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Encyclopedia > Sachsenhausen concentration camp
Prisoners of Sachsenhausen, 19 Dec 1938
Prisoners of Sachsenhausen, 19 Dec 1938

Sachsenhausen (IPA: [zaksənˈhaʊzən]) was a concentration camp in Germany, operating between 1936 and 1950. It was named after the Sachsenhausen quarter, part of the town of Oranienburg. The camp is sometimes referred to as Sachsenhausen-Oranienburg. Download high resolution version (1528x1005, 194 KB)Source: National Archives: 242-HLB-3609-25; copied from http://history. ... Download high resolution version (1528x1005, 194 KB)Source: National Archives: 242-HLB-3609-25; copied from http://history. ... It has been suggested that Internment be merged into this article or section. ... Oranienburg is a town in Brandenburg, Germany. ...


From 1936 to 1945 it was run by the National Socialist regime in Germany as a camp for mainly political prisoners, from 1945 to spring of 1950 it was run by the Stalinist Soviet occupying forces as "Special Camp No. 7" for mainly political prisoners. For architecture, see Stalinist architecture. ... Soviet redirects here. ...

Contents

Sachsenhausen under the Germans

The camp was established in 1936. It was located at the edge of Berlin, which gave it a position among the German concentration camps: the administrative centre of all concentration camps was located in Oranienburg, and Sachsenhausen became a training centre for SS officers (who would often be sent to oversee other camps afterwards). Executions took place at Sachsenhausen, especially those that were Soviet POW's. While some Jews were executed at Sachsenhausen and many died there, the Jewish inmates of the camp were relocated to Auschwitz in 1942. Sachsenhausen was not designed as a death camp—instead, the systematic mass murder of Jews was conducted primarily in camps to the east. This article is about the capital of Germany. ... SS or ss or Ss may be: The Schutzstaffel, a Nazi paramilitary force Steamship (SS) (ship prefix) The United States Secret Service A submarine not powered by nuclear energy (SS) (United States Navy designator), see SSN A Soviet/Russian surface-to-surface missile, as listed by NATO reporting name Shortstop... Auschwitz, in English, commonly refers to the Auschwitz concentration camp complex built near the town of Oświęcim, by Nazi Germany during World War II. Rarely, it may refer to the Polish town of Oświęcim (called by the Germans Auschwitz) itself. ... The extermination camps were the facilities established by Nazi Germany in World War II initially for the killing of the Jews of Europe as part of what was later deemed The Holocaust. ... “Shoah” redirects here. ...

On the front entrance gates to Sachsenhausen is the infamous slogan Arbeit Macht Frei (German: "Work Makes [You] Free"). About 200,000 people passed through Sachsenhausen between 1936 and 1945. Some 100,000 inmates died there from exhaustion, disease, malnutrition or pneumonia from the freezing cold. Many were executed or died as the result of brutal medical experimentation. According to an article published on December 13, 2001 in The New York Times, "In the early years of the war the SS practiced methods of mass killing there that were later used in the Nazi death camps. Of the roughly 30,000 wartime victims at Sachsenhausen, most were Russian prisoners of war, among them Joseph Stalin's oldest son.[1] Arbeit Macht Frei gate, KZ Sachsenhausen, Berlin -- by jpatokal File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Arbeit Macht Frei gate, KZ Sachsenhausen, Berlin -- by jpatokal File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Arbeit Macht Frei gate at KZ Sachsenhausen Detail of the Arbeit Macht Frei inscription on the gate at Dachau. ... Arbeit Macht Frei gate at KZ Sachsenhausen Detail of the Arbeit Macht Frei inscription on the gate at Dachau. ... is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... Yakov Dzhugashvili Yakov Iosifovich Dzhugashvili (Georgian: , Russian: Яков Иосифович Джугашвили) (March 1908 – April 14, 1943) was one of Joseph Stalins three known children, along with Svetlana Stalin and Vasily Stalin. ...

Plaque to honour over 100 Dutch resistance fighters executed at Sachsenhausen.

Amongst those executed were the commandos from Operation Musketoon and Grand Prix motor racing champion, William Grover-Williams, also John Godwin RNVR, a British Naval Sub-Lieutenant who managed to shoot dead the commander of his firing party, for which he was mentioned in dispatches posthumously. Over 100 Dutch resistance fighters were executed at Sachsenhausen. The wife and children of Rupprecht, Crown Prince of Bavaria, members of the Wittelsbach family, were held in the camp from October 1944 to April 1945, before being transferred to the Dachau concentration camp. Reverend Martin Niemöller, a critic of the Nazis and author of the poem First they came..., was also a prisoner at the camp. Herschel Grynszpan, whose act of assassination was used by Joseph Goebbels to initiate the Kristallnacht pogrom, was moved in and out of Sachshausen since his capture on the 18'th of July 1940 and until September 1940 when he was moved to Magdeburg.[2] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 562 pixelsFull resolution (2007 × 1411 pixel, file size: 515 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Commemorative plaque for Dutch resistance fighters who were executed in Sachenhausen. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 562 pixelsFull resolution (2007 × 1411 pixel, file size: 515 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Commemorative plaque for Dutch resistance fighters who were executed in Sachenhausen. ... Members of the Dutch Eindhoven Resistance with troops of the US 101st Airborne in front of the Eindhoven cathedral during Operation Market Garden in September 1944. ... Sachsenhausen may refer to a quarter of Oranienburg in Germany, see Sachsenhausen (Oranienburg), and a detention facility here a quarter of Frankfurt am Main in Germany, see Sachsenhausen (Frankfurt am Main) a municipality of Weimarer Land, see Sachsenhausen (Thüringen) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which... Operation Musketoon was an Anglo-Norwegian raid against a German-held Generator Station at Glomfjord, Norway in September, 1942 during the Second World War. ... Grand Prix motor racing has its roots in organised automobile racing that began in France as far back as 1894. ... Charles Frederick William Grover-Williams (16 January 1903 – 18 March 1945), was a Grand Prix motor racing driver and war hero. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Crown Prince Rupprecht of Bavaria Crown Prince Rupprecht of Bavaria or Crown Prince Rupert of Bavaria (German: Kronprinz Rupprecht von Bayern) (18 May 1869 – 2 August 1955) was the last Bavarian Crown Prince. ... The Wittelsbach family is an European royal family and a German dynasty from Bavaria. ... The main entrance just after the liberation Memorial at the camp, 1997. ... Friedrich Gustav Emil Martin Niemöller (January 14, 1892 – March 6, 1984) was a prominent German anti-Nazi theologian[1] and Lutheran pastor. ... First they came… is a poem attributed to Pastor Martin Niemöller (1892–1984) about the inactivity of German intellectuals following the Nazi rise to power and the purging of their chosen targets, group after group. ... Police Photo of Herschel Grynszpan, 1938 Herschel Feibel Grynszpan (sometimes spelled in the German form Grünspan) (born March 28, 1921, died between 1943 and 1945), political assassin and victim of the Holocaust, was born in Hanover, Germany, of Polish-Jewish parents. ... Paul Joseph Goebbels (German pronunciation: IPA: ; English generally IPA: ) (October 29, 1897 – May 1, 1945) was a German politician and Minister for Public Enlightenment and Propaganda during the National Socialist regime from 1933 to 1945. ... Kristallnacht, also known as Reichskristallnacht, Pogromnacht, Crystal Night and the Night of Broken Glass, was a pogrom[1] against Jews throughout Germany and parts of Austria on November 9–November 10, 1938. ... This article is about the German city. ...


Sachsenhausen was the site of the largest counterfeiting operation ever. The Nazis forced Jewish artisans to produce forged American and British currency. Over one billion dollars in fake cash was recovered. The Germans were unable to put their plan into action. This fake currency is considered very valuable by collectors. Operation Bernhard was the name of a secret German plan devised during the Second World War to destabilise the British economy by flooding the country with forged Bank of England £5, £10, £20, and £50 notes. ...


Many women were among the inmates of Sachsenhausen and its subcamps. According to SS files, more than 2,000 women lived in Sachsenhausen, guarded by female SS staff (Aufseherin). Camp records show that there was one male SS soldier for every ten inmates and for every ten male SS there was a woman SS. Several subcamps for women were established in Berlin, including in Neukolln. Aufseherin (female overseer or attendant - german plural Aufseherinnen) is the term for a female guard in the Nazi concentration camps. ...


With the advance of the Red Army in the spring of 1945, Sachsenhausen was prepared for evacuation. On April 20–21, the camp's SS staff ordered 33,000 inmates on a forced march westward. Most of the prisoners were physically exhausted and thousands did not survive this death march; those who collapsed en route were shot by the SS. On April 22, 1945, the camp's remaining 3,000 inmates, including 1,400 women were liberated by the Soviet Red Army and Polish 2nd Infantry Division of Ludowe Wojsko Polskie. For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ... Dachau concentration-camp inmates on a death march through a German village in April 1945. ... is the 112th day of the year (113th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ... The Piast eagle worn by LWP soldiers. ...


The camp under the Soviets

In August 1945 the Soviet Special Camp No. 7 was moved to the area of the former concentration camp. Nazi functionaries were held in the camp, as were political prisoners and inmates sentenced by the Soviet Military Tribunal. By 1948, Sachsenhausen, now renamed Special Camp No. 1, was the largest of three special camps in the Soviet Zone of Occupation. The 60,000 people interned over five years included 6,000 German officers transferred from Western Allied camps. Others were Nazi functionaries, anti-Communists and Russians, including Nazi collaborators and soldiers who contracted sexually transmitted diseases in Germany.[1] A sexually transmitted disease (STD), a. ...


By the closing of the camp in the spring of 1950, at least 12,000 had died of malnutrition and disease.[citation needed]


The Sachsenhausen camp today

At present, the site of the Sachsenhausen camp is open to the public. Several buildings and structures survive or have been reconstructed, including guard towers, the camp entrance, crematory ovens and the camp barracks.


A large Soviet-style memorial obelisk was erected in 1961. Following German reunification, the camp was entrusted to a foundation who opened a museum on the site. The museum features artwork made by inmates and, an impressive 30cm high pile of gold teeth (taken by the Germans from the prisoners), scale models of the camp, pictures, documents and other artifacts illustrating life in the camp. Further exhibits are expected to open in late 2007, including the restored camp kitchen. The administrative buildings from which the entire German concentration camp network was run have been preserved and can also be seen.


Following the discovery in 1990 of mass graves from the Soviet period, a separate museum has been opened documenting the camp's Soviet-era history, on an adjacent site.


Gallery

Related article

Below is the list of subcamps of the Sachsenhausen concentration camp complex. ...

Sources, references and endnotes

  1. ^ a b http://www.idoc-human-renewal.org/gelbe/readingroom/horrors.html
  2. ^ Herschel_Grynszpan#Grynszpan_versus_Goebbels
  • Falk Pingel, Encyclopaedia of the Holocaust, New York: Macmillan, 1990, vol. 4, p.1321-1322. Photo
  • General information on the Sachsenhausen concentration camp web site of the Brandenburg Memorial Foundation: Memorial and Museum Sachsenhausen
  • Foot & Langley, 'MI9 - Escape and Evasion 1939 - 1945', Book Club Associates, 1979 ISBN 0-316-28840-3

Police Photo of Herschel Grynszpan, 1938 Herschel Feibel Grynszpan (sometimes spelled in the German form Grünspan) (born March 28, 1921, died between 1943 and 1945), political assassin and victim of the Holocaust, was born in Hanover, Germany, of Polish-Jewish parents. ... The Encyclopaedia of the Holocaust was published in 1990, in tandem Hebrew and English editions, by Yad Vashem, the Israeli Holocaust Memorial Authority. ...

Further reading

  • Finn, Gerhard: Sachsenhausen 1936-1950 : Geschichte eines Lagers. Bad Münstereifel: Westkreuz-Verlag, 1988. ISBN 3-922131-60-3
  • Sachsenhausen travel guide from Wikitravel

Wikitravel is a project to create an open content, complete, up-to-date, and reliable world-wide travel guide. ...

External links

Coordinates: 52°45′57″N, 13°15′51″E The Jewish Virtual Library is an online encyclopedia published by the American-Israeli Cooperative Enterprise (AICE), notable for its strong pro-Israel views. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Sachsenhausen Concentration Camp http://www.HolocaustResearchProject.org (1981 words)
The Sachsenhausen Concentration Camp was built in the summer of 1936 by concentration camp prisoners from the Emsland camps.
The camp was located at the edge of Berlin, which gave it a position among the German concentration camps: the administrative centre of all concentration camps was located in Oranienburg, and Sachsenhausen became a training centre for SS officers (who would often be sent to oversee other camps afterwards).
Himmler in 1937, said of the camp, that it was to be the prototype of a "modern, up-to-date, ideal and easily expandable concentration camp".
Sachsenhausen concentration camp - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (413 words)
Sachsenhausen was a concentration camp in Germany, operating between 1936 and 1950.
It was located at the edge of Berlin, hence having a special position among the German concentration camps: the administrative centre of all concentration camps was in Oranienburg, and Sachsenhausen became a training centre for SS tnhausen, the mass murders with gas took place in other concentration camps further east.
On April 22, 1945, 3000 prisoners who had stayed in the camp due to their inability to go, were liberated by the Red Army.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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