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A second-generation (1995-2001) Ford Explorer, the best-selling mid-size SUV in the United States

A sport utility vehicle, or SUV, is a type of passenger vehicle which combines the load-hauling and versatility of a pickup truck with the passenger-carrying space of a van or station wagon. Most SUVs are designed with a roughly square cross-section, an engine compartment, a combined passenger and cargo compartment, and no dedicated trunk. Most mid-size and full-size SUVs have 5 or more seats, and a cargo area directly behind the last row of seats. Mini SUVs, such as the Jeep Wrangler, may have fewer seats. Image File history File links Explorer. ... Image File history File links Explorer. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Mazda compact Pickup truck with extended cabin and homebuilt lumber rack. ... A van is a vehicle used for transporting goods or groups of people. ... Estate car body style (Saab 95) A station wagon (United States usage), wagon (Australian usage, though station wagon is widely used) or estate car (United Kingdom usage) is a car body style similar to a sedan car but with an extended rear cargo area. ... In geometry, a cross section is the intersection of a body in 3-dimensional space with a plane, or of a body in 2-dimensional space with a line, etc. ... Mini SUV is a class of small sport utility vehicles which are more or less under 4,15 m long. ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Jeep Wrangler The Wrangler (also known as the YJ and TJ, as explained below) is a small ORV from Jeep. ...

It is known in some countries as an off-roader or four wheel drive, often abbreviated to 4WD or 4x4, and pronounced "four-by-four". More recently, SUVs designed primarily for driving on roads have grown in popularity. A new category, the crossover SUV uses car components for lighter weight and better fuel economy. The Honda CR-V is a crossover SUV based on the Honda Civic platform. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Fuel efficiency relates the efficiency of converting energy contained in a carrier fuel to kinetic energy or work. ...

SUVs were traditionally derived from light truck platforms, but several SUVs and crossover SUVs are based on platforms of unibody construction.[1]. Light truck is a vehicle classification generally used by the United States government for regulating fuel economy and safety. ... An automobile platform is a shared set of components common to a number of different automobiles. ... An automobile platform is a shared set of components common to a number of different automobiles. ...

SUVs typically have high seating and most can be equipped with four wheel drive, providing an advantage in low traction environments. The design also allows for a large engine compartment, which allows for a wide variety of engine choices, both gasoline and diesel. Four wheel drive or 4x4, is a type of four wheeled vehicle drivetrain configuration that enables all four wheels to receive power from the engine simultaneously in order to provide maximum traction. ... Traction usually refers to friction between a drive member and the surface it runs on, where friction is used to provide motion. ...

## History

Sport utility vehicles were originally descended from commercial and military vehicles such as the Jeep and Land Rover. [1] SUVs have been popular for many years with rural buyers due to their off-road capabilities. The Jeep Wagoneer and the Ford Bronco were early SUV examples, followed by the Chevrolet Blazer and the GMC Jimmy. International Harvester also sold SUV's, notably the three-door International Scout and the five-door International Travelall.
Image File history File links Mosk410h. ... Image File history File links Mosk410h. ... Moskvitch 410-H Moskvitch 411 Moskvitch 410 was a car from Moskvitch introduced in 1957 as a four wheel drive version of the 402. ... Jeep is an automobile marque (and registered trademark) of DaimlerChrysler. ... Land Rover was the name of one of the first British civilian all-terrain utility vehicles, first produced by Rover in 1947. ... Jeep Wagoneer (XJ model) The Jeep Wagoneer was the first mainstream SUV, produced under varying marques from 1963 to 1991. ... The Ford Bronco was an SUV produced from 1966 through 1996, with four distinct generations. ... The Chevrolet Blazer (and similar GMC Jimmy and Oldsmobile Bravada) was an early SUV from General Motors. ... The Chevrolet Blazer (and similar GMC Jimmy and Oldsmobile Bravada) was an early SUV from General Motors. ... The school bus yellow paint was shining brightly on this new 1973 International Harvester - Wayne Lifeguard school bus won in a national contest for safety ideas. ...

In the last 25 years, and even more in the last decade, SUVs have become popular with urban buyers. Consequently, more modern SUVs often come with more luxury features and some crossover SUVs, such as the BMW X5, the Acura MDX, and the Toyota RAV4, have adopted lower ride heights and utilize unibody construction to better accommodate their use for on-road driving. The Honda CR-V is a crossover SUV based on the Honda Civic platform. ... The BMW X5 is a mid-size luxury crossover SUV sold by BMW since 2000. ... The Acura MDX (Honda MDX in Japan and Australia) is a midsize SUV built by Honda of Canada Manufacturing Ltd. ... An electric version of the RAV4, the RAV4 EV, is detailed on its own page. ...

### Popularity

SUVs became popular in the United States, Canada, and Australia in the 1990s and early 2000s for a variety of reasons. Buyers became drawn to their large cabins, higher ride height, and perceived safety when in the market for a new vehicle. Additionally, most full-size SUVs have far greater towing capacities than conventional cars, allowing owners to tow RVs, trailers, and boats with relative ease, adding to the utilitarian image. Ride Height (or simply clearance) is the amount of space between the base of an automobile tyre and the underside of the chassis. ... Car safety is the avoidance of car accidents or the minimization of harmful effects of accidents, in particular as pertaining to human life and health. ... Recreational Vehicle (RV) is a broad term used to describe a large enclosed piece of equipment with wheels designed to be moved from place to place for people to temporarily live in and be protected from the elements while away from their permanent domicile. ... A Trailer is an unpowered vehicle pulled by a powered vehicle. ... Some boats in a harbor in Miami Beach, Florida A boat is a watercraft, usually smaller than most ships. ...

A large growth in SUV popularity and sales is due to advertisement targeted towards women. Women constitute more than half of SUV drivers, and SUVs are the most popular vehicle choice of women in the United States. [citation needed]

In Australia, a unique situation resulted in the growth in popularity of SUVs. There, SUVs have a much lower import duty compared with cars. This means a typical SUV has a significant price advantage over a similarly-equipped, imported sedan. However, in recent years, the import duty has been lowered for cars as well, and is currently at 10% (compared with 5% for SUVs). In economics, a duty is a kind of tax, often associated with customs, a payment due to the revenue of a state, levied by force of law. ...

A common reason for SUV popularity cited by owners was their perceived safety advantage in a collision with regular cars. For instance, the higher profile allows for better visability and anticipation of danger. The enhanced weight helped reduce the risk of injury by a third in children under the age of 16, though the roll-over fatality risk is much higher in SUVs than cars negating the advantage.[citation needed] Some of their success could also be attributed to their "utilitarian" image. In the late 1990s and early 2000s, vehicle manufacturers sold SUVs very effectively, with per-vehicle profits substantially higher than other automobiles. Historically, their simpler designs often made the vehicles cheaper to make than comparably-priced cars. A vehicular collision in Yate, near Bristol, England, in July 2004. ...

In the mid 2000s, however, their popularity has waned, due to higher gasoline prices[citation needed], rollover accident fatalities[citation needed] and higher relative pollution.[citation needed] As of the spring of 2006, some of the larger SUVs now require over 100USD per fillup, making thier everyday use more cost-prohibitive.[citation needed] Current model SUVs (crossovers) take into account that 98% of SUV owners never offroad[citation needed]. As such, SUVs now have lower ground clearance and suspension designed primarily for paved road usage. The term off-road refers to a driving surface which is not conventionally paved. ... Ride Height (or simply clearance) is the amount of space between the base of an automobile tyre and the underside of the chassis. ...

## SUVs in remote areas

SUVs are often used in places such as the Australian Outback, Africa, the Middle East, Alaska, Northern Canada and most of Asia, which have limited paved roads and require the vehicle to have all-terrain handling, increased range, and storage capacity. The low availablity of spare parts and the need to carry out repairs quickly allow model vehicles with the bare minimum of electric and hydraulic systems to predominate. Typical examples are the Land Rover, the Toyota Land Cruiser and the Lada Niva. A tourism sign post Yalgoo, Western Australia The outback is the remote and usually semi-arid interior of Australia, although the term colloquially can cover any lands outside of the main urban areas. ... Africa is the worlds second-largest and second-most populous continent, after Asia. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Official language(s) English Capital Juneau Largest city Anchorage Area  Ranked 1st  - Total 663,267 sq mi (1,717,854 kmÂ²)  - Width 808 miles (1,300 km)  - Length 1,479 miles (2,380 km)  - % water 13. ... World map showing the location of Asia. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... A well-used Russian Niva, parked near the ÐÑ€Ð±Ð°Ñ‚ÑÐºÐ°Ñ Metro station in central Moscow. ...

SUVs targeted for use in civilization have traditionally originated from their more rugged all-terrain counterparts. For example the Hummer H1 is derived from the HMMWV, originally developed for the US Armed Forces. The Hummer H1 is a civilian vehicle based on the High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV), popularly known as the Humvee, which was created by AM General. ... This article refers to the Military HMMWV, not the civilian Hummer sold by General Motors General Characteristics (Humvee) Manufacturer: AM General Length: 4. ...

## Other names

Outside of North America and India, these vehicles are known simply as four-wheel-drives, often abbreviated to "4WD" or "4x4". They are classified as cars in countries such as the UK where the U.S. distinction between cars and 'light trucks' is not used. In Australia, the automotive industry and press have recently adopted the term SUV in place of four wheel drive in the description of vehicles and market segments. "Utility" or "ute" refers to an automobile with a flatbed rear or pick-up, typically seating two passengers and is often used by tradesmen, and is typically not a 4WD vehicle. World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America. ... The Jeep Wrangler is a 4WD vehicle with a transfer case to select low range or high range 4WD. The Lamborghini MurciÃ©lago is a 4WD/AWD that powers the front via a VCU if the rear slips. ... Four wheel drive or 4x4, is a type of four wheeled vehicle drivetrain configuration that enables all four wheels to receive power from the engine simultaneously in order to provide maximum traction. ...

## SUVs in recreation and motorsport

SUVs are also used to explore off-road places otherwise unreachable by vehicle or for the sheer enjoyment of the driving. In Australia, China, Europe, South Africa and the U.S. at least, many 4WD clubs have been formed for this purpose. Modified SUVs also take part in races, most famously in the Paris-Dakar Rally, and the Australian Safari. World map showing Europe Political map Europe is one of the seven continents of Earth which, in this case, is more a cultural and political distinction than a physiographic one, leading to various perspectives about Europes borders. ... The Paris Dakar Rally (or The Dakar) is an annual, organized, professional off-road race. ...

With the increasing urbanisation of the world, SUVs are also becoming more of a requirement for those seeking unmodified landscapes and isolation, especially in nations with large wilderness areas through which a viable road network could not be maintained without excessive costs. Of course, roads are rarely constructed with scenic purposes foremost in mind, instead trying to utilise the shortest and most economical length in order to reach a specific destination and in many cases this means many natural features of interest are inaccessible to cars. To travel with the absence of this infrastructure (which often leads to settlements being built) serves to add to the appeal of SUV ownership due to a sense of independence this invokes in many people, an ability to appreciate natural landscapes upon their own terms.

The recreation value of SUVs also brings with it a pro environmentalist agenda which is often overlooked in debates over their overall merits. By allowing owners to go off road, SUVs promote a greater value being applied to wilderness areas, an attachment difficult to gain through reading or simply seeing things on television. SUV clubs often promote this ideal and a commercial manifestation of this can be seen in the number of tourism operators dependent on SUVs for their activities, Australia being a strong example. Sensible off road driving can promote a greater physical connection between people and the pristine environment, something which has decreased with ever growing urban areas.

## Criticism

The explosive growth in SUV ownership has attracted a large amount of criticism, mainly of the risks to other road users and the environment, but also on the basis that the perceived benefits to the vehicle owner are illusory or exaggerated.

### Safety

Safety is a common point of criticism. The majority of modern automobiles are constructed by a method called unibody or monocoque construction, whereby a steel body shell absorbs the impacts of collisions in crumple zones. However, many SUVs are constructed in the body-on-frame style of light trucks, which can lead to a lower level of safety when not designed well. Often, their heavier weight, height, and stiffer construction (due to body-on-frame design) hurts other drivers and pedestrians, while their higher center of gravity increases the risk of death for the SUV passengers from rollover. Ford Excursion and Toyota Camry File links The following pages link to this file: Sport utility vehicle Toyota Camry Ford Excursion Categories: GFDL images ... Ford Excursion and Toyota Camry File links The following pages link to this file: Sport utility vehicle Toyota Camry Ford Excursion Categories: GFDL images ... The Excursion was the largest SUV in the Ford Motor Company lineup. ... The Toyota Camry is a mid-size car manufactured by Toyota in Georgetown, Kentucky, USA, as well as Australia, and Tsutsumi, Japan. ... Car safety is the avoidance of car accidents or the minimization of harmful effects of accidents, in particular as pertaining to human life and health. ... Monocoque (French for single shell) or unibody is a construction technique that uses the external skin of an object to support some or most of the load on the structure. ... Monocoque (French for single shell) or unibody is a construction technique that uses the external skin of an object to support some or most of the load on the structure. ... The crumple zones of an automobile are a structural feature designed to compress during an accident to absorb energy from an impact. ... Body-on-frame is an automobile construction technology. ...

However, some SUVs have designs based on unibody construction, including the Ford Escape/Mazda Tribute, Lexus RX 330 and RX 400h, Hyundai Santa Fe, Lada Niva, and Acura MDX. The Jeep Cherokee/Liberty (1984 on) and Grand Cherokee (1993 on) have even used unibody construction from their beginning. The Hyundai Santa Fe is a mid-size crossover SUV based on the Hyundai Sonata platform. ...

#### Risk to other drivers

Because of SUVs' greater height and weight, and often usage of body-on-frame constructions, it is documented many SUVs hurt public road safety by increasing risk for people both inside and outside the SUV (in other vehicles or on foot). This is due to the SUVs' weight and height advantage in multi-vehicle accidents (resulting in much fewer deaths in the vehicle, but increasing risks for others) being counterbalanced by their raised center of gravity. This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ...

In 2004, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration released figures showing that drivers of SUVs were 11% more likely to die in an accident than people in cars. [2] These figures may be confounded by variables other than the vehicles' inherent safety, for example the documented tendency for SUVs to be driven more recklessly (most sensationally perhaps, the 1996 finding that SUV drivers are more likely to drive drunk [3]). SUV drivers are also statistically less likely to wear their seatbelts. [4] 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA, often pronounced nit-suh) is a U.S. Government agency, part of the Department of Transportation, responsible for setting safety standards and verifying compliance by automobile manufacturers. ... A three-point seat belt. ...

The considerable weight of full-size SUVs (such as the Chevrolet Suburban and the Ford Excursion) makes collisions with other, smaller cars much less dangerous for the SUV and much more dangerous for the car. The higher ride and other design characteristics of many SUVs may also lead to greater damage to smaller crash partner cars. These mass and design dangers are known as crash incompatibility issues in the crash testing industry, and are a topic of active research. The most notable statistic in SUV design crash incompatibility is an increase in fatalities when an SUV strikes the head of a passenger or driver in a side-impact collision. [2] This is one of the motivations for the development of side-curtain airbags in standard autos. The Chevrolet Suburban is one of the longest-lived automobile nameplates in the United States. ... The Excursion was the largest SUV in the Ford Motor Company lineup. ... Crash incompatibility, crash compatibility, vehicle incompatibility, and vehicle compatibility are terms in the automobile crash testing industry. ... An automobile airbag, like this one in a crashed SEAT Ibiza car, deflates after 0. ...

The high center of gravity of SUVs makes them more prone to rollover accidents (especially if the vehicle leaves the road or in emergency manoeuvres) than lower vehicles. In recent years, Consumer Reports has found a few SUVs unacceptable due to their rollover risk. This was also dramatically demonstrated in one Fifth Gear show using a Range Rover. Modern SUVs are usually designed to prevent rollovers on flat surfaces. Average heights for: A railing accidentally collapses at a college football game, spilling fans onto the sidelines An accident is something going wrong unexpectedly. ... Consumer Reports is an American magazine published monthly by Consumers Union, a non-profit organization founded in 1936 by Arthur Kallet, Colston Warne, and others who felt that the established Consumers Research organization was not aggressive enough. ... Fifth Gear (formerly 5th Gear) is a motoring magazine shown on British TV channel five. ... The Range Rover is a brand of automobile, the top luxury 4x4 (4 Wheel Drive in British English) model of Land Rover. ...

• Family sedans 57.3 in
• Minivans 70.2 in
• SUVs 70.7 in

SUV safety concerns are compounded by a perception among some consumers that SUVs are safer for their drivers than standard autos. According to G. C. Rapaille, a psychological consultant to automakers (as cited in Gladwell, 2004), many consumers feel safer in SUVs simply because their ride height makes "[their passengers] higher and dominate and look down (sic). That you can look down [on other people] is psychologically a very powerful notion." This and the massive size and weight of SUVs may lead to consumers' false perception of safety (Gladwell, 2004). [5]. Sic is a Latin word meaning thus or so. In writing, it is italicized and placed within square brackets â€” [sic] â€” to indicate that an incorrect or unusual spelling, phrase, or other preceding quoted material is a verbatim reproduction of the original quoted material and is not a transcription error. ...

In Europe, effective 2006, the fitting of bull bars, also known as grill guards to vehicles such as 4x4s and SUVs is illegal. World map showing Europe Political map Europe is one of the seven continents of Earth which, in this case, is more a cultural and political distinction than a physiographic one, leading to various perspectives about Europes borders. ... A bull bar (also roo bar in Australia) is a device fitted to the front of a vehicle to protect the vehicle (and its passengers) from damage in a collision with an animal. ...

#### Risk to pedestrians

An SUV hitting a pedestrian is about twice as likely to kill as a car at equal speed. [citation needed] This is in part because the collision of an SUV with a pedestrian tends to impact the chest, while the collision of a car with a pedestrian tends to impact the knees. [citation needed]. This data is however primarily for the American market[citation needed], where SUVs are ladder-framed-chassis vehicles (like the Lincoln Navigator or Chevrolet Tahoe), and should not necessarily be applied to modern crossovers, like the BMW X5, Volkswagen Touareg or even the Range Rover, as these cars (and many other modern crossovers) are monocoques, and have no chassis. Look up Pedestrian in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

#### Recent improvements

Manufacturers have added car-level bumpers to reduce the possibility of the other vehicle(s) sliding under the SUV in a collision. SUV's have therefore become somewhat safer for other road users in recent years.

### Marketing practices

Also under criticism are the marketing techniques used to sell SUVs. Advertisers and manufacturers alike have been assailed for appealing to the basest instincts of customers to entice them into buying such vehicles, as well as greenwashing. Critics have cited SUV commercials that show the product being driven through a wilderness area, even as most SUVs are never driven off-road. Even the model names have been criticized for connoting exotic wilderness areas (Tahoe, Durango, Denali) and ruggedness (Explorer, Blazer, Expedition, Commander) that have nothing to do with the SUVs most common use - as a suburban station wagon. Greenwash (a portmanteau of green and whitewash) is a term that environmentalists and other critics give to the activity of giving a positive public image to putatively environmentally unsound practices. ...

### Tax benefits

In the United States, the so-called 'SUV subsidy' (Section 179 depreciation deduction) allows small-business owners to deduct up to \$25,000 of the cost of a vehicle with a gross vehicle weight rating of over 6000 lb (2722 kg) from their income tax calculation. Small-business owners may deduct \$10,610 of the cost of a passenger automobile. This provides a slight tax incentive for businesses to purchase an SUV. However, the cost of both SUVs and automobiles is fully deductible over future years using normal depreciation. In previous years, this deduction reached \$120,000 and was the subject of much criticism. When the vehicle is eventually sold, however, the depreciation taken must be recaptured as income, subject to taxation. Under the United States income tax code, the cost of vehicles over 6000 lb (2722 kg) can be deducted from income under a law called Section 179 depreciation deduction. ... A gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR) is the estimated total weight of a road vehicle that is loaded to capacity, including the weight of the vehicle itself plus fuel, passengers, cargo, and other miscellaneous items such as extra aftermarket parts. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ...

### Fuel economy

The recent popularity of SUVs is one reason the U.S. population consumes more gasoline than in previous years. SUVs are as a class much less fuel efficient than comparable passenger vehicles. The main reason is that SUVs are classified by the U.S. government as light trucks, and thus are subject to the less strict light truck standard under the Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) regulations. The CAFE requirement for light trucks is an average of 20.7 mpg (US), versus 27.5 mpg (US) for passenger cars (8.6 and 11.4 km/L, respectively). Light truck is a vehicle classification generally used by the United States government for regulating fuel economy and safety. ... The Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) regulations in the United States, first enacted by Congress in 1975, exist to regulate and improve the average fuel economy of cars and light trucks (trucks, vans and sport utility vehicles) sold in the US in the wake of the 1973 Arab Oil Embargo. ... Miles per gallon (MPG, or mpg) is a measure of fuel efficiency - the number of miles the car can run on one gallon of fuel. ...

As there is little incentive to change the design, SUVs have numerous fuel-inefficient features. The high profile of SUVs increases wind resistance. Heavier suspensions and larger engines increase vehicle weight. Some SUVs also often come with tires designed for off-road traction rather than low rolling resistance. Fuel efficiency relates the efficiency of converting energy contained in a carrier fuel to kinetic energy or work. ... An object falling through a gas or liquid experiences a force in direction opposite to its motion. ... Firestone tire A tire or tyre (see spelling differences) is a device covering the circumference of a wheel. ... Rolling friction is the friction that occurs when an object (e. ...

The low fuel economy is caused by

• high parasitic masses (compared to the average load) causing high energy demand in transitional operation (in the cities) ${P_{accel}= m_{vehicle} cdot a cdot v }$ where P stands for power, mvehicle for the vehicle mass, a for acceleration and v for the vehicle velocity.
• high cross-sectional area causing very high drag losses especially when driven at high speed ${P_{drag}= A_{cross} cdot cw_{vehicle} cdot frac {v_{air}^3 rho_{air}} {2} }$ where P stands for the power, Across for the cross-sectional area of the vehicle, ρair for the density of the air and vair for the relative velocity of the air (incl. wind)
• high rolling resistance due to all-terrain tires (even worse if low pressure is needed offroad) and high vehicle mass driving the rolling resistance ${P_{roll}= mu_{roll} cdot m_{vehicle} cdot v }$ where μroll stands for the rolling resistance factor and mvehicle for the vehicle mass.

Average data for vehicle types sold in the U.S.A. (source theautochannel.com):

Type Width Height Curb weight Combined fuel economy
SUVs 73.5in 187cm 70.7in 180cm 4242 lb 1924 kg 19.19 mpg 12.25 l/100 km
Minivans 75.9in 193cm 70.2in 178cm 4275 lb 1939 kg 20.36 mpg 11.55 l/100 km
Family sedans 70.3in 179cm 57.3in 146 3144 lb 1426 kg 26.94 mpg 8.73 l/100 km
Honda Insight 66.7in 169cm 53.3in 135cm 1850 lb 839 kg 63 mpg 3.73 l/100 km

Drag resistance for SUVs is at least (same drag coefficient) 30% higher and the acceleration force has to be 35% bigger compared to family sedans if we use the height and width figures from the above table. This gives a 40% higher fuel consumption (even for parallel hybrid electric SUVs) using the given formula for the power demand.

Addressing fuel efficiency, several manufacturers now offer hybrid gas/electric models of SUVs, offering improved fuel economy over conventionally powered SUVs. With some hybrid SUV models, the added power generated from the hybrid systems is used some times to give vehicles added performance (increased power).

A point which is not covered in most fuel calculations is the air conditioning. The increased wind screen surface for the larger vehicles leads to much higher energy demand for cooling in summer or in hot climates. So fuel consumption in real time operation will be much higher than specified.

### Pollution

Because SUVs typically use much more fuel than cars, they generate much higher volumes of pollutants (particularly carbon dioxide) into the atmosphere, thus leading to higher levels of global warming. In the U.S., light trucks and SUVs are held to a less-strict pollution control standard than are passenger cars. Intense political lobbying [citation needed] from the auto industry has served to maintain the relatively poor SUV mileage and pollution control standards. Global mean surface temperatures 1856 to 2005 Mean surface temperature anomalies during the period 1995 to 2004 with respect to the average temperatures from 1940 to 1980 Global warming is the observed increase in the average temperature of the Earths atmosphere and oceans in recent decades. ...

Compact SUVs like the Toyota Rav-4 and Honda CR-V are offered with diesel engines in Europe, and with these fitted, it can be argued that they have lower emissions than some cars. An example would be the Toyota Rav-4 2.2d (140 bhp) that has carbon dioxide emissions of 173g/km, compared to a Mercedes A-class 2.0T, with carbon dioxide emissions of 192g/km. However, when making a fair comparison between two diesels, the A-class 2.0 CDI has CO2 emissions of 141g/km, with the 1.6 CDI unit achieving 128 g/km, hence the argument is invalid. The Rav-4 2.0 petrol achieves 211 g/km.

### Weight

The high gross vehicle weight rating of some full-size SUVs (like the Ford Excursion and Hummer H2) technically limits their use on certain roads. Rural bridges often have a 6000 lb (2700 kg) weight limit [citation needed], and some full-size SUVs surpass this limit when loaded.[citation needed] These laws are rarely enforced for SUVs, however, since these vehicles are seen as passenger vehicles instead of commercial trucks. The Excursion was the largest SUV in the Ford Motor Company lineup. ... The H2 is the second vehicle sold under the Hummer marque of General Motors. ...

### Anti-SUV vandalism

In April 2005, William Cottrell, a 24-year-old American postgraduate student at Caltech was sentenced to more than eight years in federal prison and \$3.5 million in fines for firebombing or vandalizing 125 SUVs at dealerships and a few homes in 2003.[6] Two of his associates fled the country to avoid prosecution. [7] 2005 : January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December- â†’ Deaths in April â€¢ 26: Augusto Roa Bastos â€¢ 24: Ezer Weizman â€¢ 23: Sir Joh Bjelke-Petersen â€¢ 23: John Mills â€¢ 16: Marla Ruzicka â€¢ 9: Andrea Dworkin â€¢ 6: Prince Rainier III â€¢ 5: Dale Messick â€¢ 5: Saul Bellow â€¢ 2: Pope John... William Billy Jensen Cottrell (born 1980) is a former Ph. ... The California Institute of Technology (commonly referred to as Caltech) is a private, coeducational university located in Pasadena, California, in the United States. ...

### Slang

In southern England, SUVs are often referred to in derogatory terms as "soft roaders" or "Chelsea tractors", due to their popularity among affluent people living in central London areas such as Chelsea. In the UK they are occasionally known as jeeps or Land Rovers no matter what make they actually are, although the increasing prevalence of these vehicles in recent years has decreased this colloquial usage. In New Zealand they are occasionally called "Fendalton tractors" or "Remuera tractors" after the higher priced suburbs in Christchurch and Auckland respectively. In Australia, Victoria, they are sometimes referred to as "Toorak Tractors", though this is rare. In Norway, they are known as 'bourse tractors' due to yuppie stereotypes. In The Netherlands they are often called "PC Hooft-tractoren" after Amsterdam's most exclusive shopping street. SUVs are also criticized in the Netherlands for similar reasons, and some environmentalists are pushing local governments to deny SUV users parking spaces. Royal motto (French): Dieu et mon droit (Translated: God and my right) Englands location (dark green) within the United Kingdom (light green), with the Republic of Ireland (blue) to its west Languages English Capital London Largest city London Area â€“ Total Ranked 1st UK 130,395 kmÂ² Population â€“mid-2004... Statue of Thomas More on Cheyne Walk. ... Jeep is an automobile marque of DaimlerChrysler. ... For other uses, see Christchurch (disambiguation). ... The Auckland Metropolitan Area, or Greater Auckland, in the North Island of New Zealand, is the largest urban area in New Zealand. ... Emblems: Pink heath (floral) helmeted honeyeater (bird) Leadbeaters possum (faunal) Motto: Peace and Prosperity Slogan or Nickname: Garden State, The Place To Be, On The Move Other Australian states and territories Capital Melbourne Government Governor Premier Const. ... In Australian slang (particularly in Victoria), a Toorak tractor is a pejorative name for 4WD vehicle. ... A stock exchange is an organization of which the members are stock brokers. ... It has been suggested that DINKY (acronym) be merged into this article or section. ... The Netherlands (Dutch: Nederland) is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands (Dutch: Koninkrijk der Nederlanden). ... Amsterdam Location Flag Country Netherlands Province North Holland Population 742,951(1 January 2005) Coordinates Website www. ...

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Wikimedia Commons logo by Reid Beels The Wikimedia Commons (also called Commons or Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... Four wheel drive or 4x4, is a type of four wheeled vehicle drivetrain configuration that enables all four wheels to receive power from the engine simultaneously in order to provide maximum traction. ... Car classification is a somewhat subjective subject, as many vehicles fall between classes or even outside all of them. ... A compact, light, or mini SUV refers to a class of small sport utility vehicles, especially those with only 2 doors, and are between 3,60 and 4,00 metres long (under 3,40 meter cars are called in Japan midgets). ... The Honda CR-V is a crossover SUV based on the Honda Civic platform. ... Esuvee. ... Mini SUV is a class of small sport utility vehicles which are more or less under 4,15 m long. ... Recreational Vehicle (RV) is a broad term used to describe a large enclosed piece of equipment with wheels designed to be moved from place to place for people to temporarily live in and be protected from the elements while away from their permanent domicile. ... Estate car body style (Saab 95) A station wagon (United States usage), wagon (Australian usage, though station wagon is widely used) or estate car (United Kingdom usage) is a car body style similar to a sedan car but with an extended rear cargo area. ... This page lists sports utility vehicles currently in production (as of May 2006) as well as past models. ...

## Notes and references

• Gladwell, M. (2004, January 12). Big and bad. The New Yorker, LXXIX, 28-30. [8]
• Motor Trend. (Complete information on the Motor Trend reference is unavailable. However, the article was Motor Trend's announcement of the Lexus RX 300 as the 1999 SUV of the Year.)
1. ^ Keith Bradsher. High and Mighty: SUVs--The World's Most Dangerous Vehicles and How They Got That Way. Published by PublicAffairs. ISBN 1586482033

• Keith Bradsher. High and Mighty: SUVs--The World's Most Dangerous Vehicles and How They Got That Way. Published by PublicAffairs. ISBN 1586482033
• Adam Penenberg. Tragic Indifference : One Man's Battle with the Auto Industry over the Dangers of SUVs. Published by HarperBusiness. ISBN 0060090588

Results from FactBites:

 SUV ROLLOVER- Information and News on SUV Rollovers (1241 words) SUVs are supposed to be able to carry a heavy load of people, equipment, etc, over any type of terrain. Given a real world scenario, the SUV would probably have cargo, multiple passengers, etc. This extra weight would definitely lower the ratio to dangerous levels if an accident were to occur at normal highway speeds. SUV rollovers are almost three times more likely to occur than the average passenger car, and government tests indicate the most stable SUV is still more unstable than the most unstable car.
 Sport utility vehicle - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3176 words) SUVs are often used in places such as the Australian Outback, Africa, the Middle East, Alaska, Northern Canada and most of Asia, which have limited paved roads and require the vehicle to have all-terrain handling, increased range, and storage capacity. SUV clubs often promote this ideal and a commercial manifestation of this can be seen in the number of tourism operators dependent on SUVs for their activities, Australia being a strong example. This is in part because the collision of an SUV with a pedestrian tends to impact the chest, while the collision of a car with a pedestrian tends to impact the knees.
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