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Encyclopedia > Sabino Arana

Sabino Arana Goiri, self-styled as Arana ta Goiri'taŕ Sabin (January 26, 1865November 25, 1903), Spain, founder of the Basque Nationalist Party and a inventor of previously non-existent Basque nationalism. Author of several fascist books and numerous racist articles arguing in favour of Basque nationalism based on the idea of the Basques as a special race with a land of their own. January 26 is the 26th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1865 (MDCCCLXV) is a common year starting on Sunday. ... November 25 is the 329th (in leap years the 330th) day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1903 (MCMIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Friday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... The Basque Nationalist Party is a political party in the Basque region of Spain. ... The Gernika oak is a symbol of Basque freedoms. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This article is about the traditional Basque domain. ...


He died in Sukarrieta at the age of 38 after falling ill with Addison's disease during time spent in prison. He had been charged with treason for attempting to send a telegram to President Theodore Roosevelt, in which he praised America for helping Cuba gain independence from Spain. Sukarrieta is a town located in the province of Bizkaia, in the autonomous community of Basque Country, in the North of Spain. ... Addisons disease (also known as chronic adrenal insufficiency, or hypocortisolism) is a rare endocrine disorder which results in the body not producing sufficient amounts of certain adrenal hormones. ... Theodore Roosevelt, Jr. ... Cuba, the largest of the Caribbean islands, was first inhabited by Amerindian peoples known as the Taíno and Ciboney. ...

Contents

Background

The Third Carlist War had substituted the Ancient Regime system of Basque Fueros by a limited autonomy. The Basque Country and Navarre were integrated into the Spanish customs system. Basque industrialists profitted the Spanish captive market with the iron ore and the Bessemer converter. Biscay became "the iron California". Workers from the rest of Spain were attracted by the burgeoning industry. Restoration promiss During the Third Carlist War (1872-1876), the carlist forces managed to occupy some cities in the interior Catalonia. ... Ancien Régime means Old Regime or Old Order in French; in English, the term refers primarily to the social and political system established in France under the Valois and Bourbon dynasties, and secondarily to any regime which shares the formers defining features: a feudal system under the control... Fueros is a Spanish legal term and concept; there is a similar Portuguese term, Forals. ... Protectionism is the economic policy of restraining trade between nations, through methods such as high tariffs on imported goods, restrictive quotas, a variety of restrictive government regulations designed to discourage imports, and anti-dumping laws in an attempt to protect domestic industries in a particular nation from foreign take-over... This heap of iron ore pellets will be used in steel production. ... Bessemer Converter, Schematic Diagram The Bessemer process was the first inexpensive industrial process for the mass-production of steel from molten pig iron. ...


Arana was born in Abando, a neighbourhood that had been recently incorporated into Bilbao as the new extension for the growth of the industrial era. Navarra street, in the hearth of Abando. ...


He claimed that he had a quasi-religious revelation on Whitsun Day, that he communicated to his brother Luis Arana. From them, he devoted himself to the cause of Biscay, later extended to the Basque Country.


Ideology

The ikurriña flag is a joint design of the Arana brothers.
The ikurriña flag is a joint design of the Arana brothers.

He was an early defender of the use of the Basque language in all areas of society, to avoid its increasing marginalization in the face of the dominant Spanish. He learnt the language as a young man, but was ready to contest for a professor position at the Instituto de Bilbao, competing against Miguel de Unamuno and the winner, Resurrección María de Azkue, who became an erudite scholar of the language. He made a strong effort to establish an agreed orthography for the Basque language, and proposed several neologisms to replace words of Spanish origin. Given Basque's little importance at the time, Arana made up most of the vocabulary, mainly borrowing words from Spanish. Some of this innovations like the characters ĺ and ŕ were not accepted for the standardization efforts of the 1970s. Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Basque_Country. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Basque_Country. ... The Ikurriña, flag designed by the founders of the Basque Nationalist Party EAJ-PNV Luis and Sabino Arana, is regarded as the national symbol of Euskal Herria, or the Basque Country. ... Basque (native name: Euskara) is the language spoken by the Basque people who inhabit the Pyrenees in North-Central Spain and the adjoining region of South-Western France. ... Miguel de Unamuno. ... A neologism (from Greek νεολογισμός νέος [neos] = new; λόγος [logos] = word) is a word, term, or phrase which has been recently created (coined) — often to apply to new concepts, to synthesize pre-existing concepts, or to make older terminology sound more contemporary. ... Basque may refer to: Look up Basque in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The acute accent ( Â´ ) is a diacritic mark used in many modern written languages with alphabets based on the Latin script. ... Å” is a letter used in the Romany alphabet. ...


His first published work was "Bizkaya por su independencia", inventing stories of earlier battles of the ancient people of Biscay.


In 1894 he founded the first nationalist center of the new party (Partido Nacionalista Vasco) to provide a place for gathering and proselitizing. The Basque Nationalist Party is a political party in the Basque region of Spain. ...


Sabino Arana, like many Europeans of his time, believed that the essence of a country was defined by its blood, and was disturbed that the immigration into Biscay of many workers from central Spain during the industrial revolution, into a small territory with no political power, would result in the disparition of the pure Basque race. He contrasted the Basque and the maketo (people from the rest of Spain, Maketania) A Watt steam engine in Madrid. ...


Basque Race, a superior race: To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

"The Vizcayan walks confidently and in a manly fashion; the Spaniard does not know how to walk, or if he does, he is of feminine type."
Bizkaitarra, no. 29.
"It is necessary to isolate ourselves from the maketos. Otherwise, in this land we walk on, it is not possible to work toward the Glory of God."
Bizkaitarra, no. 19.
"We, the Basques, must avoid the mortal contagion, maintain firm our faith in our ancestors and the serious religiosity that distinguishes us, and purify our customs, before so healthy and exemplary, now so infected and at the point of corruption by the influence of those who have come from outside."
La Patria, no. 39.
"It is known that of course, from this cross of the maketo with the Vizcayan, all that blooms in our country is irreligiousity and immorality. The facts prove this and explain it perfectly."
Bizkaitarra, no. 6 bis.
"We have already indicated, on our part, that favoring the irruption of the maketos is fomenting immorality in our country, because if it is true that the customs of our People have degenerated notably in these times, it is without doubt due to the frightening invasion of the maketos, who bring with them blasphemy and immorality."
Bizkaitarra, no. 10.
"It terrifies them to hear that maketos should be driven out of towns with stones. Ah, those people who love peace! They are those who are worthy of the hate of patriots."
Bizkaitarra, no. 21
"A great number of them seem to be undeniable testimony of Darwin's theory, since rather than men they resemble apes, rather less beastly than gorillas: do not search in their faces for the expression of human intelligence nor of any virtue; their eyes only reveal idiocy and brutishness."
Bizcaitarra, no. 27.
"Every Viscayan should be antiliberal and anti-Spanish."
Bizkaitarra, no. 1

Another essential part of his ideology was devout Catholicism; he considered this to be an essential part of the Basque identity. However his national allegiance kept him away from Carlism. Evolutionism, from the Latin evolutio, unrolling, refers to theories that certain things develop or change as natural (unplanned) outgrowths of those that existed before, in contrast to beliefs that these things are fixed and immutable. ... Carlism is a traditionalist, legitimist political movement in Spain seeking, among other things, the establishment of a separate line of the Bourbon family on the Spanish throne. ...


Despite his religious integrism, and his extreme xenophobic and racist views, he is considered by many Basques to be the gadfly that sparked the movement for the cultural revival of the Basques. The party he created has moved on from his most controversial ideas to an inclusive concept of the Basque essence, based not on bloodline, but rather on culture and convivence. This term was originally coined to describe those who elevated theological differences to differences in dogma, by degrees. ... Gadfly can refer to: Gadfly, a type of fly typically belonging to either the genus Tabanidae or Oestridae Gadfly (database), a relational database in the Python programming language Gadfly (social), a term for people who upset the status quo Gadfly Records, an independent record label SA-11 Gadfly (see Novator...


He was a prolific writer, with over 600 journalism articles, most of them with a propaganda purpose. He liked to shock and provoke, in order to get attention from a society that he deemed unaware of its fate. Overall ha was in favour of an ethnic cleansing that would eliminate any trace of Spanish blood in order to restore the pureness of the imaginary Basque race.


There are three key aspects of Sabino Arana's political figure:

  • He was an innovator, being the first to proclaim that the Basques are a separate race. This was later proved to be false.
  • He was not a conventional conservative; he strongly opposed slavery (legal in Spanish-held Cuba until ten years before its independence) and defended the right of South African Zulus to their land.
  • He was an infatigable worker, taking action in many areas; he learned the Basque language as an adult, undertook a number of activities to promote the Basque language and culture, created a political movement, and designed the symbols (flag, anthem, country name) used to this day by Basque nationalists.

During his prison time, he asked for the foundation of a "League of pro-Spain Basques", favouring Basque autonomy within Spain. To this date, it is debated whether he sincerely had changed his views or he was pretending to alleviate his imprisonment. His death left the question unanswered. Neither his brother Luis nor the party followed his proposal, though. This article is about the African ethnic group. ... The Ikurriña, flag designed by the founders of the Basque Nationalist Party EAJ-PNV Luis and Sabino Arana, is regarded as the national symbol of Euskal Herria, or the Basque Country. ... Eusko Abendaren Ereserkia (Anthem of the Basque Ethnicity) is the official anthem of the Basque Country (Spain). ...


The mixed influence of Sabino Arana in the Basque society

The ideas of Sabino Arana can be considered to have spawned both the democratic nationalist movement that currently is supported by a big part (about 30%) of the Basques and the terrorist group ETA that has killed over 800 people, injured thousands. ETA symbol or ETA (Basque for Basque Homeland and Freedom; IPA pronunciation: [), is a paramilitary Basque nationalist organization founded in 1959. ...


Today, he is viewed as a controversial figure by many people in Europe, who call him racist for his xenophobia and ethnocentrism and his ideas of a pure race[citation needed]. Look up xenophobia in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Ethnocentricity is the tendency to look at the world primarily from the perspective of ones own culture. ...


During the Spanish Civil War, the Basque society was profoundly polarized between its Carlist ideals (the Carlists fought on Franco's side) and the Partido Nacionalista Vasco (heirs of Arana) who chose to fight alongside the Republican government. In the 1950s, there was a schism between the traditional PNV (most of them into exile, including the lehendakari) and a new group called EKIN (which later on, became ETA). Even though both parties refer to Sabino Arana as the ideologist and pater patriae of the Basque Country (Euskal Herria), the PNV dissociates itself from violence. ETA still thinks of itself as the "National Liberation Front", and even refers to itself as izquierda abertzale (or leftist nationalists), a clear reference to the revolutionary movements of the 1960s. Pater Patriae (plural Patres Patriae), also seen as Parens Patriae, is a Latin honorific title meaning Father of the Fatherland. ...


The Partido Nacionalista Vasco, holders of the intellectual property of his works, has chosen not to reprint them since 1976[citation needed], keeping only the more "moderate" part of his message in their charter. On the other hand, some Basques still revere him as the father of the nationalist movement, who managed to start the turnaround of the decay of the Basque language and culture. Many Basque cities name streets after him.


The estate of his Abando home is now Sabin-Etxea ("Sabino-House"), the EAJ-PNV headquarters.


Jon Juaristi has remarked that perhaps the most influential part of his heritage is the neologistic list of Basque versions of names in his Deun-Ixendegi Euzkotarra ("Basque saint-name collection", published in 1910). Instead of the traditional adaptations of Romance names, he proposed others that in his opinion were truer to the originals and adapted to the Basque phonology. For example, his brother Luis became Koldobika, from Frankish Hlodwig. The traditional Peru, Pello or Piarres ("Peter") became Kepa from Aramaic כיפא (Kepha). He believed that the suffix -[n]e was inherently feminine, and names like Nekane ("pain"+ne,"Dolores") or Garbine ("clean"+ne, "Immaculate [Conception]") are frequent among Basque females. Even the name of the son-in-law of the king of Spain is Iñaki Urdangarin, Iñaki being an Arana alternative for Ignatius instead of the traditional Inazio. There are many personal names derived from the Germanic roots hlod (renown, fame, loud) and wig (combat, war), giving combat renowned, Latinized into Chlodovicus. ... Look up Peter, peter in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Dolores may refer to: Places Guatemala Dolores, El Petén Mexico Dolores Hidalgo, a town in Guanajuato Dolores, Baja California Sur Dolores, Chihuahua Spain Dolores, Spain Philippines Dolores, Abra, Dolores, Eastern Samar Dolores, Quezon United States Dolores, Colorado Mission San Francisco de Asis, in San Francisco, also known as Mission... Mary, mother of Jesus as the Immaculate Conception. ... Iñaki Urdangarin Liebaert (born January 15, 1968) is the husband of the Infanta Cristina of Spain, Duchess of Palma de Mallorca, the youngest daughter of King Juan Carlos and Queen Sofia of Spain. ... Ignatius of Antioch (probably died AD 107) was the third patriarch of Antioch, after Saint Peter and Euodius, who died around AD 68. ...


External link

  • Sabino Arana in the Spanish-language Auñamendi Entziklopedia.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Sabino Arana at AllExperts (1188 words)
Sabino Arana Goiri, self-styled as Arana ta Goiri'taŕ Sabin (January 26, 1865 – November 25, 1903), founder of the and a pioneer of Basque nationalism.
Arana was born in Abando, a neighbourhood that had been recently incorporated into Bilbao as the new extension for the growth of the industrial era.
The ideas of Sabino Arana can be considered to have spawned both the democratic nationalist movement that currently is supported by a big part (about 30%) of the Basques and the terrorist group ETA that has killed over 800 people and injured thousands over the latest thirty years.
Sabino Arana - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1425 words)
Sabino Arana Goiri, self-styled as Arana ta Goiri'taŕ Sabin (January 26, 1865 – November 25, 1903), Spain, founder of the Basque Nationalist Party and a inventor of previously non-existent Basque nationalism.
He was an early defender of the use of the Basque language in all areas of society, to avoid its increasing marginalization in the face of the dominant Spanish.
Even though both parties refer to Sabino Arana as the ideologist and pater patriae of the Basque Country (Euskal Herria), the PNV dissociates itself from violence.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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