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Encyclopedia > Sabah

Coordinates: 5°15′N, 117°0′E Sabah may refer to one of the following. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...



States and Territories of Malaysia
Sabah
Flag of Sabah
Flag of Sabah Coat of arms of Sabah
State motto: Sabah Maju Jaya
Anthem: Sabah Tanah Airku
Capital Kota Kinabalu
Ruling party Barisan Nasional
 - Yang di-Pertua Negeri Ahmadshah Abdullah
 - Ketua Menteri (Chief Minister) Musa Aman
History  
 - Brunei Sultanate 16th century 
 - Sulu Sultanate 1658 
 - British North Borneo 1882 
 - Japanese occupation 1941-1945 
 - British control 1946 
 - Accession into Malaysia 1963 
Area
 - Total 76,115 km²
Population
 - 2000 estimate 2,449,389
 - Density 32.2/km²
HDI  (2000) 0.729 (medium)
National calling code 087a
088b
089c
National postal code 88xxx to 91xxx
Licence plate prefix SA1
SB2
SD3
SK4
SS5
ST6
SU7
SG8
Website: http://www.sabah.gov.my
a For Inner District
b For Kota Kinabalu & Kudat
c For Lahad Datu, Sandakan & Tawau
1 Kota Kinabalu & Kota Belud
2 Beaufort
3 Lahad Datu
4 Kudat
5 Sandakan
6 Tawau
7 Keningau
8 Sabah State Government vehicle

Sabah is a Malaysian state located on the northern portion of the island of Borneo. It is the second largest state in Malaysia after Sarawak, which it borders with on its south-west. It also shares a border with the province of East Kalimantan of Indonesia in the south. Sabah used to be part of the Sultanate of Sulu until Spanish colonization of the Philippines and later a British crown colony known as North Borneo, prior to partnership with Federation of Malaya, Sarawak and Singapore to form the Federation of Malaysia in 1963. Its state capital is Kota Kinabalu, formerly known as Jesselton. Sabah is known as Sabah, negeri di bawah bayu, which means 'Sabah, land below the wind', because of its location being just south of the typhoon prone region around the Philippines. Image File history File links Flag_of_Malaysia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sabah. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Coat_of_arms_of_Sabah. ... Sabah Tanah Airku is the anthem of the Malaysian state of Sabah. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 273 pixelsFull resolution (3000 × 1025 pixel, file size: 118 KB, MIME type: image/png) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Nickname: Location in Malaysia and Sabah Country State Settled by BNBC 1882 Declared capital of North Borneo 1946 Granted city status February 2, 2000 Government  - Mayor Datuk Illiyas Ibrahim Area  - City 351 km²  (136 sq mi) Population (2007)  - City 532 129 [2]  - Density 1,516/km² (3,913/sq mi... The dacing, symbol of Barisan Nasional Barisan Nasional (National Front or BN) is a major political coalition in Malaysia. ... Yang di-Pertua Negeri, literally the head of state in Malay, is the title of the largely symbolic state Governors of the Malaysian states of Penang, Malacca, Sabah and Sarawak, who are appointed by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong or King of Malaysia. ... A Chief Minister is the elected Head of Government of a state of India, a territory of Australia or a British overseas territory that has attained self-government. ... Musa Aman, or with full honorifics Yang Berhomat Datuk Seri Haji Musa bin Haji Aman, is the 14th and current Chief Minister of the state of Sabah in Malaysia. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... For the province, see Sulu Location of Sulu in the Philippines Capital Jolo Language(s) Arabic (official), Tausug, Malay, Banguingui, Bajau languages Religion Islam Government Monarchy Sultan  - 1450-1480 Shariful Hashem Syed Abu Bakr  - 1884-1899 Jamal ul-Kiram I History  - Established 1450  - Annexed by USA 1899 The Sultanate... North Borneo was a British Protectorate and later Overseas Territory of the United Kingdom, situated in what is now the province of Sabah Malaysia. ... Throughout much of the Second World War, British Malaya, North Borneo and Sarawak were under Japanese occupation. ... This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... This page talks about Human Development Index, for other HDIs see HDI (disambiguation) World map indicating Human Development Index (2007). ... Telephone numbering in Malaysia is regulated by the Malaysian Communications and Multimedia Commission (MCMC). ... The postal codes used in Malaysia is a 5 digit code. ... Malaysian vehicle license plates are the license plates displayed on all motorized road vehicles in Malaysia, as required by law. ... Nickname: Location in Malaysia and Sabah Country State Settled by BNBC 1882 Declared capital of North Borneo 1946 Granted city status February 2, 2000 Government  - Mayor Datuk Illiyas Ibrahim Area  - City 351 km²  (136 sq mi) Population (2007)  - City 532 129 [2]  - Density 1,516/km² (3,913/sq mi... -1... Lahad Datu is a town located in Tawau Division, in the east of Sabah, eastern Malaysia on the island of Borneo. ... Location in Sabah and Malaysia Country Malaysia State Sandakan Establishment Government  - Council President Dr Yeo Boon Hai Area  - City 2,266 km²  (875 sq mi) Population (2006)  - City 427,200  - Density 184/km² (488/sq mi) Time zone MST (UTC+8)  - Summer (DST) Not observed (UTC) Website: http://www. ... Nickname: Location of Tawau in Sabah, Malaysia Coordinates: , Country State Establishment Government  - Council President tuan haji Salsidu bin haji Ibrahim jr Area  - City 6,125 km²  (2,365 sq mi) Population (2006)  - City 370,800  - Density 60. ... Nickname: Location in Malaysia and Sabah Country State Settled by BNBC 1882 Declared capital of North Borneo 1946 Granted city status February 2, 2000 Government  - Mayor Datuk Illiyas Ibrahim Area  - City 351 km²  (136 sq mi) Population (2007)  - City 532 129 [2]  - Density 1,516/km² (3,913/sq mi... Kota Belud is a town located in West Coast Division, in the center of Sabah, east Malaysia on the island of Borneo. ... Beaufort is a town located in Interior Division of Sabah in east Malaysia on the island of Borneo. ... Lahad Datu is a town located in Tawau Division, in the east of Sabah, eastern Malaysia on the island of Borneo. ... -1... Location in Sabah and Malaysia Country Malaysia State Sandakan Establishment Government  - Council President Dr Yeo Boon Hai Area  - City 2,266 km²  (875 sq mi) Population (2006)  - City 427,200  - Density 184/km² (488/sq mi) Time zone MST (UTC+8)  - Summer (DST) Not observed (UTC) Website: http://www. ... Nickname: Location of Tawau in Sabah, Malaysia Coordinates: , Country State Establishment Government  - Council President tuan haji Salsidu bin haji Ibrahim jr Area  - City 6,125 km²  (2,365 sq mi) Population (2006)  - City 370,800  - Density 60. ... Keningau is a sprawling timber and agricultural town and a district located in Interior Division of Sabah, east Malaysia on the island of Borneo. ... Φ Borneo is the third largest island in the world and is located at the centre of Maritime Southeast Asia. ... For the river, see Sarawak River. ... East Kalimantan (Indonesian: Kalimantan Timur abbrv. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Location of the British Overseas Territories The British Overseas Territories are fourteen[1] territories which the United Kingdom considers to be under its sovereignty, but not as part of the United Kingdom itself. ... Motto: Pergo et Perago (Latin: I undertake and I achieve”) British North Borneo Capital Jesselton Language(s) Malay, English Government Monarchy Monarch  - 1882 - 1901 Victoria  - 1952 - 1963 Elizabeth II Governor  - 1896 - 1901 Robert Scott Historical era New Imperialism  - North Borneo Company May, 1882  - British protectorate 1888  - Japanese invasion January 1... The Federation of Malaya, or in Malay Persekutuan Tanah Melayu, was formed in 1948 from the British settlements of Penang and Malacca and the nine Malay states and replaced the Malayan Union. ... Nickname: Location in Malaysia and Sabah Country State Settled by BNBC 1882 Declared capital of North Borneo 1946 Granted city status February 2, 2000 Government  - Mayor Datuk Illiyas Ibrahim Area  - City 351 km²  (136 sq mi) Population (2007)  - City 532 129 [2]  - Density 1,516/km² (3,913/sq mi... Kota Kinabalu (1996 pop. ...

Contents

History

1500s-1800s

Sabah or North Borneo was part of the Sultanate of Brunei around the early 16th century. This was during the period when the Sultanate's influence was at its peak. In 1658 the Sultanate of Brunei ceded the north-east portion of Borneo to the Sultan of Sulu in compensation for the latter's help in settling a civil war in the Brunei Sultanate. In 1761 an officer of the British East India Company, Alexander Dalrymple, concluded an agreement with the Sultan of Sulu to allow him to set up a trading post in the region. This together with other attempts to build a settlement and a military station centering around Pulau Balambangan proved to be a failure. There was minimal foreign interest in this region afterward and control over most parts of north Borneo seems to have remained under the Sultanate of Brunei. Motto: Pergo et Perago (Latin: I undertake and I achieve”) British North Borneo Capital Jesselton Language(s) Malay, English Government Monarchy Monarch  - 1882 - 1901 Victoria  - 1952 - 1963 Elizabeth II Governor  - 1896 - 1901 Robert Scott Historical era New Imperialism  - North Borneo Company May, 1882  - British protectorate 1888  - Japanese invasion January 1... Motto: Always in service with Gods guidance(translation) Anthem: Allah Peliharakan Sultan God Bless the Sultan Capital (and largest city) Bandar Seri Begawan Official languages Malay Demonym Bruneian Government Absolute Islamic Sultanate  -  Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah Independence  -  End of British occupation January 1, 1984  Area  -  Total 5,765 km² (172th... The Sultanate of Sulu was a muslim state that ruled over much of the islands of the Sulu Sea. ... This article is about the definition of the specific type of war. ... The British East India Company, sometimes referred to as John Company, was the first joint-stock company (the Dutch East India Company was the first to issue public stock). ... Alexander Dalrymple (July 24, 1737 - June 19, 1808 was a Scottish geographer. ... Balambangan Island is located off the northern tip of Borneo in the Malaysian state of Sabah. ...


In 1865 the American Consul of Brunei, Claude Lee Moses, obtained a 10-year lease over North Borneo from the Sultan of Brunei. Ownership was then passed to an American trading company owned by J.W. Torrey, T.B. Harris and some Chinese merchants. They set up a base and settlement in Kimanis but this too failed due to financial reasons. The rights of the trading company were then sold to Baron Von Overbeck, the Austrian Consul in Hong Kong, and he later obtained another 10-year renewal of the lease. The rights were subsequently transferred to Alfred Dent, whom in 1881 formed the British North Borneo Provisional Association Ltd. Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... Kimanis is a town in the West Coast Division of Sabah, Malaysia. ...


In the following year, the British North Borneo Company was formed and Kudat was made its capital. In 1883 the capital was moved to Sandakan to capitalise on its potential of vast timber resources. In 1888 North Borneo became a protectorate of Great Britain. Administration and control over North Borneo remained in the hands of the Company despite being a protectorate and they effectively ruled until 1942. Their rule had been generally peaceful except for some rebellions, including one led by the Suluk-Bajau leader Mat Salleh from 1894 to 1900,[1] and another led by the Muruts which is known as the Rundum resistance in 1915.[2] The British North Borneo Company was chartered company assigned to administer North Borneo (todays Sabah in Malaysia) in August 1881 and North Borneo became a protectorate of the British Empire with internal affairs administered by the company until 1946 when it became the colony of British North Borneo. ... -1... Location in Sabah and Malaysia Country Malaysia State Sandakan Establishment Government  - Council President Dr Yeo Boon Hai Area  - City 2,266 km²  (875 sq mi) Population (2006)  - City 427,200  - Density 184/km² (488/sq mi) Time zone MST (UTC+8)  - Summer (DST) Not observed (UTC) Website: http://www. ... This article is about states protected and/or dominated by a foreign power. ... Mat Salleh Rebellion was a series of major disturbances in North Borneo, now Malaysian state of Sabah, from 1894 to 1900. ... The Murut are an indigenous ethnic group inhabiting northern inland regions of Borneo. ...


Second World War and the road to independence

From 1942 to 1945 during the Second World War, Japanese forces occupied North Borneo. The Japanese forces landed in Labuan on January 1, 1942 and continued to invade the rest of North Borneo. Bombings by the allied forces devastated of most towns including Sandakan, which was totally razed to the ground. Resistance against Japanese occupation were concentrated on the west and north coast of North Borneo. The resistance in Jesselton was led by Albert Kwok and Jules Stephens of the Kinabalu Guerillas. Another resistance was led by Panglima Alli from Sulug Island, off the coast of Jesselton. In Kudat, there were also some resistance led by Tun Datu Mustapha. On October 10, 1943, the Kinabalu Guerrilas together with followers of Panglima Alli staged a surprise attack on the Japanese. The attack however was foiled. The 324 local residents who participated in the attacks, including Albert Kwok and Panglima Alli, were detained in Petagas and later executed on January 21, 1944.[3] The site of the execution is today known as the Petagas War Memorial. Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... Throughout much of the Second World War, British Malaya, North Borneo and Sarawak were under Japanese occupation. ... Motto: Coordinates: Country Malaysia State Wilayah Persekutuan Made into Federal Territory 16 April 1984 Government  - Administered by Perbadanan Labuan Labuan Corporation  - Chairman Datuk Suhaili Abdul Rahman Area  - City 92 km²  (35. ... This article is about the independent states that comprised the Allies. ... -1... Tun Datu Mustapha, also known as Tun Datu Haji Mustapha bin Datu Harun, was the first governor of the Malaysian state of Sabah. ... is the 283rd day of the year (284th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


When Japan surrendered at the end of the war, North Borneo was administered by the British Military Administration and in 1946 it became a British Crown Colony. Jesselton was chosen to replace Sandakan as the capital. The Crown continued to rule North Borneo until 1963. On August 31, 1963 North Borneo attained self-government. There was a call for complete independence on that date by it was denied by the British Governor whom remained in power until Malaysia Day.[4] The intention had been to form Malaysia on August 31 but due to objection from the Philippines and Indonesia, the formation had to be postponed to September 16.[citation needed] On September 16, 1963, North Borneo together with Malaya, Sarawak and Singapore formed the Federation of Malaysia and from then on, it became known as Sabah and declared independent from British sovereignty.[2][5] To safeguard the interest of North Borneo in the new federation, a 20-point agreement was entered between the federal and the state government. The British Military Administration (BMA) was the administrator of British Malaya between the end of World War II and the establishment of the Malayan Union in 1946. ... A United Kingdom overseas territory (formerly known as a dependent territory or earlier as a crown colony) is a territory that is under the sovereignty and formal control of the United Kingdom but is not part of the United Kingdom proper (Great Britain and Northern Ireland). ... A national ceremony celebrates the formation of the Federation of Malaysia in 1963 in Singapore. ... The Federation of Malaya, or in Malay Persekutuan Tanah Melayu, was formed in 1948 from the British settlements of Penang and Malacca and the nine Malay states and replaced the Malayan Union. ... For the river, see Sarawak River. ... The Federation of Malaysia is a country in Southeast Asia. ... The 20-point agreement, or the 20-point memorandum, is an agreement made between the state of Sabah (then North Borneo) with what would be the federal government of Malaysia prior to the formation of Malaysia in September 16, 1963. ...


Philippine claim

Main article: Sabah dispute

The Sultanate of Sulu was granted the territory as a prize for helping the Sultan of Brunei against his enemies and from then on that part of Borneo was recognized as part of the Sultan of Sulu's sovereignty. In 1878, Baron Von Overbeck, an Austrian partner representing The British North Borneo Co., along with his British partner, Alfred Dent, leased the territory of Sabah. In return, the company provided arms to the Sultan to resist the Spaniards and 5,000 Malaysian ringgits rent per year, based on the Mexican dollar's value at that time (or its equivalent in gold). This lease continued until the formation of the Malaysian federation in 1963. The status of the territory of Sabah, previously known as North Borneo, is currently disputed. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Φ Borneo is the third largest island in the world and is located at the centre of Maritime Southeast Asia. ... The Spanish dollar or peso (literally, weight) is a silver coin that was minted in the Spanish Empire after a Spanish currency reform in 1497. ...


Despite the supply of arms, Spain was still able to take control of Sabah. In 1885, Spain relinquished all of its claim to Borneo to the British in the Madrid Protocol of 1885.


The Philippines still claims this territory due to cultural ties in addition being the successor state to Spanish claims in the East Indies. The present situation of illegal immigration from the Philippines, causing many social problems for Sabah[citation needed], will only make the people of Sabah more wary of this claim. In the event that this claim would be brought forward for arbitration, most people in Sabah would reject it[citation needed], and the current Malaysian Federal Government would therefore feel the pressure from the people of Sabah.[clarify] It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Succession of states. ... The Indies, on the display globe of the Field Museum, Chicago The Indies or East Indies (or East India) is a term used to describe lands of South and South-East Asia, occupying all of the former British India, the present Indian Union, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Maldives, and...

See also: History of Malaysia and History of Brunei

The history of Malaysia is a relatively recent offshoot of the history of the wider Malay-Indonesian world. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

Geography

Mount Kinabalu, the highest mountain in Malaysia.
Mount Kinabalu, the highest mountain in Malaysia.

The western part of Sabah is generally mountainous, containing the three highest mountains in Malaysia. The most prominent range is the Crocker Range which houses several mountains of varying height from about 1,000 metres to 4,000 metres. At the height of 4,095 metres, Mount Kinabalu is the highest mountain in Malaysia and the second highest in Southeast Asia after Puncak Jaya in Indonesia. While the government of Malaysia officially considers it the highest mountain in Southeast Asia, there are counterclaims that Puncak Jaya is the highest mountain. The argument centres around whether New Guinea could be considered a part of Southeast Asia. So far there is no precise consensus on this, and the view that Mount Kinabalu is indeed the tallest mountain in Southeast Asia is more prevalent. The jungles of Sabah are classified as rainforests and host a diverse array of plant and animal species. Kinabalu National Park was inscribed as a World Heritage Site in 2000 because of its richness in plant diversity combined with its unique geological, topographical, and climatic conditions.[6] ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x501, 170 KB) Mount Kinabalu view from Kundasang, 65Km away from Sabah state capital city, Kota Kinabalu. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x501, 170 KB) Mount Kinabalu view from Kundasang, 65Km away from Sabah state capital city, Kota Kinabalu. ... Mount Kinabalu (Malay: Gunung Kinabalu) is a prominent mountain in Southeast Asia. ... Crocker Range (Banjaran Crocker in Malay), is a mountain range on the island of Borneo. ... Mount Kinabalu (Malay: Gunung Kinabalu) is a prominent mountain in Southeast Asia. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... Puncak Jaya (IPA: /pÊŠn. ... Puncak Jaya (IPA: /pÊŠn. ... A rainforest is a forested biome with high annual rainfall. ... Kinabalu National Park or Taman Negara Kinabalu in Malay, established as one of the first national parks of Malaysia in 1964, is Malaysias first World Heritage site designated by UNESCO in December 2000 for its outstanding universal values and the role as one of the most important biological sites... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State...


Lying nearby Mount Kinabalu is Mount Tambuyukon. At a height of 2,579 metres, it is the third highest peak in the country. Adjacent to the Crocker Range is the Trus Madi Range which houses the second highest peak in the country, Mount Trus Madi, at a height of 2,642 metres. There are lower ranges of hills extending towards the western coasts, southern plains, and the interior or central part of Sabah. These mountains and hills are traversed by an extensive network of river valleys and are in most cases covered with dense rainforest. Mount Tambuyukon (Malaysian: Gunung Tambuyukon) is Malaysias third highest mountain at 2,579 m (8,462 ft). ... The Trus Madi Range is a range of mountains in Sabah, Borneo. ... Mount Trus Madi (Malaysian: Gunung Trus Madi) is Malaysias second highest mountain at 2,642 m (8,666 ft). ... For the novel, see Rainforest (novel). ...


The central and eastern portion of Sabah are generally lower mountain ranges and plains with occasional hills. Kinabatangan River begins from the western ranges and snakes its way through the central region towards the east coast out into the Sulu Sea. It is the second longest river in Malaysia after Rejang River at a length of 560 kilometres. The forests surrounding the river valley also contains an array of wildlife habitats, and is the largest forest-covered floodplain in Malaysia.[7] The Kinabatangan River (Sungai Kinabatangan) is located in Sabah, eastern Malaysia, on the island of Borneo. ... The Sulu Sea is a large sea in the southwestern area of the Philippines. ... The Rajang River is a river in Sarawak, Malaysia. ...

The northern tip of Borneo at Tanjung Simpang Mengayau
The northern tip of Borneo at Tanjung Simpang Mengayau

Other important wildlife regions in Sabah include Maliau Basin, Danum Valley, Tabin, and Sepilok. These places are either designated as national parks, wildlife reserves, virgin jungle reserves, or protection forest reserve. Image File history File links The very northern tip of the island of Borneo in Sabah state, Malaysia. ... Image File history File links The very northern tip of the island of Borneo in Sabah state, Malaysia. ... -1... Maliau Basin or Meliau Basin, or also Maliau Basin Conservation Area, is a region in Sabah, Malaysia, which represents a geological catchment surrounding the Maliau River. ... Danum Valley Conservation Area is the largest protected lowland dipterocarp forest in Sabah, Malaysia. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Sepilok Orang-utan Rehabilitation Centre is located about 25 kilometers west of Sandakan, in eastern Malaysia on the island of Borneo in the state of Sabah. ...


Over three quarters of the human population inhabit the coastal plains. Major towns and urban centers have sprouted along the coasts of Sabah. The interior region remains sparsely populated with only villages, and the occasional small towns or townships. Ronda, Spain Main street in Bastrop, Texas, United States, a small town A town is a community of people ranging from a few hundred to several thousands, although it may be applied loosely even to huge metropolitan areas. ... Cities with at least a million inhabitants in 2006 An urban area is an area with an increased density of human-created structures in comparison to the areas surrounding it. ... A village is a human settlement commonly found in rural areas. ... The term township generally means the district or area associated with a town. ...


Beyond the coasts of Sabah lies a number of islands and coral reefs, including the largest island in Malaysia, Pulau Banggi. Other larger islands include, Pulau Jambongan, Pulau Balambangan, Pulau Timbun Mata, Pulau Bumbun, and Pulau Sebatik. Other popular island mainly for tourism are, Pulau Sipadan, Pulau Selingan, Pulau Gaya, Pulau Tiga, Pulau Layang-Layang, and many more. A small island in the Adriatic sea An island is any piece of land smaller than a continent and larger than a rock, that is completely surrounded by water. ... Part of a coral reef. ... Banggi Island is located within the Kudat Division of Sabah in Malaysia. ... Jambongan Island is located on the northern coast of Sabah in Malaysia. ... Balambangan Island is located off the northern tip of Borneo in the Malaysian state of Sabah. ... Map of Timbun Mata Timbun Mata Island, Pulau Timbun Mata, is the largest island on the south side of Darvel Bay, Semporna, Sabah, Malaysia. ... Sebatik Island is an island off the eastern coast of Borneo. ... Sipadan is the only oceanic island in Malaysia, rising 2,000 feet or 600m from the seabed. ... Turtle Islands National Park (Pulau Penya National Park) is located some 40 kilometers north of Sandakan in Sabah, east Malaysia. ... Pulau Gaya is a sizeable Malaysian island of 1,465 ha, just 10 minutes off Kota Kinabalu, Sabah. ... Tiga Island (also known as Tokanod) is one of the Loyalty Islands, in the archipelago of New Caledonia, an overseas territory of France in the Pacific Ocean. ... Swallow Reef, known as (Pulau) Layang-Layang (Dusun for Place of Swallows) in Malaysia, Danwan Jiao (Chinese: 弹丸礁) in China and Đá Hoa Lau in Vietnam, is an uninhabited oceanic atoll of the Spratly Islands situated approximately 300 km northwest of Kota Kinabalu, Sabah. ...


Government

State government structure

Administrative divisions and districts of Sabah
Administrative divisions and districts of Sabah

Sabah has a democratic political system with universal suffrage. The Yang di-Pertua Negeri sits at the top of the hierarchy followed by the State Legislative assembly and the State Cabinet. A general election for State and Federal level officials is held every five years. The state parliament or the state legislative assembly meets at the state capital, Kota Kinabalu. The state is divided into 25 parliamentary constituencies and 60 state assembly districts where each is represented by an elected Member of Parliament (MP) and Member of the State Legislative Assembly respectively. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The states of Malaysia that lie on Borneo (East Malaysia) are subdivided into divisions. ... Districts are known as Daerah or Jajahan (in Kelantan). ... Democracy is a form of government under which the power to alter the laws and structures of government lies, ultimately, with the citizenry. ... A political system is a system of politics and government. ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Universal suffrage (also general suffrage or common suffrage) consists of the extension of the right to vote to all adults, without distinction as to race, sex, belief, intelligence, or economic or social status. ... Yang di-Pertua Negeri, literally the head of state in Malay, is the title of the largely symbolic state Governors of the Malaysian states of Penang, Malacca, Sabah and Sarawak, who are appointed by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong or King of Malaysia. ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A general election is an election in which all or most members of a given political body are up for election. ...


The present elected State and Federal Government posts are held by Barisan Nasional (BN), a coalition of parties which includes United Malays National Organisation (UMNO), Sabah Progressive Party (SAPP), United Pasokmomogun Kadazandusun Murut Organisation (UPKO), Parti Bersatu Rakyat Sabah (PBRS), Parti Bersatu Sabah (PBS), Liberal Democratic Party (LDP), and Malaysian Chinese Association (MCA).[citation needed] The dacing, symbol of Barisan Nasional Barisan Nasional (National Front or BN) is a major political coalition in Malaysia. ... A coalition is an alliance among entities, during which they cooperate in joint action, each in their own self-interest. ... Sang Saka Bangsa The United Malays National Organisation, or UMNO, (Malay: Pertubuhan Kebangsaan Melayu Bersatu), is the right-Wing and the largest political party in Malaysia and a founding member of the Barisan Nasional coalition, which has ruled the country uninterruptedly since its independence. ... The Sabah Progressive Party (Parti Majuh Sabah) is a political party in Sabah, Malaysia. ... The United Pasokmomogun Kadazandusun Murut Organisation is a political party based in Sabah, east Malaysia. ... The Parti Bersatu Rakyat Sabah (United Sabah Peoples Party) is a political party in Malaysia. ... The Parti Bersatu Sabah (United Sabah Party) is a political party in Malaysia. ... The Liberal Democratic Party (Parti Liberal Demokratik) is a Chinese minority political party in Sabah, Malaysia. ... The Malaysian Chinese Association (MCA or Persatuan Cina Malaysia) (traditional Chinese: ; simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Cantonese: Ma Loi Saiya Wah Yen Koong Wui) is a political party in Malaysia, made up of Malaysian Chinese and one of the three major parties that make up the ruling Barisan Nasional (or National Front). ...


The last state election was in 2004 and as of 2006, the state legislature has 60 members. It comprises 59 BN State Legislature Members (Ahli Dewan Undangan Negeri) and a single independent. Of this, 32 are from UMNO, 13 from PBS. 5 from UPKO, 4 from the SAPP, 3 from LDP, and one each from MCA and PBRS.[8]

See also: Breakdown of state seats representatives in Sabah elected 2008

The political climate

Prior to the formation of Malaysia in 1963, the then North Borneo interim government submitted a 20-point agreement to the Malayan government as conditions before Sabah would join the Federation. Sabah entered Malaysia as an autonomous state with a Christian Kadazan-Dusun chief minister, but soon succumbed to Kuala Lumpur's vision of a one-party unitary Islamic state dominated by the indigenous Muslim Bajau and Brunei Malay people. This has created considerable friction and even occasional calls for secession. These tensions are further inflamed by Kuala Lumpur's colonial mentality towards Sabah, wherein 95% of the profits from Sabah's immense natural resources are taken by the federal government, leaving the state government with only 5%. Aside from nominally separate immigration controls, little evidence remains of Sabah's theoretical autonomy. Motto: Pergo et Perago (Latin: I undertake and I achieve”) British North Borneo Capital Jesselton Language(s) Malay, English Government Monarchy Monarch  - 1882 - 1901 Victoria  - 1952 - 1963 Elizabeth II Governor  - 1896 - 1901 Robert Scott Historical era New Imperialism  - North Borneo Company May, 1882  - British protectorate 1888  - Japanese invasion January 1... The 20-point agreement, or the 20-point memorandum, is an agreement made between the state of Sabah (then North Borneo) with what would be the federal government of Malaysia prior to the formation of Malaysia in September 16, 1963. ... An autonomous (subnational) entity is a subnational entity that has a certain amount of autonomy. ... Kadazan-Dusun is the term assigned to the unification of the classification of two indigenous tribes in Sabah, Malaysia—the ethnic groups Kadazan and Dusun. ... A single-party state or one-party system or single-party system is a type of party system and form of government where only a single political party dominates the government and no opposition parties are allowed. ... Islam (Arabic: ; ( â–¶ (help· info)), the submission to God) is a monotheistic faith, one of the Abrahamic religions and the worlds second-largest religion. ... The Bajau are an indigenous ethnic group residing in Sabah, eastern Malaysia, Brunei, Indonesia, the Philippines and parts of Sarawak. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Secession (disambiguation). ...


Until the Malaysian general election, 2008, Sabah, along with the states of Kelantan and Terengganu, are the only three states in Malaysia that had ever been ruled by opposition parties not part of the ruling BN coalition. Led by Datuk Seri Joseph Pairin Kitingan, PBS formed government after winning the 1985 elections and ruled Sabah until 1994. Due to certain internal troubles, BN took over the government in 1994 despite PBS winning the elections. PBS subsequently joined the BN coalition in 2002. State motto: Berserah kepada Tuhan Kerajaan Kelantan State anthem: Selamat Sultan Capital (and royal capital) Kota Bharu Ruling party PAS  - Sultan Tuanku Ismail Petra  - Menteri Besar Nik Aziz Nik Mat History    - Siamese control 1603   - British control 1909   - Japanese occupation 1942-1946   - Accession into Federation of Malaya 1948  Area  - Total 14... State motto: Islam Hadhari Terengganu Bestari State anthem: Terengganu State Anthem Capital (and royal capital) Kuala Terengganu Ruling party Barisan Nasional  - Sultan Sultan Mizan Zainal Abidin1  - Menteri Besar Idris Jusoh History    - British control 1909   - Japanese occupation 1942   - Accession into Federation of Malaya 1948  Area  - Total 12,955 km² Population  - 2005... The Huguan Siou Datuk Seri Panglima Joseph Pairin Kitingan in a traditional Kadazan garb. ...


A unique feature of Sabah politics was a policy initiated by the BN in 1994 whereby the Chief Minister's post is rotated among the coalition parties every 2 years regardless of the party in power at the time, thus theoretically giving an equal amount of time for each major ethnic group to rule the State. This extremely weakens the executive branch of the State government, which was formerly much at odds with the federal government in Kuala Lumpur. It also serves to give a disproportionate power to the indigenous Muslim Bajau ethnic group, at the expense of the mainly Christian indigenous Kadazan-Dusun, the largest ethnic group. This practice has since stopped with power now held by majority in the state assembly by the UMNO party, which also holds a majority in the national Parliament. Nickname: Motto: Maju dan makmur (English: Progress and Prosper) Location in Malaysia Coordinates: , Country State Establishment 1857 Granted city status 1974 Government  - Mayor (Datuk Bandar) Datuk Abdul Hakim Borhan From 14 December 2006 Area  - Total 243. ... The Bajau are an indigenous ethnic group residing in Sabah, eastern Malaysia, Brunei, Indonesia, the Philippines and parts of Sarawak. ... Kadazan-Dusun is the term assigned to the unification of the classification of two indigenous tribes in Sabah, Malaysia—the ethnic groups Kadazan and Dusun. ...


There has been conspiracy theory that the Chief Minister post rotation system was implemented to allow UMNO to control the post permanently by abolishing the whole system once it was UMNO's turn to hold the post. It has never been proven but it is considered impossible for UMNO to get a hold of the post through any other method. The conspiracy theory was brought up once again when a division from UMNO proposed to implement the same rotation system in Penang, one of the two states which is currently not controlled by UMNO but is under BN rule - the other state being Sarawak. The proposal was raised even though UMNO abolished the system in Sabah by declaring it a failure.[citation needed] For the river, see Sarawak River. ...


UMNO had a quick rise to power since its entry into Sabah in 1991 where before that both eastern Malaysian states were not penetrated by the party, whose president is the de facto leader of the ruling coalition BN and automatically the Prime Minister of Malaysia. This has given rise to dissent as the Chief Minister rotation system was halted just as UMNO was holding the post. Thus the 2004 general elections saw widespread disillusionment, coupled with an ineffectual opposition. The state assembly is now dominated by the ruling party BN with only one seat held by an opposition politician who is an independent candidate. This was caused by a general sentiment where a number of voters were reluctant to cast votes for BN whose victory was almost assured but did not trust the opposition parties, most of which were not vigorously active before the election. Therefore many cast votes for independent candidates.


Sabah politics, as are Malaysia's is very much based upon party lines. An effort by PBS, a component party of BN, to hatch a co-operation with the one opposition candidate within the state assembly, whom conversely was a former UMNO member competing independently because he was not nominated for the constituency by his party, in an unprecedented attempt at bipartisanship, was harshly criticized by UPKO, another component party of BN.


Chief Ministers of Sabah

Year Chief Minister Party
1963-1964 Tun Fuad Stephens United National Kadazan Organization (UNKO) - BN
1965-1967 Datuk Peter Lo Sui Yin Sabah Chinese Association (SCA) - BN
1967-1975 Tun Mustapha Datu Harun United Sabah National Organization (USNO) - BN
1975-1976 Tun Said Keruak USNO - BN
1976 (44 days) Tun Fuad Stephens Berjaya - BN
1976-1985 Datuk Harris Mohd Salleh Berjaya - BN
1985-1994 Datuk Seri Joseph Pairin Kitingan PBS - Opposition (In partnership with BN in 1986-1990)
1994-1995 Tun Sakaran Dandai UMNO - BN
1995-1996 Datuk Salleh Mohd Said UMNO - BN
1996-1998 Datuk Yong Teck Lee SAPP - BN
1998-1999 Tan Sri Bernard Dompok (now UPKO) Parti Demokratik Sabah (PDS) - BN
1999-2001 Datuk Seri Osu Haji Sukam UMNO - BN
2001-2003 Tan Sri Chong Kah Kiat LDP - BN
2003-present Datuk Seri Musa Aman UMNO - BN

Tun Fuad Stephens, or Tun Haji Mohd. ... Tun Datu Mustapha, also known as Tun Datu Haji Mustapha bin Datu Harun, was the first governor of the Malaysian state of Sabah. ... Tun Fuad Stephens, or Tun Haji Mohd. ... Harris Salleh, or Datuk Amar Harris bin Mohd Salleh, was the 6th Chief Minister of the state of Sabah, in Malaysia. ... The Huguan Siou Datuk Seri Panglima Joseph Pairin Kitingan in a traditional Kadazan garb. ... Osu Sukam is an ex-minister of Malaysia. ... Tan Sri Chong Kah Kiat (born June 2, 1948) was the 13th Chief Minister of Sabah, Malaysia. ... Musa Aman, or with full honorifics Yang Berhomat Datuk Seri Haji Musa bin Haji Aman, is the 14th and current Chief Minister of the state of Sabah in Malaysia. ...

Administrative divisions

Sabah consists of 5 administrative divisions, which are in turn divided into 24 districts. The states of Malaysia that lie on Borneo (East Malaysia) are subdivided into divisions. ... Districts are known as Daerah or Jajahan (in Kelantan). ...


These administrative divisions for all purposes just for reference. During the British rule until the transition period when Malaysia was formed, a Resident was appointed to govern each division and provided with a palace (Istana). This means that the British consider each of this division equivalent to a Malayan state. The post of the Resident was abolished in favour of district officers for each of the district. A Resident, or in full Resident Minister, is a state official of certain representative types, required to take up permanent residency abroad officially. ...

Division Name Districts Area (km²) Population (2006)[9]
1 West Coast Division Kota Belud, Kota Kinabalu, Papar, Penampang, Ranau, Tuaran 7,588 953,900
2 Interior Division Beaufort, Nabawan, Keningau, Kuala Penyu, Sipitang, Tambunan, Tenom 18,298 420,800
3 Kudat Division Kota Marudu, Kudat, Pitas 4,623 189,500
4 Sandakan Division Beluran, Kinabatangan, Sandakan, Tongod 28,205 676,000
5 Tawau Division Kunak, Lahad Datu, Semporna, Tawau 14,905 756,800
See also: Politics of Malaysia

The states of Malaysia that lie on Borneo (East Malaysia) are subdivided into divisions. ... Districts are known as Daerah or Jajahan (in Kelantan). ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... A square metre (US spelling: square meter) is by definition the area enclosed by a square with sides each 1 metre long. ... West Coast Division is an administrative division of Sabah, east Malaysia, on the island of Borneo. ... Kota Belud is a town located in West Coast Division, in the center of Sabah, east Malaysia on the island of Borneo. ... Nickname: Location in Malaysia and Sabah Country State Settled by BNBC 1882 Declared capital of North Borneo 1946 Granted city status February 2, 2000 Government  - Mayor Datuk Illiyas Ibrahim Area  - City 351 km²  (136 sq mi) Population (2007)  - City 532 129 [2]  - Density 1,516/km² (3,913/sq mi... Papar is a town located in West Coast Division, in the center of Sabah, east Malaysia on the island of Borneo. ... Penampang is a town located in West Coast Division, in the center of Sabah, east Malaysia on the island of Borneo. ... Ranau is a town located in West Coast Division, in the center of Sabah, east Malaysia on the island of Borneo. ... Tuaran town Tuaran is a town located in West Coast Division, in the northwest of Sabah, east Malaysia on the island of Borneo. ... Interior Division is an administrative division of Sabah, east Malaysia, on the island of Borneo. ... Beaufort is a town located in Interior Division of Sabah in east Malaysia on the island of Borneo. ... Nabawan is a town located in Interior Division of Sabah, east Malaysia on the island of Borneo. ... Keningau is a sprawling timber and agricultural town and a district located in Interior Division of Sabah, east Malaysia on the island of Borneo. ... Kuala Penyu is a town located in Interior Division of Sabah, east Malaysia on the island of Borneo. ... Sipitang is a town located in Interior Division of Sabah, east Malaysia on the island of Borneo. ... Tambunan is a town located in Interior Division of Sabah, east Malaysia on the island of Borneo. ... Tenom is a town located in Interior Division of Sabah, east Malaysia on the island of Borneo. ... Kudat Division is an administrative division of Sabah, east Malaysia, on the island of Borneo. ... Kota Marudu is a tiny district of Kudat Division, Malaysia with approximately 19. ... -1... One might be looking for peta. ... Sandakan Division is an administrative division of Sabah, east Malaysia, on the island of Borneo. ... Beluran is a town located in the Sandakan Division, in east Sabah, Malaysia on the island of Borneo. ... Kinabatangan is a town located in Sandakan Division, in the east of Sabah, Malaysia on the island of Borneo. ... Location in Sabah and Malaysia Country Malaysia State Sandakan Establishment Government  - Council President Dr Yeo Boon Hai Area  - City 2,266 km²  (875 sq mi) Population (2006)  - City 427,200  - Density 184/km² (488/sq mi) Time zone MST (UTC+8)  - Summer (DST) Not observed (UTC) Website: http://www. ... Tongod is a district within Sandakan Division in Sabah, Malaysia. ... Tawau Division is one of the five administrative sub-divisions of Sabah, east Malaysia, on the island of Borneo. ... -1... Lahad Datu is a town located in Tawau Division, in the east of Sabah, eastern Malaysia on the island of Borneo. ... Semporna is a town located in Tawau Division, in the east of Sabah, Malaysia on the island of Borneo. ... Nickname: Location of Tawau in Sabah, Malaysia Coordinates: , Country State Establishment Government  - Council President tuan haji Salsidu bin haji Ibrahim jr Area  - City 6,125 km²  (2,365 sq mi) Population (2006)  - City 370,800  - Density 60. ... The politics of Malaysia takes place in a framework of a federal parliamentary monarchy, whereby the Prime Minister of Malaysia is the head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. ...

Demographics

The population of Sabah was 2,449,389 in 2000[10] and was the third most populous state in Malaysia after Selangor and Johor. It is estimated that Sabah's population has exceeded that of Johor with an estimated population of 3,400,000 in 2007.[11] Sabah indeed has one of the highest population growth rate in the country. This is mainly due to immigration policy favoring Muslims, which has resulted in an influx of immigrants from Philippines and Indonesia, both legally and illegally. It is widely believed that these privileges were implemented to subvert the indigenous Kadazan-Dusun minority, by importing large numbers of Muslims and hence a powerbase for the Islamic-dominated UMNO through the alleged Project IC.[12] Today, non-Malaysian citizens make up one-quarter of the total population. The official population estimate for the year 2006 is put at 2,997,000.[9] The composition of the population are[9]: State motto: Dipelihara Allah State anthem: Duli Yang Maha Mulia Capital Shah Alam Royal capital Klang Ruling party Barisan Nasional  - Sultan Sultan Sharafuddin  - Menteri Besar Dr Mohd Khir Toyo History    - Federated into FMS 1895   - Japanese occupation 1942   - Accession into Federation of Malaya 1948  Area  - Total 7,956 km² Population  - 2005... State motto: Kepada Allah Berserah State anthem: Lagu Bangsa Johor Capital Johor Bahru Royal capital Pasir Pelangi1 Ruling party Barisan Nasional  - Sultan Sultan Iskandar  - Menteri Besar Abdul Ghani Othman History    - Johor Sultanate 14th century   - British control 1914   - Japanese occupation 1942   - Accession into Federation of Malaya 1948  Area  - Total 19,984...

The people of Sabah are divided into 32 officially recognized ethnic groups. The largest non-indigenous ethnic group is the Chinese. Most Chinese people in Sabah are concentrated primarily at Kota Kinabalu, Sandakan, and Tawau. Kota Kinabalu has the highest concentration of Chinese people in Sabah, followed by Sandakan (second highest) and Tawau (third highest). The largest indigenous ethnic group is Kadazan-Dusun, followed by Bajau, and Murut. There is a very small number and proportion of Indians and other South Asians in Sabah compared to other parts of Malaysia. Collectively, all persons coming from Sabah are known as Sabahans, and also identify themselves as such. Kadazan-Dusun is the term assigned to the unification of the classification of two indigenous tribes in Sabah, Malaysia—the ethnic groups Kadazan and Dusun. ... The Bajau are an indigenous ethnic group residing in Sabah, eastern Malaysia, Brunei, Indonesia, the Philippines and parts of Sarawak. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Murut are an indigenous ethnic group inhabiting northern inland regions of Borneo. ... Bumiputra or Bumiputera (Malay, from Sanskrit Bhumiputra; translated literally, it means son of the soil), is an official definition widely used in Malaysia, embracing ethnic Malays as well as other indigenous ethnic groups such as the Orang Asli in Peninsular Malaysia and the tribal peoples in Sabah and Sarawak. ... Nickname: Location in Malaysia and Sabah Country State Settled by BNBC 1882 Declared capital of North Borneo 1946 Granted city status February 2, 2000 Government  - Mayor Datuk Illiyas Ibrahim Area  - City 351 km²  (136 sq mi) Population (2007)  - City 532 129 [2]  - Density 1,516/km² (3,913/sq mi... Location in Sabah and Malaysia Country Malaysia State Sandakan Establishment Government  - Council President Dr Yeo Boon Hai Area  - City 2,266 km²  (875 sq mi) Population (2006)  - City 427,200  - Density 184/km² (488/sq mi) Time zone MST (UTC+8)  - Summer (DST) Not observed (UTC) Website: http://www. ... Nickname: Location of Tawau in Sabah, Malaysia Coordinates: , Country State Establishment Government  - Council President tuan haji Salsidu bin haji Ibrahim jr Area  - City 6,125 km²  (2,365 sq mi) Population (2006)  - City 370,800  - Density 60. ... Kadazan-Dusun is the term assigned to the unification of the classification of two indigenous tribes in Sabah, Malaysia—the ethnic groups Kadazan and Dusun. ... The Bajau are an indigenous ethnic group residing in Sabah, eastern Malaysia, Brunei, Indonesia, the Philippines and parts of Sarawak. ... The Murut are an indigenous ethnic group inhabiting northern inland regions of Borneo. ... The Indian Malaysians are a group of Malaysians largely descended from those who migrated from South India during the British colonization of Malaya. ... Composite satellite image of the Indian subcontinent Map of South Asia. ...


Malay is the national language spoken across ethnicities, although the spoken Sabahan dialect of Malay differs much in inflection and intonation from the West Malaysian version, having more similarity in pronunciation to Indonesian. English, Chinese Mandarin as well as the Chinese dialects of Hakka and Cantonese are widely understood. In addition, Kadazan-Dusun, Bajau, Murut and other minor races also have distinct ethnic languages. Sabah also have their own unique Sabahan-slangs for many words in Malay. Not to be confused with the Malayalam language, spoken in India. ... Indonesian (Bahasa Indonesia) is the official language of Indonesia and a remarkable language in several ways. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... This article is on all of the Northern and Southwestern Chinese dialects. ... For other uses, see Hakka (disambiguation). ... This article is about all of the Cantonese (Yue) dialects. ... Kadazan-Dusun is the term assigned to the unification of the classification of two indigenous tribes in Sabah, Malaysia—the ethnic groups Kadazan and Dusun. ... The Bajau are an indigenous ethnic group residing in Sabah, eastern Malaysia, Brunei, Indonesia, the Philippines and parts of Sarawak. ... The Murut are an indigenous ethnic group inhabiting northern inland regions of Borneo. ...


The federal government of Malaysia officially recognizes 28 ethnic groups as being indigenous or bumiputra in Sabah: The term indigenous peoples or autochthonous peoples can be used to describe any ethnic group who inhabit the geographic region with which they have the earliest historical connection. ... Bumiputra or Bumiputera (Malay, from Sanskrit Bhumiputra; translated literally, it means son of the soil), is an official definition widely used in Malaysia, embracing ethnic Malays as well as other indigenous ethnic groups such as the Orang Asli in Peninsular Malaysia and the tribal peoples in Sabah and Sarawak. ...

Other inhabitants: Kadazan-Dusun is the term assigned to the unification of the classification of two indigenous tribes in Sabah, Malaysia—the ethnic groups Kadazan and Dusun. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Kwijau are an indigenous ethnic group residing in Sabah, eastern Malaysia on the island of Borneo. ... The Murut are an indigenous ethnic group inhabiting northern inland regions of Borneo. ... The Bajau are an indigenous ethnic group residing in Sabah, eastern Malaysia, Brunei, Indonesia, the Philippines and parts of Sarawak. ... The Illanun are an ethnic group of Borneo, residing primarily on the east coast of Sabah, Malaysia, in 17 villages around the Lahad Datu and Kota Belud districts; also in Kudat. ... The Lotud are an indigenous ethnic group residing in Sabah, eastern Malaysia on the island of Borneo. ... The Rungus are an ethnic group of Borneo, residing primarily in northern Sabah in the area surrounding Kudat. ... The Tambanuo are an indigenous ethnic group residing in Sabah, eastern Malaysia on the island of Borneo. ... The Dumpas are an indigenous ethnic group residing in Sabah, eastern Malaysia on the island of Borneo. ... The Mangkaak are an indigenous ethnic group residing in Sabah, eastern Malaysia on the island of Borneo. ... This article needs translation. ... The Kedayan are an ethnic group residing in Brunei, Labuan, Sabah, and parts of Sarawak on the island of Borneo. ... The Bisaya are an indigenous people of northwestern Borneo, in Malaysia, concentrated around the Limbang river in northern Sarawak state. ... The Tidong are an ethnic group of Borneo, residing primarily in the Bulungan Regency, in the province of East Kalimantan, Indonesia and in the Tawau Division, Sabah, Malaysia. ... The Maragang are an indigenous ethnic group residing in Sabah, eastern Malaysia on the island of Borneo. ... The Orang Cocos are an ethnic group residing in Sabah, eastern Malaysia on the island of Borneo. ... The Idaan are an ethnic group of Borneo, residing primarily in the Lahad Datu, Kinabatangan, and Sandakan districts on the east coast of Sabah, Malaysia. ... The Minokok are an indigenous ethnic group residing in Sabah, eastern Malaysia on the island of Borneo. ... The Rumanau are an indigenous ethnic group residing in Sabah, eastern Malaysia on the island of Borneo. ...

See also: Demographics of Malaysia

For the river, see Sarawak River. ... The Kristang or Cristão people are an ethnic group of people, mostly in Malacca (Malaysia) and Singapore. ... Demographics of Malaysia is diverse. ...

Economy

Sabah's economy was traditionally heavily lumber dependent, based on export of tropical timber, but with increasing depletion of the natural forests and ecological efforts to save remaining natural rainforest areas, palm oil has emerged as a more sustainable resource. Other agricultural products important in the Sabah economy include rubber and cacao. Tourism is currently the second largest contributor to the economy. There are other exports; like seafood & vegetables. Timber in storage for later processing at a sawmill roni Lumber or timber is a term used to describe wood, either standing or that has been processed for use — from the time trees are felled, to its end product as a material suitable for industrial use — as structural material for... For the novel, see Rainforest (novel). ... Palm oil from Ghana with its natural dark color visible, 2 litres Palm oil block showing the lighter color that results from boiling. ... This article is about the polymeric material. ... For the town in French Guiana, see Cacao, French Guiana. ... Tourist redirects here. ...


In 1970, Sabah ranked as one of the richest states in the federation, with a per capita GDP second only to Selangor (which then included Kuala Lumpur).[14] However, despite its vast wealth of natural resources, Sabah is currently the poorest of Malaysia's states. Average incomes are now among the lowest in Malaysia, and with a considerably higher cost of living than in West Malaysia. In 2000, Sabah had an unemployment rate of 5.6 per cent - the highest of any Malaysian state and almost twice the national average of 3.1 per cent. The state has the highest poverty level in the country at 16 per cent, more than three times the national average. Part of the problem is the inequitable distribution of wealth between the State and the Federal government, and large numbers of illegal immigrants from Indonesia, Philippines, even East Timor, whose population was estimated to be in the region of half a million people. In 2004, the poverty level worsened to 22 per cent[15]. Natural resources are commodities that are considered valuable in their relatively unmodified (natural) form. ... For other uses, see The Cost of Living. ... Unemployment rates in the United States. ... The poverty line is the level of income below which one cannot afford to purchase all the resources one requires to live. ... Differences in national income equality around the world as measured by the national Gini coefficient. ...


The recent tabling of Ninth Malaysia Plan has allocated RM16.908 billion for Sabah, the second highest state allocation after Sarawak's but it is still only 8% of the total national budget for a population of Sabah of more than 13%, and area of more than 25%. This is clearly discriminatory and had contributed to the state of Sabah having the largest number of people below poverty line in Malaysia, and lower than the Indonesian national poverty rate and in the same level as Aceh and Myanmar based on 2004 United Nations figures. [15],[16],[17],[18]. Ninth Malaysian Plan abbreviated as 9MP, is a comprehensive blueprint prepared by the Economic Planning Unit (EPU) of the Prime Ministers Department and the Finance Ministry of Malaysia with approval by the Cabinet of Malaysia to allocate the national budget from the year 2006 to 2010 to all economic...


The fund is pledged to improve the state's rural areas, improving the state's transportation and utilities infrastructures and boosting the economy of Sabah. The government has placed its focus on three major areas of the economy which have the potential to be Sabah's growth engine. These are agriculture, manufacturing and tourism.


When this discriminatory budget against Sabah and Sarawak was pointed out, the allocation for Sabah was increased from the earlier figure of 15.7 billion RM while there is none for Sarawak. The reason given to Sarawak's Chief Minister, as reported by Borneo Post (11th Nov. 2007) is that it is not economical to develop Sarawak. Sarawak is to be the source of renewable resources for Malaya. This situation applies to Sabah as well except that Sarawak's renewable resources are not even meant for Sabah. The percentage of the total budget is still much less than Sabah's population and area burdens, and this is a classic example of too little and too late.


Urban centers and ports

There are currently 7 ports in Sabah: Kota Kinabalu Port, Sepanggar Bay Container Port, Sandakan Port, Tawau Port, Kudat Port, Kunak Port, and Lahad Datu Port. These ports are operated and maintained by Sabah Ports Authority.[19] The major towns and city are:

Sandakan town
Sandakan town
Rank City Population [20]
1 Kota Kinabalu 532,129
2 Sandakan 448,074
3 Tawau 349,962
4 Lahad Datu 119,938
5 Keningau 97,152
6 Semporna 71,157
7 Kudat 34,481

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Nickname: Location in Malaysia and Sabah Country State Settled by BNBC 1882 Declared capital of North Borneo 1946 Granted city status February 2, 2000 Government  - Mayor Datuk Illiyas Ibrahim Area  - City 351 km²  (136 sq mi) Population (2007)  - City 532 129 [2]  - Density 1,516/km² (3,913/sq mi... Location in Sabah and Malaysia Country Malaysia State Sandakan Establishment Government  - Council President Dr Yeo Boon Hai Area  - City 2,266 km²  (875 sq mi) Population (2006)  - City 427,200  - Density 184/km² (488/sq mi) Time zone MST (UTC+8)  - Summer (DST) Not observed (UTC) Website: http://www. ... Nickname: Location of Tawau in Sabah, Malaysia Coordinates: , Country State Establishment Government  - Council President tuan haji Salsidu bin haji Ibrahim jr Area  - City 6,125 km²  (2,365 sq mi) Population (2006)  - City 370,800  - Density 60. ... Lahad Datu is a town located in Tawau Division, in the east of Sabah, eastern Malaysia on the island of Borneo. ... Keningau is a sprawling timber and agricultural town and a district located in Interior Division of Sabah, east Malaysia on the island of Borneo. ... Semporna is a town located in Tawau Division, in the east of Sabah, Malaysia on the island of Borneo. ... -1...

Tourism

Tourism, particularly eco-tourism, is a major contributor to the economy of Sabah. In 2006, 2 million tourists visited Sabah[21] and it is estimated that the number will continue to rise following rigorous promotional activities by the state and national tourism boards and also better stability and security in the region. Sabah currently has 6 national parks. One of these, the Kinabalu National Park, was designated as a World Heritage Site in 2000. It is the first of two sites in Malaysia to obtain the status, the other being the Gunung Mulu National Park in Sarawak. These parks are maintained and controlled by Sabah Parks as under the Parks Enactment 1984. Sabah Wildlife Department also has conservation, utilization, and management responsibility.[22] Ecotourism essentially means ecological tourism, where ecological has both environmental and social connotations. ... Kinabalu National Park or Taman Negara Kinabalu in Malay, established as one of the first national parks of Malaysia in 1964, is Malaysias first World Heritage site designated by UNESCO in December 2000 for its outstanding universal values and the role as one of the most important biological sites... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... Gunung Mulu National Park in Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo, on the border with Brunei, is a World Heritage Site that encompasses incredible caves and karst formations in a mountainous equatorial rainforest setting. ... Sabah Parks is the state body in charge of preservation, management and promotion of Sabahs various protected reserves. ...


National Parks

Kinabalu National Park or Taman Negara Kinabalu in Malay, established as one of the first national parks of Malaysia in 1964, is Malaysias first World Heritage Site designated by UNESCO in December 2000 for its outstanding universal values and the role as one of the most important biological sites... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... Puncak Jaya (IPA: /pÊŠn. ... Map showing Papua province in Indonesia Papua is a province of Indonesia comprising part of the western half of the island of New Guinea and nearby islands. ... Turtle Islands Park (Pulau Penya National Park) is located some 40 kilometers north of Sandakan in Sabah, east Malaysia. ... Genera Family Cheloniidae (Oppel, 1811) Caretta Chelonia Eretmochelys Lepidochelys Natator Family Dermochelyidae Dermochelys Family Protostegidae (extinct) Family Toxochelyidae (extinct) Family Thalassemyidae (extinct) Sea turtles (Superfamily Chelonioidea) are turtles found in all the worlds oceans except the Arctic Ocean . ... Tunku Abdul Rahman Park was established in 1974, just offshore Kota Kinabalu, in Sabah, east Malaysia on the island of Borneo. ... Pulau Tiga National Park was established in 1978, although the area has been under protection as a forest reserve since 1933. ... Crocker Range Park was established in 1984, although the area had previously been under protection as a forest reserve. ... Tawau Hills Park was established in 1979, primarily as a protection for the water catchment area of Tawau town, in Sabah, east Malaysia on the island of Borneo. ...

Notable Sabahans

Politics and governance

Mat Salleh was a Suluk-Bajau who led a rebellion against British North Borneo Company administration in North Borneo. Under his leadership, the rebellion which lasted from 1894 to 1900 razed the British Administration Centre on Pulau Gaya and exercised control over Menggatal, Inanam, Ranau and Tambunan. The rebellion was comprised of Bajaus, Dusuns and Muruts.[1] Mat Salleh Rebellion was a series of major disturbances in North Borneo, now Malaysian state of Sabah, from 1894 to 1900. ...


Another notable Sabahan is Donald Stephens who helped form the state of Sabah under the UN appointed Cobbold commission. He was an initial opponent of Malaysia but was persuaded by Lee Kuan Yew with an offer of 8 University places for Sabahan students at the University of Malaya, Singapore[citation needed]. Tun Fuad Stephens, or Tun Haji Mohd. ... This is a Chinese name; the family name is 李 (Li) Lee Kuan Yew, GCMG, CH (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; born September 16, 1923; also spelled Lee Kwan-Yew) is a Singaporean of Chinese immigrant background. ...


Donald Stephens was the first Huguan Siou or paramount leader of the Kadazan-dusun and Murut people. Kadazan-Dusun is the term assigned to the unification of the classification of two indigenous tribes in Sabah, Malaysia—the ethnic groups Kadazan and Dusun. ... The Murut are an indigenous ethnic group inhabiting northern inland regions of Borneo. ...


Tun Datu Mustapha was a Suluk-Kagayan Muslim political leader in Sabah through the United Sabah National Organisation (USNO) party[4]. He was a vocal supporter of Malaysia but fell out of favor with Malayan leaders despite forming UMNO branches in Saba and deregistering USNO was deregistered and efforts to reregister USNO had not been allowed, unlike UMNO that was allowed to be reregisered under the same name.[23][citation needed] Tun Datu Mustapha, also known as Tun Datu Haji Mustapha bin Datu Harun, was the first governor of the Malaysian state of Sabah. ... Sang Saka Bangsa The United Malays National Organisation, or UMNO, (Malay: Pertubuhan Kebangsaan Melayu Bersatu), is the right-Wing and the largest political party in Malaysia and a founding member of the Barisan Nasional coalition, which has ruled the country uninterruptedly since its independence. ...


Former Chief Minister, Joseph Pairin Kitingan is the current Huguan Siou and the President of Parti Bersatu Sabah (PBS). Pairin, the longest serving Chief Minister of the State and one of the first Kadazandusun lawyers, was known for his defiance to the federal government in the 1980s and 90s in promoting the rights of Sabah and speaking out against the illegal immigrant problems. Sabah was at the time one of only 2 states with opposition governments in power, the other being Kelantan. PBS has since rejoined BN and Datuk Pairin is currently the Deputy Chief Minister of Sabah. Datuk Seri Panglima Joseph Pairin Kitingan (born August 17, 1940) is a Malaysian politician and was the sixth Chief Minister of Sabah, a state in Malaysia. ... The Parti Bersatu Sabah (United Sabah Party) is a political party in Malaysia. ...


The 8th and current Attorney General of Malaysia, Abdul Gani Patail, comes from Sabah. Introduction The Attorney General (or better known as Peguam Negara is the principal legal adviser to the Government of Malaysia. ...


In 2006, Penampang born Richard Malanjum was appointed Chief Judge of Sabah and Sarawak and became the first Kadazandusun to hold such a post. Penampang is a town located in West Coast Division, in the center of Sabah, east Malaysia on the island of Borneo. ... Kadazan-Dusun is the term assigned to the unification of the classification of two indigenous tribes in Sabah, Malaysia—the ethnic groups Kadazan and Dusun. ...


Arts

Sabah has produced a fair number of well-known media figures. Noteworthy mentions include filmmaker Tony Francis Gitom, television presenter Daphne Iking, Guess model Amber Chia, JIAJA (Blast Off! Season 2 Champion; Band), actresses Fung Bo Bo, Chung Shuk Wai and musicians Roger Wang, Pete Teo, Jerome Kugan, Mia Palencia, Yan Qing, Gary Cao , Maryanne Raymond (a.k.a DJ Mary of TraxxFm),Constantine Anthony(a.k.a DJ Constantine of TraxxFm),Shahrizan Ferouz(a.k.a DJ TheShaz of TraxxFm) John Paul Lee (a.k.a.DJ Johnboy Lee of Hitz.FM & Bigfish Radio), Nikki Palikat (Malaysian Idol finalist), Velvet Aduk, Richael Gimbang, Felix Agus, Lotter, Linda Nanuwil, Adam,candy,stacy,nora,ebi,farha (Akademi Fantasia), Ayu (Winner OIAM season 2),yanie (mentor),Farish Aziz (astro's Ronda 360 darjah & Fulus mania). This article is about the clothing line. ... Amber Chia (Simplified Chinese: , Traditional Chinese: , born December 14, 1981) is a Malaysian model. ... // Born on 9th July 1979, Malaysia, Gary Chaw (Cao Ge) got a promising start when he won Hong Kong TVBs new comer singer award in 2006 and since then has released 2 albums, the latest titled Superman. He received his early education in Canada. ...


Sports

Matlan Marjan is a former player for Malaysia. He scored two goals against England in an international friendly on June 12, 1991. The English team included Stuart Pearce, David Batty, David Platt, Nigel Clough, Gary Lineker and captained by Bryan Robson while coached by Bobby Robson.[24] No other Malaysian player managed to achieve this.[citation needed] In 1995, he along with six other Sabah players were arrested on suspicion for match-fixing. Although the charges were dropped, prevented from playing professional football and was banished to another district.[25][26] He was punished under the Internal Security Act (which allows for indefinite detention without any trial, and in this case despite being proven innocent, and even on non-security related issues).[citation needed] Matlan Marjan was a professional football player from the state of Sabah, Malaysia. ... First international Scotland 0 - 0 England (Partick, Scotland; 30 November 1872) Biggest win Ireland 0 - 13 England (Belfast, Ireland; 18 February 1882) Biggest defeat Hungary 7 - 1 England (Budapest, Hungary; 23 May 1954) World Cup Appearances 12 (First in 1950) Best result Winners, 1966 European Championship Appearances 7 (First in... Sabah FA or for most of the times is just simply called Sabah. ... Exile (band) may refer to: Exile - The American country music band Exile - The Japanese pop music band Category: ... Districts are known as Daerah or Jajahan (in Kelantan). ... The Internal Security Act 1960 (ISA) is a preventive detention law in force in Malaysia. ...


Arts and entertainment

Many Sabahans contestants have attained high-placing results on local shows such as Malaysian Idol, Akademi Fantasia, Gangstarz and Blast-Off. Some notable contestants are Nicolette Palikat, Adam AF2, Velvet, Marsha, Felix Agus, Norlinda Nanuwil, Nora AF4, Rich AF4, Lotter, Evoke, Alvin of Infinatez and the band Jiaja. Sabah's first homegrown film was Orang Kita, starring Abu Bakar Ellah. Nicolette Louisa Palikat (born November 1, 1985), better known by her stage name, Nikki, is a Malaysian singer from Tambunan, Sabah, and a finalist in the first season of Malaysian Idol. ...


Some films and TV shows filmed in Sabah include the first season of reality show Survivor, The Amazing Race, Eco-Challenge Borneo, films Bat*21, and Sacred Planet, as well as a number of Hong Kong production films. Sabah was also featured in Sacred Planet, a documentary hosted by Robert Redford. Survivor: Pulau Tiga was the first installment of the popular United States reality show Survivor. ... The Amazing Race 4 was the fourth installment of the popular reality television show on US television, The Amazing Race. ... Bat 21 DVD cover Bat*21 is a 1988 movie directed by Peter Markle, and adapted from his own book by William Charles Anderson. ...


Daling-daling is now the preferred dancing routines among Sabahan Suluks and Bajaus. In its original form, it is a dance which combines Arabic belly dancing and the Indian dances common in this region complete with long artificial finger nails and golden head gear accompanied by a Suluk song called Daling-daling which is a love story. Its main characteristic is the large hip and breast swings but nowadays it is danced with a faster tempo but less swings, called Igal-igal.


Sabah's first established newspaper was the New Sabah Times. The newspaper was founded by Tun Fuad Stephens, who later became the first Chief Minister of Sabah. The New Sabah Times is a newspaper in Sabah, Malaysia. ... Tun Fuad Stephens, or Tun Haji Mohd. ... A Chief Minister is the elected Head of Government of a state of India, a territory of Australia or a British overseas territory that has attained self-government. ...


American author Agnes Newton Keith lived in Sandakan between 1934-1952 and wrote several books about Sabah. Agnes Newton Keith (6 July 1901 – 30 March 1982) was an American author best known for her three autobiographical accounts of life in North Borneo (now Sabah) before, during and after the Second World War. ...


In the Earl Mac Rauch novelization of Buckaroo Banzai (Pocket Books, 1984; repr. 2001), and in the DVD commentary, Buckaroo's archenemy Hanoi Xan is said to have his secret base in Sabah, in a "relic city of caves." Buckaroo Banzai Buckaroo Banzai is the lead character, played by Peter Weller, of the eponymous 1984 cult film, The Adventures of Buckaroo Banzai Across the 8th Dimension. ...


References

  • Gudgeon, L. W. W. 1913. British North Borneo. Adam and Charles Black, London.
  • Chin, Ung-Ho. 1999. 'Kataks', Kadazan-Dusun Nationalism and Development: The 1999 Sabah State Election (Regime Change And Regime Maintenance In Asia And The Pacific Series No 24, Department Of Political And Social Change, Research School Of Pacific And Asian Studies, Australian National University) (ISBN 0-7315-2678-3)

Footnotes

  1. ^ a b C.Buckley: A School History of Sabah, London, Macmillan & Co. Ltd., 1968
  2. ^ a b "Sabah's Heritage: A Brief Introduction to Sabah's History", Muzium Sabah, Kota Kinabalu. 1992
  3. ^ "Panglima Alli tak takut dibunuh tentera Jepun", Berita Harian. Retrieved on 2008-01-26. (Malay) 
  4. ^ a b Johan M. Padasian: Sabah History in pictures (1881-1981), Sabah State Government, 1981
  5. ^ Ramlah binti Adam, Abdul Hakim bin Samuri, Muslimin bin Fadzil: "Sejarah Tingkatan 3, Buku teks", published by Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka (2005)
  6. ^ Kinabalu Park - Justification for inscription, UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Accessed June 24, 2007.
  7. ^ About the Kinabatangan area, WWF. Accessed August 4, 2007.
  8. ^ Senarai ahli Dewan Undangan Negeri Sabah, sabah.gov.my. Accessed August 4, 2007.
  9. ^ a b c "Monthly Statistical Bulletin, January 2007: Sabah", Department of Statistics Malaysia, Sabah.
  10. ^ "Housing Census of Malaysia, 2000", Department of Statistics, Malaysia
  11. ^ Malaysia: Administrative Divisions (population and area), World Gazetteer. Accessed August 4, 2007.
  12. ^ "Kim Quek", "Demographic implosion in Sabah?"
  13. ^ Languages of Malaysia (Sabah). Ethnologue. Retrieved on May 4, 2007
  14. ^ "Outline Perspective of Sabah", Institute for Development Studies (Sabah). URL accessed May 7, 2006
  15. ^ a b "UN Sabah Poverty Statistics, 2004". URL accessed Jan 13, 2008
  16. ^ "Indonesian Poverty Statistics, 2004". URL accessed Jan 13, 2008
  17. ^ UN World Poverty Statistics 2005". URL accessed Jan 13, 2008
  18. ^ "The Edge Daily". URL accessed Jan 13, 2008
  19. ^ Sabah Ports Authority
  20. ^ Malaysia: largest cities and towns and statistics of their population, World Gazetteer. August 4, 2007.
  21. ^ Sabah : Visitors Arrival by Nationality 2006, Sabah Tourism Board. Accessed August 4, 2007.
  22. ^ About Sabah Wildlife Department. Retrieved on 2007-11-12.
  23. ^ "M.G.G. Pillai". URL last accessed on Jan 13, 2008
  24. ^ EnglandFC Match Data
  25. ^ "No charges against Sabah six", Bernama, 1995-07-14. Retrieved on 2008-01-14. 
  26. ^ "Four Sabah soccer players banished to remote area", Bernama, 1995-10-04. Retrieved on 2008-01-14. 

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External links

  • Sabah Government
  • Laws of Sabah
  • History of Sabah- Written by C. Buckley, 1968
  • Sabah Tourism Board
  • Daily Express, the local newspaper with the largest circulation in Sabah
  • WWF Heart of Borneo conservation initiative - Information about the Heart of Borneo - 220,000 km² of upland montane tropical rainforest, where endangered species such as the orang-utan, rhinoceros and pygmy elephant cling for survival.
A territorial dispute is a disagreement over the possession/control of land between two or more states, or over the possession/control of land by one state after it has conquered it from a former state no longer currently recognized by the occupying power. ... The status of the territory of Sabah, previously known as North Borneo, is currently disputed. ... The Scarborough Shoal, more correctly described as a group of islands, atolls, and reefs then a shoal, is located in the Luzon Sea (South China Sea). ... Island of Palmas Case, (Scott, Hague Court Reports 2d 83 (1932), (Perm. ...

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