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Encyclopedia > Sabbatai Zevi
Shabbatai Tzvi in 1665

Sabbatai Zevi, (Hebrew: שַׁבְּתַי צְבִי, Shabbetay Ẓevi) (other spellings include Sabetay in Turkish, Shabbethai, Sabbetai, Shabbsai; Zvi; Sabbetai Tzvi; he was also known by the acronym ש״ץ Shatz) (August 1, 1626September 17, 1676) was a Jewish rabbi and Kabbalist who claimed to be the long-awaited Jewish Messiah. He was the founder of the Jewish Sabbatean movement, and inspired the founding of a number of other similar sects, such as the Donmeh in Turkey. Image File history File links Shabbatai1. ... Image File history File links Shabbatai1. ... “Hebrew” redirects here. ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events September 30 - Nurhaci, chieftain of the Jurchens and founder of the Qing Dynasty dies and is succeeded by his son Hong Taiji. ... September 17 is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 29 - Feodor III becomes Tsar of Russia First measurement of the speed of light, by Ole Rømer Bacons Rebellion Russo-Turkish Wars commence. ... For other uses, see Jew (disambiguation). ... Rabbi, in Judaism, means a religious ‘teacher’, or more literally, ‘great one’. The word Rabbi is derived from the Hebrew root word , rav, which in biblical Hebrew means ‘great’ or ‘distinguished (in knowledge)’. Sephardic and Yemenite Jews pronounce this word ribbÄ«; the modern Israeli pronunciation rabbÄ« is derived from a... This article is about traditional Jewish Kabbalah. ... In Judaism and Jewish eschatology, the Messiah (Hebrew: משיח; Mashiah, Mashiach, or Moshiach, anointed [one]) is a term traditionally referring to a future Jewish king from the Davidic line who will be anointed (the meaning of the Hebrew word משיח) with holy anointing oil and inducted to rule the Jewish people during... For other uses, see Jew (disambiguation). ... Not to be confused with Sabians followers of an ancient religion in Babylonia. ... Donmeh refers to a group of Crypto-Jews of the Near East who followed Sabbatai Zevi (also called Shabbatai Zvi) and converted to Islam in 1666. ...


Sabbatai Zevi was born in Smyrna on (supposedly) a Sabbath 9th Av 1626, and died, according to some, on Yom Kippur, September 30, 1676, in Dulcigno, a small town in the coastal region of Montenegro. According to others, he died in Albania.[Who says this?] His family came from Patras, presently in Greece, and descended from the Greek-speaking Jews of the Ottoman Empire. They were neither Sephardi nor Ashkenazi, and belonged to a distinctive group, known as Romaniotes; his father, Mordecai, was a poor poultry-dealer in the Morea. Later, when in consequence of the war between Turkey and Venice under the Sultan Ibrahim I, Smyrna became the centre of Levantine trade, Mordecai became the Smyrnan agent of an English house, whose interests he guarded with strict honesty. As a consequence, he acquired considerable wealth. Ä°zmir, historically Smyrna, is the third most populous city of Turkey and the countrys largest port after Ä°stanbul. ... This article or section cites very few or no references or sources. ... Tisha BAv (תשעה באב tish‘āh bÉ™-āḇ) is a major annual fast day in Judaism. ... Events September 30 - Nurhaci, chieftain of the Jurchens and founder of the Qing Dynasty dies and is succeeded by his son Hong Taiji. ... Yom Kippur (IPA: ; Hebrew:יוֹם כִּפּוּר, IPA: ) is the Jewish holiday of the Day of Atonement. ... September 30 is the 273rd day of the year (274th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 29 - Feodor III becomes Tsar of Russia First measurement of the speed of light, by Ole Rømer Bacons Rebellion Russo-Turkish Wars commence. ... Coordinates Mayor Gëzim Hajdinaga (DUA - DPS - SDP) Municipality area 255 km² Population (2003 census)  - city  - municipality  - density 10,828 20,290 79. ... Anthem Oj, svijetla majska zoro Oh, Bright Dawn of May Montenegro() on the European continent()  —  [] Capital (and largest city) Podgorica Official languages Serbian (Ijekavian dialect)1 Demonym Montenegrin Government Republic  -  President Filip Vujanović  -  Prime Minister Željko Å turanović Independence due to the dissolution of Serbia and Montenegro   -  Declared June 3, 2006... Coordinates 38°15′ N 21°44′ E Country Greece Periphery West Greece Prefecture Achaea Province Greece Population 161,114 (2001 [1]) Area 125. ... Sephardim (ספרדי, Standard Hebrew SÉ™fardi, Tiberian Hebrew ardî; plural Sephardim: ספרדים, Standard Hebrew Sfaradim, Tiberian Hebrew ) are a subgroup of Jews, generally defined in contrast to Ashkenazim and/or . ... Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or Ashkenazim (אַשְׁכֲּנָזִי אַשְׁכֲּנָזִים Standard Hebrew, AÅ¡kanazi,AÅ¡kanazim, Tiberian Hebrew, ʾAÅ¡kănāzî, ʾAÅ¡kănāzîm, pronounced sing. ... The Romaniotes are a Jewish population who have lived in the territory of todays Greece for more than 2000 years. ... The Morea and surrounding states carved from the Byzantine Empire, as they were in 1265 (William R. Shepherd, Historical Atlas, 1911) The name Morea (Μωρέας) for Peloponnesos first appears in the 10th century in Byzantine chronicles. ... Venice (Italian: Venezia, Venetian: Venezsia, Latin: Venetia) is a city in northern Italy, the capital of region Veneto, and has a population of 271,251 (census estimate January 1, 2004). ... Sultan (Arabic: سلطان) is an Islamic title, with several historical meanings. ... Sultan Ibrahim I Ibrahim I (November 5, 1615 – August 12, 1648) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1640–1648. ... The Levant The Levant (IPA: /lÉ™vænt/) is an imprecise geographical term historically referring to a large area in the Middle East south of the Taurus Mountains, bounded by the Mediterranean Sea on the west, and by the northern Arabian Desert and Upper Mesopotamia to the east. ...

Contents

Sabbatai Zevi's early years

In accordance with the prevailing Jewish custom, Sabbatai's father had him study Talmud. In his early youth he attended a yeshiva under the veteran rabbi of Smyrna, Joseph Escapa; studies in halakha (Jewish law) did not appeal to him, but apparently he did attain proficiency in the Talmud. On the other hand, he was fascinated by mysticism and the Kabbalah, in the prevailing style of Rabbi Isaac Luria. He found the practical Kabbalah, with its asceticism, and its mortification of the body – through which its devotees claimed to be able to communicate with God and the angels, to predict the future, and to perform all sorts of miracles – especially appealing. For other uses, see Jew (disambiguation). ... The first page of the Vilna Edition of the Babylonian Talmud, Tractate Berachot, folio 2a. ... This article is about the Jewish educational system. ... Agora of Smyrna Smyrna (Greek: Σμύρνη) is an ancient city (today Ä°zmir in Turkey) that was founded at a very early period at a central and strategic point on the Aegean coast of Anatolia. ... Joseph Escapa (c. ... Halakha (Hebrew: הלכה; also transliterated as Halakhah, Halacha, Halakhot and Halachah with pronunciation emphasis on the third syllable, kha), is the collective corpus of Jewish religious law, including biblical law (the 613 mitzvot) and later talmudic and rabbinic law as well as customs and traditions. ... Mysticism from the Greek μυστικός (mustikos) an initiate (of the Eleusinian Mysteries, μυστήρια (musteria) meaning initiation[1]) is the pursuit of achieving communion or identity with, or conscious awareness of, ultimate reality, the divine, spiritual truth, or God through direct experience, intuition, or insight; and the belief that such experience is one... This article is about traditional Jewish Kabbalah. ... Rabbi Isaac Luria (1534–July 25, 1572) was a Jewish mystic in Safed. ... The word ascetic derives from the ancient Greek term askesis (practice, training or exercise). ... Flagellants mortifying the flesh, at the time of the Black Death Mortification of the flesh literally means putting the flesh to death. The term is primarily used in religious contexts, and is practiced in a variety of ways. ... At the bottom of the hands, the two letters on each hand combine to form יהוה (YHVH), the name of God. ... A Gothic angel in ivory, c1250, Louvre An angel is a supernatural being found in many religions. ... A prediction is a statement or claim that a particular event will occur in the future in more certain terms than a forecast. ... A miracle, derived from the old Latin word miraculum meaning something wonderful, is a striking interposition of divine intervention by a God in the universe by which the ordinary course and operation of Nature is overruled, suspended, or modified. ...


In his youth he inclined to solitude. According to custom he married early, but avoided intercourse with his wife; she therefore applied for a divorce, which he willingly granted. The same thing happened with a second wife. Later, when he became more imbued with Kabbalah, he lost mental equilibrium.[Who says this?] He imposed the severest mortifications on himself: he bathed frequently in the sea, even in winter, fasted for days on end, and lived constantly in either a state of complete ecstasy, or intense depression. A get (גט, plural gittim or gittin) is the Hebrew word for a divorce document. ... Ecstasy (from the Greek έκστασις, to be outside oneselffff (ancient Greek: εξίστημι (existimi) meaning stand outside where εξ (ex) means out as in exit)) is a category of altered states of consciousness or trancelike states in which an individual transcends ordinary consciousness and as a result has a heightened capacity for exceptional thought... Clinical depression (also called major depressive disorder, or unipolar depression when compared to bipolar disorder) is a state of intense sadness, melancholia or despair that has advanced to the point of being disruptive to an individuals social functioning and/or activities of daily living. ...


Influence of English Millenarianism

During the first half of the 17th century, millenarian ideas of the approach of the Messianic time, and more especially of the redemption of the Jews and their return to the land of Israel, with their own independent sovereignty, were popular. The so-called apocalyptic year was identified by Christian authors as 1666. This belief was so dominant that Manasseh ben Israel in his letter to Oliver Cromwell and the Rump Parliament did not hesitate to use it as a motive for his plea for the readmission of the Jews into England, remarking: "the opinions of many Christians and mine do concur herein, that we both believe that the restoring time of our Nation into their native country is very near at hand". Millenarianism (sometimes spelled millenarism or millennarism) is the belief by a religious, social, or political group or movement in a coming major transformation of society after which all things will be changed in a positive (or sometimes negative or ambiguous) direction. ... In Judaism, the Messiah (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian  ; Arabic: ,  ; Aramaic:  ; the Anointed One) at first meant any person who was anointed with oil on rising to a certain position among the ancient Israelites, at first that of High priest, later that of King and also that of a prophet. ... For other uses of the word, see Redemption Redemption is a religious concept referring to forgiveness or absolution for past sins and protection from eternal damnation. ... Kingdom of Israel: Early ancient historical Israel — land in pink is the approximate area under direct central royal administration during the United Monarchy. ... Look up Apocalypse in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Menasseh Ben Israel (1604-1657), Jewish Rabbi, scholar, writer, diplomat, printer and publisher, founder of the first Hebrew printing press in Amsterdam in 1626. ... Oliver Cromwell (25 April 1599 – 3 September 1658) was an English military and political leader best known for his involvement in making England into a republican Commonwealth and for his later role as Lord Protector of England, Scotland and Ireland. ... The Rump Parliament was the name of the English Parliament immediately following the Long Parliament, after Prides Purge of December 6, 1648 had removed those Members of Parliament hostile to the intentions of the Grandees in the New Model Army to try King Charles I for high treason. ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem No official anthem - the  United Kingdom anthem God Save the Queen is commonly used England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto) Unified  -  by Athelstan 927 AD  Area  -  Total 130...


Sabbatai's father, who as the agent of an English house was in constant touch with English people, must frequently have heard of these expectations and, being strongly inclined to believe them, must have communicated them to his son, whom he almost deified because of his piety and kabbalistic wisdom.


Claims of Messiahship

Apart from this general Messianic theory, there was another computation, based on a presumably interpolated passage in the Zohar (a famous Jewish mystical text), and particularly popular among the Jews, according to which the year 1648 was to be the year of Israel's redemption by their long-awaited Jewish Messiah. All these things led Sabbatai to conceive a plan which was of grave consequence for the whole of Jewry, and whose effects are felt even to the present time: he decided to assume the role of that expected Jewish Messiah. The Zohar (Hebrew: זהר Splendor, radiance) is widely considered the most important work of Kabbalah, Jewish mysticism. ... In Judaism and Jewish eschatology, the Messiah (Hebrew: משיח; Mashiah, Mashiach, or Moshiach, anointed [one]) is a term traditionally referring to a future Jewish king from the Davidic line who will be anointed (the meaning of the Hebrew word משיח) with holy anointing oil and inducted to rule the Jewish people during...


Though only twenty-two years old, he dared (in the ominous year 1648) to reveal himself at Smyrna to a band of followers (whom he had won over through his knowledge of the Kabbalah, his attractive appearance, beautiful singing voice, personality, and his strange actions) as the true Messianic redeemer designated by God to overthrow the governments of the nations and to restore the kingdom of Israel. His mode of revealing his mission was the pronouncing of the Tetragrammaton in Hebrew, an act which was forbidden to all, except the Jewish high priest in the Temple in Jerusalem on the Day of Atonement. This was of great significance to those acquainted with rabbinical, and especially Kabbalistic, literature. However, Sabbatai's authority at the age of twenty-two did not reach far enough for him to gain many adherents. 10th century BCE: The Land of Israel, including the United Kingdom of Israel Commonwealth of Israel redirects here. ... At the bottom of the hands, the two letters on each hand combine to form יהוה (YHVH), the name of God. ... “Hebrew” redirects here. ... Even in death, many Kohanim choose to have this symbol, the special positioning of their fingers and hands during the Priestly Blessing, placed as a crest or symbol on their gravestones to indicate their status. ... A drawing of Ezekiels Visionary Temple from the Book of Ezekiel 40-47 The Temple in Jerusalem or Holy Temple (Hebrew: בית המקדש, transliterated Bet HaMikdash) was located on the Temple Mount (Har HaBayit) in the old city of Jerusalem. ... Yom Kippur (IPA: ; Hebrew:יוֹם כִּפּוּר, IPA: ) is the Jewish holiday of the Day of Atonement. ... Rabbinic literature, in the broadest sense, can mean the entire spectrum of Judaisms rabbinic writing/s throughout history. ...


Among the first of those to whom he revealed his Messiahship were Isaac Silveyra and Moses Pinheiro, the latter a brother-in-law of the Italian rabbi and kabbalist Joseph Ergas. Sabbatai remained at Smyrna for several years, leading the pious life of a mystic, and giving rise to much argument in the community, the details of which are not known. The college of rabbis, having at its head his teacher, Joseph Escapa, watched Sabbatai closely, and when his Messianic pretensions became too bold they put him and his followers under a ban of cherem, a type of excommunication in classical Judaism. Moses Pinheiro, an Italian Jew who lived at Leghorn in the seventeenth century, was one of the most influential pupils and followers of Shabbethai Ẓebi. ... This article is about traditional Jewish Kabbalah. ... Joseph Escapa (c. ... Cherem (or Herem חרם), is the highest ecclesiastical censure in the Jewish community. ... Excommunication is a religious censure used to deprive or suspend membership in a religious community. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


About the year 1651 (according to others, 1654) Sabbatai and his disciples were banished from Smyrna. It is not quite certain where he went from there. In 1653, or at the latest 1658, he was in Constantinople, where he met a preacher, Abraham ha-Yakini (a disciple of Joseph di Trani), who confirmed Sabbatai. Ha-Yakini is said to have forged a manuscript in archaic characters and in a style imitating the ancient apocalypses, and which, he alleged, bore testimony to Sabbatai's Messiahship. It was entitled The Great Wisdom of Solomon, and began: Map of Constantinople. ... Abraham ha-Yakini was one of the chief agitators in the Sabbatean movement, the son of Pethahiah of Constantinople. ... Joseph Trani or Joseph di Trani (the Elder) was a Talmudist of the latter part of the 16th century who lived in Greece. ... Look up Apocalypse in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

"I, Abraham, was confined in a cave for forty years, and I wondered greatly that the time of miracles did not arrive. Then was heard a voice proclaiming, 'A son will be born in the Hebrew year 5386 [English calendar year 1626] to Mordecai Zevi; and he will be called Shabbethai. He will humble the great dragon; ... he, the true Messiah, will sit upon My throne."

In Salonica

With this document, which he appears to have accepted as an actual revelation, Sabbatai determined to choose Salonica, at that time a center of Kabbalists, as the field for his further operations. Here he boldly proclaimed himself the Messiah, gaining many adherents. In order to impress his Messiahship upon the minds of his enthusiastic friends he put on all sorts of mystical events — e.g., the celebration of his marriage as the “Son of God” (the Ein Sof) with the Torah, preparing for this performance a solemn festival to which he invited his friends. The consequence was that the rabbis of Salonica banished him from the city. The sources differ widely as to the route he took after this expulsion, Alexandria, Athens, Istanbul (which was still known in the Christian West at that time as Constantinople), Jerusalem, Smyrna, and other places being mentioned as temporary centers of his impostures. Finally, however, after long wanderings, he settled in Cairo, Egypt, where he resided for about two years (1660–1662). Revelation is an uncovering or disclosure via communication from the divine of something that has been partially or wholly hidden or unknown. ... The White Tower The Arch of Galerius Map showing the Thessaloníki prefecture Thessaloníki (Θεσσαλονίκη) is the second-largest city of Greece and is the principal city and the capital of the Greek region of Macedonia. ... In the Jewish Kabbalah tradition, Ayn Sof (Ain Sof, Hebrew boundlessness or without end), also known referred to as Divine Being, is the name for God as he is unknown, or the mysterious and ultimate source of all existence. ... “Tora” redirects here. ... Alexandria (Greek: , Coptic: , Arabic: , Egyptian Arabic: Iskindireyya), (population of 3. ... Athens (Greek: Αθήνα - Athína) is the largest city and capital of Greece, located in the Attica periphery of central Greece. ... Istanbul (Turkish: , Greek: , historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see other names) is Turkeys most populous city, and its cultural and financial center. ... Map of Constantinople. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... Agora of Smyrna Smyrna (Greek: Σμύρνη) is an ancient city (today Ä°zmir in Turkey) that was founded at a very early period at a central and strategic point on the Aegean coast of Anatolia. ... For other uses, see Cairo (disambiguation). ...


At that time, there lived in Cairo a very wealthy and influential Jew named Raphael Joseph Halabi ("of Aleppo"), who held the high position of mint-master and tax-farmer under the Turkish government. Despite his riches and the external splendor which he displayed before the public, he continued to lead privately an ascetic life, fasting, bathing, and frequently scourging his body at night. He used his great wealth benevolently, supplying the needs of poor Talmudists and Kabalists, fifty of whom regularly dined at his table. Sabbatai at once made the acquaintance of Raphael Joseph who, being possessed by eccentric, mystical ideas, became one of the most zealous promulgators of his Messianic plans. Aleppo (or Halab Arabic: , ) is a city in northern Syria, capital of the Aleppo Governorate. ... The word ascetic derives from the ancient Greek term askesis (practice, training or exercise). ...


It seems, however, that Cairo did not appear to Sabbatai to be the proper place to carry out his long-cherished scheme. The apocalyptic year, 1666, was approaching, and something had to be done to establish his Messiahship. He therefore left the Egyptian capital and travelled to Jerusalem, hoping that in the Holy City a miracle might occur to confirm his pretensions. Arriving there in about 1663, he at first remained inactive, so as not to offend the community. He again resorted to his former practice of mortifying the body by frequent fasting and other penances in order to gain the confidence of the people, who saw this as proof of his extraordinary piety. He also adopted various means of an inoffensive character which helped to endear him to the masses. Having a very melodious voice, he used to sing psalms for the whole night, or at times even coarse Spanish love-songs, to which he gave mystical interpretations, thus attracting crowds of admiring listeners. At other times he would pray at the graves of pious men and women and, some of his followers reported, shed floods of tears, or he would distribute all sorts of sweetmeats to the children on the streets. Thus he gradually gathered around him a circle of adherents who placed their faith in him. A miracle, derived from the old Latin word miraculum meaning something wonderful, is a striking interposition of divine intervention by a God in the universe by which the ordinary course and operation of Nature is overruled, suspended, or modified. ... Piety is a desire and willingness to perform spiritual, often ascetic rituals. ... Psalms (from the Greek: Psalmoi (songs sung to a harp, originally from psallein play on a stringed instrument), Ψαλμοί; Hebrew: Tehilim, תהילים) is a book of the Hebrew Bible, Tanakh or Old Testament. ... The term confectionery refers to food items rich in sugar. ...


At this point an unexpected incident brought him back to Cairo. The community of Jerusalem needed money in order to avert a calamity which greedy Turkish officials planned against it. Sabbatai, known as the favorite of the rich Raphael Joseph Halabi, was chosen as the envoy of the distressed community, and he willingly undertook the task, as it gave him an opportunity to act as the deliverer of the Holy City. As soon as he appeared before Halabi he obtained from him the necessary sum, which gave him great prestige and offered the best prospects for his future Messianic plans. His worshippers dated his public career from this second journey to Cairo.


Marriage to Sarah

Another circumstance assisted Sabbatai in the course of his second stay at Cairo. During the Chmielnicki massacres in Poland, a Jewish orphan girl named Sarah, about six years old, had been found by Christians and sent to a convent. After ten years' confinement she escaped (reportedly through a miracle), and was taken to Amsterdam. Some years later she went to Livorno where, according to authentic reports, she led a life of prostitution. She also conceived the notion that she was to become the bride of the Messiah who was soon to appear. The report of this girl reached Cairo, and Sabbatai at once seized upon the opportunity and claimed that such a consort had been promised to him in a dream because he, as well as the Messiah of the Christians, was bound to fall in love with an unchaste woman...(Cecilia Ruiz de Ríos, Nicaraguan historian). Messengers were sent to Livorno, and Sarah was brought to Cairo, where she was married to Sabbatai at Halabi's house. Through her a romantic, licentious element entered Sabbatai's career. Her beauty and eccentricity gained for him many new followers, and even her past lewd life was looked upon as an additional confirmation of his Messiahship, the prophet Hosea having been commanded to take a "wife of whoredom" as the first symbolic act of his calling. Bohdan Zynovii Mykhailovych Khmelnytskyi (Богдан Зиновій Михайлович Хмельницький in Polish as Bohdan Zenobi Chmielnicki; in Russian as... This article is about an abbey as a religious building. ... Nickname: Motto: Heldhaftig, Vastberaden, Barmhartig (Valiant, Determined, Compassionate) Location of Amsterdam Coordinates: , Country Netherlands Province North Holland Government  - Mayor Job Cohen (PvdA)  - Aldermen Lodewijk Asscher Hennah Buyne Carolien Gehrels Tjeerd Herrema Maarten van Poelgeest Marijke Vos  - Secretary Erik Gerritsen Area [1][2]  - City 219 km²  (84. ... Livorno, sometimes in English Leghorn, (population 170,000) is a port city on the Tyrrhenian Sea on the western edge of Tuscany, Italy. ... See also Hoshea, who has the same name in Biblical Hebrew. ...


Nathan of Gaza

Main article: Nathan of Gaza

Having Halabi's money, a charming wife, and many additional followers, Sabbatai triumphantly returned to Palestine. Passing through the city of Gaza, he met a man who was to become very active in his subsequent Messianic career. This was Nathan Benjamin Levi, known under the name of Nathan of Gaza (נתן עזתי Nathan 'Azzati). He became Sabbatai's right-hand man, and professed to be the risen Elijah, the precursor of the Messiah. In 1665, Nathan announced that the Messianic age was to begin in the following year. Sabbatai spread this announcement widely, together with many additional details to the effect that the world would be conquered by him, the Elijah, without bloodshed; that the Messiah would then lead back the Ten Lost Tribes to the Holy Land, "riding on a lion with a seven-headed dragon in its jaws", and similar fantasies. These claims were widely circulated and believed. Nathan of Gaza (1643–1680) - Nathan became famous as a prophet for the false messiah, Shabbetai Tzvi. ... Map of the British Mandate of Palestine. ... Not to be confused with the Spanish name Garza or the Egyptian town of Giza. ... Nathan of Gaza (1643–1680) - Nathan became famous as a prophet for the false messiah, Shabbetai Tzvi. ... Elijah in the wilderness, by Washington Allston Elijah (Hebrew: אליהו, ) was a prophet in Israel in the 9th century BCE. He appears in the Hebrew Bible, Talmud, Mishnah, Christian Bible, and the Quran. ... It has been suggested that Israelite Diaspora be merged into this article or section. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Holy Land (Biblical). ...


The rabbis of Jerusalem, however, regarded the movement with great suspicion, and threatened its followers with excommunication. Sabbatai, realizing that Jerusalem was not a congenial place in which to carry out his plans, left for his native city, Smyrna, while his prophet, Nathan, proclaimed that henceforth Gaza, and not Jerusalem, would be the sacred city. On his way from Jerusalem to Smyrna, Sabbatai was enthusiastically greeted in the large Asiatic community of Aleppo, and at Smyrna, which he reached in the autumn of 1665, the greatest homage was paid to him. Finally, after some hesitation, he publicly declared himself as the expected Messiah (New Year, 1665); the declaration was made in the synagogue, with the blowing of horns, and the multitude greeted him with: "Long live our King, our Messiah!" Excommunication is a religious censure used to deprive or suspend membership in a religious community. ... Aleppo (or Halab Arabic: , ) is a city in northern Syria, capital of the Aleppo Governorate. ... The New Year is an event that happens when a culture celebrates the end of one year and the beginning of the next year. ... A synagogue (from ancient Greek: , transliterated synagogē, assembly; Hebrew: beit knesset, house of assembly; Yiddish: , shul; Ladino: , esnoga) is a Jewish house of worship. ... A shofar in the Yemenite Jewish style. ...


Proclaimed Messiah

"Shabbatai Tzvi enthroned", from Tikkun, Amsterdam, 1666.

The joy of his followers knew no bounds. Sabbatai, assisted by his wife, now became the sole ruler of the community. In this capacity he used his power to crush all opposition. For instance, he deposed the old rabbi of Smyrna, Aaron Lapapa, and appointed in his place Hayyim Benveniste. His popularity grew with incredible rapidity, as not only Jews but Christians also spread his story far and wide. His fame extended to all countries. Italy, Germany, and the Netherlands had centers where the Messianic movement was ardently promulgated, and the Jews of Hamburg and Amsterdam received confirmation of the extraordinary events in Smyrna from trustworthy Christians. A distinguished German savant, Heinrich Oldenburg, wrote to Baruch Spinoza (Spinozae Epistolae No 33): "All the world here is talking of a rumour of the return of the Israelites ... to their own country. ... Should the news be confirmed, it may bring about a revolution in all things." Image File history File links Shabbatai2. ... Image File history File links Shabbatai2. ... Aaron ben Isaac Lapapa (c. ... Location Coordinates Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DE6 First Mayor Ole von Beust (CDU) Governing party CDU Votes in Bundesrat 3 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  755 km² (292 sq mi) Population 1,754,317 (11/2006)[1]  - Density 2,324 /km² (6,018... Nickname: Motto: Heldhaftig, Vastberaden, Barmhartig (Valiant, Determined, Compassionate) Location of Amsterdam Coordinates: , Country Netherlands Province North Holland Government  - Mayor Job Cohen (PvdA)  - Aldermen Lodewijk Asscher Hennah Buyne Carolien Gehrels Tjeerd Herrema Maarten van Poelgeest Marijke Vos  - Secretary Erik Gerritsen Area [1][2]  - City 219 km²  (84. ... Henry Oldenburg (c. ... Baruch de Spinoza (Hebrew:ברוך שפינוזה , Portuguese: Bento de Espinosa, Latin: Benedictus de Spinoza) (lived November 24, 1632 – February 21, 1677) was a Dutch philosopher of Portuguese Jewish origin. ...


Sabbatai numbered many prominent rabbis as followers, including Isaac Aboab da Fonseca, Moses Raphael de Aguilar, Moses Galante, Moses Zacuto, and the above-mentioned Hayyim Benveniste. Even the semi-Spinozist Dionysius Mussafia Musaphia likewise became one of Sabbatai's zealous adherents. Fantastic reports were widely spread and believed, as for example: "in the north of Scotland a ship had appeared with silken sails and ropes, manned by sailors who spoke Hebrew. The flag bore the inscription 'The Twelve Tribes of Israel'." The community of Avignon, France, prepared, therefore, to emigrate to the new kingdom in the spring of 1666. Isaac Aboab da Fonseca (February 1st, 1605 - April 4th, 1693) was a rabbi, scholar, kabbalist and writer. ... Moses Galante (the Younger) (1621–February 4, 1689 Jerusalem), was the son of Jonathan and grandson of Moses Galante (the Elder). ... Moses ben Mordecai Zacuto (ca. ... Benjamin Musaphia (also called Benjamin ben Immanuel Musaphia or Mussafia and Dionysius), Jewish doctor, scholar and kabbalist, was born around Spain, and died in Amsterdam, The Netherlands in 1675. ... Motto (Latin) No one provokes me with impunity Cha togar mfhearg gun dioladh (Scottish Gaelic) Wha daur meddle wi me?(Scots)1 Anthem (Multiple unofficial anthems) Scotlands location in Europe Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow Official languages English, Gaelic and Scots1 Government Constitutional monarchy  -  Monarch Queen Elizabeth II... “Hebrew” redirects here. ... City flag City coat of arms Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country France Région Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur Département Vaucluse (préfecture) Arrondissement Avignon Canton Chief town of 4 cantons Intercommunality Communauté dagglomération du Grand Avignon Mayor Marie-Josée Roig...


The readiness of the Jews of the time to believe the messianic claims of Sabbatai Zevi may be largely explained by the desperate state of European Jewry in the mid-1600s. The bloody pogroms of Bohdan Khmelnytsky had wiped out one third of the Jewish population and destroyed many centers of Jewish learning and communal life (Cohen 1948). There is no doubt that for most of the Jews of Europe there could never have seemed a more propitious moment for the messiah to deliver salvation than that moment at which Sabbetai Zevi made his appearance. Bohdan Zynovii Mykhailovych Khmelnytskyi (Ukrainian: Богдан Зиновій Михайлович Хмельницький, commonly transliterated as Khmelnytsky; known in Polish as Bohdan Zenobi Chmielnicki; in Russian as Богда́н Хмельни́цкий (Bogdan Khmelnitsky)) ( 1595 — August 6, 1657) was a famous and a somewhat controversial leader of the Zaporozhian Cossack Hetmanate, hetman of Ukraine. ...


Spread of his influence

Main article: Sabbateans

The adherents of Sabbatai, probably with his consent, even planned to abolish to a great extent the ritualistic observances because, according to a minority opinion in the Talmud, in the Messianic time most of them were to lose their obligatory character. The first step toward the disintegration of traditional Judaism was the changing of the fast of the Tenth of Tevet to a day of feasting and rejoicing. Samuel Primo, a man who entered Sabbatai's service as secretary at the time when the latter left Jerusalem for Smyrna, directed in the name of the Messiah the following circular to the whole of Israel: Not to be confused with Sabians followers of an ancient religion in Babylonia. ... Main article: Mitzvah 613 Mitzvot or 613 Commandments (Hebrew: ‎ transliterated as Taryag mitzvot; TaRYaG is the acronym for the numeric value of 613) are a list of commandments from God in the Torah. ... Tenth of Tevet, in Hebrew asarah btevet, the tenth day of the Hebrew calendar month of Tevet, a minor fast day in Judaism. ...

"The first-begotten Son of God, Shabbethai Tebi, Messiah and Redeemer of the people of Israel, to all the sons of Israel, Peace! Since ye have been deemed worthy to behold the great day and the fulfilment of God's word by the Prophets, your lament and sorrow must be changed into joy, and your fasting into merriment; for ye shall weep no more. Rejoice with song and melody, and change the day formerly spent in sadness and sorrow into a day of jubilee, because I have appeared."

This message produced wild excitement and dissension in the communities, as many of the leaders, who had hitherto regarded the movement sympathetically, were shocked at these radical innovations. Solomon Algazi, a prominent Talmudist of Smyrna, and other members of the rabbinate, who opposed the abolition of the fast, narrowly escaped with their lives. Solomon Nissim Algazi was rabbi in Smyrna and in Jerusalem in the 17th century. ...


In Istanbul

At the beginning of the year 1666, Sabbatai again left Smyrna for Istanbul (the Ottoman Empire's capital, which was still known in the Christian West at the time as Constantinople), either because he was compelled to do so by the city authorities or because of a hope that a miracle would happen in the Turkish capital to fulfil the prophecy of Nathan Ghazzati that Sabbatai would place the sultan's crown on his own head. As soon as he reached the landing-place, however, he was arrested at the command of the grand vizier, Ahmed Köprülü, and cast into prison in chains. An under-pasha, commissioned to receive Sabbatai on the ship, welcomed him with a vigorous box on the ear. When this official was asked later to explain his conduct, he attempted to exonerate himself by blaming the Jews for having proclaimed Sabbatai as their Messiah against his own will. Istanbul (Turkish: , Greek: , historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see other names) is Turkeys most populous city, and its cultural and financial center. ... Map of Constantinople. ... Sultan (Arabic: سلطان) is an Islamic title, with several historical meanings. ... A Vizier (وزير, sometimes also spelled Wazir) is an Arabic term for a high-ranking religious and political advisor, often to a king or sultan. ... Fazıl Ahmed Köprülü (1635 – October 19, 1676), of the Köprülü family, was the grand vizier of the Ottoman Empire from 1661 when he inherited the title from his father Mehmed Köprülü. He captured Crete in 1669 and signed the Treaty of Zorawno on... Pasha (or pascha, bashaw; Turkish: paÅŸa; originally from Persian padshah or padeshah meaning king or from Turkish bash head, chief [1]) was a high rank in the Ottoman Empire political system, typically granted to governors and generals. ...


Sabbatai's imprisonment, however, had no discouraging effect either on him or on his followers. On the contrary, the lenient treatment which he secured by means of bribes served rather to strengthen them in their Messianic delusions. In the meantime, all sorts of fabulous reports concerning the miraculous deeds which "the Messiah" was performing in the Turkish capital were spread by Ghazzati and Primo among the Jews of Smyrna and in many other communities, and the expectations of the Jews were raised to a still higher pitch.


At Abydos (Migdal Oz)

After two months' imprisonment in Constantinople, Sabbatai was brought to the state prison in the castle of Abydos. Here he was treated very leniently, some of his friends even being allowed to accompany him. In consequence the Sabbataians called that fortress Migdal 'Oz ("Tower [of] Strength"). As the day on which he was brought to Abydos was the day preceding Passover, he slew a paschal lamb for himself and his followers and ate it with its fat, which was a violation of the Law. It is said that he pronounced over it the benediction: "Blessed be God who hath restored again that which was forbidden." Abydos, an ancient city of Mysia, in Asia Minor, situated at Nagara Point on the Hellespont, which is here scarcely a mile broad. ... Pasch redirects here. ... Lamb of God (Latin: Agnus Dei) is one of the titles given to Jesus in the New Testament and consequently in the Christian tradition. ...


The immense sums sent to him by his rich adherents, the charms of the queenly Sarah, and the reverential admiration shown him even by the Turkish officials and the inhabitants of the place enabled Sabbatai to display royal splendor in the castle of Abydos, accounts of which were exaggerated and spread among Jews in Europe, Asia, and Africa. In some parts of Europe Jews began to unroof their houses and prepare for a new "exodus". In almost every synagogue, Sabbatai's initials were posted, and prayers for him were inserted in the following form: "Bless our Lord and King, the holy and righteous Sabbatai Zevi, the Messiah of the God of Jacob." In Hamburg the council introduced this custom of praying for Sabbatai not only on Saturday (the Jewish Sabbath), but also on Monday and Thursday, and unbelievers were compelled to remain in the synagogue and join in the prayer with a loud Amen. Sabbatai's picture was printed together with that of King David in most of the prayer-books, as well as his kabbalistic formulas and penances. World map showing the location of Europe. ... World map showing the location of Asia. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Location Coordinates Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DE6 First Mayor Ole von Beust (CDU) Governing party CDU Votes in Bundesrat 3 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  755 km² (292 sq mi) Population 1,754,317 (11/2006)[1]  - Density 2,324 /km² (6,018... This article or section cites very few or no references or sources. ... Look up Amen in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This page is about the Biblical king David. ...


These and similar innovations caused great dissension in various communities. In Moravia the excitement reached such a pitch that the government had to interfere, while at Sale, Morocco, the emir ordered a persecution of the Jews. This state of affairs lasted three months (April to July), during which time Sabbatai's adherents busied themselves in sending forged letters to deceive their brethren in distant communities. It was also during this period that Sabbatai, in a general desire for innovations aiming at the abrogation of all laws and customs, transformed the fasts of the Seventeenth of Tammuz and the Ninth of Av (his birthday) into feast-days, and it is said that he contemplated even the abolition of the Day of Atonement. Flag of Moravia Moravia (Czech and Slovak: Morava; German: ; Hungarian: ; Polish: ) is a historical region in the east of the Czech RepublicCzechia. ... Salé (from the Berber word asla, meaning rock) is the twin city to Rabat, capital of Morocco. ... Entrance to the emirs palace in Bukhara. ... Look up Persecution in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Seventeenth of Tammuz (שבעה עשר בתמוז Hebrew: Shiva Assar BeTammuz) is the seventeenth day on the Hebrew month of Tammuz. ... Tisha BAv (תשעה באב tish‘āh bə-āḇ) means the ninth day of the Jewish month of Av, which is a month in the lunar calendar used for purposes of Jewish holidays, etc. ...


Nehemiah ha-Kohen

Shabbatai Tzvi as a prisoner in Abydos.
Shabbatai Tzvi as a prisoner in Abydos.

At this time an incident occurred which led to the discrediting of Sabbatai's Messiahship. Two prominent Polish Talmudists from Lwów, Galicia, who were among Sabbatai's visitors in Abydos, apprised him of the fact that in their native country a prophet, Nehemiah ha-Kohen, had announced the coming of the Messiah. Sabbatai ordered the prophet to appear before him. (But see Jew. Encyc. ix. 212a, s.v. Nehemiah ha-Kohen). Nehemiah obeyed, reaching Abydos, after a journey of three months, at the beginning of September, 1666. The conference between the two ended in mutual dissatisfaction, and some fanatical Sabbataians are said to have contemplated the secret murder of the dangerous rival. Image File history File links Shabbatai3. ... Image File history File links Shabbatai3. ... Motto: Semper fidelis Oblast Lviv Oblast Municipal government City council (Львівська міська рада) Mayor City chairman Lyubomyr Bunyak Area 171,01 km² Population  - city  - urban  - density 808,900 ? 4786/km² Founded City rights 13th century 1353 Latitude Longitude 49°51′ N 24°01′ E Area code +0322 Car plates  ? Twin towns Corning, Freiburg... Coat-of-arms of the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria Galicia (Ukrainian: , Polish: , Russian: , German: , Hungarian: , Czech: , Yiddish: , Turkish: , Romanian: ) is a historical region in East Central Europe, currently divided between Poland and Ukraine. ...


Sabbatai adopts Islam

Nehemiah, however, escaped to Constantinople, where he pretended to embrace Islam to get an audience with the kaymakam and betrayed the treasonable desires of Sabbatai to him. He in turn informed the sultan, Mehmed IV. At the command of Mehmed, Sabbatai was now taken from Abydos to Adrianople, where the sultan's physician, a former Jew, advised him to convert to Islam. Sabbatai realized the danger of the situation and adopted the physician's advice. On the following day (September 16, 1666), being brought before the sultan, he cast off his Jewish garb and put a Turkish turban on his head; and thus his conversion to Islam was accomplished. The sultan was much pleased, and rewarded Sabbatai by conferring on him the title (Mahmed) Effendi, and appointing him as his doorkeeper with a high salary. Sarah and a number of Sabbatai's followers also went over to Islam. To complete his acceptance of Islam, Sabbatai was ordered to take an additional wife, a harem. Some days after his conversion he wrote to Smyrna: "God has made me an Ishmaelite; He commanded, and it was done. The ninth day of my regeneration." It is widely believed that he had some connection with the Bektashi Sufi order. Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion based upon the teachings of Muhammad, a 7th century Arab religious and political figure. ... Kaymakam (Turkish term; also rendered as kaimakam) was the Ottoman title used by provincial governors. ... Sultan (Arabic: سلطان) is an Islamic title, with several historical meanings. ... Sultan Mehmed IV Mehmed IV (also known as Dördüncü, fourth, and Avci, hunter) (January 2, 1642–1693) (Arabic: محمد الرابع) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1648 to 1687. ... Edirne is a city in (Thrace), the westernmost part of Turkey, close to the borders with Greece and Bulgaria. ... // 1400 - Owain Glyndŵr declared Prince of Wales by his followers. ... 1666 is often called Annus Mirabilis. ... A Sikh man wearing a turban The turban (from the Persian , dulband via the Turkish ) is a headdress consisting of a long scarf-like single piece of cloth wound round the head or an inner hat. ... Effendi (actually spelled Efendi in Turkish) (a Turkish title meaning a lord or master) is a title of respect, equivalent to the English sir, in Turkey and some other Eastern countries. ... Coming from the Arab tradition, the harîm حريم (compare haram) is the part of the household forbidden to male strangers. ... The Bektashi order (Turkish: BektaÅŸi) is a syncretic religious order related to Shia Alevi faith, and is generally considered to be a Shia Sufi sect (Tarika). ...


Disillusion

Sabbatai's conversion was devastating for his followers. Among some of the people the greatest confusion reigned. In addition to the misery and disappointment from within, Muslims and Christians jeered at and scorned the credulous Jews. The sultan even planned to exterminate all the adult Jews in his empire and to decree that all Jewish children should be brought up in Islam, also that fifty prominent rabbis should be executed; only the contrary advice of some of his counsellors and of the sultan's mother prevented these calamities. In spite of Sabbatai's apostasy, many of his adherents still tenaciously clung to him, claiming that his conversion was a part of the Messianic scheme. This belief was further upheld and strengthened by false prophets like Ghazzati and Primo, who were interested in maintaining the movement. In many communities the Seventeenth of Tammuz and the Ninth of Av were still observed as feast-days in spite of bans and excommunications.

Former followers of Shabbatai do penance for their support of him.
Former followers of Shabbatai do penance for their support of him.

Meanwhile Sabbatai secretly played a double game. At times he would assume the role of a pious Muslim and revile Judaism; at others he would enter into relations with Jews as one of their own faith. In March 1668 he again announced that he had been filled with the "Holy Spirit" at Passover, and had received a "revelation." He, or one of his followers, published a mystical work addressed to the Jews in which it was claimed that Sabbatai was the true Messiah, in spite of his conversion, his object being to bring over thousands of Muslims to Judaism. To the sultan, however, he said that his activity among the Jews was to bring them over to Islam. He therefore received permission to associate with his former co-religionists, and even to preach in their synagogues. He thus succeeded in bringing over a number of Muslims to his kabbalistic views, and, on the other hand, in converting many Jews to Islam, thus forming a Judaeo–Turkish sect whose followers implicitly believed in him. Image File history File links Shabbatai4. ... Image File history File links Shabbatai4. ...


This double-dealing with Jews and Muslims did not last very long. Gradually the Turks tired of Sabbatai's schemes. He was deprived of his salary, and banished from Adrianople to Constantinople. In a village near the latter city he was one day discovered singing psalms in a tent with Jews, whereupon the grand vizier ordered his banishment to Dulcigno (today called Ulcinj), a small place in Montenegro, where he died in solitude. Coordinates Mayor Gëzim Hajdinaga (DUA - DPS - SDP) Municipality area 255 km² Population (2003 census)  - city  - municipality  - density 10,828 20,290 79. ...


Modern followers

Main articles: Sabbateans and Donmeh

Although rather little is known about them, various groups called Donmeh (Turkish for "apostate") continue to follow Sabbatai Zevi today mostly in Turkey. Estimates of the numbers vary. Many sources claim that there are less than 100,000 and many of them claim there are hundreds of thousands of sabbatais in Turkey. According to one source: Not to be confused with Sabians followers of an ancient religion in Babylonia. ... Donmeh refers to a group of Crypto-Jews of the Near East who followed Sabbatai Zevi (also called Shabbatai Zvi) and converted to Islam in 1666. ... Donmeh refers to a group of Crypto-Jews of the Near East who followed Sabbatai Zevi (also called Shabbatai Zvi) and converted to Islam in 1666. ... Apostasy (Greek απο, apo, away, apart, στασις, stasis, standing) is the formal renunciation of ones religion. ...

"Although outwardly Muslims and, to a lesser extent, Christians, the Donmeh secretly continue to observe Jewish rituals (such as circumcision, but at the age of three rather than eight days), pray in Hebrew as well as Aramaic and Ladino (Judaeo-Spanish), and have clandestine festivals and fast days that are Jewish survivals. Karakash-Honiosos group also practise unique Sabbatian rites, probably instituted by Reb Berechia after Sabbatai's death, such as The Darkening of the Light."

Isik University (a private university in Istanbul, Turkey) and the Feyziye Schools Foundation (Feyziye Mektepleri Vakfi - FMV) under whose umbrella the University is operating, are claimed to be founded by the Karakash group of Donmeh. This article is about male circumcision. ... Aramaic is a Semitic language with a four-thousand year history. ... Ladino is a Romance language, derived mainly from Old Castilian (Spanish) and Hebrew. ... Isik University is a private university located in Istanbul, Turkey. ...


A group calling itself Donmeh West, founded in California in 1983 by Reb Yakov Leib, considers itself a "Neo-Sabbatian collective," and draws on Sabbatai Zevi's teachings to form a syncretistic movement which also draws heavily on Sufism and other faiths. Donmeh West does not appear to have direct historical ties to the Donmeh active in Turkey. Syncretism is the attempt to reconcile disparate, even opposing, beliefs and to meld practices of various schools of thought. ...


Bibliography

  • Sholem Asch: Sabbatai Zevi: A Tragedy in Three Acts: Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society: 1930.
  • Cohen, Mortimer J. (1948), "Was Eibeschuetz a Sabbatian?", The Jewish Quarterly Review XXXIX(1): 51–62.
  • Joseph Kastein: (translator): Messiah of Isimir: Sabbatai Zevi: New York: Viking Press: 1931.
  • John Freely: Lost Messiah: In Search of Sabbatai Sevi: London: Penguin: 2002: ISBN 0-14-028491-5
  • Gershom Scholem: Sabbatai Sevi: The Mystical Messiah: 1626-1676: London: Routledge Kegan Paul: 1973: ISBN 0-7100-77033: American Edition: Princeton: Princeton University Press: 1973: ISBN 0-691-09916-2 (hardcover edn.).
  • Elisheva Carlebach, Pursuit of Heresy: Rabbi Moses Hagiz and the Sabbatian Controversy. New York, Columbia University Press, 1990, 364 p.
  • Pavel Stefanov, "El seudomesias Sabbetay Sevi (1626-1676)," Anuario. Organizacion de lo judios en Bulgaria "Shalom", 26, 1991, pp. 298-312.
  • Cengiz Sisman, A Jewish Messiah in the Ottoman Court: The Sabbatian Movement and Emergence of a Messianic Judeo-Islamic Sect in the Seventeenth Century Ottoman Empire (1666-1720), unpublished Ph.D. disseration, Harvard University, 2004.
  • David Halperin, Sabbatai Zevi: Testimonies to a Fallen Messiah: Oxford, Littman Littman Library of Jewish Civilization, 2007, 256 pp.

Gershom Scholem (born December 5, 1897 in Berlin, died February 21, 1982 in Jerusalem), also known as Gerhard Scholem, was a German-born Jewish philosopher and historian. ...

See also

This is a list of people who have been said to be a messiah either by themselves, or by their followers. ... In Judaism and Jewish eschatology, the Messiah (Hebrew: משיח; Mashiah, Mashiach, or Moshiach, anointed [one]) is a term traditionally referring to a future Jewish king from the Davidic line who will be anointed (the meaning of the Hebrew word משיח) with holy anointing oil and inducted to rule the Jewish people during... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Not to be confused with Sabians followers of an ancient religion in Babylonia. ... Schisms among the Jews: // First Temple era Based on the historical narrative in the Bible and archeology, Levantine civilization at the time of Solomons Temple was prone to idol worship, astrology, worship of reigning kings, and paganism. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Jews in apostasy are those Jews who have abandoned Judaism and have joined another religion. ... Jacob Frank. ...

External links

References

The Jewish Encyclopedia was an encyclopedia originally published between 1901 and 1906 by Funk and Wagnalls. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...


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Sabbatai Zevi Summary (4326 words)
The Jewish mystic and pseudo-Messiah Sabbatai Zevi (1626-1676), or Sebi, was the founder of the Sabbatean sect.
Sabbatai Zevi was born in Smyrna (modern Izmir), Turkey, of Spanish-Jewish parentage.
Zevi was born in Smyrna on a Sabbath 9th Av 1626, and died, according to some, on Yom Kippur, September 30 1676, in Dulcigno, a small town in the coastal region of Montenegro.
Sabbatai Zevi - Encyclopedia.com (885 words)
Sabbatai Zevi, 1626-76, Jewish mystic and pseudo-Messiah, founder of the Sabbatean sect, b.
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Glikl's comments on Sabbatai Zevi reflect the disparities in his meteoric rise and bitter...
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