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Encyclopedia > Saadi (poet)
Persian scholar
Medieval era
Name: Sa'adi of Shiraz
Birth: 1184 CE
Death: 1283/1291 CE
School/tradition:
Main interests: Poetry, Mysticism, Sufism, Metaphysics, logic, ethics
Notable ideas: Saadi's work has been translated by a number of major Western poets

Sheikh Sa‘di (in Persian: سعدی, full name in English: Muslih-ud-Din Mushrif-ibn-Abdullah) (1184 - 1283/1291?) is one of the major Persian poets of the medieval period. He is recognized not only for the quality of his writing, but also for the depth of his social thought. // Events Abbeville receives its commercial charter. ... For broader historical context, see 1280s and 13th century. ... For broader historical context, see 1290s and 13th century. ... The Chinese poem Quatrain on Heavenly Mountain by Emperor Gaozong (Song Dynasty) Poetry (from the Greek , poiesis, making or creating) is a form of art in which language is used for its aesthetic qualities in addition to, or in lieu of, its ostensible meaning. ... Mysticism from the Greek μυστικός (mustikos) an initiate (of the Eleusinian Mysteries, μυστήρια (musteria) meaning initiation[1]) is the pursuit of achieving communion or identity with, or conscious awareness of, ultimate reality, the divine, spiritual truth, or God through direct experience, intuition, or insight; and the belief that such experience is one... Sufism is a mystic tradition that found a home in Islam and encompasses a diverse range of beliefs and practices dedicated to Allah, divine love and the cultivation of the heart. ... Plato and Aristotle (right), by Raphael (Stanza della Segnatura, Rome). ... Logic, from Classical Greek λόγος logos (the word), is the study of the principles and criteria of valid inference and demonstration. ... Ethics (from the Ancient Greek Ä“thikos, the adjective of Ä“thos custom, habit), a major branch of philosophy, including genetics is the study of values and customs of a person or group. ... Persian (Local names: فارسی Fârsi or پارسی Pârsi)* is an Indo-European language spoken in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan as well as by minorities in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, India, Pakistan, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ... Sa‘di Categories: | ... Estimated date of death of Sa‘di Categories: | ... For broader historical context, see 1290s and 13th century. ... For information about all peoples of Iran, see Demographics of Iran; for Central Asian Persians, see Tajiks. ... The poor poet A poet is a person who writes poetry. ...

Contents

Biography

A native of Shiraz, Persia, Shiekh Saadi left his native town at a young age for Baghdad to study Arabic literature and Islamic sciences at Al-Nizamiyya of Baghdad (1195-1226). Eram Garden, Shiraz most popular garden. ... The Persian Empire was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the old Persian homeland, and beyond in Western Asia, Central Asia and the Caucasus. ... Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... Al-Nizamiyya of Baghdad was an early Islamic university established in July of 1091[1] when Nizam al-Mulk appointed the 33-year-old Al-Ghazali as a professor of the school. ... Events Priory of St Marys, Bushmead, founded. ... Events Carmelite Order approved by Pope Honorius III Frederick II calls Imperial Diet of Cremona Births June 21 - King Boleslaus V of Poland (died 1279) Abul-Faraj, Syriac scholar (died 1286) Bar-Hebraeus, Syriac historian and bishop (died 1286) Deaths March 7 - William de Longespee, 3rd Earl of Salisbury, English...


The unsettled conditions following the Mongol invasion of Persia led him to wander abroad through Anatolia, Syria, Egypt, and Iraq. He also refers in his work to travels in India and Central Asia. Saadi is very much like Marco Polo who traveled in the region from 1271 to 1294. There is a difference, however, between the two. While Marco Polo gravitated to the potentates and the good life, Saadi mingled with the ordinary survivors of the Mongol holocaust. He sat in remote teahouses late into the night and exchanged views with merchants, farmers, preachers, wayfarers, thieves, and Sufi mendicants. For twenty years or more, he continued the same schedule of preaching, advising, learning, honing his sermons, and polishing them into gems illuminating the wisdom and foibles of his people. For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Marco Polo (September 15, 1254 – January 8, 1324) was a Venetian trader and explorer who gained fame for his worldwide travels, recorded in the book Il Milione (The Million or The Travels of Marco Polo). ...


When he reappeared in his native Shiraz he was an elderly man. Shiraz, under Atabak Abubakr Sa'd ibn Zangy (1231-60) was enjoying an era of relative tranquility. Saadi was not only welcomed to the city but was respected highly by the ruler and enumerated among the greats of the province. In response, Saadi took his nom de plume from the name of the local prince, Sa'd ibn Zangi, and composed some of his most delightful panegyrics as an initial gesture of gratitude in praise of the ruling house and placed them at the beginning of his Bostan. He seems to have spent the rest of his life in Shiraz.


His works

His best known works are the (Bostan) in 1257(The Orchard) and the (Gulistan) in 1258(The Rose Garden). The Bostan is entirely in verse (epic metre) and consists of stories aptly illustrating the standard virtues recommended to Muslims (justice, liberality, modesty, contentment) as well as of reflections on the behaviour of dervishes and their ecstatic practices. The Golestan is mainly in prose and contains stories and personal anecdotes. The text is interspersed with a variety of short poems, containing aphorisms, advice, and humorous reflections. Saadi demonstrates a profound awareness of the absurdity of human existence. The fate of those who depend on the changeable moods of kings is contrasted with the freedom of the dervishes. Bostan (pronounced Bustān) is a book of combined poetry and prose by Perisan writer and legend Saadi, completed in 1257CE. It is the first work of Sadi, and its title means the fruit orchard. ... For broader historical context, see 1250s and 13th century. ... Gulestan is a landmark literary work in Persian literature. ... For broader historical context, see 1250s and 13th century. ...


For Western students the Bostan and Golestan have a special attraction; but Saadi is also remembered as a great panegyrics and lyricist, the author of a number of masterly general odes portraying human experience, and also of particular odes such as the lament on the fall of Baghdad after the Mongol invasion in 1258. His lyrics are to be found in Ghazaliyat ("Lyrics") and his odes in Qasa'id ("Odes"). He is also known for a number of works in Arabic. The peculiar blend of human kindness and cynicism, humor, and resignation displayed in Saadi's works, together with a tendency to avoid the hard dilemma, make him, to many, the most typical and lovable writer in the world of Iranian culture. A Panegyric is a formal public speech delivered in high praise of a person or thing, a generally high studied and undiscriminating eulogy. ...


Saadi distinguished between the spiritual and the practical or mundane aspects of life. In his Bostan, for example, spiritual Saadi uses the mundane world as a spring board to propel himself beyond the earthly realms. The images in Bostan are delicate in nature and soothing. In the Golestan, on the other hand, mundane Saadi lowers the spiritual to touch the heart of his fellow wayfarers. Here the images are graphic and, thanks to Saadi's dexterity, remain concrete in the reader's mind. Realistically, too, there is a ring of truth in the division. The Shaykh preaching in the Khaniqah experiences a totally different world than the merchant passing through a town. The unique thing about Saadi is that he embodies both the Sufi Shaykh and the traveling merchant. They are, as he himself puts it, two almond kernels in the same shell.


Saadi's prose style, described as "simple but impossible to imitate" flows quite naturally and effortlessly. Its simplicity, however, is grounded in a semantic web consisting of synonymy, homophony, and oxymoron buttressed by internal rhythm and external rhyme.



Chief among these works is Goethe's West-Oestlicher Divan. Andre du Ryer was the first European to present Saadi to the West, by means of a partial French translation of Golistan in 1634. Adam Olearius followed soon with a complete translation of the Bustan and the Golistan into German in 1654. Ralph Waldo Emerson was also an avid fan of Sa'di's writings, contributing to some translated editions himself. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (pronounced [gø tə]) (August 28, 1749–March 22, 1832) was a German writer, politician, humanist, scientist, and philosopher. ... Andre du Ryer was a French Orientalist who wrote the second western translation of the Quran. ... Events Moses Amyrauts Traite de la predestination is published Curaçao captured by the Dutch Treaty of Polianovska First meeting of the Académie française The witchcraft affair at Loudun Jean Nicolet lands at Green Bay, Wisconsin Opening of Covent Garden Market in London English establish a settlement... Adam Olearius (born Adam Oehlschlaeger) (1603–1671), German scholar, mathematician, geographer and librarian. ... Events April 5 - Signing of the Treaty of Westminster, ending the First Anglo-Dutch War. ... Ralph Waldo Emerson (May 25, 1803 – April 27, 1882) was an American essayist, poet, and leader of the Transcendentalist movement in the early nineteenth century. ...


One of his more famous quotes is, "Whatever is produced in haste goes easily to waste." Another famous poem focuses on the kindness of mankind.


The same poem is used to grace the entrance to the Hall of Nations of the UN building in New York with this call for breaking all barriers: [1]
This article is about the United Nations, for other uses of UN see UN (disambiguation) Official languages English, French, Spanish, Russian, Chinese, Arabic Secretary-General Kofi Annan (since 1997) Established October 24, 1945 Member states 191 Headquarters New York City, NY, USA Official site http://www. ... NY redirects here. ...

بنى آدم اعضاء يك پیکرند، که در آفرينش ز يك گوهرند
چو عضوى به درد آورد روزگار، دگر عضوها را نماند قرار
تو که از محنت دیگران بیغمی، نشاید که نامت نهند ادمی
"Of one Essence is the human race,
Thusly has Creation put the Base;
'
One Limb impacted is sufficient,
For all Others to feel the Mace.

Translation by: Iraj Bashiri"


References

  • E.G. Browne. Literary History of Persia. (Four volumes, 2,256 pages, and twenty-five years in the writing). 1998. ISBN 0-7007-0406-X
  • Jan Rypka, History of Iranian Literature. Reidel Publishing Company. ASIN B-000-6BXVT-K
  • Persian Language & Literature: Saadi Shirazi

Notes

  1. ^ Sa'di's biography at irib.com

See also

A Meeting of Some Iranian Poets: (L to R) Morteza Keyvan, Ahmad Shamlou, Nima Yooshij, Siavash Kasraie, and Hushang Ebtehaj. ... Persian literature (in Persian: ‎ ) spans two and a half millennia, though much of the pre-Islamic material has been lost. ... Islamic scholars are Muslim and non-Muslim scholars who work in one or more fields of Islamic studies. ...

External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Saadi (poet)
  • Saadi station in aaaHoo
  • The Gulistan of Sa'di http://classics.mit.edu/Sadi/gulistan.html
  • Sa'di, Muslih al-Din, a biography by Professor Iraj Bashiri, University of Minnesota.
  • Sa'di and Shiraz
  • Sa'di's Tomb in Shiraz
  • Sa'di: A story about wealth vs. virtue - Translation from Washington State University
  • Scholarly article on Sa'di & his work, Enyclopaedia Iranica (Columbia University).

 
 

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