as the language of respondence (Insha'), of belles-lettres (adab) and of history (tarikh) was Persian[51]. The inscriptions on Safavid currency were also in Persian[52]. Farsi redirects here. ...


Safavids also used Persian as a cultural and administrative language throughout the empire and were bilingual in Persian[53]. According to Arnold J. Toynbee[54].: Farsi redirects here. ...

in the heyday of the Mughal, Safawi, and Ottoman regimes New Persian was being patronized as the language of litterae humaniores by the ruling element over the whole of this huge realm, while it was also being employed as the official language of administration in those two-thirds of its realm that lay within the Safawi and the Mughal frontiers

.


According to John R. Perry,[55]

In the 16th century, the Turcophone Safavid family of Ardabil in Azerbaijan, probably of Turkicized Iranian (perhaps Kurdish), origin, conquered Iran and established Turkic, the language of the court and the military, as a high-status vernacular and a widespread contact language, influencing spoken Persian, while written Persian, the language of high literature and civil administration, remained virtually unaffected in status and content.

According to the Cambridge History of Iran [50]:

In day-to-day affairs, the language chiefly used at the Safavid court and by the great military and political officers, as well as the religious dignitaries, was Turkish, not Persian; and the last class of persons wrote their religious works mainly in Arabic. Those who wrote in Persian were either lacking in proper tuition in this tongue, or wrote outside Iran and hence at a distance from centers where Persian was the accepted vernacular, endued with that vitality and susceptibility to skill in its use which a language can have only in places where it truly belongs.

According to É. Á. Csató et al.[16]:

A specific Turkic language was attested in Safavid Persia during the 16th and 17th centuries, a language that Europeans often called Persian Turkish ("Turc Agemi", "lingua turcica agemica"), which was a favourite language at the court and in the army because of the Turkic origins of the Safavid dynasty. The original name was just turki, and so a convenient name might be Turki-yi Acemi. This variety of Persian Turkish must have been also spoken in the Caucasian and Transcaucasian regions, which during the 16th century belonged to both the Ottomans and the Safavids, and were not fully integrated into the Safavid empire until 1606. Though that language might generally be identified as Middle Azerbaijanian, it's not yet possible to define exactly the limits of this language, both in linguistic and territorial respects. It was certainly not homogenous - maybe it was an Azerbaijanian-Ottoman mixed language, as Beltadze(1967:161) states for a translation of the gospels in Georgian script from the 18th century.

According to Ruda Jurdi Abisaab[56]:

Although the Arabic language was still the medium for religious scholastic expression, it was precisely under the Safavids that hadith complications and doctrinal works of all sorts were being translated to Persian. The 'Amilis (Lebanese scholars of Shi'i faith) operating through the Court-based religious posts, were forced to mater the Persian language; their students translated their instructions into Persian. Persianization went hand in hand with the popularization of 'mainstream' Shi'i belief

.


According to Cornelis Henricus Maria Versteegh[57]:

The Safavid dynasty under Shah Ismail (961/1501) adopted Farsi and the Shi'ite form of Islam as the national language and religion.

Culture

See also: Safavid art

Safavid art refers to art in Persia (Iran) during the dynasty of the same name (1501-1722), a high point for the art of the book and architecture, while minor arts such as ceramics, metal and glass had more or less a tendency to decline. ...

Culture within the Safavid family

The Safavid family was a literate family from its early origin. There are extant Tati and Persian poetry from Shaykh Safi ad-din Ardabili as well as extant Persian poetry from Shaykh Sadr ad-din. Most of the extant poetry of Shah Ismail I is in Azerbaijani pen-name of Khatai.[58] Sam Mirza, the son of Shah Esmail as well as some later authors assert that Ismail composed poems both in Turkish and Persian but only a few specimens of his Persian verse have survived[37]. A collection of his poems in Azeri were published as a Divan. Shah Tahmasp who has composed poetry in Persian was also a painter, while Shah Abbas II was known as a poet, writing Azerbaijani verses with the pen name of Tani.[59]. Sam Mirza, the son of Ismail I was himself a poet and composed his poetry in Persian. He also compiled an anthology of contemporary poetry. [60].


Culture in the empire

In the Safavid era the Persian Architecture flourished again and saw many new monuments, such as Naghsh-i Jahan Square, the biggest historic square in the world.
In the Safavid era the Persian Architecture flourished again and saw many new monuments, such as Naghsh-i Jahan Square, the biggest historic square in the world.

Shah Abbas I recognized the commercial benefit of promoting the arts - artisan products provided much of Iran's foreign trade. In this period, handicrafts such as tile making, pottery and textiles developed and great advances were made in miniature painting, bookbinding, decoration and calligraphy. In the sixteenth century, carpet weaving evolved from a nomadic and peasant craft to a well-executed industry with specialization of design and manufacturing. Tabriz was the center of this industry. The carpets of Ardabil were commissioned to commemorate the Safavid dynasty. The elegantly baroque yet famously 'Polonaise' carpets were made in Iran during the seventeenth century. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2096x1470, 1112 KB) Other versions File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Persian Empire Safavid dynasty Isfahan Naghsh-i Jahan Square User:Azerbaijani User:Arad List of city... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2096x1470, 1112 KB) Other versions File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Persian Empire Safavid dynasty Isfahan Naghsh-i Jahan Square User:Azerbaijani User:Arad List of city... The Baháí House of Worship by Fariborz Sahba, also known as the Lotus Temple. ... Naghsh-i Jahan (Persian: ميدان نقش جهان ), also known as shah or imam square (maidan in Farsi), situated at the center of Isfahan city, Iran, is one of the largest city squares in the world. ... Tabriz (Azeri and Persian: تبریز; is the largest city in north-western Iran with an estimated population of 1,597,319 (2007 est. ... Ardabil Carpet represents either one of the famous Persian rugs that are currently held by the Los Angeles County Museum of Art and the Victoria and Albert Museum in London. ...


Using traditional forms and materials, Reza Abbasi (1565–1635) introduced new subjects to Persian painting — semi-nude women, youth, lovers. His painting and calligraphic style influenced Iranian artists for much of the Safavid period, which came to be known as the Isfahan school. Increased contact with distant cultures in the 17th century, especially Europe, provided a boost of inspiration to Iranian artists who adopted modeling, foreshortening, spatial recession, and the medium of oil painting (Shah Abbas II sent Zaman to study in Rome). The epic Shahnameh (Book of Kings), a stellar example of manuscript illumination and calligraphy, was made during Shah Tahmasp's reign. (This book was written by Ferdousi in the 1000AD for Sultan Mahmood Ghaznawi) Another manuscript is the Khamsa by Nezami executed 1539-43 by Aqa Mirak and his school in Isfahan. Reza Abbasi, in full Aqa Reza Reza-e abbasi, sometimes known as Reza (1565 - 1635) was the most renowned Persian painter and calligrapher of the Isfahan school, which flourished during the Safavid period under the patronage of Shah Abbas I. Princely Youth and Dervish by Reza Abbasi, ca. ... Zaman may refer to: famous [Turkish] newspapers with international editions Zaman, a town in Afghanistan; The Zaman people, one of the Beti-Pahuin ethnic groups of Cameroon. ... Shâhnameh Shāhnāmé, or Shāhnāma (Persian: )(alternative spellings are Shahnama, Shahnameh, Shahname, Shah-Nama, etc. ... Khamsa used as a pendant The Khamsa (Arabic: ‎, literally five, Hebrew: ). An alternative Islamic name for this charm is the Hand of Fatima or Eye of Fatima, in reference to Fatima Zahra, the daughter of Muhammed. ... Nezami (1141–1209) Nezāmi-ye GanjavÄ« (Persian: ; Azerbaijani: ;‎ 1141 – 1209), or NezāmÄ« (Persian: ), whose full name was Nizām ad-DÄ«n AbÅ« Muhammad Ilyās ibn-YusÅ«f ibn-ZakÄ« ibn-Muayyid, is considered the greatest romantic epic poet in Persian literature, who brought a colloquial...


Isfahan bears the most prominent samples of the Safavid architecture, all constructed in the years after Shah Abbas I permanently moved the capital there in 1598: the Imperial Mosque, Masjid-e Shah, completed in 1630, the Imami Mosque,Masjid-e Imami, the Lutfullah Mosque and the Royal Palace. Part of Shah Abbas large urban project in his new capital, the Chahār Bāgh Four Gardens, is a four-kilometer avenue in the city of Isfahan. ...


According to Professor. William Cleveland[61]:

In 1598 Shah Abbas designated Isfahan , a city located in the center of Iran , as the new imperial capital. Isfahan was already an established city and had once been the Seljuk capital. However, Abbas transformed the city, lav­ishing huge sums on the construction of a carefully planned urban center laid out along broad thoroughfares and embellished with richly decorated mosques, a royal palace, luxurious private residences, and a large bazaar, all maintained in a lush garden setting. The material splendor of Isfahan court pled with Abbas's generous patronage attracted artists and scholars, whose presence contributed to the city's rich intellectual and cultural life. As activ­ities from carpet weaving to miniature painting, from the writing of Persian poetry to the compilation of works on Shica jurisprudence were encouraged, Isfahan became the catalyst for an explosion of Persian culture that spread to other Safavid cities and continued after the death of Abbas. Isfahan was also a thriving commercial center whose merchants, prospering under the stable, centralized government established by Abbas, became consumers and pa-irons themselves. At the time of Abbas's death, the Safavid capital had a population estimated at 400,000; the large size of the city and the impres­sive achievements of its residents prompted the inhabitants to coin their fa­mous boast, " Isfahan is half the world.

Poetry stagnated under the Safavids; the great medieval ghazal form languished in over-the-top lyricism. Poetry lacked the royal patronage of other arts and was hemmed in by religious prescriptions. This article is about the poetic form. ...


The Safavid era gave way to a flowering of philosophy in Iran with such figures Mulla Sadra of Shirza, Shaikh Bahai and Mir Damad. According to Professor Richard Nelson Frye: They were the continuers of the classical tradition of Islamic thought, which after Averroes died in the Arab west. The Persians schools of thought were the true heirs of the great Islamic thinkers of the golden age of Islam, whereas in the Ottoman empire there was an intellectual stagnation, as far as the traditions of Islamic philosophy were concerned.[62] One of the most renowned Muslim philosophers, Mulla Sadra, lived during Shah Abbas I's reign and wrote the Asfar, a meditation on what he called 'meta philosophy' which brought to a synthesis the philosophical mysticism of Sufism, the theology of Shi'ism, and the Peripatetic and Illuminationist philosophies of Avicenna and Suhrawardi. Iskander Beg Monshi’s History of Shah Abbas the Great written a few years after its subject's death, achieved a nuanced depth of history and character. ملاصدرا or Mulla Sadra (aka Molla Sadra or Mollasadra) also called Sadr Ad-Din Ash- Shirazi (c. ... ملاصدرا or Mulla Sadra (aka Molla Sadra or Mollasadra) also called Sadr Ad-Din Ash- Shirazi (c. ... Americans for a Society Free from Age Restrictions (ASFAR) is an organization dedicated to protecting and advancing the legal civil rights of youth. ... Peripatetic means wandering. The Peripatetics were a school of philosophy in ancient Greece. ... One of major longstanding schools of Islamic philosophy, حكمت اشراق or kihmat-al-Ishraq or Illuminationist Philosophy has been created and developed by Suhrawardi, famous Persian Philosopher. ... (Persian: ابن سينا) (c. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Sohrevardi. ...


Architecture

A new age in Iranian architecture began with the rise of the Safavid dynasty. Economically robust and politically stable, this period saw a flourishing growth of theological sciences. Traditional architecture evolved in its patterns and methods leaving its impact on the architecture of the following periods. Iranian architecture - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...


The appearance of new patterns base on geometrical networks in the development of cities gave order to open urban spaces, and took into account the conservation of natural elements(water and plants) within cities. The establishment of distinctive public spaces is one of the most important urban features of the Safavid period, as manifested for example in Naghsh-e Jahan Square, Chahar Bagh and the royal gardens of Isfahan. Naghsh-i Jahan Square: Ali Qapu (right), Sheikh Lotf Allah Mosque (left) and Shah Mosque (front) Naghsh-i Jahan Square (Persian: ميدان نقش جهان ), also known as shah or imam square (maidan in Persian), situated at the center of Isfahan city, Iran, is the one of largest city square in the world. ... Chahar Bagh (literally meaning Four Gardens) is an avenue in Esfahan constructed in the Safavid era of Iran. ...


Distinctive monuments like the Sheikh Lotfallah (1603), Hasht Behesht (Eight Paradise Palace)(1699) and the Chahar Bagh School(1714) appeared in Isfahan and other cities. This extensive development of architecture was rooted in Persian culture and took form in the design of schools, baths, houses, caravanserai and other urban spaces such as bazaars and squares. It continued until the end of the Qajar reign.[63] Hasht Behesht (Palace of 8 paradises), is a Safavid era palace in Isfahan, Iran. ... Chahār Bāgh school (Madreseye Chahār Bāgh in Persian or مدرسه چهار باغ ), also known as Shah school, was built during Soltan Hossein, a Safavid king, to serve as a theological and clerical school to train those who were interested in such sciences. ...


Role of Qizilbash in Military

Main article: Qizilbash

The Qizilbash (قزلباش - Qizelbāš) were a wide variety of extremist Shi'ite (ghulāt) and mostly Turcoman militant groups who helped found the Safavid Empire. Their military power was essential during the reign of the Shahs Ismail and Tahmasp. Qizilbash or Kizilbash (Ottoman Turkish/Persian: Qezelbāš, Turkish: KızılbaÅŸ, Azerbaijani: QızılbaÅŸ) - Turkish for Red Heads - name given to a wide variety of extremist Shiite militant groups (ghulāt) who helped found the Safavid Dynasty of Iran. ... Shia Islam ( Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite or Shiite) is the second largest Islamic denomination; some 20-25% of all Muslims are said to follow a Shia tradition. ... Ghulat (Arabic: غلاة extremists) is the adjectival form of Ghuluww (Arabic: غلو exagerators). ... A Seljuk Prince. ...


However, faced with rebellious Qizilbash (who were supposed to be the "Imperial Guards"), Abbas I was forced to reorganize the army and minimized their influence, using a standing army from the ranks of Armenian and Georgian ghulams ("slaves"). The new army would be loyal to the king personally and not to clan-chiefs anymore. Furthermore, in order to balance the power between the new army and the powerful Turcoman tribes, Abbas united a number of allied Turcoman tribes on the north-western frontier of the empire and gave the new, large and powerful tribe the name "Shahsavan" ("Friends of the King").[64] Shah Abbas I (شاه عباس اول) (January 27, 1571?-January 19, 1629?) was the most eminent ruler of the Safavid Dynasty. ... Ghulam (Translates as Slave in English) is a 1998 Bollywood film directed by Vikram Bhatt. ...


Legacy

It was the Safavids who made Iran the spiritual bastion of Shi’ism against the onslaughts of orthodox Sunni Islam, and the repository of Persian cultural traditions and self-awareness of Iranianhood,[65] acting as a bridge to modern Iran. The founder of the dynasty, Shah Isma'il, adopted the title of "Persian Emperor" Pādišah-ī Īrān, with its implicit notion of an Iranian state stretching from Khorasan as far as Euphrates, and from the Oxus to the southern Territories of the Persian Gulf.[66] According to Professor Roger Savory[67][68]: Friday Mosque in Herat, Afghanistan, a city which was known in the past as the Pearl of Khorasan. ... For the song River Euphrates by the Pixies, see Surfer Rosa. ... The Amu Darya (in Persian آمودریا; Darya means river in Persian) rises in the Pamirs and flows mainly north-west through the Hindu Kush, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan to join the Aral Sea in a large river delta. ... Map of the Persian Gulf. ...

In Number of ways the Safavids affected the development of the modern Iranian state: first, they ensured the continuance of various ancient and traditional Persian institutions, and transmitted these in a strengthened, or more 'national', form; second, by imposing Ithna 'Ashari Shi'ism on Iran as the official religion of the Safavid state, they enhanced the power of mujtahids. The Safavids thus set in train a struggle for power between the urban and the crown that is to say, between the proponents of secular government and the proponents of a theoretic government; third, they laid the foundation of alliance between the religious classes ('Ulama') and the bazaar which played an important role both in the Persian Constitutional Revolution of 1905-1906, and again in the Islamic Revolution of 1979; fourth the policies introduced by Shah Abbas I conduced to a more centralized administrative system.

Safavid Shahs of Iran

Shah Ismail I, the founder of the Safavid State. Medieval European rendering
Shah Ismail I, the founder of the Safavid State. Medieval European rendering

Safavi Line Shah Ismail I Medieval European rendering by an unknown Venetian artist. ... Shah Ismail I Medieval European rendering by an unknown Venetian artist. ...

Marashi-Safavi Line Shah Ismail I, the founder of Safavid Dynasty of Iran pictured at battle against Abul-khayr Khan in a scene from the Tarikh-i alam-aray-i Shāh Ismāil Abul-Mozaffar bin Sheikh Haydar bin Sheikh Junayd SafawÄ« (Persian: - Azerbaijani: ) (July 17, 1487 - May 23, 1524), Shah... 1501 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Events March 1, 1524/5 - Giovanni da Verrazano lands near Cape Fear (approx. ... Tahmasp I (1514-1576) was an influential Shah of Persia of the Safavid Dynasty. ... Events March 1, 1524/5 - Giovanni da Verrazano lands near Cape Fear (approx. ... Events May 5 - Peace of Beaulieu or Peace of Monsieur (after Monsieur, the Duc dAnjou, brother of the King, who negotiated it). ... Ismail II (1576–1578) was third Safavid Shah of Persia. ... Events May 5 - Peace of Beaulieu or Peace of Monsieur (after Monsieur, the Duc dAnjou, brother of the King, who negotiated it). ... Events January 31 - Battle of Gemblours - Spanish forces under Don John of Austria and Alexander Farnese defeat the Dutch. ... Mohammed Khodabānda of Khudabānda, also known as Mohammed Shah, was the fourth Safavid Shah of Iran(Persia) (1578–1587) . He succeeded to the throne of Persia upon his brother Ismail IIs death in 1578. ... Events January 31 - Battle of Gemblours - Spanish forces under Don John of Austria and Alexander Farnese defeat the Dutch. ... 1587 was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Shah Abbas I (شاه عباس اول) (January 27, 1571?-January 19, 1629?) was the most eminent ruler of the Safavid Dynasty. ... 1587 was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Events March 4 - Massachusetts Bay Colony is granted a Royal charter. ... Shâh Sâfî (r. ... Events March 4 - Massachusetts Bay Colony is granted a Royal charter. ... Events January 4 - Charles I attempts to arrest five leading members of the Long Parliament, but they escape. ... Shah Abbas II was Shah of Iran from 1642 to 1666. ... Events January 4 - Charles I attempts to arrest five leading members of the Long Parliament, but they escape. ... 1666 is often called Annus Mirabilis. ... Suleiman I (reigned 1666-1694) was the penultimate Safavid king of Persia. ... 1666 is often called Annus Mirabilis. ... Events February 6 - The colony Quilombo dos Palmares is destroyed. ... Husayn (also known as Soltan Hosayn) (1668?–1726) was the last powerful Safavid king of Persia. ... Events February 6 - The colony Quilombo dos Palmares is destroyed. ... // Events Abraham De Moivre states De Moivres theorem connecting trigonometric functions and complex numbers Publication of the first book of Bachs Well-Tempered Clavier Fall of Persias Safavid dynasty during a bloody revolt of the Afghani people. ... Tahmasp II (1704? – 1740) was one of the last Safavid rulers of Persia (Iran). ... // Events Abraham De Moivre states De Moivres theorem connecting trigonometric functions and complex numbers Publication of the first book of Bachs Well-Tempered Clavier Fall of Persias Safavid dynasty during a bloody revolt of the Afghani people. ... Events George Friderich Handel becomes a British subject. ...

Safavi Line Events George Friderich Handel becomes a British subject. ... Events Astronomical aberration discovered by the astronomer James Bradley Swedish academy of sciences founded at Uppsala The founding of the University of Havana (Universidad de la Habana), Cubas most well-established university. ...

Marashi-Safavi Line Tahmasp II (1704? – 1740) was one of the last Safavid rulers of Persia (Iran). ... Events Astronomical aberration discovered by the astronomer James Bradley Swedish academy of sciences founded at Uppsala The founding of the University of Havana (Universidad de la Habana), Cubas most well-established university. ... Events February 23 - First performance of Handels Orlando, in London June 9 - James Oglethorpe is granted a royal charter for the colony of Georgia. ... Abbas III was a son of Shah Tahmasp II of the Safavid dynasty. ... Events February 23 - First performance of Handels Orlando, in London June 9 - James Oglethorpe is granted a royal charter for the colony of Georgia. ... Events January 26 - Stanislaus I of Poland abdicates his throne. ...

Sultani-Safavi Line Events While in debtors prison, John Cleland writes Fanny Hill (Memoirs of a Woman of Pleasure). ... Year 1750 (MDCCL) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday [1] of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ...

  • Ismail III 1750 First Time

Unknown House (Probably Qajar-Safavi) Year 1750 (MDCCL) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday [1] of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ...

  • Mohammad Hossain Shah III 17501752 in Mazandaran. Deposed 1757.

Sultani-Safavi Line Year 1750 (MDCCL) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday [1] of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1752 was a leap year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ...

Unknown-Sultani-Safavi Line 1752 was a leap year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... 1761 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ...

  • Mohammad Shah 1786 He married the daughter of Ismail III and was installed by Agha Mohammad Khan Qajar Quyunlu. From his descendants come the Beys of Tunisia (through his daughter).

Source of Data: Royalark See Mohammad Shah Qajar for the Ruler of Persia Muhammad Shah (1702 - 1748) was a Mughal emperor of India between 1719 and 1748. ... 1786 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ...


References & Notes

  1. ^ Helen Chapin Metz. Iran, a Country study. 1989. Original from the University of Michigan. pg 313. Emory C. Bogle. Islam: Origin and Belief. University of Texas Press. 1989. pg 145. Stanford Jay Shaw. History of the Ottomon Empire. Cambridge University Press. 1977. pg 77
  2. ^ a b Encyclopaedia Iranica. R. N. Frye. Peoples of Iran.
  3. ^ a b c d e R.M. Savory. Ebn Bazzaz. Encyclopedia Iranica
  4. ^ Andrew J. Newman, Safavid Iran: Rebirth of a Persian Empire, I. B. Tauris (March 30, 2006)
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n R.M. Savory, Safavids, Encyclopedia of Islam, 2nd edition
  6. ^ Why is there such confusion about the origins of this important dynasty, which reasserted Iranian identity and established an independent Iranian state after eight and a half centuries of rule by foreign dynasties? in R.M. Savory, Iran under the Safavids (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1980), page 3.
  7. ^ Hamdullah Mustaufi, a contemporary of Shaykh Safi al-Din remarks under Ardabil: They were also a mostly Scholar society and did not try to wage war. اکثر (مردم) بر مذهب شافعی اند، مرید شیخ صفی الدین علیه الرحمه اند The majority of the people are followers of Shafii sect and students of Shaykh Safi al-Din Ardabili (May God Bless him).
  8. ^ Ira Marvin Lapidus, A History of Islamic Societies, Cambridge University Press, 2002. pg 233: "The Safavid movement, founded by Shaykh Safi al-Din (1252-1334), a Sunni Sufi religious teacher descendant from a Kurdish family in north-western Iran..
  9. ^ R.M. Savory, "Safavid Persia" in: Ann Katherine Swynford Lambton, Peter Malcolm Holt, Bernard Lewis, "The Cambridge History of Islam", Cambridge University Press, 1977. pg 394: "Such evidences we have seems to suggest that the family hailed from Kurdistan. What does seem certain is that the Safavids were of native Iranian stock, and spoke Azari, the form of Turkish used in Azerbaijan. Shaykh Safi al-Din the founder of the Safavid Tariqa was not a Shi'i (he was probably a Sunni of the Shafi'i Madhhab)
  10. ^ Roger Savory, "Iran Under the Safavids", p.18
  11. ^ In the Silsilat an-nasab-i Safawiya (composed during the reign of Shah Suleiman)(1667-1694), written by Shah Hussab ibn Abdal Zahidi, the ancestory of the Safavid is traced back to Hijaz and the first Shi'i Imam as follows: Shaykh Safi al-din Abul Fatah Eshaq ibn (son of) Shaykh Amin al-Din Jabrail ibn Qutb al-din ibn Salih ibn Muhammad al-Hafez ibn Awad ibn Firuz Shah Zarin Kulah ibn Majd ibn Sharafshah ibn Muhammad ibn Hasan ibn Seyyed Muhammad ibn Ibrahim ibn Seyyed Ja'afar ibn Seyyed Muhammad ibn Seyyed Isma'il ibn Seyyed Muhammad ibn Seyyed Ahmad 'Arabi ibn Seyyed Qasim ibn Seyyed Abul Qasim Hamzah ibn Musa al-Kazim ibn Ja'far As-Sadiq ibn Muhammad al-Baqir ibn Imam Zayn ul-'Abedin ibn Hussein ibn Ali ibn Abi Taleb Alayha as-Salam. There are differences between this and the oldest manuscript of Safwat as-Safa. Seyyeds have been added from Piruz Shah Zarin Kulah up to the first Shi'i Imam and the nisba "Al-Kurdi" has been excised. The title/name "Abu Bakr" (also the name of the first Caliph and highly regarded by Sunnis) is deleted from Qutb ad-Din's name. ُSource: Husayn ibn Abdāl Zāhidī, 17th cent. Silsilat al-nasab-i Safavīyah, nasabnāmah-'i pādishāhān bā ʻuzmat-i Safavī, ta'līf-i Shaykh Husayn pisar-i Shaykh Abdāl Pīrzādah Zāhidī dar 'ahd-i Shāh-i Sulaymnān-i Safavī. Berlīn, Chāpkhānah-'i Īrānshahr, 1343 (1924). 116 pages. Original Persian language source of the lineage: شیخ صفی الدین ابو الفتح اسحق ابن شیخ امین الدین جبرائیل بن قطب الدین ابن صالح ابن محمد الحافظ ابن عوض ابن فیروزشاه زرین کلاه ابن محمد ابن شرفشاه ابن محمد ابن حسن ابن سید محمد ابن ابراهیم ابن سید جعفر بن سید محمد ابن سید اسمعیل بن سید محمد بن سید احمد اعرابی بن سید قاسم بن سید ابو القاسم حمزه بن موسی الکاظم ابن جعفر الصادق ابن محمد الباقر ابن امام زین العابدین بن حسین ابن علی ابن ابی طالب علیه السلام
  12. ^ R.M. Savory, "Safavid Persia" in: Ann Katherine Swynford Lambton, Peter Malcolm Holt, Bernard Lewis, "The Cambridge History of Islam", Cambridge University Press, 1977. pg 394: "They (Safavids after the establishment of the Safavid state) fabricated evidence to prove that the Safavids were Sayyids."
  13. ^ E. Yarshater Iran: The Safavid period, Encyclopedia Iranica
  14. ^ Lawrence Davidson and Arthur Goldschmidt. A Concise History of the Middle East, Westview Press, 2005, p. , ISBN 0813342759
  15. ^ Tamara Sonn. A Brief History of Islam, Blackwell Publishing, 2004, p. 83, ISBN 1405109009
  16. ^ a b É. Á. Csató, B. Isaksson, C. Jahani. Linguistic Convergence and Areal Diffusion: Case Studies from Iranian, Semitic and Turkic, Routledge, 2004, p. 228, ISBN 0415308046
  17. ^ Tamara Sonn. A Brief History of Islam, Blackwell Publishing, 2004, p. 83, ISBN 1405109009
  18. ^ a b c Z. V. Togan, "Sur l’Origine des Safavides," in Melanges Louis Massignon, Damascus, 1957, III, pp. 345-57
  19. ^ Heinz Halm, Shi'ism, translated by Janet Watson. New Material translated by Marian Hill, 2nd edition, Columbia University Press, pp 75
  20. ^ Ira Marvin Lapidus. A History of Islamic Societies, Cambridge University Press, 2002, p. 233
  21. ^ Tapper, Richard, FRONTIER NOMADS OF IRAN. A political and social history of the Shahsevan. Cambridge, Cambridge Univ. Press, 1997. pp 39.
  22. ^ Izady, Mehrdad, The Kurds: A Concise Handbook. Taylor and Francis, Inc., Washington. 1992. pp 50
  23. ^ a b c d e E. Yarshater, Encyclopaedia Iranica, "The Iranian Language of Azerbaijan"
  24. ^ Kathryn Babayan, Mystics, Monarchs and Messiahs: Cultural Landscapes of Early Modern Iran , Cambridge , Mass. ; London : Harvard University Press, 2002. pg 143: “It is true that during their revolutionary phase (1447-1501), Safavi guides had played on their descent from the family of the Prophet. The hagiography of the founder of the Safavi order, Shaykh Safi al-Din Safvat al-Safa written by Ibn Bazzaz in 1350-was tampered with during this very phase. An initial stage of revisions saw the transformation of Safavi identity as Sunni Kurds into Arab blood descendants of Muhammad.”
  25. ^ Emeri van Donzel, Islamic Desk Reference compiled from the Encyclopedia of Islam, E.J. Brill, 1994, pp 381
  26. ^ Farhad Daftary, Intellectual Traditions in Islam, I.B.Tauris, 2000. pp 147:But the origins of the family of Shaykh Safi al-Din go back not to the Hijaz but to Kurdistan, from where, seven generations before him, Firuz Shah Zarin-kulah had migrated to Adharbayjan.
  27. ^ Gene Ralph Garthwaite, “The Persians”, Blackwell Publishing, 2004. pg 159 : Chapter on Safavids. "The Safavid family’s base of power sprang from a Sufi order, and the name of the order came from its founder Shaykh Safi al-Din. The Shaykh’s family had been resident in Azerbaijan since Saljuk times and then in Ardabil, and was probably Kurdish in origin.
  28. ^ Elton L. Daniel, The history of Iran, Greenwood Press, 2000. pg 83:The Safavid order had been founded by Shaykh Safi al-Din (1252-1334), a man of uncertain but probably Kurdish origin
  29. ^ Muhammad Kamal, Mulla Sadra's Transcendent Philosophy, Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2006. pg 24:"The Safawid was originally a Sufi order whose founder, Shaykh Safi al-Din (1252-1334) was a Sunni Sufi master from a Kurdish family in north-west Iran"
  30. ^ John R. Perry, "Turkic-Iranian contacts", Encyclopaedia Iranica, January 24, 2006. Excerpt: the Turcophone Safavid family of Ardabil in Azerbaijan, probably of Turkicized Iranian (perhaps Kurdish), origin
  31. ^ Roger M. Savory. "Safavids" in Peter Burke, Irfan Habib, Halil Inalci:"History of Humanity-Scientific and Cultural Development: From the Sixteenth to the Eighteenth Century", Taylor & Francis. 1999. Excerpt from pg 259: "From the evidence available at the present time, it is certain that the Safavid family was of indigineous Iranian stock, and not of Turkish ancestry as it is sometimes claimed. It is probable that the family originated in Persian Kurdistan, and later moved to Azerbaijan, where they adopted the Azari form of Turkish spoken there, and eventually settled in the small town of Ardabil sometimes during the eleventh century.[1]
  32. ^ Federal Research Division, Federal Research Div Staff, Turkey: A Country Study, Kessinger Publishers, 2004. pg 141:"Unlike, the Sunni Turks, who follow the Hanafi school of Islamic law, the Sunni Kurds follow the Shafi'i school.
  33. ^ E. Yarshater, Encyclopaedia Iranica, Book 1, p. 240:
  34. ^ Anthony Bryer. "Greeks and Türkmens: The Pontic Exception", Dumbarton Oaks Papers, Vol. 29., (1975), Appendix II - Genealogy of the Muslim Marriages of the Princesses of Trebizond
  35. ^ Peter Charanis. "Review of Emile Janssens' Trébizonde en Colchide", Speculum, Vol. 45, No. 3,, (Jul., 1970), p. 476
  36. ^ Anthony Bryer, open citation, p. 136
  37. ^ a b c d e f Encyclopedia Iranica. ٍIsmail Safavi
  38. ^ a b c V. Minorsky, The Poetry of Shah Ismail, Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, Vol. 10, No. 4. (1942), pp. 1053)
  39. ^ Encyclopaedia Iranica. R. N. Frye. Peoples of Iran.
  40. ^ Richard Tapper. "Shahsevan in Safavid Persia", Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, Vol. 37, No. 3, 1974, p. 324
  41. ^ Lawrence Davidson, Arthur Goldschmid, "A Concise History of the Middle East", Westview Press, 2006, p. 153
  42. ^ Britannica Concise. "Safavid Dynasty", Online Edition 2007
  43. ^ M.B. Dickson and S.C. Welch, The Houghton Shahnameh 2 vols (Cambridge Mmssachusetts and London. 1981. See: pg 34 of Volume I)
  44. ^ The writer Ṛūmlu documented the most important of them in his history.
  45. ^ D. M. Lang. "Georgia and the Fall of the Safavi Dynasty", Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, Vol. 14, No. 3, Studies Presented to Vladimir Minorsky by His Colleagues and Friends (1952), pp. 523-539
  46. ^ see:
    • Encyclopaedia Iranica and ISBN 0-89158-296-7
    • O. Dzh. Dzhalilov, "Kurdski geroicheski epos Zlatoruki Khan" ("The Kurdish heroic epic Gold-hand Khan"), Moscow, 1967
  47. ^ For a map of these areas, see this map
  48. ^ see Encyclopaedia Iranica under "Abbas I the Great", page 75
  49. ^ Mottahedeh, Roy, The Mantle of the Prophet : Religion and Politics in Iran, One World, Oxford, 1985, 2000, p.204
  50. ^ a b Laurence Lockhart, Peter Jackson. The Cambridge History of Iran, Cambridge University Press, 1986, p. 950, ISBN 0521200946
  51. ^ a b Michel M. Mazzaoui, "Islamic Culture and literature in the early modern period" in Robert L. Canfield, Turko-Persia in historical perspective, Cambridge University Press, 1991. pg 87
  52. ^ Ronald W. Ferrier, "The Arts of Persia". Yale University Press. 1989. pg 199
  53. ^ V. Minorsky. "The Poetry of Shah Ismail", Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, Vol. 10. No. 4, 1942
  54. ^ Arnold J. Toynbee, A Study of History,V, pp. 514-15)
  55. ^ John R. Perry, "Turkic-Iranian contacts", Encyclopaedia Iranica, January 24, 2006
  56. ^ Ruda Jurdi Abisaab. "Iran and Pre-Independence Lebanon" in Houchang Esfandiar Chehabi, "Distant Relations: Iran and Lebanon in the Last 500 Years" , I.B.Tauris, Published 2006. pg 76
  57. ^ Cornelis Henricus Maria Versteegh, "The Arabic Language", Columbia University Press, 1997. pg 71
  58. ^ V. Minorsky. "The Poetry of Shah Ismail", Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, Vol. 10. No. 4, 1942
  59. ^ E. Yarshater, "Language of Azerbaijan, vii., Persian language of Azerbaijan", Encyclopaedia Iranica, v, pp. 238-245, Online Edition, (LINK)
  60. ^ Emeri “van” Donzel, Islamic Desk Reference, Brill Academic Publishers, 1994, pp 393
  61. ^ William L. Cleveland , Westview Press, Published 2000, 2nd edition. pp 56-57
  62. ^ R. N. Frye, The Golden Age of Persia, Phoenix Press, 2000, page 234
  63. ^ Jodidio, Philip, Iran: Architecture For Changing Societies:Umberto Allemandi (August 2, 2006).
  64. ^ "Shahsavan Tribes, by Dr P Shahsavand, Professor of Sociology at Islamic Azad University" — Events Magazine, Clultural, Economical and General Events of Iran (retrieved 4 Sep 2007)
  65. ^ Hillenbrand R., Islamic art and Architecture, London (1999), p228 – ISBN 0-500-20305-9
  66. ^ ’’ibid’’, p228.
  67. ^ R.M. Savory, "Rise of a Shi'i State in Iran and New Orientation in Islamic Thought and Culture" in UNESCO: History of Humanity, Volume 5: From the Sixteenth to the Eighteenth Century, London ; New York : Routledge ; Paris. pg 263.[2]
  68. ^ Mujtahid: A Mujtahid in Arabic means a person who qualified to engange in ijtihad, or interpretation of religious texts. Ithna 'Ashari: Is the number twelve in Arabic signifying twelver Imami Shi'i Islam. Ulama: Arabic for religious scholars.

The Encyclopedia of Islam (EI) is a scholarly encyclopedia covering all aspects of Islamic civilization and history. ... Ehsan Yarshater, of Columbia University, is one of the worlds leading Iranologists. ... Encyclopædia Iranica is a project in Columbia Universitys Center for Iranian studies, to create an English language encyclopedia about Iran and Persia. ... Encyclopædia Iranica is a project in Columbia Universitys Center for Iranian studies, to create an English language encyclopedia about Iran and Persia. ... Encyclopædia Iranica is a project in Columbia Universitys Center for Iranian studies, to create an English language encyclopedia about Iran and Persia. ... Encyclopædia Iranica is a project in Columbia Universitys Center for Iranian studies, to create an English language encyclopedia about Iran and Persia. ... September 4 is the 247th day of the year (248th in leap years). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...

Literature

  • Persian Historiography and Geography: Bertold Spuler on Major Works Produced in Iran, the Caucasus, Central Asia, India and Early Ottoman Turkey, M. Ismail Marcinkowski, Singapore: Pustaka Nasional, 2003, ISBN 9971-77-488-7.
  • Mirza Rafi‘a's Dastur al-Muluk: A Manual of Later Safavid Administration. Annotated English Translation, Comments on the Offices and Services, and Facsimile of the Unique Persian Manuscript, M. Ismail Marcinkowski, Kuala Lumpur, ISTAC, 2002, ISBN 983-9379-26-7.
  • From Isfahan to Ayutthaya: Contacts between Iran and Siam in the 17th Century, M. Ismail Marcinkowski, Singapore, Pustaka Nasional, 2005, ISBN 9971-77-491-7.
  • Adam Olearius, "The Voyages and Travels of the Ambassadors", Translated by John Davies (1662), (excerpts)

External links


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