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Encyclopedia > Sabians
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Sabians (Arabic: صابئين, Greek: σεβεοι/σεβομενοι, Yiddish: תושבים) are adherents of religions derived from the beliefs of a community which was based in the area of ancient Subartu. There are two kinds of Sabians, non-gnostic Sabians (Sābi'ūna Hunafāh) and gnostic Sabians (i.e. the Sābi'ūna Mushrukūn Sabians of Harran and Mandaean Nasaræan Sabeans). They are not to be confused with the Sabaeans of Sheba whose etymology is completely unrelated being spelled with an initial Arabic letter "Sin" instead of the initial letter "Sad" (though the issue was confused because at least one tribe of Sabaeans, the Ansar, are known to have adopted the religion of the Saabi`ah Hunafa`). Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... What is left of Awam Temple or the Sun temple in Marib. ... Not to be confused with Sabians followers of an ancient religion in Babylonia. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Rape of the Sabine Women by Giambologna The tribe of the Sabines (Latin Sabini - singular Sabinus) was an Italic tribe of ancient Italy. ... Look up Italic, italic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Latium (Lazio in Italian) is a region of central Italy, bordered by Tuscany, Umbria, Abruzzo, Marche, Molise, Campania and the Tyrrhenian Sea. ... Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ... Yiddish (Yid. ... Subarian is the term used by certain scholars (such as I. J. Gelb & E. A. Speiser) to describe the aboriginal language and inhabitants of Subar-Tu an ancient kingdom in Ararat mentioned in Sumerian records. ... Yazdânism or Cult of Angels (also Yazdâni or Yazdanism) is a modern term for the monotheistic, though universalist, religion that was practiced by most Kurds up to the Islamization during the sixteenth century. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Mandaeism. ... The Sabaeans were a people who lived in what is today Yemen in the final millennium BCE. They may be the same nation as the biblical Sheba. ... Sheba (from the English transcription of the Hebrew name shva: שבא, and Saba, Arabic: سبأ, also Saba, Amharic: ሳባ) is a southern kingdom mentioned in the Jewish scriptures (Old Testament) and the Quran. ... Ansar (Arabic: الأنصار, meaning aiders, or patrons) refer to a class of warriors who are renouned for there arsenal of weapons and the speed and mobility of there arabian horse. ...


The Sabian faith is also known as Seboghatullah, meaning "submersion in the divine mystery".

Contents

Etymology

Sabians practice initiation through submersion; intended to hark back to the inundation of the world during the deluge of the time of Noah which cleansed man's sinful nature from the face of the earth. Hence ablution is an important part of the Sabian religions. The practice involves falling back into running water in condemnation of the sinful nature and is a sign of submission and awe before God. There has been much speculation as to the origins of the religious endonym from this practice. Some have argued that the term Sābi'ūn derives from the Syriac root S-b-' , referring to conversion through submersion; the Syriac (and Hebrew) nouns derived from this root refer to proselytes, both "Judaisers"—non-converts who followed certain basic rules of Judaism—and early Christian converts of non-Jewish origin and practice. These latter were called Theosebeians "God-Fearers", Sebomenoi "Believers", or Phobeomenoi "Pious ones" in Greek sources (from the root meaning "to fall back"). The Greek etymology for sebomai, applied to the proselytes, is in the word eusebeian meaning a kind of godliness and reverence or worshipfulness. However, proselytization has also long been associated with submersion and although the Greek etymology of the Sabian appellation is more than likely the original (there being no record of any similar people prior to the Hellenic era), Mandaean Nasaraeans claimed the word Sabium (from Subi or Sabi, plural Subba or Sabba), colloquial Mandaic or Syriac in origin, for themselves giving the meaning "to submerse" or "plunge in"[citation needed]. Mikvah (or mikveh) (Hebrew: מִקְוָה, Standard Tiberian  ; plural: mikvaot or mikvot) is a specially constructed pool of water used for total immersion in a purification ceremony within Judaism. ... Proselyte, from the Koine Greek προσήλυτος/proselytos, is used in the Septuagint for stranger, i. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Godfearers or Sebioi in Greek (Arabic: Sabieen/Sabioon, Hebrew: Toshavim) are messianic Non-Jews who from the earliest of times have worshipped The Name of the Hebrew Elohim. ... Proselyte, from the Koine Greek προσήλυτος/proselytos, is used in the Septuagint for stranger, i. ... Baptism in early Christian art. ... The Mandaic language is the liturgical language of the Mandaean religion; a vernacular form is still spoken by a small community in Iran around Ahwaz. ... Syriac is an Eastern Aramaic language that was once spoken across much of the Fertile Crescent. ...


According to Islamic scholars, the word Sābi'ūna (Sabian) is derived from the verb saba’a, which refers to the action of leaving one religion and entering another.[1]

Tabari said: as-Sābi'ūn is the plural of Sābi', which means "proselyte" (such as an apostate from Islam) who has left his original religion, or anyone who has left the religion that he used to follow and joins another. The Arabs called such a person Sābi'.

Though meaning upright and monotheistic these days, the word Hunafa` also derives from the Syriac word "hanifo" which literally means Agnostic. Similar distortion has occurred with the word Mushrik which though meaning polytheist these days originally referred only to shittuf/shirk or the act of establishing a partner with God—most commonly in the form of an evil opponent. Balamis 14th century Persian version of Universal History by al-Tabari Abu Jafar Muhammad ibn Jarir at-Tabari 838–923 (father of Jafar, named Muhammad, son of Jarir from the province of Tabaristan, Arabic الطبري), was an author from Persia, one of the earliest, most prominent and famous Persian... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... The Arabs (Arabic: عرب ) are an ethnic group found throughout the Middle East and North Africa. ... The term agnosticism and the related agnostic were coined by Thomas Henry Huxley in 1869. ...


Overview

In the latter ninth century of the Common Era, Arab authors focused upon the origins of the non-gnostic or "Monotheist" Sabians (Sabi'ah Hunafa') from the Gnostic or "Polytheist" Sabians (Sabi'ah Mushrikun) and went into much detail on the Harranian period before the time of Abraham. Most of this knowledge was translated in 904 CE into the book called "The Nabatean Agriculture" which was considered by Maimonides to have been an accurate record of the Gnostic beliefs of the Sabi'ah Mushrikoon (Gnostic Sabians) in the Harranian area. Though Arabic sources go into detail on the origin of Sabiah Hunafa from Sabiah Mushrikun, the Sabiah Hunafa themselves consider their path to be a return to orthodoxy away from the innovations of the Sabiah Mushrikun back to the religion of Noah. Various writings of the Bahá'í Faith reiterate the details of Gnostic Sabean beliefs of the Harranian period which are still held to this day among various sects of Yazdânism. Yazdânism or Cult of Angels (also Yazdâni or Yazdanism) is a modern term for the monotheistic, though universalist, religion that was practiced by most Kurds up to the Islamization during the sixteenth century. ... An angel prevents the sacrifice of Isaac. ... Commonly used image indicating one artists conception of Maimonidess appearance Maimonides (March 30, 1135 or 1138–December 13, 1204) was a Jewish rabbi, physician, and philosopher in Spain, Morocco and Egypt during the Middle Ages. ... Harran, also known as Carrhae, is a district of Åžanlıurfa Province in the southeast of Turkey, near the border with Syria, 24 miles (44 kilometres) southeast of the city of Åžanlıurfa, at the end of a long straight road across the roasting hot plain of Harran. ... Seat of the Universal House of Justice, governing body of the Baháís, in Haifa, Israel The Baháí Faith is the religion founded by Baháulláh in 19th century Persia. ... Yazdânism or Cult of Angels (also Yazdâni or Yazdanism) is a modern term for the monotheistic, though universalist, religion that was practiced by most Kurds up to the Islamization during the sixteenth century. ...


Despite all this substantial and clear documentation about both kinds of Sabians spanning many centuries from sources as diverse as Greek Christian, Arabic Muslim, Arabic and Persian Bahá'í, as well as Jewish sources, the actual nature of the Sabians has remained a matter of some heated debate among western orientalists. Their confusion was due to the fact that it was once important for the Mandaean Nasaraeans to relate their origins to the Gnostic Sabians by adopting Yazidi beliefs in order to qualify for the protection of Shariah Law by paying the jizyah when Christians began to object to them being classified as Nosaari. Therefore, "Sabian" has been used mistakenly in many literary references for decades and though, the spelling "Sabian" usually refers to one of "people of the book" as mentioned in the Qur'an, it has also been used by the Mandaeans as an appellation adopted to appease local Muslim authorities. The variation "Sabean", has been employed in English to distinguish the ancient Harranian origins and Gnostic Yazidi beliefs of the Sabian "people of the book" prior to their rejection of Gnosticism and adoption of Monotheism. The term Pseudo-Sabian has been used not only by orientalists who take the side of the Mandaeans against the Harranians, but also by orientalists who take the side of the Harranians against the Mandaeans, rendering that term practically useless. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      A Christian () is a... Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ... Persian (Local names: فارسی Fârsi or پارسی Pârsi)* is an Indo-European language spoken in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan as well as by minorities in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, India, Pakistan, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Mandaeism. ... Yazdânism or Cult of Angels (also Yazdâni or Yazdanism) is a modern term for the monotheistic, though universalist, religion that was practiced by most Kurds up to the Islamization during the sixteenth century. ... In Islamic law, jizyah (Arabic: جزْية) is a per capita tax required of adult males of other faiths under Muslim rule in exchange for the protection of the Muslim community. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Mandaeanism is a pre-Christian religion which has been classified by scholars as Gnostic. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Yazdânism or Cult of Angels (also Yazdâni or Yazdanism) is a modern term for the monotheistic, though universalist, religion that was practiced by most Kurds up to the Islamization during the sixteenth century. ...


The confusion of Sabaeans with Sabians began with Marmaduke Pickthall's spelling mistake in his translation of the Qur'an. The word "Sabaeans" comes from a completely different root spelling beginning with the letter "Sad" instead of the letter "Sin". The Sabaeans were in fact the people of ancient Saba in Yemen who have been discredited by scholars as to having any connection to the Sabians of the Qur'an except for their Ansar tribe which practiced Qur'ānic Sabianism (Seboghatullah: "submersion in the divine mystery"). (Mohammed) Marmaduke William Pickthall, (1875–May 19, 1936), a Western Islamic scholar, noted as a poetic and accurate translator of the Quran into English. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... What is left of Awam Temple or the Sun temple in Marib. ... Sheba (from the English transcription of the Hebrew name shva: שבא, and Saba, Arabic: سبأ, also Saba, Amharic: ሳባ) is a southern kingdom mentioned in the Jewish scriptures (Old Testament) and the Quran. ...


Islamic reference

The recent debate on who the Sabians were is directly connected to how to best translate the following verses from the Qur'an out of the original Arabic. The Qur'an briefly announces the Sabians in three places and the Hadith provide further details as to who they were as people of the book: This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...

  • "Those who believe, and the Jews, and the Christians, and the Sabi'in, whoever believes in God and the Last Day and does good, they shall have their reward from their Lord, and there is no fear for them, nor shall they grieve." Quran 2:62
  • "Those who believe, and the Jews, and the Christians, and the Sabi'un, whoever believes in God and the Last Day and does good, they shall have their reward from their Lord, and there is no fear for them, nor shall they grieve." Quran 5:69
  • "Those who believe (in the Qur'an), those who follow the Jewish (scriptures), and the Sabi'in, Christians, Magians, and Polytheists,- Allah will judge between them on the Day of Judgment: for Allah is witness of all things." Quran 22:17

The Sabians existed before Muhammad, and are said to have read from a book called the Zabuur (i.e. the Psalms). The Saabi`ah Hunafa` ΘΕΟ-ΣΕΒΕΙΑΝΟΙ came under Islamic rule about 639 AD. At that time in history they were described as Greek immigrants[citation needed] but were grouped together with the Saabi'ah Mushrikuun Nabataeans. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      A Christian () is a... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... For the book by Pope Benedict XVI, see Eschatology (book). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      A Christian () is a... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... Islam (Arabic: ; ( â–¶ (help· info)), the submission to God) is a monotheistic faith, one of the Abrahamic religions and the worlds second-largest religion. ... Events Dagobert I succeeded by Clovis II as king of the Franks in Neustria and Burgundy During the Islamic conquest of Persia, Susa is destroyed Births Deaths Pippin I of Landen, father of Gertrude of Nivelles Categories: 639 ... Immigration is the act of moving to or settling in another country or region, temporarily or permanently. ... Al Khazneh, Petra (the Nabataean capital) Shivta The Nabataeans, Arabic (الأنباط) Al-Anbaat, were an ancient trading people of southern Jordan, Canaan and the northern part of Arabia- whose oasis settlements in the time of Josephus gave the name of Nabatene to the borderland between Syria and Arabia, from the Euphrates...


Under sharia, the Sabians form a protected religious group (along with Christians and Jews).


Many Islamic writers from the period of about 650 CE onward gave further descriptions of the Sabians. They wrote that the Sabians lived in Iraq around Sawad, Kutha and Mosul and they "wash themselves with water" and had "long hair" and "white gowns"[citation needed]. They had a monotheistic faith with religious literature (the Zabuur) and acknowledged the prophets. Their theology resembled that of Judaism and Christianity yet were neither, nor were they Magians. Islam (Arabic: ; ( ▶ (help· info)), the submission to God) is a monotheistic faith, one of the Abrahamic religions and the worlds second-largest religion. ... Though anyone who creates a written work may be called a writer, the term is usually reserved for those who write creatively or professionally, or those who have written in many different forms. ... Events Arab conquest of Persia, establishment of Islam as state religion Hindu empire in Sumatra Croats and Serbs occupy Bosnia Khazars conquer Great Bulgarian Empire in southern Russia building of St. ... Kutha is the name of two places, one factual and one mythical. ... Mosul (Arabic: , Kurdish: موصل Mûsil, Syriac: Nîněwâ, Turkish: Musul) is a city in northern Iraq and the capital of the Ninawa Governorate. ... Monotheism (in Greek monon = single and Theos = God) is the belief in a single, universal, all-encompassing deity. ... Theology finds its scholars pursuing the understanding of and providing reasoned discourse of religion, spirituality and God or the gods. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Christianity percentage by country, purple is highest, orange is lowest Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch... The Three Wise Men are given the names Gaspar, Melchior, and Balthasar in this Romanesque mosaic from the Basilica of St Apollinarius in Ravenna, Italy. ...


With regard to their beliefs, Ibn al-Qayyim said: "The people differed greatly concerning them, and the imams were unsure about them because they did not have enough knowledge of their beliefs and religion." Al-Shaafa’i said: "Their case is to be examined further; if they resemble the Christians in basic matters but they differ from them in some minor issues, then the jizya is to be taken from them. But if they differ from them in basic issues of religion then their religion cannot be approved of by taking the jizya from them." And he elaborated elsewhere: "They are a kind of Christian." consistent with a comment about some of them mentioned in Bahai writings. In states ruled by Islamic law, jizya or jizyah (Arabic: جزْية; Ottoman Turkish cizye) is a per capita tax imposed on able bodied non-Muslim men of military age. ...


Ibn al-Qayyim said: "The Sabians are a large nation among whom are both blessed and doomed. They are one of the nations who are divided into believers and disbelievers, for the nations before the coming of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) were of two types, kaafir nations all of whose people were doomed and among whom were none who were blessed, such as the idol-worshippers and the Magians; and others who were divided into those who were blessed and those who were doomed, namely the Jews, Christians and Sabians." The Three Wise Men are given the names Gaspar, Melchior, and Balthasar in this Romanesque mosaic from the Basilica of St Apollinarius in Ravenna, Italy. ... This article is about the religous people known as Christians. ...


According to Islamic scholars,[1] they did not reject the Prophets of Islam but neither did they regard it as obligatory to follow them. According to the Hanif Sabians, whoever followed (the Prophets) may be blessed and saved, but whoever follows a path similar to that of the Prophets by virtue of one's own reasoning is also blessed and saved, even if one did not follow the Prophets in specific terms. In their view the call of the Prophets was true but there was no one specific route to salvation. They believed that the universe had a Creator and Sustainer, Who is Wise and above any resemblance to created beings, but many of them, or most of them, (i.e. the Sabians of Harran) said: we are unable to reach Him without intermediaries, so we have to approach Him through the mediation of spiritual and holy who are pure and free of any physical elements and who are above place and time, rather they are created pure and holy. Prophets of Islam are human beings who are regarded by Muslims to be prophets. ...


Marc Edmund Jones, founder of the Sabian Assembly, described them as a "Mohammedan" group. Sabeans worshipped God's Names (El-Esmea) as angels in the stars. STARS can mean: Shock Trauma Air Rescue Society Special Tactics And Rescue Service, a fictional task force that appears in Capcoms Resident Evil video game franchise. ...


Sabi`ah Hunafa` (Hanif Sabians) follow a somewhat disorganized religion[2][3][4] following the Din of Noah[5] as a sect who read the Zaboor[6][7] akin to Christianity.[8] They appear to be between Judaism and Magianism[9][10] but are in fact closer to Judaism.[11][12][13] Sābi'ūn recognise the practice of the prophet Muhammad in going to the caves prior to his inspiration, as in accordance with the Sabi quest for Tawheed Hunafa' and, in general, many similarities with the Sabians meant Muhammad and his companions were often considered to have been Sabians.[14][15] Most specifically this was because of the Sabian shahada “La ilaha ila Allah”.[16][17][18] Zabur (Arabic: زبور) is the holy book of the Seboun (Ar:صابؤون, Grk:Σεβομενοι) which is equated by some scholars with Psalms, is, according to Islam, one of the holy books revealed by God before the Quran (the others being the Tawrat and Injil). ...


The root-meaning of the word Sabi (deriving from their religion Seboghatullah) means Proselyte, and is identical in usage with the Greek words Sebomenoi or Theosebes and to a lesser extent Phobeomenoi.[19]


Characteristics of the Sabi religion (Seboghatullah)

Sābi'ūn know Allah as the ADON of adonim and GOD of gods and speak to angels in their meditations[20] , each of whom they believe dwell in different stars, which has led to the erroneous beliefs among some that Sābi'ūn worship angels while others derogatorily call them star-worshippers (and so it is said in Arabic saba'at al-nujūm, meaning "the stars appeared"). Sābi'ūn read from the Zaboor and use the sun for a Qiblah facing the equator at mid day[21][6][7][22] . Their fundamental teaching is "La ilahah il Allah"[2][3][16] , but besides this ardent unitarianism, Sābi'ūn are quite akin to Christians[8][23] . Unlike their Mushrik Sabian cousins, who consider themselves the people of Idris' son Sabi, Hanif Sabians are more universal looking to Noah as their prophet of the Din[5] Sābi'ūn have five daily prayers[24] (though Zohar can join Asr while Ma'ariv can join Isha giving the appearance of three). They believe in all prophets reiterating the Din of Noah and, not in the same way as the Muslims, believe in The Seal of The Prophets[25] . They also fast for 30 days[26] . Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... Zabur (Arabic: زبور) is the holy book of the Seboun (Ar:صابؤون, Grk:Σεβομενοι) which is equated by some scholars with Psalms, is, according to Islam, one of the holy books revealed by God before the Quran (the others being the Tawrat and Injil). ...


Sabians who adopt Abram as a patriarch distinguish themselves from other Sabians by calling themselves Hagarim (Hagarenes) and were based around Petra. The culmination of the journey to enlightenment will be marked by a circumcision ceremony for most of those male Hagarim who get to this level called Yagur. This branch of Seboghatullah has thus been dubbed "Hagarism".


Sabians of Harran

Based upon a book called The Nabataean Agriculture which Maimonides translated, Maimonides' "Guide for the Perplexed" describes the Gnostic Sabians (a.k.a. Sabi'ah Mushrikun) in quite some detail. The Saabi`ah Mushrikun were a Yazidan group who were questioned by the caliph al-Ma'mún of Baghdad in 830 CE, according to Abú-Jusúf Abshaa'al-Qathíí, about what protected religion they belonged to. Not being Muslim, Christian, Jewish, or Magian, the caliph told them they were infidels and would have to become Muslims or adherents of one of the other religions recognized by the Qu'ran by the time he returned from his campaign against the Byzantines or he would kill them.[27] The Yazidans (Harranians) consulted with a lawyer who suggested that they find their answer in the Qu'ran II.59 which made it clear that Sabians were tolerated. It was unknown what Mohammed intended by Sabian and so they took the name.[28]. Yazdânism or Cult of Angels (also Yazdâni or Yazdanism) is a modern term for the monotheistic, though universalist, religion that was practiced by most Kurds up to the Islamization during the sixteenth century. ... For main article see: Caliphate Khalif is the head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, or global Islamic nation. ... Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... Events Christian missionary Ansgar visits Birka, trade city of the Swedes. ...


The newly dubbed Harranian Sabians took Hermes Trismegistus as their prophet, and the Corpus Hermeticum as their sacred text, being a group of Hermeticists. Validation of Hermes as a prophet comes from his identification as Idris or Enoch in suras 19.57 and 21.85.[29] This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Corpus Hermeticum is collection of several Greek texts from the second and third centuries, survivors from a more extensive literature, known as Hermetica. ... Hermeticism should not be confused with the concept of a hermit. ... Idris may mean: Idris (prophet), a prophet of Islam, named Enoch in Christianity Idris I, the founder of the Idrisid dynasty in Maghreb Idris I of Libya Idris (or Idries) Shah, a Sufi author Idris Shah II of Perak, a sultan of Perak Idris (operating system) a Unix-like operating... Enoch (Hebrew: חֲנוֹךְ; Tiberian: , Standard: ) is a name occurring twice in the generations of Adam. ...


The Harranian Sabians played a vital role in Baghdad and the rest of the Arab world from 856 until about 1050; playing the role of the main source of Greek philosophy and science as well as shaping the intellectual life. The most prominent of the Harranian Sabians was Thabit ibn Qurra.[30] Events Year of the Fire Rat begins in January. ... Leofric becomes Bishop of Exeter Hedeby is sacked by King Harald Hardraade of Norway during the course of a conflict with King Eric Estridsson of Denmark. ... Greek philosophy focused on the role of reason and inquiry. ... Part of a scientific laboratory at the University of Cologne. ... Abul Hasan Thabit ibn Qurra ibn Marwan al-Sabi al-Harrani, (826 – February 18, 901) was an Arab astronomer and mathematician. ...


In the Bahá'í writings

The Sabians are also mentioned in the literature of the Bahá'í Faith. Although these references are brief, they for the most part (with only a couple of references to the Saabi`ah Hunafa` who are said to believe in Jesus) refer to the Saabi'ah Mushrikoon (Sabeans) who derived their religion from Seth and Idris (a belief adopted by the Mandaean Nasaraeans). `Abdu'l-Bahá has one brief reference where he describes Seth as one of the "sons of Adam". Bahá'u'lláh in the Kitáb-i-Aqdas quotes from the Qur'an 19:57-58 about Idris. In a second statement by Bahá'u'lláh he identifies Idris with Hermes. Bahá'u'lláh does not, however, specifically name Idris as the prophet of the Sabians. Seat of the Universal House of Justice, governing body of the Baháís, in Haifa, Israel The Baháí Faith is the religion founded by Baháulláh in 19th century Persia. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... Yazdânism or Cult of Angels (also Yazdâni or Yazdanism) is a modern term for the monotheistic, though universalist, religion that was practiced by most Kurds up to the Islamization during the sixteenth century. ... `Abdul-Bahá `Abdul-Bahá `Abbás Effendí (May 23, 1844 - November 28, 1921) commonly known as `Abdul-Bahá (abdol-ba-haa Arabic: ‎), was the son of Baháulláh, the Prophet-Founder of the Baháí Faith. ... Shrine of Baháulláh Baháulláh (ba-haa-ol-laa Arabic: Glory of God) (November 12, 1817 - May 29, 1892), born (Persian: ), was the founder of the Baháí Faith. ... The Kitáb-i-Aqdas is the central book of the Baháí Faith, written by Baháulláh, the founder of the religion. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...


Mandaean Nasaraean Sabeans

Given the substantial evidence, many scholars contend that the Sabians mentioned in the Qur'an are those we call today the Mandaeans. However, as mentioned above, some scholars studying the etymology of the root word Sabi'un have pointed to origins either in Syriac or Mandaic the word Sabian. Thus some scholars have suggested that the Mandaean religion originated with Sabeans, who came under the influence of early Hellenic Sabian missionaries but preferred their own priesthood. Mandaeanism is a pre-Christian religion which has been classified by scholars as Gnostic. ... Not to be confused with Entomology, the study of insects. ... Syriac is an Eastern Aramaic language that was once spoken across much of the Fertile Crescent. ... The Mandaic language is the liturgical language of the Mandaean religion; a vernacular form is still spoken by a small community in Iran around Ahwaz. ... Mandaeanism is a pre-Christian religion which has been classified by scholars as Gnostic. ... A missionary is a propagator of religion, often an evangelist or other representative of a religious community who works among those outside of that community. ...


After the conquests of Alexander, Harran came to be a center of intellectual and religious activity, which evolved into a philosophical tradition centered on Hermes Trismegistus. The Harranians were heavily influenced by other religious groups, including those of the baptizing sects, and in this way the Mandaean Nasaraean Sabians would come into existence. They followed the Nasr (a white eagle lord) and called their community Miryai[1]. From the 1st century AD they were heavily influenced by the Christians but reacted against Pauline Christianity, possibly absorbing the Ebionites. Alexander the Great (Greek: ,[1] Megas Alexandros; July 356 BC–June 11, 323 BC), also known as Alexander III, king of Macedon (336–323 BC), was one of the most successful military commanders in history. ... Harran, also known as Carrhae, is a district of Åžanlıurfa Province in the southeast of Turkey, near the border with Syria, 24 miles (44 kilometres) southeast of the city of Åžanlıurfa, at the end of a long straight road across the roasting hot plain of Harran. ... An intellectual is one who tries to use his or her intellect to work, study, reflect, speculate on, or ask and answer questions with regard to a variety of different ideas. ... Religious is a term with both a technical definition and folk use. ... Philosophy (from the Greek words philos and sophia meaning love of wisdom) is understood in different ways historically and by different philosophers. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The 1st century was that century which lasted from 1 to 100 according the Gregorian calendar. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      A Christian () is a...


Various religious groups holding some Gnostic Harranian beliefs (like the Mandaeans) have sought to justify application of the term to themselves in the hopes of avoiding persecution. Thus the Mandaeans have become known as Subi (Sabian) by their Muslim neighbors in both Iraq and Iran. However, they could just have equally applied to come under the category of Nasaari because the application of this title to them predated the earliest Christians by at least a century. Mandaeanism is a pre-Christian religion which has been classified by scholars as Gnostic. ... Mandaeanism is a pre-Christian religion which has been classified by scholars as Gnostic. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ...


In March 2007, the leaders of the Mandaeans said their order is facing extinction at the hands of Iraqi Muslim extremists.[31]


New-Age Sabians

Having been attracted to elements of Yazdan beliefs of the Sabians of Harran, today there are many new age groups, using the terms Sabeans, Sabaeans or Sabians in the titles of their groups. Naturally each group claims that their organization's current beliefs and practices are based more or less directly on the ancient practices of their namesake groups, including such practices as astrology and magic as well as other religious beliefs. 'The Sabian Assembly of Marc Edmund Jones' is one such example, and confusingly named, 'The Sabaean Religious Order' is another. Yazdânism or Cult of Angels (also Yazdâni or Yazdanism) is a modern term for the monotheistic, though universalist, religion that was practiced by most Kurds up to the Islamization during the sixteenth century. ... New Age describes a broad movement characterized by alternative approaches to traditional Western culture. ... Hand-coloured version of the anonymous Flammarion woodcut (1888). ... The Sorceress by John William Waterhouse Magic and sorcery are the influencing of events, objects, people and physical phenomena by mystical, paranormal or supernatural means. ...


References

Churton, Tobias. The Golden Builders: Alchemists, Rosicrucians, and the First Freemasons. New York: Barnes and Noble, 2002.

  1. ^ a b He is asking about the Sabians: who were they and what were their beliefs?, Islam Q&A, retrieved April 23, 2006
  2. ^ a b ‘Abd al-Rahman ‘ibn Zayd (d. 798 AD) wrote: "The Sābi'ūn say that their religion is a religion to itself and they live near Mosul (jazirat al-mawsil) and believe in only one God." He also wrote that they have: "… no cult though their main belief is “La ilaha il Allah”." He also remarked that: "the Sābi'ūn did not believe in the Prophet Mohammed (in the same way as his followers did), yet the polytheists were known to say of the Prophet and his companions “these are the Sabians” comparing them to them."
  3. ^ a b Wahb ‘ibn Munabbih (d 728-732 AD), who was originally from Iran, wrote: "The Sabians believe " La ilaha il Allah " but they do not have canonical law. "
  4. ^ Mujahid ‘ibn Jarir (d 722 AD) wrote: "The Sabians have no distinctive religion but is somewhere between Judaism and Magianism. "
  5. ^ a b Khalil ‘ibn Ahmad (d. 786-787 AD) who was in Basra before his death, wrote: “The Sabians believe they belong to the prophet Noah, they read Zaboor, and their religion looks like Christianity.” He also states that "they worship the angels."
  6. ^ a b Abul ‘Ailya said: “The Sabis are a sect of people of the Scripture who recite the Zaboor.”
  7. ^ a b ‘Abu Hanifah (d.767 AD) who is the founder of the Hanafite School of Islamic Law wrote: "The Sabians read Zaboor and are between Judaism and Christianity."
  8. ^ a b ‘Abd ‘Allah ‘ibn al-‘Abbas (lived about 650 AD) wrote: "The religion of the Sabians is a sect of Christianity."
  9. ^ ‘Ibn Abi Nujayh (d749) wrote: "The Sabians were between Judaism and Magianism."
  10. ^ Suddi (d745 AD) also wrote: "The Sabian religion is between Judaism and Magianism."
  11. ^ ‘Awza’ (d.773 AD) a representative of the ancient Syrian school of religious studies wrote: "The Sabians are between Judaism and Christianity."
  12. ^ Malik ‘ibn ‘Anas (d795) wrote: "The Sabians are between Judaism and Christianity…"
  13. ^ ‘Ahmad ‘ibn Hanbal (d. 855 AD) the ‘Iman of Baghdad wrote: "The Sabians are a sect of Christianity or Judaism."
  14. ^ ‘Ibn Jurayi (who lived in the 8th century) also wrote: The Sabians are in Sawad and are between the Magians, Christians, or Jews. He also wrote that the polytheists said of Mohammed “He is a Sabian”.
  15. ^ ‘Abd al-Rahman ‘ibn Zayd (d798 AD) wrote: "The prophet and his companions are referred to as 'these are the Sabians' comparing Mohammed to the Sabians."
  16. ^ a b ‘Abd al-Rahman ‘ibn ‘Zayd (d.798 AD) wrote: "The polytheists used to say of the prophet and his companions ‘these are the Sabians’ comparing them to them, because the Sabians who live Jaziartal-Mawsil (today known as Iraq) would say ‘La ilaha ila Allah’."
  17. ^ Rabi’ah ‘ibn ‘Ubbad (who lived at the same time as Mohammed) wrote: "I saw the prophet when I was a pagan. He was saying to the people, ‘if you want to save yourselves, accept that there is no God but Allah’ At this moment I noticed a man behind him saying ‘he is a sabi.’ When I asked somebody who he was he told me he was ‘Abu Lahab, his uncle."
  18. ^ Both ‘Ibn Jurayi (d. 767) and ‘Ata ‘ibn Abi Rabah (d.732) wrote: "I saw the prophet when I was a pagan. He was saying to the people, ‘if you want to save yourselves, accept that there is no God but Allah’ At this moment I noticed a man behind him saying ‘he is a sabi.’ When I asked somebody who he was he told me he was ‘Abu Lahab, his uncle' Of the relationship between the Sabians who lived in Sawad (in Iraq ) and Mohammed it is mention that the polytheists of Mecca were heard to say of Mohammed "he has become a Sabian."
  19. ^ Abu ‘Abdultah said: "The word saba’a means “The one who is a Proselyte.”"
  20. ^ Hasan al-Basri (d728 AD) wrote: "the Sabian religion resembles the Magians and they worship angels."
  21. ^ Hasan al-Basri (d728 AD) wrote: "They read the Zaboor and pray facing a qiblah."
  22. ^ Qatadah ‘ibn Di’amah (d736 AD) wrote: "they pray towards the sun."
  23. ^ Al-Shaafa’i said: "Their case is to be examined further; if they resemble the Christians in basic matters but they differ from them in some minor issues, then the jizya is to be taken from them. But if they differ from them in basic issues of religion then their religion cannot be approved of by taking the jizya from them." And he elaborated elsewhere: "They are a kind of Christian."
  24. ^ Qatadah ‘ibn Di’amah (d736 AD) wrote: "The Sabians worship angels, read Zaboor, pray five ritual prayers."
  25. ^ Ziyad ‘ibn ‘Abihi (d. 672 AD) who was the governor of Iraq during the first Umayyad caliph Mur awiyah wrote: "The Sabians believe in the prophets and pray five times daily."
  26. ^ ‘Abdul al-Zanad (d.747 AD) wrote: "The Sabians are from “Kutha” in Iraq, they believe in prophets, fast 30 days in a year, and pray 5 times daily towards the Yemen." (NB "towards the Yemen" is equivalent to facing south)
  27. ^ (Churton p. 26)
  28. ^ (Churton pp. 26-7)
  29. ^ (Churton p. 27)
  30. ^ (Churton p. 27)
  31. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/6412453.stm

Zabur (Arabic: زبور) is the holy book of the Seboun (Ar:صابؤون, Grk:Σεβομενοι) which is equated by some scholars with Psalms, is, according to Islam, one of the holy books revealed by God before the Quran (the others being the Tawrat and Injil). ... Zabur (Arabic: زبور) is the holy book of the Seboun (Ar:صابؤون, Grk:Σεβομενοι) which is equated by some scholars with Psalms, is, according to Islam, one of the holy books revealed by God before the Quran (the others being the Tawrat and Injil). ... Zabur (Arabic: زبور) is the holy book of the Seboun (Ar:صابؤون, Grk:Σεβομενοι) which is equated by some scholars with Psalms, is, according to Islam, one of the holy books revealed by God before the Quran (the others being the Tawrat and Injil). ... Zabur (Arabic: زبور) is the holy book of the Seboun (Ar:صابؤون, Grk:Σεβομενοι) which is equated by some scholars with Psalms, is, according to Islam, one of the holy books revealed by God before the Quran (the others being the Tawrat and Injil). ... In states ruled by Islamic law, jizya or jizyah (Arabic: جزْية; Ottoman Turkish cizye) is a per capita tax imposed on able bodied non-Muslim men of military age. ... Zabur (Arabic: زبور) is the holy book of the Seboun (Ar:صابؤون, Grk:Σεβομενοι) which is equated by some scholars with Psalms, is, according to Islam, one of the holy books revealed by God before the Quran (the others being the Tawrat and Injil). ...

External links

For various theories on the Sabians please see the following:


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