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Encyclopedia > Sabbateans
Also not to be confused with Subbotniks or Sabbatarians.

Note: Most Sabbateans during and after Sabbatai Zevi were Jews and practiced only Judaism, whereas the Donmeh officially practice/d Islam and are not regarded as Jews. What is left of Awam Temple or the Sun temple in Marib. ... Not to be confused with Sabaeans, who were ancient people living in what is now Yemen. ... Babylonia was a state in southern Mesopotamia, in modern Iraq, combining the territories of Sumer and Akkad. ... Subbotniks (Russian: Субботники, lit. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Donmeh refers to a group of Crypto-Jews of the Near East who followed Sabbatai Zevi (also called Shabbatai Zvi) and converted to Islam in 1666. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ...


Sabbateans is a complex general term that refers to a variety of followers of, disciples and believers in Sabbatai Zevi (1626 - 1676), a Jewish rabbi who declared himself to be the Jewish Messiah in 1648. Vast numbers of Jews in the Jewish diaspora accepted his claims, even after he became a Jewish apostate with his conversion to Islam in 1666. Sabbatai Zevi's followers both during his "Messiahship" and after his conversion to Islam are known as Sabbateans. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Events September 30 - Nurhaci, chieftain of the Jurchens and founder of the Qing Dynasty dies and is succeeded by his son Hong Taiji. ... Events January 29 - Feodor III becomes Tsar of Russia First measurement of the speed of light, by Ole Rømer Bacons Rebellion Russo-Turkish Wars commence. ... For other uses, see Jew (disambiguation). ... For the town in Italy, see Rabbi, Italy. ... In Judaism and Jewish eschatology, the Messiah (Hebrew: משיח; Mashiah, Mashiach, or Moshiach, anointed [one]) is a term traditionally referring to a future Jewish king from the Davidic line who will be anointed (the meaning of the Hebrew word משיח) with holy anointing oil and inducted to rule the Jewish people during... 1648 (MDCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Jewish diaspora (Hebrew: Tefutzah, scattered, or Galut גלות, exile, Yiddish: tfutses), the Jewish presence outside of the Land of Israel is a result of the expulsion of the Jewish people out of their land, during the destruction of the First Temple, Second Temple and after the Bar Kokhba revolt. ... Apostasy (from Greek αποστασία, meaning a defection or revolt, from απο, apo, away, apart, στασις, stasis, standing) is a term generally employed to describe the formal renunciation of ones religion, especially if the motive is deemed unworthy. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... 1666 is often called Annus Mirabilis. ...

Contents

Sabbateans who remained Jews

Sabbatai Zevi "enthroned" as the Jewish Messiah, from Tikkun, Amsterdam, 1666.

In Jewish history during the two centuries after Zevi's death in 1676, many Jews (including some Jewish scholars) who were horrified by Zevi's personal conversion to Islam nevertheless clung to the belief that Zevi was still the true Jewish Messiah. They constituted the largest number of Sabbateans during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. They were vigorously opposed and were eventually forced into hiding their beliefs by the methodical opposition of almost all the leading rabbis who were determined to root out Zevi's Kabbalistically derived anti-traditional teachings and his influence upon the Jewish masses. By the nineteenth century Jewish Sabbateans had been reduced to small groups of hidden followers who feared being discovered for their beliefs that were deemed to be entirely heretical and antithetical to classical Judaism (particularly since the head of the movement -Zevi- had become an openly practicing Muslim for the last ten years of his life until the time of his mysterious and premature death at the age of fifty.) Image File history File links Shabbatai2. ... Image File history File links Shabbatai2. ... In Judaism and Jewish eschatology, the Messiah (Hebrew: משיח; Mashiah, Mashiach, or Moshiach, anointed [one]) is a term traditionally referring to a future Jewish king from the Davidic line who will be anointed (the meaning of the Hebrew word משיח) with holy anointing oil and inducted to rule the Jewish people during... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Events January 29 - Feodor III becomes Tsar of Russia First measurement of the speed of light, by Ole Rømer Bacons Rebellion Russo-Turkish Wars commence. ...


When the founder of Hasidic Judaism, Rabbi Yisroel ben Eliezer (The Baal Shem Tov) (1698-1760) emerged and made his teachings and influence felt through his own disciples, many rabbinical opponents of Hasidism were suspicious that the Baal Shem Tov and his Hasidim were a class of Sabbateans. Some historians have written that many Sabbateans became followers of Hasidism, which unlike Zevi's movement, followed Halakha (Jewish law) and eventually opponents of Hasidism were convinced that the Hasidim were not Sabbateans. This article is about the Hasidic movement originating in Poland and Russia. ... The Baal Shem Tov Rabbi Israel (Yisroel) ben Eliezer (רבי ישראל בן אליעזר, August 27, 1698 – May 22, 1760) is considered to be the founder of Hasidic Judaism. ... Events January 4 - Palace of Whitehall in London is destroyed by fire. ... 1760 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Halakha (Hebrew: הלכה; also transliterated as Halakhah, Halacha, Halakhot and Halachah with pronunciation emphasis on the third syllable, kha), is the collective corpus of Jewish religious law, including biblical law (the 613 mitzvot) and later talmudic and rabbinic law as well as customs and traditions. ...


There are well-known disputations between rabbis accusing one another of being secret followers of Zevi, who had become much reviled in Orthodox Judaism particularly, due to his apostasy. Orthodox Judaism is the formulation of Judaism that adheres to a relatively strict interpretation and application of the laws and ethics first canonised in the Talmudic texts (Oral Torah) and as subsequently developed and applied by the later authorities known as the Gaonim, Rishonim, and Acharonim. ...


Sabbatai who became Christian

Sabbatai Zevi's conversion to Christianity

Jewish historians have stated that it is hard to describe the national sense of shock and trauma that set in when the masses of Jews all over the world learned that someone as famous as Sabbatai Zevi had officially abandoned his faith for Islam. However, the fact remains that Zevi is the most famous Jew to have become a Muslim, which is also what the term Sabbatean has come to denote. Many within Zevi's inner circle followed him into Islam, including his wife Sarah and most of his closest relatives and friends. Interestingly, the one scholar closest to Zevi that had caused him to "reveal" his Messiahship, and in turn became his "prophet" Nathan of Gaza never followed his master into Islam and remained a Jew, albeit excommunicated by his Jewish brethren. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Nathan of Gaza (1643–1680) - Nathan became famous as a prophet for the false messiah, Shabbetai Tzvi. ...


It was a Jew by the name of Nehemiah ha-Kohen who had pretended to embrace Islam to get an audience with the kaymakam ("governor") and who then betrayed the treasonable desires of Sabbatai to take over as a global leader and thus would become a rival to the Turkish Sultan. He in turn informed the Sultan, Mehmed IV. At the command of Mehmed, Sabbatai was taken from Abydos to Adrianople, where the sultan's physician, a former Jew advised him to convert to Islam. Sabbatai realized the danger of the situation and adopted the physician's advice. On the following day (September 16, 1666), being brought before the sultan, he cast off his Jewish garb and put a Turkish turban on his head; and thus his conversion to Islam was accomplished. The sultan was much pleased, and rewarded Sabbatai by conferring on him the title (Mahmed) Effendi, and appointing him as his doorkeeper with a high salary. Sarah and a number of Sabbatai's followers also went over to Islam. To complete his acceptance of Islam, Sabbatai was ordered to take an additional wife, a harem. Some days after his conversion he wrote to Smyrna: "God has made me an Ishmaelite; He commanded, and it was done. The ninth day of my regeneration." It is widely believed that he then had some connection with the Bektashi Sufi order. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Kaymakam (Turkish term; also rendered as kaimakam) was the Ottoman title used by provincial governors. ... Sultan (Arabic: سلطان) is an Islamic title, with several historical meanings. ... Sultan Mehmed IV Mehmed IV (also known as Dördüncü, fourth, and Avci, hunter) (January 2, 1642–1693) (Arabic: محمد الرابع) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1648 to 1687. ... Edirne is a city in (Thrace), the westernmost part of Turkey, close to the borders with Greece and Bulgaria. ... is the 259th day of the year (260th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1666 is often called Annus Mirabilis. ... This article is about headwear. ... Effendi (actually spelled Efendi in Turkish) (a Turkish title meaning a lord or master) is a title of respect, equivalent to the English sir, in Turkey and some other Eastern countries. ... Coming from the Arab tradition, the harîm حريم (compare haram) is the part of the household forbidden to male strangers. ... Hagar and Ishmael in the Wilderness, by Karel Dujardin Ishmael (Hebrew: יִשְׁמָעֵאל, Standard Tiberian ; Arabic: إسماعيل, Ismāīl) was Abrahams eldest son, born by his wifes handmaiden Hagar. ... The Bektashism (Turkish: Bektaşilik) is an Islamic Sufi order (tariqat). ... Sufism is a mystic tradition within Islam that encompasses a diverse range of beliefs and practices dedicated to divine love and the cultivation of the heart. ...


The Donmeh

Main article: Donmeh

Inside the Ottoman Empire those followers of Zevi who had converted to Islam, but who yet wished to keep some hidden connection to Jewish observance that they practiced in secret, eventually became known as the Donmeh (dönme is Turkish for a "religious convert.") Donmeh refers to a group of Crypto-Jews of the Near East who followed Sabbatai Zevi (also called Shabbatai Zvi) and converted to Islam in 1666. ... Ottoman redirects here. ... Donmeh refers to a group of Crypto-Jews of the Near East who followed Sabbatai Zevi (also called Shabbatai Zvi) and converted to Islam in 1666. ...


Sabbatean-related controversies in Jewish history

The Emden-Eybeschutz controversy

Main articles: Jacob Emden and Jonathan Eybeschutz

The Emden-Eybeschutz controversy was a serious rabbinical disputation with wider political ramifications in Europe that followed the accusations by Rabbi Jacob Emden (1697-1776) who was a fierce opponent of the Sabbateans, against Rabbi Jonathan Eybeschutz (1690-1764) whom he accused of being a secret Sabbatean. Jacob Emden was a Jewish rabbi, Talmud scholar, and opponent of the Shabbethaians. ... Jonathan Eybeschutz (Kraków 1690 - Altona 1764), was a Talmudist, Halachist and Kabbalist, holding positions as Dayan of Prague, and later as Rabbi of the Three Communities: Altona, Hamburg and Wandsbek. ... Jacob Emden was a Jewish rabbi, Talmud scholar, and opponent of the Shabbethaians. ... Jacob Emden was a Jewish rabbi, Talmud scholar, and opponent of the Shabbethaians. ... Events September 11 - Battle of Zenta, Prince Eugene of Savoy crushed Ottoman army of Mustafa II September 20 - The Treaty of Ryswick December 2 – St Pauls Cathedral opened in London Peter the Great travels in Europe officially incognito as artilleryman Pjotr Mikhailov Use of palanquins increases in Europe Christopher... For other uses, see 1776 (disambiguation). ... Jonathan Eybeschutz (Kraków 1690 - Altona 1764), was a Talmudist, Halachist and Kabbalist, holding positions as Dayan of Prague, and later as Rabbi of the Three Communities: Altona, Hamburg and Wandsbek. ... Events Giovanni Domenico Cassini observes differential rotation within Jupiters atmosphere. ... 1764 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ...


The Emden-Eybeschutz controversy arose concerning the amulets which Emden suspected Eybeschutz of issuing. It was alleged that these amulets recognized the false Messianic claims of Sabbatai Zevi. Emden then accused Eybeschutz of heresy. Emden was known for his attacks directed against the adherents, or those he supposed to be adherents, of Sabbatai Zevi. In Emden's eyes, Eybeschutz was a convicted Sabbatean. The controversy lasted several years, continuing even after Eybeschutz's death. An amulet from the Black Pullet grimoire. ...


Emden's assertion of the heresy of his antagonist was chiefly based on the interpretation of some amulets prepared by Eybeschutz, in which Emden professed to see Sabbatean allusions. Hostilities began before Eybeschutz left Prague; when Eybeschutz was named chief rabbi of the three communities of Altona, Hamburg, and Wansbeck (1751), the controversy reached the stage of intense and bitter antagonism. Emden maintained that he was at first prevented by threats from publishing anything against Eybeschutz. He solemnly declared in his synagogue the writer of the amulets to be a Sabbathean heretic and deserving of excommunication. For other uses, see Heresy (disambiguation). ... An amulet from the Black Pullet grimoire. ... For other uses, see Prague (disambiguation). ... This article is about the city in Germany. ... Wandsbek (Map) is the largest () of seven districts that are comprising the City of Hamburg (Freie und Hansestadt Hamburg, Germany). ... Events Adam Smith is appointed professor of logic at the University of Glasgow March 25 - For the last time, New Years Day is legally on March 25 in England and Wales. ... Cherem (or Herem חרם), is the highest ecclesiastical censure in the Jewish community. ...


The majority of the rabbis in Poland, Moravia, and Bohemia, as well as the leaders of the Three Communities supported Eybeschutz: the accusation was "utterly incredible" - in 1725, Eybeschutz was among the Prague rabbis who excommunicated the Sabbatean sect. (Others suggest that the rabbis issued this ruling because they feared the repercussions if their leading figure was found to be a Sabbatean). Events February 8 - Catherine I became empress of Russia February 20 - The first reported case of white men scalping Native Americans takes place in New Hampshire colony. ... For other uses, see Prague (disambiguation). ...


The controversy was a momentous incident in Jewish history of the period - involving both Rabbi Yechezkel Landau and the Vilna Gaon - and may be credited with having crushed the lingering belief in Sabbatai current even in some Orthodox circles. In 1760 the quarrel broke out once more when some Sabbatean elements were discovered among the students of Eybeschutz' yeshivah. At the same time his younger son, Wolf, presented himself as a Sabbatean prophet, with the result that the yeshivah was closed. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Rabbi Yechezkel ben Yehuda Landau (8 October 1713-29 April 1793) was an influential 18th century authority in halakha (Jewish law). ... Elijah Ben Solomon, the Vilna Gaon The Vilna Gaon (April 23, 1720 – October 9, 1797) was a prominent Jewish rabbi, Talmud scholar, and Kabbalist. ... 1760 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... A yeshiva (Hebrew, pl. ...


Sabbateans and early Hasidism

Some scholars see seeds of the Hasidic movement within the Sabbatean movement.[1] When Hasidism began to spread its influence, a serious schism evolved between the Hasidic and non-Hasidic Jews. The Hasidim dubbed any Jews who rejected the Hasidic movement as Misnagdim ("opponents"). Critics of Hasidic Judaism expressed concern that Hasidism might become a messianic sect as had occurred among the followers of both Sabbatai Zevi and Jacob Frank. However, The Baal Shem Tov the founder of Hasidism came at a time when the Jewish masses of Eastern Europe were reeling in bewilderment and disappointment engendered by the two Jewish false messiahs Sabbatai Zevi (1626-1676) and Jacob Frank (1726-1791) in particular. This article is about the Hasidic movement originating in Poland and Russia. ... Mitnagdim (also: misnagdim) is a Hebrew word (מתנגדים) meaning opponents; this term was used to refer to European religious Jews who opposed Hasidic Judaism. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Jacob Frank. ... The Baal Shem Tov Rabbi Israel (Yisroel) ben Eliezer (רבי ישראל בן אליעזר, August 27, 1698 – May 22, 1760) is considered to be the founder of Hasidic Judaism. ... A false messiah is a person that falsely claims or others falsely claim to be the Jewish Messiah. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Events September 30 - Nurhaci, chieftain of the Jurchens and founder of the Qing Dynasty dies and is succeeded by his son Hong Taiji. ... Events January 29 - Feodor III becomes Tsar of Russia First measurement of the speed of light, by Ole Rømer Bacons Rebellion Russo-Turkish Wars commence. ... Jacob Frank. ... Events George Friderich Handel becomes a British subject. ... 1791 (MDCCXCI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 11-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


Sabbateans and early Reform Judaism

Some scholars, such as Gershom Scholem, have claimed that the earliest proponents and devotees of Reform Judaism were Jewish Sabbateans [2] who had not converted to Islam, but were searching for ways to escape the formalism and strictures of the rabbis and the widespread adherence to Orthodox Judaism. Gershom Scholem (born December 5, 1897 in Berlin, died February 21, 1982 in Jerusalem), also known as Gerhard Scholem, was a German-born Jewish philosopher and historian. ... Reform Judaism can refer to (1) the largest denomination of American Jews and its sibling movements in other countries, (2) a branch of Judaism in the United Kingdom, and (3) the historical predecessor of the American movement that originated in 19th-century Germany. ... Orthodox Judaism is the formulation of Judaism that adheres to a relatively strict interpretation and application of the laws and ethics first canonised in the Talmudic texts (Oral Torah) and as subsequently developed and applied by the later authorities known as the Gaonim, Rishonim, and Acharonim. ...


Sabbateans and modern secularism

Some scholars have noted that the Sabbatean movement in general fostered and connected well with the principles of modern secularism. [3] Related to this is the drive of the Donmeh in Turkey for secularizing their society just as European Jews promoted the values of Age of Enlightenment and its Jewish equivalent the Haskalah. This article is about secularism. ... Donmeh refers to a group of Crypto-Jews of the Near East who followed Sabbatai Zevi (also called Shabbatai Zvi) and converted to Islam in 1666. ... The Enlightenment (French: ; German: ; Italian: ; Portuguese: ) was an eighteenth century movement in European and American philosophy — some classifications also include 17th century philosophy (usually called the Age of Reason). ... Haskalah (Hebrew: השכלה; enlightenment, education from sekhel intellect, mind ), the Jewish Enlightenment, was a movement among European Jews in the late 18th century that advocated adopting enlightenment values, pressing for better integration into European society, and increasing education in secular studies, Hebrew, and Jewish history. ...


Disillusioned Jewish Sabbateans

Former followers of Shabbatai do penance for their support of him.

Sabbatai's conversion to Islam was extremely disheartening for the world's Jewish communities. Prominent rabbis who were believers in and followers of Sabbatai were prostrated with shame. Among the masses of the people the greatest confusion reigned. In addition to the misery and disappointment from within, Muslims and Christians jeered at and scorned the credulous and duped Jews. The Sultan even planned to exterminate all the adult Jews in his empire and to decree that all Jewish children should be brought up in Islam, also that fifty prominent rabbis should be executed; only the contrary advice of some of his counsellors and of the sultan's mother prevented these calamities. In spite of Sabbatai's apostasy, many of his adherents still tenaciously clung to him, claiming that his conversion was a part of the Messianic scheme. This belief was further upheld and strengthened by the likes of Nathan of Gaza and Samuel Primo, who were interested in maintaining the movement. In many communities the solemn Jewish fast days Seventeenth of Tammuz and the Ninth of Av were still observed as joyous feast-days in spite of bans and excommunications. Image File history File links Shabbatai4. ... Image File history File links Shabbatai4. ... Nathan of Gaza (1643–1680) - Nathan became famous as a prophet for the false messiah, Shabbetai Tzvi. ... Seventeenth of Tammuz (שבעה עשר בתמוז Hebrew: Shiva Assar BeTammuz) is the seventeenth day on the Hebrew month of Tammuz. ... Tisha BAv (תשעה באב tish‘āh bə-āḇ) means the ninth day of the Jewish month of Av, which is a month in the lunar calendar used for purposes of Jewish holidays, etc. ...


Famous Sabbateans

Abraham ha-Yakini was one of the chief agitators in the Sabbatean movement, the son of Pethahiah of Constantinople. ... Abraham Miguel Cardozo (also Cardoso) (c. ... Jacob Frank. ... Jacob Querido (d. ... Joshua Heschel Zoref (b. ... Judah he-Hasid (Hebrew: Yehudah he-Hasid, Judah the Pious) (around 1650, Siedlce - 1700, Jerusalem), was a Jewish Sabbatean preacher who led the largest organized group of Jewish immigrants to the Land of Israel in centuries. ... Judah Leib (Leibele) Prossnitz (d. ... Mordecai Mokiach was Shabbethaian prophet and false Messiah; born in Alsace about 1650; died at Pressburg May 18, 1729. ... Nathan of Gaza (1643–1680) - Nathan became famous as a prophet for the false messiah, Shabbetai Tzvi. ... Nehemiah Hiyya ben Moses Hayyun (ca. ...

Rabbis who opposed the Sabbateans

Joseph Escapa

Main article: Joseph Escapa

Rabbi Joseph Escapa (1572-1662) was especially known for having been the teacher of Zevi and for having afterward excommunicated him. Joseph Escapa (c. ... Joseph Escapa (c. ... Cherem (or Herem חרם), is the highest ecclesiastical censure in the Jewish community. ...


Aaron Lapapa

Main article: Aaron Lapapa

Rabbi Aaron Lapapa (1590-1674), was the rabbi at Smyrna in 1665, when Zevi's movement was at its height there. He was one of the few rabbis who had the courage to oppose the false prophet and excommunicate him. Zevi and his adherents retorted by deposing him and forcing him to leave the city, and his office was given to his colleague, Hayyim Benveniste, at that time one of Sabbetai's followers. After Sabbetai's conversion to Islam, Lapapa seems to have been reinstated. Aaron ben Isaac Lapapa (c. ... Aaron ben Isaac Lapapa (c. ... Smyrna (Greek: Σμύρνη) is an ancient city (today İzmir in Turkey) that was founded at a very early period at a central and strategic point on the Aegean coast of Anatolia. ... Excommunication is religious censure which is used to deprive or suspend membership in a religious community. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ...


Jacob Hagis

Main article: Jacob Hagis

Rabbi Jacob Hagis (1620-1674) was one of Zevi's chief opponents, who put him under the ban. About 1673 Hagiz went to Constantinople to publish his Lehem ha-Panim, but he died there before this was accomplished. This book, as well as many others of his, was lost. Jacob Hagis (or Hagiz) (1620–1674) was a Palestinian Talmudist born of a Spanish family at Fez. ... Jacob Hagis (or Hagiz) (1620–1674) was a Palestinian Talmudist born of a Spanish family at Fez. ... Cherem (or Herem חרם), is the highest ecclesiastical censure in the Jewish community. ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ...


Moses Hagiz

Main article: Moses Hagiz

Rabbi Moses Hagiz (1671- c. 1750) was born in Jerusalem and waged a campaign against Sabbatian emissaries during 1725-1726. Moses Hagiz (1671-ca. ... Moses Hagiz (1671-ca. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... Not to be confused with Sabians followers of an ancient religion in Babylonia. ...


Jacob ben Aaron Sasportas

Rabbi Jacob ben Aaron Sasportas (1610-1698) was one of the most violent antagonists of the Sabbatean movement; he wrote many letters to various communities in Europe, Asia, and Africa, exhorting them to unmask the impostors and to warn the people against them. He wrote a number of works, such as: Toledot Ya'akob (1652), an index of Biblical passages found in the haggadah of the Jerusalem Talmud, similar to Aaron Pesaro's Toledot Aharon, which relates to the Babylonian Talmud only; Ohel Ya'ako (1737) that were polemical correspondence against Zevi and his followers. Jacob ben Aaron Sasportas was a Rabbi, cabalist, and anti-Shabbethaian; born at Oran 1610; died at Amsterdam April 15, 1698; father of Isaac b. ... Jacob ben Aaron Sasportas was a Rabbi, cabalist, and anti-Shabbethaian; born at Oran 1610; died at Amsterdam April 15, 1698; father of Isaac b. ... The Jerusalem Talmud (In Hebrew Talmud Yerushalmi, in short known as the Yerushalmi), also known as the Palestinian Talmud, like its Babylonian counterpart (see Babylonian Talmud), is a collection of Rabbinic discussions elaborating on the Mishnah. ... The Talmud (Hebrew: תַּלְמוּד) is a record of rabbinic discussions pertaining to Jewish law, ethics, customs and history. ...


David Nieto

Main article: David Nieto

Rabbi David Nieto (1654-1728) was the Haham of the Spanish and Portuguese Jewish community in London. He waged war untiringly on the supporters of the Sabbatean heresies, which he regarded as dangerous to the best interests of Judaism, and in this connection wrote his Esh Dat (London, 1715) against Nehemiah Hayyun (who supported Zevi). David Nieto was the Haham of the Spanish and Portuguese Jewish community in London; born at Venice 1654; died in London Jan. ... David Nieto was the Haham of the Spanish and Portuguese Jewish community in London; born at Venice 1654; died in London Jan. ... Hakham or Chacham (Hebrew חכם lit. ... Painting of the Amsterdam Esnoga — considered the mother synagogue by the Portuguese and Spanish Jews — by Emanuel de Witte (ab. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Nehemiah Hiyya ben Moses Hayyun (ca. ...


Tzvi Ashkenazi

Main article: Tzvi Ashkenazi

Rabbi Tzvi Ashkenazi (1656-1718) known as the Chacham Tzvi (after a responsa by the same title), for some time rabbi of Amsterdam, was a resolute opponent of the followers of the false messiah, Zevi. His responsa are held in high esteem. He studied in Salonica, where for some time he attended the school of Elihu Cobo. In Salonica he also witnessed the impact of the Sabbatai Zevi movement on the community, and this experience became a determining factor in his whole career. His son Jacob Emden served as rabbi in Emden and followed in his father's footsteps in combatting inroads of the Sabbattean movement. Painting of Tzvi Ashkenazi Rabbi Tzvi Hirsch ben Yaakov Ashkenazi (1656 Moravia- May 2, 1718 Lemberg) (Hebrew: ), known as the Chacham Tzvi (after a responsa by the same title), for some time rabbi of Amsterdam, was a resolute opponent of the followers of the false messiah, Sabbatai Zevi. ... Painting of Tzvi Ashkenazi Rabbi Tzvi Hirsch ben Yaakov Ashkenazi (1656 Moravia- May 2, 1718 Lemberg) (Hebrew: ), known as the Chacham Tzvi (after a responsa by the same title), for some time rabbi of Amsterdam, was a resolute opponent of the followers of the false messiah, Sabbatai Zevi. ... For the town in Italy, see Rabbi, Italy. ... For other uses, see Amsterdam (disambiguation). ... Note: This is based on an entry from the 1906 public domain Jewish Encyclopedia The responsa literature, known in Hebrew as Sheelot U-teshuvot (questions and answers), is the body of written decisions and rulings given by rabbis to questions addressed to them. ... Thessaloniki or Salonica (Greek: ) is Greeces second-largest city and the capital of Macedonia, the largest Region of Greece. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Jacob Emden was a Jewish rabbi, Talmud scholar, and opponent of the Shabbethaians. ... Emden is a city and seaport in the northwest of Germany, on river Ems. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Jacob Emden

Main article: Jacob Emden

Rabbi Jacob Emden (1697-1776) was Talmudic scholar, and leading opponent of the Sabbatians. He is best known as the opponent of Rabbi Jonathan Eybeschutz whom he accused of being a Sabbatean during the The Emden-Eybeschütz Controversy. Jacob Emden was a Jewish rabbi, Talmud scholar, and opponent of the Shabbethaians. ... Jacob Emden was a Jewish rabbi, Talmud scholar, and opponent of the Shabbethaians. ... The Talmud (Hebrew: תַּלְמוּד) is a record of rabbinic discussions pertaining to Jewish law, ethics, customs and history. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Jonathan Eybeschutz (Kraków 1690 - Altona 1764), was a Talmudist, Halachist and Kabbalist, holding positions as Dayan of Prague, and later as Rabbi of the Three Communities: Altona, Hamburg and Wandsbek. ... Jacob Emden was a Jewish rabbi, Talmud scholar, and opponent of the Shabbethaians. ...


Naphtali Cohen

Main article: Naphtali Cohen

Rabbi Naphtali Cohen (1649-1718) was Kabbalist who was tricked into giving an approbation to a book by the Sabbatean Nehemiah Hayyun. Provided with this and with other recommendations secured in the same way, Hayyun traveled throughout Moravia and Silesia, propagating everywhere his Sabbatean teachings. Cohen soon discovered his mistake, and endeavored, but without success, to recover his approbation, although he did not as yet realize the full import of the book. It was in 1713, while Cohen was staying at Breslau (where he acted as a rabbi until 1716), that Haham Tzvi Ashkenazi of Amsterdam informed him of its tenets. Cohen thereupon acted rigorously. He launched a ban against the author and his book, and became one of the most zealous supporters of Haham Tzvi in his campaign against Hayyun. Portrait of Rabbi Naphtali Cohen, from 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia. ... Portrait of Rabbi Naphtali Cohen, from 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia. ... Approbation is, in Roman Catholic canon law, an act by which a bishop or other legitimate superior grants to an ecclesiastic the actual exercise of his ministry. ... Nehemiah Hiyya ben Moses Hayyun (ca. ... Flag of Moravia Moravia (Czech and Slovak: Morava; German: ; Hungarian: ; Polish: ) is a historical region in the east of the Czech RepublicCzechia. ... Silesia (English pronunciation [], Czech: ; German: ; Latin: ; Polish: ; Silesian: Åšlůnsk) is a historical region in central Europe, located along the upper and middle Oder River, upper Vistula River, and along the Sudetes, Carpathian (Silesian Beskids) mountain range. ... Year 1713 (MDCCXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Wrocław. ... // Events August 5 - In the Battle of Peterwardein 40. ... Painting of Tzvi Ashkenazi Rabbi Tzvi Hirsch ben Yaakov Ashkenazi (1656 Moravia- May 2, 1718 Lemberg) (Hebrew: ), known as the Chacham Tzvi (after a responsa by the same title), for some time rabbi of Amsterdam, was a resolute opponent of the followers of the false messiah, Sabbatai Zevi. ... For other uses, see Amsterdam (disambiguation). ...


See also

Look up sabbatianism in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 150 languages. ... Alternative Judaism refers to several varieties of modern Judaism which fall outside the common Orthodox/Non-Orthodox (Reform/Conservative/Reconstructionist) classification of the four major streams of todays Judaism. ... This article is about the historical interaction between Islam and Judaism. ... Jews in apostasy are those Jews who have abandoned Judaism and have joined another religion. ... A Muslim Jew is someone who is Jewish by ethnicity, but who has converted to Islam. ... Schisms among the Jews are cultural as well as religious. ...

References

  1. ^ Post Sabbatian Sabbatianism. Bezalel Naor (Rav Kook on Sabbatianism) (December 12, 2006).
  2. ^ Sabbati Tzvi - The Mystical Messiah. Citation from Gershon Scholem (December 12, 2006).
  3. ^ Sabbatean Messianism as Proto Secularism. M. Avrum Ehrlich (December 12, 2006).

 
 

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