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Encyclopedia > Sadness

Sadness is a mood that displays feeling of disadvantage and loss. Deep immersion in this feeling may lead eventually to depression- a pathological state, which may require intervention by a qualified professional. While in a state of sadness, a person becomes quiet, less energetic and withdraws into oneself. He has neither the urge to go out and and be active nor the desire to socialize with others. Visual symptoms of sadness are a downcast appearance of the head ,a sloping body, stuck out lips and a slow and weak physical activity. Sadness is considered as an opposite feeling to happiness. Synonyms to this feeling are sorrow, grief, unhappiness, misery, melancholy and gloom. According to the philosopher Baruch Spinoza there are three basic feelings: passion, happiness and sadness. Spinoza defined sadness as “transfer of a person from a large perfection to a smaller one”. Look up mood in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Look up depression in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... “Happy” redirects here. ... Melancholia (Greek μελαγχολια) was described as a distinct disease as early as the fifth and fourth centuries BC in the Hippocratic writings. ... Baruch de Spinoza (‎, Portuguese: , Latin: ) (November 24, 1632 – February 21, 1677) was a Dutch philosopher of Portuguese Jewish origin. ... Look up passion in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... “Happy” redirects here. ...


According to biblical verse sadness is sorrow or grief derives from a bad action by another person. Sadness diluted with anger.

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Sadness and the accuracy of the evaluation

[Forgas, 1992, 1994] [1] has found that there is an influence of mood on accuracy of the evaluation of people. This influence may originate from miss collecting information or from faulty information processing. The main argument regarding miss collecting information is that bias results derive from matching to the current mood. For instance: [Forgas &Bower, 1987] [2] have found that happy people were inclined to evaluate others in a positive way - they matched their positive evaluation to their positive mood. Hence, bias may occur when a person relates to his current mood as a source of information that in turn influences his evaluation. Evaluation is the systematic determination of merit, worth, and significance of something or someone. ... Look up mood in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Evaluation is the systematic determination of merit, worth, and significance of something or someone. ... In general, information processing is the changing (processing) of information in any manner detectable by an observer. ... Look up mood in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up mood in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up mood in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Evaluation is the systematic determination of merit, worth, and significance of something or someone. ...


As previously mentioned, accuracy of evaluation may effected by directly influencing information processing. It was found that happy people tend to process information in a short period of time and more accurately compared to sad people who process information logically, over extent period of time and less accurately ([Ambady & Gray, 2002])])[3]. Several explanations have been provided:
Functional ([Forgas, 1998]) [4] [5]Mood indicates a social situation that in turn enables specific behavior. Therefore, happiness indicates a positive social situation in which the behavior would be more freed. In contrast, sadness indicates a dangerous social situation that requires more intention and for that reason requires greater and more precise information processing.
Motivational (Isen, 1984) -People in positive mood avoid deep information processing that may doubt the positive situation they're in. In contrast, people in sad mood make a lot of effort in order to change the negative situation they're in.
The ability to process information is influenced by mood ([Isen, 1987]) [6]- Happy people, as opposed to sad people have less cognitional resources required for deep and precise information processing. A study which tried to strengthen this argument showed that resource blocking using distractions, prevented from deep and precise information processing and raised the effectiveness among people in sad mood ([Ambady & Gray,2002])[3] . Evaluation is the systematic determination of merit, worth, and significance of something or someone. ... In general, information processing is the changing (processing) of information in any manner detectable by an observer. ... Look up mood in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... “Happy” redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... In general, information processing is the changing (processing) of information in any manner detectable by an observer. ... Look up mood in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In general, information processing is the changing (processing) of information in any manner detectable by an observer. ... Look up mood in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up mood in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In general, information processing is the changing (processing) of information in any manner detectable by an observer. ... In general, information processing is the changing (processing) of information in any manner detectable by an observer. ...


Sadness and status position

Studies revealed that when people recognize the expressed emotion, they tend to attribute additional characteristics to the person expressing that emotion (Hallo effect). A happy person surrounds himself with affection characteristics, a sad person is perceived as weak and lacking ability but also as warm and nice ( [Keltner,et al.,1998] ) [7] and an angry person is perceived as powerful, dominant but also as less warm and less social. (Keltner, 1997). Emotional redirects here. ...


[Tiedens, 2001] [8] study was trying to explore whether people provide power to people they like or to people they perceive as powerful. The study examined handing over social position in political, business and job interview situations. Its findings have revealed that people had preferred to give status position and power to an angry (anger) leader rather than to a sad one. This finding indicated that people tend to provide power to those perceived by them as powerful instead of to those whom they like. In the business situation a positive statistical correlation has been found between sadness and social contribution extent, but those who expressed anger have been perceived as people that can be learnt from and therefore deserve status and promotion. In the job interview situation it has been found that the angry person is perceived as more suitable for promotion and high salary compared to the sad one. In sociology, social status also known as Social position social status means a position of an individual in a given society and culture. ... This article is about the emotion. ... Positive linear correlations between 1000 pairs of numbers. ...


References

  1. ^ http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=3895043
  2. ^ http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=3612493&dopt=Citation
  3. ^ a b http://www.wjh.harvard.edu/~hgray/papers/PsycARTICLES_2002-18351-012.pdf
  4. ^ http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=11407408&dopt=Citation
  5. ^ http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=9731311&dopt=Citation
  6. ^ http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=3598858&dopt=Citation
  7. ^ http://ist-socrates.berkeley.edu/~akring/keltner%20&%20kring%201998.pdf
  8. ^ http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=11195894&dopt=Citation

External links:

Tiedens, 2001 ,http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=11195894&dopt=Citation Ambady & Gray,2002, http://www.wjh.harvard.edu/~hgray/papers/PsycARTICLES_2002-18351-012.pdf Forgas,1998, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=11407408&dopt=Citation http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=9731311&dopt=Citation Forgas, 1992, 1994 , http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=3895043 Forgas & Bower,1987, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=3612493&dopt=Citation Isen,1987, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=3598858&dopt=Citation Keltner et al., 1998, http://ist-socrates.berkeley.edu/~akring/keltner%20&%20kring%201998.pdf


Further reading:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=8505705&dopt=Citation,D Keltner, PC Ellsworth, K.Edwards - J Pers Soc Psychol, 1993


http://www.columbia.edu/~tdp4/OBHDP1999A.pdf,R Raghunathan, MT Pham - Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 1999


http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=8505705&dopt=Citation, D Keltner, PC Ellsworth, K Edwards - J Pers Soc Psychol, 1993


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