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Encyclopedia > Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Saccharomyces cerevisiae

Scientific classification
Kingdom: Fungi
Phylum: Ascomycota
Subphylum: Saccharomycotina
Class: Saccharomycetes
Order: Saccharomycetales
Family: Saccharomycetaceae
Genus: Saccharomyces
Species: S. cerevisiae
Binomial name
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Meyen ex E.C. Hansen

Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a species of budding yeast. It is perhaps the most important yeast owing to its use since ancient times in baking and brewing. It is believed that it was originally isolated from the skins of grapes (one can see the yeast as a component of the thin white film on the skins of some dark-colored fruits such as plums; it exists among the waxes of the cuticle). It is one of the most intensively studied eukaryotic model organisms in molecular and cell biology, much like Escherichia coli as the model prokaryote. It is the microorganism behind the most common type of fermentation. Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells are round to ovoid, 5–10 micrometres in diameter. It reproduces by a division process known as budding. Image File history File links S_cerevisiae_under_DIC_microscopy. ... Scientific classification or biological classification is a method by which biologists group and categorize species of organisms. ... Subkingdom/Phyla Chytridiomycota Blastocladiomycota Neocallimastigomycota Glomeromycota Zygomycota Dikarya (inc. ... Subphyla/Classes Archaeascomycetes Euascomycetes Hemiascomycetes or Pezizomycotina Laboulbeniomycetes Eurotiomycetes Lecanoromycetes Leotiomycetes Pezizomycetes Sordariomycetes Dothideomycetes (and many more) Saccharomycotina Saccharomycetes Taphrinomycotina Neolectomycetes Pneumocystidomycetes Schizosaccharomycetes Taphrinomycetes The Ascomycota, formerly known as the Ascomycetae, or Ascomycetes, are a Division of Fungi, whose members are commonly known as the Sac Fungi, which produce spores... Classes Saccharomycetes Saccharomycotina is an subphylum of the phylum Ascomycota, in the kingdom Fungi. ... Orders Saccharomycetales Saccharomycetes is a class in the kingdom of fungi, and is also known as Hemiascomycetes. ... Families Ascoideaceae Cephaloascaceae Dipodascaceae Endomycetaceae Eremotheciaceae Lipomycetaceae Metschnikowiaceae Phaffomycetaceae Saccharomycetaceae Saccharomycodaceae Saccharomycopsidaceae Saccharomycetales is an order in the kingdom of fungi that comprises the budding yeasts. ... Genera Ascobotryozyma Citeromyces Debaryomyces Dekkera (Brettanomyces) Eremothecium Issatchenkia Kazachstania Kluyveromyces Kodamaea Kregervanrija Kuraishia Lachancea Lodderomyces Nakaseomyces Pachysolen Pichia (Hansenula) Saccharomyces Saturnispora Tetrapisispora Torulaspora Vanderwaltozyma Williopsis Zygosaccharomyces Saccharomycetaceae is a family of yeast in the order Saccharomycetales that reproduce by budding. ... Species Saccharomyces bayanus Saccharomyces boulardii Saccharomyces bulderi Saccharomyces cariocanus Saccharomyces cariocus Saccharomyces cerevisiae Saccharomyces chevalieri Saccharomyces dairenensis Saccharomyces ellipsoideus Saccharomyces martiniae Saccharomyces monacensis Saccharomyces norbensis Saccharomyces paradoxus Saccharomyces pastorianus Saccharomyces spencerorum Saccharomyces turicensis Saccharomyces unisporus Saccharomyces uvarum Saccharomyces zonatus Saccharomyces is a genus in the kingdom of fungi that includes... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Franz Julius Ferdinand Meyen (June 28, 1804 - September 2, 1840) was a German physician and botanist. ... The hierarchy of scientific classification. ... High magnification view of a budding yeast Budding is the formation of a new organism by the protrusion of part of another organism. ... Typical divisions Ascomycota (sac fungi) Saccharomycotina (true yeasts) Taphrinomycotina Schizosaccharomycetes (fission yeasts) Basidiomycota (club fungi) Urediniomycetes Sporidiales Yeasts are a growth form of eukaryotic microorganisms classified in the kingdom Fungi, with approximately 1,500 species described. ... Typical divisions Ascomycota (sac fungi) Saccharomycotina (true yeasts) Taphrinomycotina Schizosaccharomycetes (fission yeasts) Basidiomycota (club fungi) Urediniomycetes Sporidiales Yeasts are a growth form of eukaryotic microorganisms classified in the kingdom Fungi, with approximately 1,500 species described. ... Wikibooks Cookbook has an article on Baking Baking is the technique of prolonged cooking of food by dry heat acting by conduction, and not by radiation, normally in an oven, but also in hot ashes, or on hot stones. ... A 16th century brewer A 21st century brewer This article concerns the production of alcoholic beverages. ... candle wax This page is about the substance. ... Plant cuticles are a protective waxy covering produced only by the epidermal cells (Kolattukudy, 1996) of leaves, young shoots and all other aerial plant organs. ... Kingdoms Animalia - Animals Fungi Plantae - Plants Protista Alternative phylogeny Unikonta Opisthokonta Amoebozoa Bikonta Apusozoa Cabozoa Rhizaria Excavata Corticata Archaeplastida Chromalveolata Animals, plants, fungi, and protists are eukaryotes (IPA: ), organisms whose cells are organized into complex structures by internal membranes and a cytoskeleton. ... A model organism is a species that is extensively studied to understand particular biological phenomena, with the expectation that discoveries made in the organism model will provide insight into the workings of other organisms. ... Molecular biology is the study of biology at a molecular level. ... This article or section includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... E. coli redirects here. ... Prokaryotes (pro-KAR-ee-oht) (from Old Greek pro- before + karyon nut or kernel, referring to the cell nucleus, + suffix -otos, pl. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... A micrometre (American spelling: micrometer, symbol µm) is an SI unit of length equal to one millionth of a metre, or about a tenth of the diameter of a droplet of mist or fog. ... High magnification view of a budding yeast Budding is the formation of a new organism by the protrusion of part of another organism. ...


It is useful in studying the cell cycle because it is easy to culture, but, as a eukaryote, it shares the complex internal cell structure of plants and animals. S. cerevisiae was the first eukaryotic genome that was completely sequenced. The yeast genome database [1] is highly annotated and remains a very important tool for developing basic knowledge about the function and organization of eukaryotic cell genetics and physiology. Another important S. cerevisiae database is maintained by the Munich Information Center for Protein Sequences [2]. The genome is composed of about 13,000,000 base pairs and 6,275 genes, although only about 5,800 of these are believed to be true functional genes. It is estimated that yeast shares about 23% of its genome with that of humans. The cell cycle, or cell-division cycle, is the series of events that take place in an eukaryotic cell between its formation and the moment it replicates itself. ... Kingdoms Animalia - Animals Fungi Plantae - Plants Protista Alternative phylogeny Unikonta Opisthokonta Amoebozoa Bikonta Apusozoa Cabozoa Rhizaria Excavata Corticata Archaeplastida Chromalveolata Animals, plants, fungi, and protists are eukaryotes (IPA: ), organisms whose cells are organized into complex structures by internal membranes and a cytoskeleton. ... Kingdoms Eukaryotes are organisms with complex cells, in which the genetic material is organized into membrane-bound nuclei. ... In biology the genome of an organism is the whole hereditary information of an organism that is encoded in the DNA (or, for some viruses, RNA). ... Base pairs, of a DNA molecule. ... For a non-technical introduction to the topic, see Introduction to Genetics. ... This article is about modern humans. ...


"Saccharomyces" derives from Greek, and means "sugar mold". "Cerevisiae" comes from Latin, and means "of beer". Other names for the organism are: Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ...

  • Brewer's yeast (the apostrophe may be missing or after the s), though other species are also used in brewing
  • Ale yeast
  • Top-fermenting yeast
  • Baker's yeast (the apostrophe may be omitted or placed after the s)
  • Budding yeast

This species is also the main source of nutritional yeast and yeast extract. Nutritional yeast, similar to brewers yeast, is a nutritional supplement popular with vegans and the health conscious who use it as an ingredient in recipes or simply as a condiment. ... Yeast extract is the common name for yeast autolysates, that is, concentrations of yeast cells that are allowed to die and break up, so that the yeasts digestive enzymes break their proteins down into simpler compounds. ...

Contents

Life cycle

There are two forms in which yeast cells can survive and grow, haploid and diploid. The haploid cells undergo a simple lifecycle of mitosis and growth, and under conditions of high stress will generally simply die. The diploid cells (the preferential 'form' of yeast) similarly undergo a simple lifecycle of mitosis and growth, but under conditions of stress can undergo sporulation, entering meiosis and producing a variety of haploid spores, which can go on to mate (conjugate), reforming the diploid. Haploid (meaning simple in Greek) cells have only one copy of each chromosome. ... Diploid (meaning double in Greek) cells have two copies (homologs) of each chromosome (both sex- and non-sex determining chromosomes), usually one from the mother and one from the father. ... Haploid (meaning simple in Greek) cells have only one copy of each chromosome. ... Mitosis is the process in which a cell duplicates its chromosomes to generate two identical cells. ... Diploid (meaning double in Greek) cells have two copies (homologs) of each chromosome (both sex- and non-sex determining chromosomes), usually one from the mother and one from the father. ... Mitosis is the process in which a cell duplicates its chromosomes to generate two identical cells. ... The term cell growth is used in two different ways in biology. ... In medical terms, stress is the disruption of homeostasis through physical or psychological stimuli. ... Not to be confused with miosis. ... The term spore has several different meanings in biology. ... Sexual reproduction is a union that results in increasing genetic diversity of the offspring. ... Diploid (meaning double in Greek) cells have two copies (homologs) of each chromosome (both sex- and non-sex determining chromosomes), usually one from the mother and one from the father. ...


Mating

Main article: Mating of yeast

Yeast has two mating types, a and α, which show primitive aspects of sex differentiation, and are hence of great interest. For more information on the biological importance of these two cell types, where they come from (from a molecular biology point of view), and details of the process of mating type switching, see the main article. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a simple single celled eukaryote with both a diploid and haploid mode of existence. ...


In science

Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a widely used model organism in science, and therefore also one of the most studied (along with E. coli). S. cerevisiae has obtained this important position because of its established use in industry (e.g. beer, bread and wine fermentation, ethanol production). Additionally, yeasts are comparatively similar in structure to human cells, both being eukaryotic, in contrast to the prokaryotes (bacteria and archaea). Many proteins important in human biology were first discovered by studying their homologs in yeast; these proteins include cell cycle proteins, signaling proteins, and protein-processing enzymes. The petite mutation in S. cerevisiae is of particular interest. Binomial name Escherichia coli T. Escherich, 1885 Escherichia coli (usually abbreviated to E. coli) is one of the main species of bacteria that live in the lower intestines of warm-blooded animals (including birds and mammals) and are necessary for the proper digestion of food. ... The cell cycle, or cell-division cycle, is the series of events that take place in an eukaryotic cell between its formation and the moment it replicates itself. ... petite (p-) is a mutant first discovered in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. ...


Top-fermenting yeast

Saccharomyces cerevisiae is known as a top-fermenting yeast. It is one of the major types of yeast used in the brewing of beer (along with Saccharomyces carlsbergensis and Brettanomyces sp.), so called because during the fermentation process it rises to top of the fermentation vessel. Beers that use top-fermenting yeast are called ales, and for that reason these yeasts are also sometimes called "ale yeasts". A 16th century brewer A 21st century brewer This article concerns the production of alcoholic beverages. ... For other uses, see Beer (disambiguation). ... Its a Yeast species, which is believed to be originated from S. cerevisiae and S. monacensis, for its amphiploid genome. ... [[|Diversity]] Binomial name Trinomial name Type Species Species [[Image: ]] Synonyms Brettanomyces is a single-celled fungus that is important in brewing and winemaking as it is resistant to alcohol so can grow even after fermentation starts. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Top-fermenting yeasts are unable to ferment some types of sugars, and the resulting beer is sweeter and "fruitier".


Uses in Aquaria

Owing to the high cost of commercial C02 cylinder systems, C02 injection by yeast is one of the most popular DIY approaches followed by aquaculturists for providing C02 to underwater aquatic plants. The yeast culture is generally maintained in plastic bottles and typical systems provide one bubble every 3-7 seconds. Various approaches have been devised to allow proper absorption of the gas into the water. See also: DIY Network, a cable TV network. ...


See also

This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Beer (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Saccharomyces uvarum Nguyen & Gaillardin ex. ...

References

Image File history File links Information. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Saccharomyces cerevisiae

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ...

CO2 injection by Yeast for Planted Aquaria

Major Model Organisms in Genetic Studies
v  d  e
Lambda phage | E. coli | Chlamydomonas | Tetrahymena | Budding yeast | Fission yeast | Neurospora | Maize | Arabidopsis | C. elegans | Drosophila | Zebrafish | Rat | Mouse

  Results from FactBites:
 
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (0 words)
Yeasts such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae are single-celled fungi which that multiply by budding, or in some cases by division (fission), although some yeasts such as Candida albicans may grow as simple irregular filaments (mycelium).
Saccharomyces cerevisiae has thick-walled, oval cells, around 10 µm long by 5 µm wide.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae is commonly known as "bakers yeast" or "brewers yeast".
Saccharomyces cerevisiae Summary (1741 words)
Among them, Saccharomyces cerevisiae is perhaps the biological model most utilized for decades in order for scientists to understand the molecular anatomy and physiology of eukaryotic cells, such as membrane and transmembrane receptors, cell cycle controls, and enzymes and proteins involved in signal transduction to the nucleus.
The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is similar to animal cells (e.g., similar length to the phases of its cell cycle, similarity of the chromosomal structures called telomeres).
Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells are round to ovoid, 5-10 micrometres in diameter.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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