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Encyclopedia > Saddam Hussein
Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti
صدام حسين عبد المجيد التكريتي

Saddam Hussein, c. 2000 Image File history File links Iraq,_Saddam_Hussein_(222). ...


In office
July 16, 1979 – April 9, 2003
Preceded by Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr
Succeeded by Coalition Provisional Authority

In office
1979 – 1991
Preceded by Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr
Succeeded by Sa'dun Hammadi
In office
1994 – 2003
Preceded by Ahmad Husayn Khudayir as-Samarrai
Succeeded by Iyad Allawi

Born April 28, 1937
Al-Awja
Died December 30, 2006 (aged 69)
Kadhimiya
Political party Ba'ath Arab Socialist Party
Spouse Sajida Talfah
Religion Sunni Muslim

Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (28 April 193730 December 2006) was the fifth President of Iraq and Chairman of the Iraqi Revolutionary Command Council from 1979 until his overthrow by US forces in 2003. He was executed after being found guilty of war crimes at his trial in 2006 The President of Iraq is Iraqs head of state. ... A Chairman is the presiding officer of a meeting, organization, committee, or other deliberative body. ... Established after the military coup in 1968, the Revolutionary Command Council was the ultimate decision making body in Iraq before the 2003 Invasion of Iraq. ... July 16 is the 197th day (198th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 168 days remaining. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... April 9 is the 99th day of the year (100th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... General Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr (Arabic أحمد حسن البكر ) (July 1, 1914 - October 4, 1982), was President of Iraq from 1968 to 1979. ... The Seal of the CPA in Iraq The Coalition Provisional Authority (CPA) was established as a transitional government following the invasion of Iraq by the United States, United Kingdom and the other members of the multinational coalition which was formed to oust the government of Saddam Hussein in 2003. ... Kingdom of Iraq (1921-1959) The Prime Minister of Iraq is Iraqs head of government. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... General Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr (Arabic أحمد حسن البكر ) (July 1, 1914 - October 4, 1982), was President of Iraq from 1968 to 1979. ... Sadun Hammadi (June 22, 1930 - March 14, 2007) was Prime Minister of Iraq under President Saddam Hussein from March to September of 1991. ... 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by United Nations. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Ahmad Husayn Khudayir as-Samarrai was Prime Minister of Iraq during the rule of President Saddam Hussein. ... Allawi at a ceremony for the transfer of governmental authority to the Iraqi Interim Government. ... April 28 is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 247 days remaining. ... 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... Al-Awja, Al-Auja, or Al-Ouja is a poverty stricken village east of Tikrit, in Iraq. ... December 30 is the 364th day of the year (365th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 1 day remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... Kazimain or Al-Kazimiyah is a town located in Iraq that is now a neighborhood of Baghdad, located in the northern area of the city about 5 km from the center of the city. ... Baath Party flag The Ba‘ath Parties (also spelled Baath or Ba‘th; Arabic: اﻟﺒﻌﺚ) comprise political parties representing the political face of the Ba‘ath movement. ... Sajida Khairallah Talfah (Arabic: ‎) was the first wife and first cousin of former Iraqi President Saddam Hussein, and mother of two sons (Uday and Qusay) and three daughters (Raghad, Rana, and Hala). ... Sunni Muslims are the largest denomination of Islam. ... April 28 is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 247 days remaining. ... 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... December 30 is the 364th day of the year (365th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 1 day remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... The President of Iraq is Iraqs head of state. ... A Chairman is the presiding officer of a meeting, organization, committee, or other deliberative body. ... Established after the military coup in 1968, the Revolutionary Command Council was the ultimate decision making body in Iraq before the 2003 Invasion of Iraq. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... In the context of war, a war crime is a punishable offense under International Law, for violations of the laws of war by any person or persons, military or civilian. ... Saddam Hussein during his first appearance before the Iraqi Special Tribunal Saddam Hussein (April 28, 1937 - December 30, 2006), the former President of Iraq, was tried by the interim Iraqi government for crimes against humanity. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ...


He was a member of the revolutionary Ba'ath Party, which espoused secular pan-Arabism, economic modernization, and socialism. Saddam played a key role in the 1968 coup that brought the party to long-term power. As vice president under the ailing General Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr, Saddam tightly controlled conflict between the government and the armed forces—at a time when many other groups were considered capable of overthrowing the government—by creating repressive security forces. In the early 1970s, Saddam spearheaded Iraq's nationalization of the Western-owned Iraq Petroleum Company, which had long held a monopoly on the country's oil. Through the 1970s, Saddam cemented his authority over the apparatuses of government as Iraq's economy grew at a rapid pace.[1] Bath Party flag The Arab Socialist Bath Party (also spelled Baath or Baath; Arabic: حزب البعث العربي الاشتراكي) was founded in 1945 as a radical, left-wing, secular Arab nationalist political party. ... Pan-Arabism is a movement for unification among the Arab peoples and nations of the Middle East. ... Year 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the 1968 Gregorian calendar. ... General Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr (Arabic أحمد حسن البكر ) (July 1, 1914 - October 4, 1982), was President of Iraq from 1968 to 1979. ... The Iraq Petroleum Company (IPC), until 1929 called Turkish Petroleum Company (TPC), was an oil company jointly owned by by some of the worlds largest oil companies, which had virtual monopoly on all oil exploration in Iraq from 1925 to 1961. ...


As president, Saddam maintained power through the Iran-Iraq War (1980-1988) and the first Persian Gulf War (1991). During these conflicts, Saddam repressed movements he deemed threatening to the stability of Iraq, particularly Shi'a and Kurdish movements seeking to overthrow the government or gain independence, respectively. While he remained a popular hero among many disaffected Arabs everywhere for standing up to the West and for his support for the Palestinians,[2] U.S. leaders continued to view Saddam with deep suspicion following the 1991 Persian Gulf War. Saddam was deposed by the U.S. and its allies during the 2003 invasion of Iraq. Combatants  Iran Iraq Commanders Ruhollah Khomeini, Abolhassan Banisadr, Ali Shamkhani, Mostafa Chamran† Saddam Hussein, Ali Hassan al-Majid Strength - 305,000 soldiers, - 500,000 Passdaran and Basij militia, - 900 tanks, - 1,000 armored vehicles, - 3,000 artillery pieces, - 65 aircraft, - 750 helicopters[1] - 190,000 soldiers, - 5,000 tanks, - 4... See also: 2003 invasion of Iraq and Gulf War (disambiguation) C Company, 1st Battalion, The Staffordshire Regiment, 1st UK Armoured Division The Persian Gulf War was a conflict between Iraq and a coalition force of 34 nations led by the United States. ... Shia Islam, also Shi`ite Islam or Shi`ism (Arabic: ‎ transliterated: Persian: ‎ ) is the second largest denomination of the religion of Islam. ... Kurdish may refer to: The Kurdish people The Kurdish language This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The subject of this article is the 2003 invasion of Iraq. ...


Captured by U.S. forces on December 13, 2003, Saddam was brought to trial under the Iraqi interim government set up by U.S.-led forces. On November 5, 2006, he was convicted of charges related to the executions of 148 Iraqi Shi'ites suspected of planning an assassination attempt against him, and was sentenced to death by hanging. Saddam was executed on December 30, 2006.[3] December 13 is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Iraqi Interim matt chokes on cock Government was created by the United States and its coalition allies as a caretaker government to govern Iraq until the Iraqi Transitional Government was installed following the Iraqi National Assembly election conducted on January 30th, 2005. ... November 5 is the 309th day of the year (310th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 56 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 30 is the 364th day of the year (365th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 1 day remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ...

Contents

Youth

Saddam Hussein and the Ba'ath Party student cell in Cairo in the 1959-1963 period

Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti was born in the town of Al-Awja, 13 km (8 mi) from the Iraqi town of Tikrit, to a family of shepherds from the al-Begat tribal group. His mother, Subha Tulfah al-Mussallat, named her newborn son Saddam, which in Arabic means "One who confronts." He never knew his father, Hussein 'Abid al-Majid, who disappeared six months before Saddam was born. Shortly afterward, Saddam's thirteen-year-old brother died of cancer. The infant Saddam was sent to the family of his maternal uncle, Khairallah Talfah, until he was three.[4] Image File history File links SaddamCairo. ... Image File history File links SaddamCairo. ... Bath Party flag The Arab Socialist Bath Party (also spelled Baath or Baath; Arabic: حزب البعث العربي الاشتراكي) was founded in 1945 as a radical, left-wing, secular Arab nationalist political party. ... Al-Awja, Al-Auja, or Al-Ouja is a poverty stricken village east of Tikrit, in Iraq. ... km redirects here. ... Look up Mile in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Looking north along the Tigris towards Saddams Presidential palace in April 2003 Tikrit (تكريت, TikrÄ«t also transliterated as Takrit or Tekrit) is a town in Iraq, located 140 km northwest of Baghdad on the Tigris river (at 34. ... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ... Khairallah Talfah (Arabic خير الله طلفاح) was an Iraqi Baath Party official and the uncle and father-in-law of Saddam Hussein. ...


His mother remarried, and Saddam gained three half-brothers through this marriage. His stepfather, Ibrahim al-Hassan, treated Saddam and Saddam's mother harshly after his return. At around ten, Saddam fled the family and returned to live in Baghdad with his uncle, Kharaillah Tulfah. Tulfah, the father of Saddam's future wife, was a devout Sunni Muslim and a veteran from the 1941 Anglo-Iraqi War between Iraqi nationalists and Britain, which remained a major colonial power in the region.[5] Later in his life, relatives from his native Tikrit would become some of his closest advisors and supporters. According to Saddam, he learned many things from his uncle, a militant Iraqi nationalist. Under the guidance of his uncle, he attended a nationalistic high school in Baghdad. After secondary school, Saddam studied at an Iraqi law school for three years, prior to dropping out in 1957, at the age of twenty, to join the revolutionary pan-Arab Ba'ath Party, of which his uncle was a supporter. During this time, Saddam apparently supported himself as a secondary school teacher.[6] Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Combatants Kingdom of Iraq United Kingdom India Commanders Rashid Ali General Sir Edward Quinan Strength five divisions about two divisions Casualties 2,500 KIA, about 6,000 POWs 1,200 (KIA, MIA, WIA) The Anglo-Iraqi War is the name of hostilities between the United Kingdom and the Iraqi nationalist... Bath Party flag The Arab Socialist Bath Party (also spelled Baath or Baath; Arabic: حزب البعث العربي الاشتراكي) was founded in 1945 as a radical, left-wing, secular Arab nationalist political party. ...


Revolutionary sentiment was characteristic of the era in Iraq and throughout the Middle East. In Iraq progressives and socialists assailed traditional political elites (colonial era bureaucrats and landowners, wealthy merchants and tribal chiefs, monarchists).[7] Moreover, the pan-Arab nationalism of Gamal Abdel Nasser in Egypt would profoundly influence young Ba'athists like Saddam. The rise of Nasser foreshadowed a wave of revolutions throughout the Middle East in the 1950s and 1960s, which would see the collapse of the monarchies of Iraq, Egypt, and Libya. Nasser inspired nationalists throughout the Middle East for standing up to the British and the French during the Suez Crisis of 1956, and for striving to modernize Egypt and unite the Arab world politically. (Humphreys, 68) This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Combatants Israel United Kingdom France Egypt Commanders Moshe Dayan Charles Keightley Pierre Barjot Gamal Abdel Nasser Abdel Hakim Amer Strength 175,000 Israeli 45,000 British 34,000 French 70,000 Casualties 197 Israeli KIA 56 British KIA 91 British WIA 10 French KIA 43 French WIA 650 KIA 2... Map of Arab League states in dark green with non-Arab areas in light green and Mauritania, Somalia and Djibouti in striped green due to their Arab League membership but non-Arab population. ...


In 1958, a year after Saddam had joined the Ba'ath party, army officers led by General Abdul Karim Qassim overthrew Faisal II of Iraq. The Ba'athists opposed the new government, and in 1959, Saddam was involved in the attempted United States-backed plot to assassinate Qassim.[8] Abdul Karim Qassim (Arabic: ‎; also various other spellings; including Kassem, Quasim; popularly known as az-Za‘īm (Arabic: الزعيم) the leader) (1914 – February 9, 1963), was an Iraqi military officer involved in the 1958 military coup détat. ... Faisal II of Iraq Faisal II (May 2, 1935 - July 14, 1958) was the last king of Iraq from April 4, 1939 to 1958. ... It has been suggested that Selective assassination be merged into this article or section. ...


Rise to power

Saddam Hussein with Ahmad Hassan al-Bakr in the 1970s

Army officers with ties to the Ba'ath Party overthrew Qassim in a coup in 1963. Ba'athist leaders were appointed to the cabinet and Abdul Salam Arif became president. Arif dismissed and arrested the Ba'athist leaders later that year. Saddam returned to Iraq, but was imprisoned in 1964. Just prior to his imprisonment and until 1968, Saddam held the position of Ba'ath party secretary.[9] He escaped prison in 1967 and quickly became a leading member of the party. In 1968, Saddam participated in a bloodless coup led by Ahmad Hassan al-Bakr that overthrew Abdul Rahman Arif. Al-Bakr was named president, and Saddam was named his deputy and deputy chairman of the Baathist Revolutionary Command Council. According to biographers, Saddam never forgot the tensions within the first Ba'athist government, which formed the basis for his measures to promote Ba'ath party unity as well as his resolve to maintain power and programs to ensure social stability. Image File history File links Albakr. ... Image File history File links Albakr. ... Abdul Salam Arif (1921, Baghdad - April 13, 1966), president of Iraq (1963-1966). ... General Ahmed Hassan al_Bakr (July 1, 1914 _ October 4, 1982) was President of Iraq from 1968 to 1979. ... Abdul Rahman Arif (Arabic عبد الرحمان عارف) (born 1916 or 1918) was president of Iraq from April 16, 1966 to July 16, 1968. ... The Revolutionary Command Council was the body established to supervise Egypt after the 1952 Revolution. ...


Although Saddam was al-Bakr's deputy, he was a strong behind-the-scenes party politician. Al-Bakr was the older and more prestigious of the two, but by 1969 Saddam Hussein clearly had become the moving force behind the party.


Modernization program

In the late 1960s and early 1970s, as vice chairman of the Revolutionary Command Council, formally al-Bakr's second-in-command, Saddam built a reputation as a progressive, effective politician.[10] At this time, Saddam moved up the ranks in the new government by aiding attempts to strengthen and unify the Ba'ath party and taking a leading role in addressing the country's major domestic problems and expanding the party's following.


After the Baathists took power in 1968, Saddam focused on attaining stability in a nation riddled with profound tensions. Long before Saddam, Iraq had been split along social, ethnic, religious, and economic fault lines: Sunni versus Shi'ite, Arab versus Kurd, tribal chief versus urban merchant, nomad versus peasant. (Humphreys, 78) Stable rule in a country rife with factionalism required both massive repression and the improvement of living standards. (Humphreys, 78) Sunni Muslims are the largest denomination of Islam. ... Shī‘a Islam, also Shi‘ite Islam, or Shi‘ism (Arabic ) is the second largest denomination of the Islamic faith. ... Kurds are one of the Iranian peoples and speak Kurdish, a north-Western Iranian language related to Persian. ...


Saddam actively fostered the modernization of the Iraqi economy along with the creation of a strong security apparatus to prevent coups within the power structure and insurrections apart from it. Ever concerned with broadening his base of support among the diverse elements of Iraqi society and mobilizing mass support, he closely followed the administration of state welfare and development programs.


At the center of this strategy was Iraq's oil. On June 1, 1972, Saddam oversaw the seizure of international oil interests, which, at the time, dominated the country's oil sector. A year later, world oil prices rose dramatically as a result of the 1973 energy crisis, and skyrocketing revenues enabled Saddam to expand his agenda. June 1 is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... (Redirected from 1973 energy crisis) United States, drivers of vehicles with odd numbered license plates were allowed to purchase gasoline only on odd-numbered days of the month, while drivers with even-numbers were limited to even-numbered days. ...

Promoting women's literacy and education in the 1970s

Within just a few years, Iraq was providing social services that were unprecedented among Middle Eastern countries. Saddam established and controlled the "National Campaign for the Eradication of Illiteracy" and the campaign for "Compulsory Free Education in Iraq," and largely under his auspices, the government established universal free schooling up to the highest education levels; hundreds of thousands learned to read in the years following the initiation of the program. The government also supported families of soldiers, granted free hospitalization to everyone, and gave subsidies to farmers. Iraq created one of the most modernized public-health systems in the Middle East, earning Saddam an award from the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO).[11][12] Image File history File links Saddam1970s. ... Image File history File links Saddam1970s. ... UNESCO logo UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ...


To diversify the largely oil-based Iraqi economy, Saddam implemented a national infrastructure campaign that made great progress in building roads, promoting mining, and developing other industries. The campaign revolutionized Iraq's energy industries. Electricity was brought to nearly every city in Iraq, and many outlying areas. Iraqs economy is dominated by the petroleum sector, which has traditionally provided about 95% of foreign exchange earnings. ... This article is about mineral extraction. ...


Before the 1970s, most of Iraq's people lived in the countryside, where Saddam himself was born and raised, and roughly two-thirds were peasants. But this number would decrease quickly during the 1970s as the country invested much of its oil profits into industrial expansion.


Nevertheless, Saddam focused on fostering loyalty to the Ba'athist government in the rural areas. After nationalizing foreign oil interests, Saddam supervised the modernization of the countryside, mechanizing agriculture on a large scale, and distributing land to peasant farmers.[6] The Ba'athists established farm cooperatives, in which profits were distributed according to the labors of the individual and the unskilled were trained. The government's commitment to agrarian reform was demonstrated by the doubling of expenditures for agricultural development in 1974-1975. Moreover, agrarian reform in Iraq improved the living standard of the peasantry and increased production, though not to the levels for which Saddam had hoped. For cooperative as used in biochemistry, see cooperative binding. ... Agrarian reform can refer either, narrowly, to government-initiated or government-backed redistribution of agricultural land (see land reform) or can refer more broadly to an overall redirection of the agrarian system of the country, which often includes land reform measures. ...


Saddam became personally associated with Ba'athist welfare and economic development programs in the eyes of many Iraqis, widening his appeal both within his traditional base and among new sectors of the population. These programs were part of a combination of "carrot and stick" tactics to enhance support in the working class, the peasantry, and within the party and the government bureaucracy. Economic development is a sustainable increase in living standards that implies increased per capita income, better education and health as well as environmental protection. ... Carrot and stick is a term (idiom) used to refer to the act of simultaneously rewarding good behaviour while punishing bad behaviour. ...


Saddam's organizational prowess was credited with Iraq's rapid pace of development in the 1970s; development went forward at such a fevered pitch that two million persons from other Arab countries and Yugoslavia worked in Iraq to meet the growing demand for labor. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Succession

In 1976, Saddam rose to the position of general in the Iraqi armed forces, and rapidly became the strongman of the government. As the weak, elderly al-Bakr became unable to execute his duties, Saddam took on an increasingly prominent role as the face of the government both internally and externally. He soon became the architect of Iraq's foreign policy and represented the nation in all diplomatic situations. He was the de-facto leader of Iraq some years before he formally came to power in 1979. He slowly began to consolidate his power over Iraq's government and the Ba'ath party. Relationships with fellow party members were carefully cultivated, and Saddam soon accumulated a powerful circle of support within the party. A strongperson is a political leader who rules by force and runs an authoritarian regime. ... Look up De facto in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


In 1979 al-Bakr started to make treaties with Syria, also under Ba'athist leadership, that would lead to unification between the two countries. Syrian President Hafez al-Assad would become deputy leader in a union, and this would drive Saddam to obscurity. Saddam acted to secure his grip on power. He forced the ailing al-Bakr to resign on July 16, 1979, and formally assumed the presidency. Hafez al-Assad (Arabic: ) (October 6, 1930–June 10, 2000) was president of Syria for three decades. ... July 16 is the 197th day (198th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 168 days remaining. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ...


Shortly afterwards, he convened an assembly of Ba'ath party leaders on July 22, 1979. During the assembly, which he ordered videotaped, Saddam claimed to have found spies and conspirators within the Ba'ath Party and read out the names of 68 members that he alleged to be such fifth columnists. These members were labelled "disloyal" and were removed from the room one by one and taken into custody. After the list was read, Saddam congratulated those still seated in the room for their past and future loyalty. The 68 people arrested at the meeting were subsequently put on trial, and 22 were sentenced to execution for treason. July 22 is the 203rd day (204th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 162 days remaining. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... A fifth column is a group of people which clandestinely undermines a larger group to which it is expected to be loyal, such as a nation. ... Traitor redirects here. ...


Secular leadership

Saddam saw himself as a social revolutionary and a modernizer, following the Nasser model. To the consternation of Islamic conservatives, his government gave women added freedoms and offered them high-level government and industry jobs. Saddam also created a Western-style legal system, making Iraq the only country in the Persian Gulf region not ruled according to traditional Islamic law (Sharia). Saddam abolished the Sharia law courts, except for personal injury claims. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article deals with conservatism as a political philosophy. ... Map of the Persian Gulf. ... Sharia (Arabic: transliteration: ) is the body of Islamic law. ... A trial at the Old Bailey in London as drawn by Thomas Rowlandson and Augustus Pugin for Ackermanns Microcosm of London (1808-11). ... A personal injury occurs when a person has suffered some form of injury, either physical or psychological, as the result of an accident. ...


Domestic conflict impeded Saddam's modernizing projects. Iraqi society is divided along lines of language, religion and ethnicity; Saddam's government rested on the support of the 20% minority of largely working class, peasant, and lower middle class Sunnis, continuing a pattern that dates back at least to the British mandate authority's reliance on them as administrators. The middle class (or middle classes) comprises a social group once defined by exception as an intermediate social class between the nobility and the peasantry. ... Mandate can mean: An obligation handed down by an inter-governmental body; see mandate (international law) The power granted by an electorate; see mandate (politics) A League of Nations mandate To some Christians, an order from God; see mandate (theology) The decision of an appeals court; see mandate (law) The...


The Shi'a majority were long a source of opposition to the government's secular policies, and the Ba'ath Party was increasingly concerned about potential Sh'ia Islamist influence following the Iranian Revolution of 1979. The Kurds of northern Iraq (who are Sunni Muslims but not Arabs) were also permanently hostile to the Ba'athist party's pan-Arabism. To maintain power Saddam tended either to provide them with benefits so as to co-opt them into the regime, or to take repressive measures against them. The major instruments for accomplishing this control were the paramilitary and police organizations. Beginning in 1974, Taha Yassin Ramadan, a close associate of Saddam, commanded the People's Army, which was responsible for internal security. As the Ba'ath Party's paramilitary, the People's Army acted as a counterweight against any coup attempts by the regular armed forces. In addition to the People's Army, the Department of General Intelligence (Mukhabarat) was the most notorious arm of the state security system, feared for its use of torture and assassination. It was commanded by Barzan Ibrahim al-Tikriti, Saddam's younger half-brother. Since 1982, foreign observers believed that this department operated both at home and abroad in their mission to seek out and eliminate Saddam's perceived opponents. [7] 1980 Iranian stamp commemorating the Islamic Revolution After Islamic Conquest  Modern (SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic) Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Uzbekistan  This box:      The Iranian Revolution (also known as the Islamic Revolution,[1][2][3][4][5][6] Persian: انقلاب اسلامی, Enghelābe Eslāmi) was the revolution that transformed Iran... A paramilitary organization is a group of civilians trained and organized in a military fashion. ... Taha Yasin Ramadan al-Jizrawi (February 22, 1938 – March 20, 2007) (Arabic: ‎) was the Vice President of Iraq from March 1991 to the fall of Saddam Hussein in April 2003. ... The Iraqi Intelligence Service (Jihaz Al-Mukhabarat Al-Ama, also known as Mukhabarat, General Directorate of Intelligence, or Party Intelligence was the main state intelligence organization in Iraq under Saddam Hussein. ... Torture is defined by the United Nations Convention Against Torture as any act by which severe pain or suffering, whether physical or mental, is intentionally inflicted on a person for such purposes as obtaining from him or a third person information or a confession, punishing him for an act he... It has been suggested that Selective assassination be merged into this article or section. ... Barzan Ibrahim al-Tikriti Barzan Ibrahim El-Hasan al-Tikriti (17 February 1951 - January 15, 2007 ) (sometimes: Barazan Ibrahim al-Tikriti and Barasan Ibrahem Alhassen) (Arabic: برزان إبراهيم التكريتي) was one of three half-brothers of Saddam Hussein, and the former leader of the Iraqi secret service, Mukhabarat. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Saddam justified Iraqi nationalism by claiming a unique role of Iraq in the history of the Arab world. As president, Saddam made frequent references to the Abbasid period, when Baghdad was the political, cultural, and economic capital of the Arab world. He also promoted Iraq's pre-Islamic role as Mesopotamia, the ancient cradle of civilization, alluding to such historical figures as Nebuchadrezzar II and Hammurabi. He devoted resources to archaeological explorations. In effect, Saddam sought to combine pan-Arabism and Iraqi nationalism, by promoting the vision of an Arab world united and led by Iraq. This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... Abbasid Caliphate (Abbasid Khalifat) and contemporary states and empires in 820. ... Capital has a number of related meanings in economics, finance and accounting. ... Mesopotamia refers to the region now occupied by modern Iraq, eastern Syria, southeastern Turkey, and Southwest Iran. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A coin that might depict Nebuchadnezzar II Nebuchadnezzar II is perhaps the best known ruler of Babylon in the Chaldean Dynasty, who reigned ca. ... This diorite head is believed to represent Hammurabi Hammurabi (Akkadian from Amorite ˤAmmurāpi, the kinsman is a healer, from ˤAmmu, paternal kinsman, and Rāpi, healer; 1810 BC?–1750 BC) also rarely transliterated Ammurapi, Hammurapi, or Khammurabi) was the sixth king of Babylon. ...


As a sign of his consolidation of power, Saddam's personality cult pervaded Iraqi society. Thousands of portraits, posters, statues and murals were erected in his honor all over Iraq. His face could be seen on the sides of office buildings, schools, airports, and shops, as well as on Iraqi currency. Saddam's personality cult reflected his efforts to appeal to the various elements in Iraqi society. He appeared in the costumes of the Bedouin, the traditional clothes of the Iraqi peasant (which he essentially wore during his childhood), and even Kurdish clothing, but also appeared in Western suits, projecting the image of an urbane and modern leader. Sometimes he would also be portrayed as a devout Muslim, wearing full headdress and robe, praying toward Mecca. Adolf Hitler built a strong cult of personality, based on the Führerprinzip. ... A Bedouin man resting on a hillside at Mount Sinai Bedouin, derived from the Arabic ( ‎), a generic name for a desert-dweller, is a term generally applied to Arab nomadic pastoralist groups, who are found throughout most of the desert belt extending from the Atlantic coast of the Sahara via... Kurdish men dancing in Kurdish traditional clothing Kurdish traditional clothings are variant. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ...


Foreign affairs

In foreign affairs, Saddam sought to have Iraq play a leading role in the Middle East. Iraq signed an aid pact with the Soviet Union in 1972, and arms were sent along with several thousand advisers. However, the 1978 crackdown on Iraqi Communists [8] and a shift of trade toward the West strained Iraqi relations with the Soviet Union, which took on a more Western orientation from then until the Persian Gulf War in 1991. Communist Party of Iraq, a political party in Iraq. ... See also: 2003 invasion of Iraq and Gulf War (disambiguation) C Company, 1st Battalion, The Staffordshire Regiment, 1st UK Armoured Division The Persian Gulf War was a conflict between Iraq and a coalition force of 34 nations led by the United States. ...


After the oil crisis of 1973 France had changed to a more pro-Arab policy and was accordingly rewarded by Saddam with closer ties. He made a state visit to France in 1976, cementing close ties with some French business and ruling political circles. Saddam led Arab opposition to the Camp David Accords between Egypt and Israel (1979). In 1975 he negotiated an accord with Iran that contained Iraqi concessions on border disputes. In return, Iran agreed to stop supporting opposition Kurds in Iraq. The 1973 oil crisis began in earnest on October 17, 1973, when the members of Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries (OAPEC, consisting of the Arab members of OPEC plus Egypt and Syria) announced, as a result of the ongoing Yom Kippur War, that they would no longer ship petroleum... Celebrating the signing of the Camp David Accords (1978): Menachem Begin, Jimmy Carter, Anwar Sadat The Camp David Accords were signed by Egyptian President Anwar Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin on September 17, 1978, following twelve days of secret negotiations at Camp David. ...


Saddam initiated Iraq's nuclear enrichment project in the 1980s, with French assistance. The first Iraqi nuclear reactor was named by the French Osirak. Osirak was destroyed on June 7, 1981[13] by an Israeli air strike (Operation Opera). The reactor after the Israeli raid. ... A military strike is a limited attack on a specified target. ... Combatants Israel Iraq Strength 8 F-16A fighters 6 F-15A fighters Unknown numbers of radar and Anti-aircraft artillery Casualties None 10 Iraqi soldiers and 1 French researcher killed Operation Opera (also known as Operation Babylon and Operation Ofra) is the Israeli Air Force designation used to describe an...


Nearly from its founding as a modern state in 1920, Iraq has had to deal with Kurdish separatists in the northern part of the country. (Humphreys, 120) Saddam did negotiate an agreement in 1970 with separatist Kurdish leaders, giving them autonomy, but the agreement broke down. The result was brutal fighting between the government and Kurdish groups and even Iraqi bombing of Kurdish villages in Iran, which caused Iraqi relations with Iran to deteriorate. However, after Saddam had negotiated the 1975 treaty with Iran, the Shah withdrew support for the Kurds, who suffered a total defeat.


Throughout the 1980s Ronald Reagan, George Herbert Walker Bush, and James Baker, Secretary of State, and Robert Gates, C.I.A. Director, worked to improve political and economic relations with Iraq. They did this in order to defeat and neutralize the Islamic fundamentalists of Iran which they perceived as an enemy at the time. [9] Despite reports of Iraq's use of chemical weapons and Saddam Hussein's nuclear weapons ambitions, the U.S. still barred the export of U.S. military equipment to Iraq, some was evidently provided on a "don't ask - don't tell" basis. [10] Ronald Wilson Reagan (February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was the 40th President of the United States (1981 – 1989) and the 33rd Governor of California (1967 – 1975). ... George H. W. Bush - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... James Addison Baker III (born 28 April 1930 in Houston, Texas) served as the Chief of Staff in President Ronald Reagans first administration, United States Secretary of the Treasury from 1985 to 1988 in the second Reagan administration, and Secretary of State in the administration of President George H... Robert Michael Gates, Ph. ...


In April 1984, the Iraqi Ministry of Defense purchased helicopters which were not to be "in any way configured for military use" from Bell Helicopter Textron. [11]. Congressional investigations found that Saddam Hussein was being financed through U.S. entities such as the Export-Import Bank[12], CCC and Eximbank. [13] The Export-Import Bank of the United States (“Ex-Im Bank”, “Exim Bank” or “Eximbank”) is an independent bank established by Congress that finances or insures foreign purchases of U.S. goods for customers unable or unwilling to accept credit risk. ...


The United States Embassy in other countries were also used for cargo shipments to Saddam. [14] On December 10, 1983 Donald Rumsfeld visits directly with Saddam Hussein. According to the head of the U.S interest section in Baghdad they told the Iraqi Under Secretary Mohammed al-Sahhaf that "the establishment of direct contact between an envoy of President Reagan and President Saddam Hussein." will be "perhaps the greatest benefit" of Donald Rumsfeld's upcoming visit to Baghdad. Document 28 Donald Henry Rumsfeld (born July 9, 1932) is a U.S. politician and businessman, who was the 13th Secretary of Defense under President Gerald Ford from 1975–1977, and the 21st Secretary of Defense under President George W. Bush from 2001–2006. ...


Iran-Iraq War

See also: Iran-Iraq War

In 1979 Iran's Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi was overthrown by the Islamic Revolution, thus giving way to an Islamic republic led by the Ayatollah Khomeini. The influence of revolutionary Shi'ite Islam grew apace in the region, particularly in countries with large Shi'ite populations, especially Iraq. Saddam feared that radical Islamic ideas—hostile to his secular rule—were rapidly spreading inside his country among the majority Shi'ite population. Combatants  Iran Iraq Commanders Ruhollah Khomeini, Abolhassan Banisadr, Ali Shamkhani, Mostafa Chamran† Saddam Hussein, Ali Hassan al-Majid Strength - 305,000 soldiers, - 500,000 Passdaran and Basij militia, - 900 tanks, - 1,000 armored vehicles, - 3,000 artillery pieces, - 65 aircraft, - 750 helicopters[1] - 190,000 soldiers, - 5,000 tanks, - 4... Iran is one of the worlds oldest continuous major civilizations. ... Grand Ayatollah Seyyed Ruhollah Khomeini ( ) (Persian: روح الله موسوی خمینی RÅ«ollāh MÅ«savÄ« KhomeynÄ« (May 17, 1900[1] – June 3, 1989) was a Shi`i Muslim cleric and marja (religious authority), and the political leader of the 1979 Iranian Revolution which saw the overthrow of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the last Shah of...


There had also been bitter enmity between Saddam and Khomeini since the 1970s. Khomeini, having been exiled from Iran in 1964, took up residence in Iraq, at the Shi'ite holy city of An Najaf. There he involved himself with Iraqi Shi'ites and developed a strong, worldwide religious and political following. Under pressure from the Shah, who had agreed to a rapprochement between Iraq and Iran in 1975, Saddam agreed to expel Khomeini in 1978. After the Islamic Revolution, Khomeini perhaps regarded toppling Saddam's government as a goal second only to consolidating power in Iran. Exile (band) may refer to: Exile - The American country music band Exile - The Japanese pop music band Category: ... Najaf (نجف in the Arabic language) is a city in Iraq, about 160 km south of Baghdad, located at 31. ...


After Khomeini gained power, skirmishes between Iraq and revolutionary Iran occurred for ten months over the sovereignty of the disputed Shatt al-Arab waterway, which divides the two countries. Iraq and Iran entered into open warfare on September 22, 1980. The pretext for hostilities with Iran was this territorial dispute, but the war was more likely an attempt by Saddam, supported by both the United States and the Soviet Union, to have Iraq form a bulwark against the expansion of radical Iranian-style revolution. September 22 is the 265th day of the year (266th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ...

U.S. Assistant Secretary of State Richard Murphy, visiting Iraq in 1986, explains Iran-Contra scandal to him.

In the first days of the war, there was heavy ground fighting around strategic ports as Iraq launched an attack on Iran's oil-rich, Arab-populated province of Khuzestan. After making some initial gains, Iraq's troops began to suffer losses from human-wave attacks by Iran. By 1982 Iraq was looking for ways to end the war. At this point, Saddam asked his ministers for candid advice. Health Minister Riyadh Ibrahim suggested that Saddam temporarily step down to promote peace negotiations. Ibrahim’s chopped up body was delivered to his wife the next day.[14] Image File history File links MurphySaddam. ... Image File history File links MurphySaddam. ... Richard Murphy may refer to: Richard Murphy; Edinburgh based architect Richard Murphy; Irish poet This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... In the Iran-Contra Affair, United States President Ronald Reagans administration secretly sold arms to Iran, which was engaged in a bloody war with its neighbor Iraq from 1980 to 1988 (see Iran-Iraq War), and diverted the proceeds to the Contra rebels fighting to overthrow the leftist and... Map showing Khuzestan in Iran Domes like this are quite common in Khuzestan province. ... Minister of Health redirects here. ...


Iraq quickly found itself bogged down in one of the longest and most destructive wars of attrition of the twentieth century, with atrocities committed on both sides. During the war, Iraq used chemical weapons against Iranian forces and Kurdish separatists. On March 16, 1988 Iraqi troops, on orders from Saddam to stop a Kurdish uprising, attacked the Kurdish town of Halabjah with a mix of poison gas and nerve agents killing 5,000 people, mostly women and children. (see Halabja poison gas attack) Dissenting opinions dispute the numbers and have said the incident was actually a battle in the Iran–Iraq war where chemical weapons were used on both sides and a significant portion of the fatalities were caused by the Iranian weapons. Combatants Israel Egypt Soviet Union Strength unknown Egyptian: unknown Soviet advisors: 10,700–12,300 Casualties 1,424 soldiers and >100 civilians killed 2,000 soldiers and 700 civilians wounded [1] [2] 10,000 Egyptian soldiers and civilians killed¹ 3 Soviet pilots killed The War of Attrition (Hebrew: ‎)(Arabic: ‎) was... March 16 is the 75th day of the year (76th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Halabja is a town in Iraq, located about 150 miles northeast of Baghdad and 8-10 miles from the Iranian border. ... Photo said to have been taken in the aftermath of the attack. ...


Saddam reached out to other Arab governments for cash and political support. The Iranians, hoping to bring down Saddam's secular government and instigate a Shi'ite rebellion in Iraq, refused a cease-fire until 1988.


The bloody eight-year war ended in a stalemate. There were hundreds of thousands of casualties with estimates of up to one million dead for both sides total. Both economies, previously healthy and expanding, were left in ruins.


Iraq was also stuck with a war debt of roughly $75 billion. Borrowing money from the West was making Iraq dependent on outside loans, embarrassing a leader who had sought to define Arab nationalism. Saddam also borrowed a tremendous amount of money from other Arab states during the 1980s to fight Iran. Faced with rebuilding Iraq's infrastructure, Saddam desperately sought out cash once again, this time for postwar reconstruction.


Tensions with Kuwait

Saddam Hussein with national Ba'ath Party leadership in 1990

The end of the war with Iran served to deepen latent tensions between Iraq and its wealthy neighbor Kuwait. Saddam saw his war with Iran as having spared Kuwait from the imminent threat of Iranian domination. Since the struggle with Iran had been fought for the benefit of the other Persian Gulf Arab states as much as for Iraq, he argued, a share of Iraqi debt should be forgiven. Saddam urged the Kuwaits to forgive the Iraqi debt accumulated in the war, some $30 billion, but the Kuwaitis refused. (Humphreys, 105) Image File history File links Saddam1990. ... Image File history File links Saddam1990. ...


Also to raise money for postwar reconstruction, Saddam pushed oil-exporting countries to raise oil prices by cutting back oil production. Kuwait refused to cut production. In addition to refusing the request, Kuwait spearheaded the opposition in OPEC to the cuts that Saddam had requested. Kuwait was pumping large amounts of oil, and thus keeping prices low, when Iraq needed to sell high-priced oil from its wells to pay off a huge debt. OPEC Logo The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) is an international organization made up of Iraq, Indonesia, Iran, Kuwait, Libya, Angola, Algeria, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, and Venezuela. ...


On another compelling level, Saddam Hussein and many Iraqis considered the boundary line between Iraq and Kuwait, cutting Iraq off from the sea, a historical wrong imposed by British imperial officials in 1922. (Humphreys, 105) Saddam was not alone in this belief. For at least half a century, Iraqi nationalists were espousing emphatically the belief that Kuwait was historically an integral part of Iraq, and that Kuwait had only come into being through the maneuverings of British imperialism. Indeed, this belief was one of the few articles of faith uniting the political scene in a nation rife with sharp social, ethnic, religious, and ideological divides. (Humphreys, 105)


The colossal extent of Kuwaiti oil reserves also intensified tensions in the region. The oil reserves of Kuwait (with a population of a mere 2 million next to Iraq's 25) were roughly equal to those of Iraq. Taken together Iraq and Kuwait sat on top of some 20 percent of the world's known oil reserves; as an article of comparison, Saudi Arabia holds 25 percent. (Humphreys, 105)


Furthermore Saddam argued that the Kuwaiti monarchy had slant drilled oil out of wells that Iraq considered to be within its disputed border with Kuwait. Given that at the time Iraq was not regarded as a pariah state, Saddam was able to complain about the slant drilling to the U.S. State Department. Although this had continued for years, Saddam now needed oil money to stem a looming economic crisis. Saddam still had an experienced and well-equipped army, which he used to influence regional affairs. He later ordered troops to the Iraq–Kuwait border.


As Iraq-Kuwait relations rapidly deteriorated, Saddam was receiving conflicting information about how the U.S. would respond to the prospects of an invasion. For one, Washington had been taking measures to cultivate a constructive relationship with Iraq for roughly a decade. The Reagan administration gave Saddam roughly $40 billion[citation needed] in aid in the 1980s to fight Iran, nearly all of it on credit. The U.S. also sent billions of dollars to Saddam to keep him from forming a strong alliance with the Soviets.[15] Ronald Wilson Reagan (February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was the 40th President of the United States (1981 – 1989) and the 33rd Governor of California (1967 – 1975). ...


U.S. ambassador to Iraq April Glaspie met with Saddam in an emergency meeting on July 25, where the Iraqi leader stated his intention to continue talks. U.S. officials attempted to maintain a conciliatory line with Iraq, indicating that while George H. W. Bush and James Baker did not want force used, they would not take any position on the Iraq–Kuwait boundary dispute and did not want to become involved. Whatever Glapsie did or did not say in her interview with Saddam, the Iraqis assumed that the United States had invested too much in building relations with Iraq over the 1980s to sacrifice them for Kuwait. (Humphreys, 106) Later, Iraq and Kuwait then met for a final negotiation session, which failed. Saddam then sent his troops into Kuwait. April Catherine Glaspie (born April 26, 1942), American diplomat, is best-known for her role in the events leading up to the Gulf War of 1991. ... July 25 is the 206th day (207th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 159 days remaining. ... George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12, 1924) was the 41st President of the United States, serving from 1989 to 1993. ... James Addison Baker III (born 28 April 1930 in Houston, Texas) served as the Chief of Staff in President Ronald Reagans first administration, United States Secretary of the Treasury from 1985 to 1988 in the second Reagan administration, and Secretary of State in the administration of President George H...


Although no reliable first-hand information on Saddam's appraisal of the situation exists, we can surmise from the prewar standpoint of the Iraqi leader and his interests and the conflicting prewar signals from Washington that the invasion was likely born out of Iraq's postwar debt problem and faltering attempts to gain the resources needed for postwar reconstruction, rebuild the devastated Iraqi economy, and stabilize the domestic political situation.[16]


Gulf War

See also: Gulf War
With hours remaining before the war, UN Secretary-General Javier Pérez de Cuéllar met with Saddam Hussein to discuss the Security Council timetable for the withdrawal of troops from Kuwait.

On August 2, 1990, Saddam invaded and annexed Kuwait, thus sparking an international crisis. The annexation of Kuwait gave Iraq, with its own substantial oil fields, control of 20 percent of the Persian Gulf reserves. The U.S. provided assistance to Saddam Hussein in the war with Iran, but with Iraq's seizure of the oil-rich emirate of Kuwait in August 1990 the United States led a United Nations coalition that drove Iraq's troops from Kuwait in February 1991. Combatants UN Coalition Republic of Iraq Commanders Norman Schwarzkopf, Peter de la Billière, Khalid bin Sultan, Saleh Al-Muhaya, Mohamed Hussein Tantawi Saddam Hussein Strength 883,863 360,000 Casualties 378 dead, 1,000 wounded see section below The Gulf War or the Persian Gulf War (16 January 1991... Image File history File links SaddamCuellar. ... Image File history File links SaddamCuellar. ... Javier Pérez de Cuéllar de la Guerra (born January 19, 1920 in Lima) is a Peruvian diplomat who served as the fifth Secretary-General of the United Nations from January 1, 1982 to December 31, 1991. ...


U.S. President George H. W. Bush responded cautiously for the first several days. On one hand, Kuwait, prior to this point, had been a virulent enemy of Israel and was the Persian Gulf monarchy that had had the most friendly relations with the Soviets.[17] On the other hand, Washington foreign policymakers, along with Middle East experts, military critics, and firms heavily invested in the region, were extremely concerned with stability in this region.[18] The invasion immediately triggered fears that the world's price of oil, and therefore the control of the world economy, was at stake. Britain profited heavily from billions of dollars of Kuwaiti investments and bank deposits. President Bush was perhaps swayed while meeting with the British prime minister Margaret Thatcher, who happened to be in the U.S. at the time.[19] George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12, 1924) was the 41st President of the United States, serving from 1989 to 1993. ... Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Sarnia, Ontario Petroleum (from Greek petra – rock and elaion – oil or Latin oleum – oil ) or crude oil is a thick, dark brown or greenish liquid. ... Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, LG, OM, PC (born October 13, 1925), former Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, in office from 1979 to 1990. ...


Co-operation between the United States and the Soviet Union made possible the passage of resolutions in the United Nations Security Council giving Iraq a deadline to leave Kuwait and approving the use of force if Saddam did not comply with the timetable. U.S. officials feared Iraqi retaliation against oil-rich Saudi Arabia, since the 1940s a close ally of Washington, for the Saudis' opposition to the invasion of Kuwait. Accordingly, the U.S. and a group of allies it had hastily rounded up, including countries as diverse as Egypt, Syria and Czechoslovakia, deployed massive amounts of troops along the Saudi border with Kuwait and Iraq in order to encircle the Iraqi army, the largest in the Middle East. “UNSC” redirects here. ...


During the period of negotiations and threats following the invasion, Saddam focused renewed attention on the Palestinian problem by promising to withdraw his forces from Kuwait if Israel would relinquish the occupied territories in the West Bank, the Golan Heights, and the Gaza Strip. Saddam's proposal further split the Arab world, pitting U.S.- and Western-supported Arab states against the Palestinians. The allies ultimately rejected any linkage between the Kuwait crisis and Palestinian issues. The term Palestinian has other usages, for which see definitions of Palestinian. ... The Golan Heights (Hebrew: Ramat HaGolan, Arabic: Habat al-ūlān) or Golan is a plateau on the border of Israel, Lebanon, Jordan and Syria. ...


Saddam ignored the Security Council deadline. Backed by the Security Council, a U.S.-led coalition launched round-the-clock missile and aerial attacks on Iraq, beginning January 16, 1991. Israel, though subjected to attack by Iraqi missiles, refrained from retaliating in order not to provoke Arab states into leaving the coalition. A ground force comprised largely of U.S. and British armoured and infantry divisions ejected Saddam's army from Kuwait in February 1991 and occupied the southern portion of Iraq as far as the Euphrates. January 16 is the 16th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... Surfer Rosa The Euphrates (IPA: /juːˈfreɪtiːz/; Greek: Euphrátēs; Akkadian: Pu-rat-tu; Hebrew: פְּרָת Pĕrāth; Syriac: Prâth; Arabic: الفرات Al-Furāt; Turkish: Fırat; Kurdish: فرهات, Firhat, Ferhat, Azeri: Fərat) is the western of the two great rivers that define Mesopotamia (the other...


On March 6, 1991, Bush announced: "What is at stake is more than one small country, it is a big idea—a new world order, where diverse nations are drawn together in common cause to achieve the universal aspirations of mankind: peace and security, freedom, and the rule of law." March 6 is the 65th day of the year (66th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ...


In the end, the over-manned and under-equipped Iraqi army proved unable to compete on the battlefield with the highly mobile coalition land forces and their overpowering air support. Some 175,000 Iraqis were taken prisoner and casualties were estimated at over 85,000. As part of the cease-fire agreement, Iraq agreed to scrap all poison gas and germ weapons and allow UN observers to inspect the sites. UN trade sanctions would remain in effect until Iraq complied with all terms. Saddam publically claimed victory at the end of the war.


Postwar period

Iraq's ethnic and religious divisions, together with the brutality of the conflict that this had engendered, laid the groundwork for postwar rebellions. In the aftermath of the fighting, social and ethnic unrest among Shi'ite Muslims, Kurds, and dissident military units threatened the stability of Saddam's government. Uprisings erupted in the Kurdish north and Shi'a southern and central parts of the Iraq, but were ruthlessly repressed.


The United States, which had urged Iraqis to rise up against Saddam, did nothing to assist the rebellions. U.S. ally Turkey opposed any prospect of Kurdish independence, and the Saudis and other conservative Arab states feared an Iran-style Shi'ite revolution. Saddam, having survived the immediate crisis in the wake of defeat, was left firmly in control of Iraq, although the country never recovered either economically or militarily from the Gulf War. Saddam routinely cited his survival as "proof" that Iraq had in fact won the war against America. This message earned Saddam a great deal of popularity in many sectors of the Arab world.


Saddam increasingly portrayed himself as a devout Muslim, in an effort to co-opt the conservative religious segments of society. Some elements of Sharia law were re-introduced, and the ritual phrase "Allahu Akbar" ("God is great"), in Saddam's handwriting, was added to the national flag. There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... This article is about Islamic religious phrase God is most great. For other usages, see Allahu Akbar (disambiguation). ...


Relations between the United States and Iraq remained tense following the Gulf War. The U.S. launched a missile attack aimed at Iraq's intelligence headquarters in Baghdad June 26, 1993, citing evidence of repeated Iraqi violations of the "no fly zones" imposed after the Gulf War and for incursions into Kuwait. Some speculated that it was in retaliation for Iraq's sponsorship of a plot to kill former President George H. W. Bush. June 26 is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ...


The UN sanctions placed upon Iraq when it invaded Kuwait were not lifted, blocking Iraqi oil exports. This caused immense hardship in Iraq and virtually destroyed the Iraqi economy and state infrastructure. Only smuggling across the Syrian border, and humanitarian aid ameliorated the humanitarian crisis. [15] On December 9, 1996 the United Nations allowed Saddam's government to begin selling limited amounts of oil for food and medicine. Limited amounts of income from the United Nations started flowing into Iraq through the UN Oil for Food program. December 9 is the 343rd day (344th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty. ... The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ... The Oil-for-Food Programme was established by the United Nations in 1996 to allow Iraq to sell oil on the world market in exchange for food, medicine and the like. ...


U.S. officials continued to accuse Saddam of violating the terms of the Gulf War's cease fire, by developing weapons of mass destruction and other banned weaponry, and violating the UN-imposed sanctions and "no-fly zones." Isolated military strikes by U.S. and British forces continued on Iraq sporadically, the largest being Operation Desert Fox in 1998. Western charges of Iraqi resistance to UN access to suspected weapons were the pretext for crises between 1997 and 1998, culminating in intensive U.S. and British missile strikes on Iraq, December 16-19, 1998. After two years of intermittent activity, U.S. and British warplanes struck harder at sites near Baghdad in February, 2001. For the album, see Weapons of Mass Destruction (album). ... Combatants United States, UK Iraq Commanders General Tony Zinni Saddam Hussien Strength 30,500 unknown Casualties none 600-2,000 dead Operation Desert Fox was the military codename for a major four-day bombing campaign on Iraqi targets from December 16-December 19, 1998 by the United States and United...


Saddam's support base of Tikriti tribesmen, family members, and other supporters was divided after the war, and in the following years, contributing to the government's increasingly repressive and arbitrary nature. Domestic repression inside Iraq grew worse, and Saddam's sons, Uday Hussein and Qusay Hussein, became increasingly powerful and carried out a private reign of terror. They likely had a leading hand when, in August 1995, two of Saddam Hussein's sons-in-law (Hussein Kamel and Saddam Kamel), who held high positions in the Iraqi military, defected to Jordan. Both were killed after returning to Iraq the following February. Uday Hussein Uday Saddam Hussein al-Tikriti (June 18, 1964 Baghdad – July 22, 2003 Mosul), (Arabic: ‎) was the eldest son of Saddam Hussein and his first wife, Sajida Talfah. ... Qusay Hussein Qusay Saddam Hussein al-Tikriti (Arabic: قصي صدام حسين ) (or Qusai) (May 17, 1966 – July 22, 2003) was the second son of Iraqi president Saddam Hussein. ... Hussein Kamel Hassan al-Majid (Arabic: حسين كامل) (died February 23, 1996) was the son-in-law of Iraqi leader Saddam Hussein. ... Saddam Kamel was the cousin and son-in-law of deposed Iraqi dictator, Saddam Hussein. ...


Iraqi co-operation with UN weapons inspection teams was intermittent throughout the 1990s. It now appears more likely that Iraq was playing a game of bluff, hoping to convince the Western powers and the other Arab states that Iraq was still a power to be reckoned with, than that Iraq was hiding significant stockpiles of prohibited materials.


Soon after attacks on the World Trade Centers, September 11th, 2001 the Bush administration declared that Saddam Hussein and his regime was a threat to the U.S. [16] "The Iraqi regime . . . possesses and produces chemical and biological weapons. It is seeking nuclear weapons," Bush said in a speech in Cincinnati (10/7/02). "We've also discovered through intelligence that Iraq has a growing fleet of manned and unmanned aerial vehicles that could be used to disperse chemical or biological weapons across broad areas." Remarks by the President on Iraq The September 11, 2001 attacks were a series of coordinated terrorist attacks carried out in the United States on September 11, 2001. ...


U.S. President Bush admitted that Saddam Hussein had nothing to do with the September 11th 2001 attacks. "We have no evidence that Saddam Hussein was involved with the 11 September attacks," Mr Bush confirmed in January 2003. [17] [18] [19] He also has corrected his previous statement, the reason stated for invading Iraq, that Iraqi government had no weapons of mass destruction. [20] [21] [22]


2003 invasion of Iraq

See also: 2003 Invasion of Iraq
Satellite channels broadcasting the besieged Iraqi leader among cheering crowds as U.S.-led troops push toward the capital city. At the time this was perceived to be an actor portraying Saddam to uphold Moral.[20]
April 4, 2003.

Saddam continued to loom large in American consciousness as a major threat to Western allies such as oil-rich Saudi Arabia and Israel, to Western oil supplies from the Gulf states, and to Middle East stability generally. Bush's successor, U.S. President Bill Clinton (1993-2001), maintained sanctions and made occasional air strikes in the "Iraqi no-fly zones" or other restrictions, in the hope that Saddam would be overthrown by his many political enemies. The subject of this article is the 2003 invasion of Iraq. ... Image taken from old regime footage. ... Image taken from old regime footage. ... April 4 is the 94th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (95th in leap years). ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ...


The domestic political equation changed in the U.S. after the September 11, 2001 attacks, which bolstered the influence of the neoconservative faction in the presidential administration and throughout Washington. In his January 2002 state-of-the-union message to Congress, George W. Bush (the son of George H.W. Bush) spoke of an "axis of evil" comprising Iran, North Korea, and Iraq. Moreover, Bush announced that he would possibly take action to topple the Iraqi government, because of the 'threat' of its "weapons of mass destruction." Bush claimed, "The Iraqi regime has plotted to develop anthrax, and nerve gas, and nuclear weapons for over a decade." "Iraq continues to flaunt its hostility toward America and to support terror," said Bush.[21][22] A sequential look at United Flight 175 crashing into the south tower of the World Trade Center The September 11, 2001 attacks (often referred to as 9/11—pronounced nine eleven or nine one one) consisted of a series of coordinated terrorist[1] suicide attacks upon the United States, predominantly... Neoconservatism describes several distinct political ideologies which are considered new forms of conservatism. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the 43rd and current President of the United States, inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... For the album, see Weapons of Mass Destruction (album). ...


As the war was looming on February 24, 2003, Saddam Hussein talked with CBS News reporter Dan Rather for more than three hours—his first interview with a U.S. reporter in over a decade.[23] CBS aired the taped interview later that week. Daniel Irvin Rather, Jr. ...


The Iraqi government and military collapsed within three weeks of the beginning of the U.S.-led 2003 invasion of Iraq on March 20. The United States made at least two attempts to kill Saddam with targeted air strikes, but both narrowly failed to hit their target. By the beginning of April, U.S.-led forces occupied much of Iraq. The resistance of the much-weakened Iraqi Army either crumbled or shifted to guerrilla tactics, and it appeared that Saddam had lost control of Iraq. He was last seen in a video which purported to show him in the Baghdad suburbs surrounded by supporters. When Baghdad fell to U.S-led forces on April 9, Saddam was nowhere to be found.


Incarceration and trial

Capture and incarceration

Main article: Operation Red Dawn

In April 2003, Saddam's whereabouts remained in question during the weeks following the fall of Baghdad and the conclusion of the major fighting of the war. Various sightings of Saddam were reported in the weeks following the war but none was authenticated. At various times Saddam released audio tapes promoting popular resistance to the U.S.-led occupation. Combatants United States Saddam Hussein Operation Red Dawn was a military operation conducted by the United States Armed Forces on December 13, 2003 in the small town of ad-Dawr in Iraq, near Tikrit. ...


Saddam was placed at the top of the U.S. list of "most-wanted Iraqis." In July 2003, his sons Uday and Qusay and 14-year-old grandson Mustapha were killed in a three-hour [23] gunfight with U.S. forces. In April 2003, the United States drew up a list of most-wanted Iraqis, consisting of the 55 members of the deposed Iraqi regime whom they most wanted to capture. ... Uday Hussein Uday Saddam Hussein al-Tikriti (June 18, 1964 Baghdad – July 22, 2003 Mosul), (Arabic: ‎) was the eldest son of Saddam Hussein and his first wife, Sajida Talfah. ... Qusay Hussein Qusay Saddam Hussein al-Tikriti (or Qusai) (May 17, 1966 - July 22, 2003) was the second son of Iraqi president Saddam Hussein. ... Mustapha Qusay Hussein al-Tikriti (1989-2003) was the son of Qusay Hussein, and grandson of former Iraqi President Saddam Hussein. ...

Shortly after capture
Shortly after capture
Shaven to confirm identity
Shaven to confirm identity

On December 14, 2003, U.S. administrator in Iraq Paul Bremer announced that Saddam Hussein had been captured at a farmhouse in ad-Dawr near Tikrit. [24] Bremer presented video footage of Saddam in custody. Saddam Hussein after he was captured, photo from http://www. ... Saddam Hussein after he was captured, photo from http://www. ... Image File history File links Saddam_Hussein_captured_&_shaven_DD-SD-05-01885. ... Image File history File links Saddam_Hussein_captured_&_shaven_DD-SD-05-01885. ... L. Paul Bremer Lewis Paul Bremer III, also known as Jerry Bremer, (born September 30, 1941) was named Director of Reconstruction and Humanitarian Assistance for post-war Iraq following the 2003 invasion of Iraq to replace Jay Garner on May 6, 2003. ... Ad-Dawr is a small agricultural town near the Iraqi town of Tikrit, Saddam Husseins birthplace. ...


Saddam was shown with a full beard and hair longer than his familiar appearance. He was described by U.S. officials as being in good health. Bremer reported plans to put Saddam on trial, but claimed that the details of such a trial had not yet been determined. Iraqis and Americans who spoke with Saddam after his capture generally reported that he remained self-assured, describing himself as a 'firm but just leader.'


According to U.S. military sources, following his capture by U.S. forces on December 13, Saddam was transported to a U.S. base near Tikrit, and later taken to the U.S. base near Baghdad. The day after his capture he was reportedly visted by longtime opponents such as Ahmed Chalabi. It is believed he remained there in high security during most of the time of his detention. Details of his interrogations remain unclear. Ahmed Chalabi Ahmed Abdel Hadi Chalabi,1 (Arabic: احمد الجلبي) (born October 30, 1944) was interim oil minister in Iraq[1] in April-May 2005 and December-January 2006 and deputy prime minister from May 2005 until May 2006. ...


Trial

On June 30, 2004, Saddam Hussein, held in custody by U.S. forces at the U.S. base "Camp Cropper," along with 11 other senior Baathist leaders, were handed over legally (though not physically) to the interim Iraqi government to stand trial for alleged "crimes against humanity" and other offences. Saddam Hussein during his first appearance before the Iraqi Special Tribunal Saddam Hussein (April 28, 1937 - December 30, 2006), the former President of Iraq, was tried by the interim Iraqi government for crimes against humanity. ... June 30 is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Camp Cropper is a high-value detention site (HVD) near Baghdad International Airport in Iraq, operated by the United States Army. ...


A few weeks later, he was charged by the Iraqi Special Tribunal with crimes committed against residents of Dujail in 1982, following a failed assassination attempt against him. Specific charges included the murder of 148 people, torture of women and children and the illegal arrest of 399 others.[24] Among the many challenges of the trial were: The Iraq Special Tribunal is a body established under Iraqi national law to try Iraqi nationals or residents accused of genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes or other serious crimes committed between 1968 and 2003. ... Dujail (, Arabic: الدجيل; alternate spelling: Ad Dujayl) is a small Shiite town in northern Iraq. ...

  • Saddam and his lawyers’ contesting the court's authority and maintaining that he was yet the President of Iraq.[25]
  • The assassinations and attempts on the lives of several of Saddam's lawyers.
  • Midway through the trial, the chief presiding judge was replaced.

On November 5, 2006, Saddam Hussein was found guilty of crimes against humanity and sentenced to death by hanging. Saddam's half brother, Barzan Ibrahim, and Awad Hamed al-Bandar, head of Iraq's Revolutionary Court in 1982, were convicted of similar charges as well. The verdict and sentencing were both appealed but subsequently affirmed by Iraq's Supreme Court of Appeals.[26] On December 30, 2006, Saddam was hanged.[3] November 5 is the 309th day of the year (310th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 56 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... Barzan Ibrahim al-Tikriti Barzan Ibrahim El-Hasan al-Tikriti (born 17 February 1951 in Tikrit) (sometimes: Barazan Ibrahim al-Tikriti and Barasan Ibrahem Alhassen) (Arabic: برزان إبراهيم الحسن التكريتي) is one of three half-brothers of Saddam Hussein, and the former leader of the Iraqi secret service, Mukhabarat. ... Awad Hamad al-Bandar (Arabic: ‎; also: Awad Hamad Bandar Alsadoon) (January 2, 1945 - January 15, 2007) was an Iraqi chief judge under Saddam Husseins presidency. ... Saddam Hussein, during his trial in July 2004 Former President of Iraq Saddam Hussein (April 28, 1937–December 30, 2006) was executed by hanging after being convicted of crimes against humanity by the Iraqi Special Tribunal following his trial for the murder of 148 Iraqi Shiites in the town...


Execution

Saddam was hanged on the first day of Eid ul-Adha, December 30, 2006, despite his wish to be shot (which he felt would be more dignified).[27] The execution was carried out at "Camp Justice," an Iraqi army base in Kadhimiya, a neighborhood of northeast Baghdad. The execution was videotaped on a mobile phone, showing Saddam being taunted before his hanging. The video was leaked to electronic media, becoming the subject of global controversy.[28] Saddam Hussein, during his trial in July 2004 Former President of Iraq Saddam Hussein (April 28, 1937–December 30, 2006) was executed by hanging after being convicted of crimes against humanity by the Iraqi Special Tribunal following his trial for the murder of 148 Iraqi Shiites in the town... Eid ul-Adha (Arabic: عيد الأضحى ‘Īd al-’Aḍḥā) occurs on the tenth day of the Islamic month of Dhul Hijja. ... December 30 is the 364th day of the year (365th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 1 day remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... Camp Justice (Camp Al-Adala) is an Iraq military base in Kadhimiya, Iraq a suburb northeast of Baghdad. ... Kazimain or Al-Kazimiyah is a town located in Iraq that is now a neighborhood of Baghdad, located in the northern area of the city about 5 km from the center of the city. ...


Not long before the execution, Saddam's lawyers released his last letter:

To the great nation, to the people of our country, and humanity,

Many of you have known the writer of this letter to be faithful, honest, caring for others, wise, of sound judgment, just, decisive, careful with the wealth of the people and the state ... and that his heart is big enough to embrace all without discrimination.


You have known your brother and leader very well and he never bowed to the despots and, in accordance with the wishes of those who loved him, remained a sword and a banner.


This is how you want your brother, son or leader to be ... and those who will lead you (in the future) should have the same qualifications.


Here, I offer my soul to God as a sacrifice, and if He wants, He will send it to heaven with the martyrs, or, He will postpone that ... so let us be patient and depend on Him against the unjust nations.


Remember that God has enabled you to become an example of love, forgiveness and brotherly coexistence ... I call on you not to hate because hate does not leave a space for a person to be fair and it makes you blind and closes all doors of thinking and keeps away one from balanced thinking and making the right choice.


I also call on you not to hate the peoples of the other countries that attacked us and differentiate between the decision-makers and peoples. Anyone who repents - whether in Iraq or abroad - you must forgive him.


You should know that among the aggressors, there are people who support your struggle against the invaders, and some of them volunteered for the legal defence of prisoners, including Saddam Hussein ... some of these people wept profusely when they said goodbye to me.


Dear faithful people, I say goodbye to you, but I will be with the merciful God who helps those who take refuge in him and who will never disappoint any faithful, honest believer ... God is Great ... God is great ... Long live our nation ... Long live our great struggling people ... Long live Iraq, long live Iraq ... Long live Palestine ... Long live jihad and the mujahedeen (the insurgency).


Saddam Hussein President and Commander in Chief of the Iraqi Mujahed Armed Forces


Additional clarification note:


I have written this letter because the lawyers told me that the so-called criminal court — established and named by the invaders — will allow the so-called defendants the chance for a last word. But that court and its chief judge did not give us the chance to say a word, and issued its verdict without explanation and read out the sentence — dictated by the invaders — without presenting the evidence. I wanted the people to know this.[29]

 
— Letter by Saddam Hussein

A transcript of the dialogue between Saddam and his executioners was published by the BBC and Al Jazeera: The British Broadcasting Corporation, usually known as the BBC, is the largest broadcasting corporation in the world in terms of audience numbers, employing 26,000 staff in the United Kingdom alone and with a budget of more than GB£4 billion. ... Al Jazeera logo Al Jazeera (الجزيرة), meaning The Island or The (Arabian) Peninsula (whence also Algiers) is an Arabic television channel based in Qatar. ...


[Saddam] God is Great. Palestine is Arab
[Voices] May God's blessings be upon Muhammad and his household.
[Voices] And may God hasten their appearance and curse their enemies.
[Voices] Muqtada [Al-Sadr]...Muqtada...Muqtada.
[Saddam] Muqtuda? (laughs) Are you men? Is this the bravery of Arabs?
[Voice] Long live Muhammad Baqir al-Sadr.
[Voice] To hell.
[Saddam] The hell that is Iraq? ((Arabic: جحينب هو عراق Ghihyneb hew A'raq)
[Voice] You have destroyed us, killed all of us, our nation is ruined.
[Saddam] I helped you survive. Iraq is nothing without me!
[Voice] Please do not. The man is being executed. Please no, I beg you to stop.
[Saddam] (Recites Shahada) There is no God but Allah and I testify that Muhammad is the messenger of God. There is no God but Allah and I testify that Muhammad...
This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Arabic alphabet is the script used for writing Arabic and various other languages, together with various closely related scripts that typically differ in the presence or absence of a few letters. ... There is also a town called Shāhāda, which is now in Nandurbār district (formerly in Dhule district) in the northwest corner of Maharashtra state in India. ...


At this point Saddam Hussein is seen dropping through the trap door and the sound of the trapdoor opening is heard in the background.


A second unofficial video, apparently showing Saddam's body on a trolley, emerged several days later. It sparked speculation that the execution was carried out incorrectly as Saddam Hussein had a massive gaping hole in his neck.[30]


Saddam was buried at his birthplace of Al-Awja in Tikrit, Iraq, 3 km (2 mi) from his sons Uday and Qusay Hussein, on December 31, 2006.[31] Al-Awja, Al-Auja, or Al-Ouja is a poverty stricken village east of Tikrit, in Iraq. ... Uday Hussein Uday Saddam Hussein al-Tikriti (June 18, 1964 Baghdad – July 22, 2003 Mosul), (Arabic: ‎) was the eldest son of Saddam Hussein and his first wife, Sajida Talfah. ... Qusay Hussein Qusay Saddam Hussein al-Tikriti (Arabic: قصي صدام حسين ) (or Qusai) (May 17, 1966 – July 22, 2003) was the second son of Iraqi president Saddam Hussein. ...


Marriage and family relationships

Saddam married his cousin Sajida Talfah in 1963. Sajida is the daughter of Khairallah Talfah, Hussein's uncle and mentor. Their marriage was arranged for Hussein at age five when Sajida was seven; however, the two never met until their wedding. They were married in Egypt during his exile. Together they had two sons, Uday and Qusay, and three daughters, Rana, Raghad and Hala. Qusay ran the elite Republican Guard. Sajida Khairallah Talfah (Arabic: ‎) was the first wife and first cousin of former Iraqi President Saddam Hussein, and mother of two sons (Uday and Qusay) and three daughters (Raghad, Rana, and Hala). ... Uday Hussein Uday Saddam Hussein al-Tikriti (or Odai) (June 18, 1964–July 22, 2003) was the eldest son of Iraqi President Saddam Hussein and his first wife, who was also his first cousin, Sajida Talfah. ... Qusay Hussein Qusay Saddam Hussein al-Tikriti (Arabic: قصي صدام حسين ) (or Qusai) (May 17, 1966 – July 22, 2003) was the second son of Iraqi president Saddam Hussein. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Raghad Saddam Hussein (Arabic: رغد صدام حسين) (born 1967?) is the eldest daughter of former Iraqi President Saddam Hussein. ... Hala Saddam Hussein (born 1979) is the third daughter of former president of Iraq, Saddam Hussein and his first wife Sajida Talfah. ...


Saddam's two sons Uday and Qusay were both killed in a violent three hour gun battle against U.S. forces on July 22, 2003. July 22 is the 203rd day (204th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 162 days remaining. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Saddam and daughter, Rana Hussein

Saddam is reported to have married two other women: Samira Shahbandar,[32] and Nidal al-Hamdani, the general manager of the Solar Energy Research Center in the Council of Scientific Research.[33] There have apparently been no political issues from these latter two marriages. Saddam's third son, Ali, is from Samira. Saddam and Rana Picture released by Saddam regime. ... Saddam and Rana Picture released by Saddam regime. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Samira Shahbandar was Saddam Husseins second wife. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Ali Hussein (born 1983) is the supposed third son of Saddam Hussein, whose mother is Samira Shahbandar, Saddams second wife. ...


In August 1995, Rana and her husband Hussein Kamel al-Majid and Raghad and her husband, Saddam Kamel al-Majid, defected to Jordan, taking their children with them. They returned to Iraq when they received assurances that Saddam would pardon them. Within three days of their return in February 1996, both of the Majid brothers were attacked and killed in a gunfight with other clan members who considered them traitors. Saddam had made it clear that although pardoned, they would lose all status and would not receive any protection. Hussein Kamel Hassan al-Majid (Arabic: حسين كامل) (died February 23, 1996) was the son-in-law of Iraqi leader Saddam Hussein. ... Saddam Kamel was the cousin and son-in-law of deposed Iraqi dictator, Saddam Hussein. ...


Saddam's daughter Hala is married to Jamal Mustafa Sultan al-Tikriti, the deputy head of Iraq's Tribal Affairs Office. Neither has been known to be involved in politics. Jamal surrendered to U.S. troops in April 2003. Another cousin, Ali Hassan al-Majid is now in U.S. custody. Ali Hassan al-Majid Ali Hassan al-Majid (born 1941), is an Iraqi official and commander. ...


In August 2003, Saddam's daughters Raghad and Rana received sanctuary in Amman, Jordan, where they are currently staying with their nine children. That month, they spoke with CNN and the Arab satellite station Al-Arabiya in Amman. When asked about her father, Raghad told CNN, "He was a very good father, loving, has a big heart." Asked if she wanted to give a message to her father, she said: "I love you and I miss you." Her sister Rana also remarked, "He had so many feelings and he was very tender with all of us."[34] For other meanings, see Amman (disambiguation) and Ammann. ... The Cable News Network, commonly known as CNN, is a major cable television network founded in 1980 by Ted Turner. ... Al-Arabiya is an Arabic-language satellite news channel based in Dubai, United Arab Emirates which began broadcasting in February 2003, launched with an investment of $300 million from the Saudi-owned MBC, the Lebanese Hariri Group, and others. ...


List of government positions held

The Iraqi Intelligence Service (Jihaz Al-Mukhabarat Al-Ama, also known as Mukhabarat, General Directorate of Intelligence, or Party Intelligence was the main state intelligence organization in Iraq under Saddam Hussein. ... As currently constituted, the state of Iraq has two vice presidents or deputy presidents. ... The President of Iraq is Iraqs head of state. ... Kingdom of Iraq (1921-1959) The Prime Minister of Iraq is Iraqs head of government. ...

References

  1. ^ See PBS Frontline (2003), "The survival of Saddam: secrets of his life and leadership: interview with Saïd K. Aburish" at [1].
  2. ^ BBC News, October 16, 2000 [2]
  3. ^ a b "Saddam Hussein executed in Iraq", BBC News, 2006-12-30. 
  4. ^ Elisabeth Bumiller (2004-05-15). Was a Tyrant Prefigured by Baby Saddam?. The New York Times. Retrieved on 2007-01-02.
  5. ^ Eric Davis, Memories of State: Politics, History, and Collective Identity in Modern Iraq, University of California Press, 2005.
  6. ^ a b Batatu, Hanna (1979). The Old Social Classes & The Revolutionary Movement In Iraq. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0691052417. 
  7. ^ R. Stephen Humphreys, Between Memory and Desire: The Middle East in a Troubled Age, University of California Press, 1999, p. 68.
  8. ^ Saddam Key in Early CIA Plot, NewsMax.com, April 11, 2003
  9. ^ , The Old Social Classes and the Revolutionary Movements of Iraq (Princeton 1978)."
  10. ^ CNN, "Hussein was symbol of autocracy, cruelty in Iraq," December, 30, 2003. [3]
  11. ^ Saddam Hussein, CBC News, December 29, 2006
  12. ^ Jessica Moore, The Iraq War player profile: Saddam Hussein's Rise to Power, PBS Online Newshour
  13. ^ BBC, 1981: Israel bombs Baghdad nuclear reactor, BBC On This Day 7June 1981 referenced Jan 6, 2007
  14. ^ Kevin Woods, James Lacey, and Williamson Murray, "Saddam's Delusions: The View From the Inside", Foreign Affairs, May/June 2006.
  15. ^ A free-access on-line archive relating to U.S.–Iraq relations in the 1980s is offered by The National Security Archive of the George Washington University. It can be read on line at [4]. The Mount Holyoke International Relations Program also provides a free-access document briefing on U.S.–Iraq relations (1904–present); this can be accessed on line at [5].
  16. ^ For a discussion of Saddam's decision to invade Kuwait, see R. Stephen Humphreys, Between Memory and Desire: The Middle East in a Troubled Age, University of California Press, 1999, pp. 104-112.
  17. ^ Walter LaFeber, Russia, America, and the Cold War, McGraw-Hill, 2002, p. 358.
  18. ^ For a statement asserting the overriding importance of oil to U.S. national security and the U.S. economy, see, e.g., the declassified document, "Responding to Iraqi Aggression in the Gulf," The White House, National Security Directive (NSD 54), top secret, January 15, 1991. This document can be read on line in George Washington University's National Security Archive Electronic Briefing Book No. 21 at [6].
  19. ^ See Margaret Thatcher, The Downing Street Years (1979-1990), 817.
  20. ^ Oliver Moore. "5/BNPrint/International Hussein does Baghdad walkabout", globeandmail.com, 2004-04-03. Retrieved on 2007-01-02. 
  21. ^ Bush, George W.. Speech Washington, D.C. (2002-01-29). Retrieved on 2006-12-31
  22. ^ George W. Bush. "Full text: State of the Union address", BBC News, 2002-01-30. Retrieved on 2006-12-31. 
  23. ^ "Behind The Scenes With Saddam", CBS News, 2003-02-24. Retrieved on 2006-12-31. 
  24. ^ "Saddam Formally Charged", Softpedia, 2006-05-15. Retrieved on 2007-01-02. 
  25. ^ "Judge Closes Trial During Saddam Testimony", Fox News, 2006-03-15. Retrieved on 2006-12-31. 
  26. ^ Christopher Torcia. "Iraq court upholds Saddam death sentence", The Associated Press, 2006-12-26. Retrieved on 2006-12-30. 
  27. ^ Sky News. ""I Want a Firing Squad", Web", Sunday November 05, 2006. Retrieved on 2007-03-07. 
  28. ^ Bauder, David. "Saddam Execution Images Shown on TV, Web", International Business Times, 2007-01-02. Retrieved on 2006-01-02. 
  29. ^ "Read Saddam Hussein's letter", SBS, 2006-12-28. Retrieved on 2007-01-02. 
  30. ^ Qassum Abdul-Zahra. "New Video of Saddam's Corpse on Internet", Associated Press, 2007-01-09. Retrieved on 2006-01-09. 
  31. ^ "Tribal chief: Saddam buried in native village", Reuters, 2006-12-30. Retrieved on 2006-12-30. 
  32. ^ Martha Sherrill. "Bride of Saddam, Matched Since Childhood", The Washington Post, Jan 25, 1991. Retrieved on 2007-01-06. 
  33. ^ Michael Harvey. "Saddam's billions", The Herald Sun, Jan 2, 2007. Retrieved on 2007-01-06. 
  34. ^ "Saddam's daughters express love for dad", USA Today, 2003-08-01. Retrieved on 2006-12-31. 

October 16 is the 289th day of the year (290th in leap years). ... 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... January 2 is the 2nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Hanna Batatu (born 1926, Jerusalem – died 24 June 2000, Winsted, Connecticut) was a Palestinian historian specialising in the history of the modern Arab east. ...   The George Washington University (GWU), or informally, G.W., is a private, coeducational, non-sectarian university located in Washington, D.C.. Founded in 1821 as the Columbian College, the university has since developed into a leading educational and research institution. ... January 15 is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... January 2 is the 2nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 31 is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 31 is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 31 is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... January 2 is the 2nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 31 is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 30 is the 364th day of the year (365th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 1 day remaining. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... March 7 is the 66th day of the year (67th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... January 2 is the 2nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... January 2 is the 2nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... SBS can refer to: Special Book Services - SBS is the leading distributor of language teaching materials in Brazil Special Broadcasting Service - Australian government-funded Radio and TV network Shaken baby syndrome Said Business School - Oxford Universitys business school. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 28 is the 362nd day of the year (363rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 3 days remaining. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... January 2 is the 2nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Associated Press, or AP, is an American news agency, the worlds largest such organization. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... January 9 is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... January 9 is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Reuters Group plc (LSE: RTR and NASDAQ: RTRSY); pron. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 30 is the 364th day of the year (365th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 1 day remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 30 is the 364th day of the year (365th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 1 day remaining. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... January 6 is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 359 days (360 in leap years) remaining. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... January 6 is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 359 days (360 in leap years) remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 31 is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also

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Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiversity-logo-Snorky. ... Image File history File links Wikinews-logo. ... Wikinews is a free-content news source and a project of the Wikimedia Foundation. ... Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Wikinews is a free-content news source and a project of the Wikimedia Foundation. ... Combatants  Iran Iraq Commanders Ruhollah Khomeini, Abolhassan Banisadr, Ali Shamkhani, Mostafa Chamran† Saddam Hussein, Ali Hassan al-Majid Strength - 305,000 soldiers, - 500,000 Passdaran and Basij militia, - 900 tanks, - 1,000 armored vehicles, - 3,000 artillery pieces, - 65 aircraft, - 750 helicopters[1] - 190,000 soldiers, - 5,000 tanks, - 4... Inside view of the terminal, showing an abandoned FIDS in front of empty check-in desks and passport control. ... Iraq under Saddam Hussein was notorious for high levels of torture and mass murder. ... Operation Rockingham was the codeword for UK involvement in inspections in Iraq following the war over Kuwait in 1990-91. ... Zabibah and the King Zabibah and the King is a novel that the CIA believes was written by Saddam Hussein, probably with the help of some ghostwriters. ... On his trial, Saddam Hussein will face many charges, as invasion of Kuwait in 1990 and chemical attack on the Kurdish village of Halabja in 1988. ... Saddam Hussein and al-Qaeda were alleged by some U.S. Government officials to have established a highly secretive relationship between 1992 and 2003, specifically through a series of meetings reportedly involving the Iraqi Intelligence Service (IIS). ... Saddam Hussein is the name of village in Batticaloa, Sri Lanka. ... If he was indeed hung, why will they not show the video to completion? Furthermore, why is the grave not open to viewing? Wake up people. ... Ayad Rahim is an Iraqi-American journalist. ... Saddam Beach is a fishing village in the Malappuram district of the Indian state of Kerala. ... Combatants UN Coalition Republic of Iraq Commanders Norman Schwarzkopf, Peter de la Billière, Khalid bin Sultan, Saleh Al-Muhaya, Mohamed Hussein Tantawi Saddam Hussein Strength 883,863 360,000 Casualties 378 dead, 1,000 wounded see section below The Gulf War or the Persian Gulf War (16 January 1991... Saddam Hussein as the Ace of Spades. ... Some typical modern playing cards. ...

External links


The current BBC News logo BBC News and Current Affairs is a major arm of the BBC responsible for the corporations newsgathering and production of news programmes on BBC television, radio and online. ... The National Security Archive is a 501(c)(3) non-profit research and archival institution located within The George Washington University in Washington, D.C. Founded in 1985 by Thomas Blanton, it archives and publishes declassified U.S. government files concerning selected topics of American foreign policy. ...

Preceded by
Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr
President of Iraq
July 16, 1979April 9, 2003
Succeeded by
Position Abolished
Coalition Provisional Authority with Jay Garner as Director of Office for Reconstruction and Humanitarian Assistance
Prime Minister of Iraq
1979-1991
Succeeded by
Sa'dun Hammadi
Preceded by
Ahmad Husayn Khudayir as-Samarrai
Prime Minister of Iraq
1994-2003
Succeeded by
Iyad Allawi
Preceded by
Republic of Iraq
Government of Iraq
July 16, 1979 - April 9, 2003
Succeeded by
Coalition Provisional Authority
Persondata
NAME Hussein, Saddam
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Saddam Hussein Abid al-Majid al-Tikriti (full name); ṣaddām ḥusayn ʿabdu-l-maǧīd al-tikrītī (strict transliteration); صدام حسين عبد المجيد التكريتي (Arabic)
SHORT DESCRIPTION President of Iraq
DATE OF BIRTH April 28, 1937
PLACE OF BIRTH Iraq
DATE OF DEATH December 30, 2006
PLACE OF DEATH Iraq

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The fiction of Saddam Hussein as a benevolent ruler was exposed by two major and catastrophic miscalculations of foreign policy for which his country and his people have paid dearly.
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