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Encyclopedia > START I

START (for Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty) is a treaty between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) on the Reduction and Limitation of Strategic Offensive Arms. The treaty was signed by the United States and the USSR, that barred its signatories from deploying more than 6,000 nuclear warheads atop a total of 1,600 ICBMs, submarine-launched ballistic missiles, and bombers. START negotiated the largest and most complex arms control treaty in history, and its final implementation in late 2001 resulted in the removal of about 80% of all strategic nuclear weapons then in existence. Proposed by United States' President Ronald Reagan, it was renamed START I after negotiations began on the second START treaty, which became START II. This does not cite any references or sources. ... CCCP redirects here. ... A Minuteman III missile soars after a test launch. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... Reagan redirects here. ... START II, the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty was signed by George H. W. Bush and Boris Yeltsin in January 1993, which banned the use of MIRVs and hence often cited as De-MIRV-ing Agreement. ...

Contents

Proposal

The first START proposal was presented by United States' President Ronald Reagan in Geneva on 29 June 1982. Reagan proposed a dramatic reduction in strategic forces in two phases, which he referred to as SALT III at the time.[1] The first phase would reduce overall warhead counts on any missile type to 5,000, with an additional limit of 2,500 on ICBMs. Additionally, a total of 850 ICBMs would be allowed, with a limit of 110 "heavy throw" missiles like the SS-18, with additional limits on the total "throw weight" of the missiles as well. The second phase introduced similar limits on heavy bombers and their warheads, and other strategic systems as well. Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... Reagan redirects here. ... A Minuteman III missile soars after a test launch. ... The R-36M/SS-18- DIA designation, (NATO reporting name Satan) is a massive ICBM capable of a +6000 nm (6600 mi, 10,600 km) flight, and the delivery of ten 0. ... The B-52 Stratofortress, a heavy bomber. ...


At the time the US had a commanding lead in strategic bombers. Their B-52 force, while aged, was a credible strategic threat but only equipped with AGM-86 cruise missiles since 1982 because of Soviet air defense improvements in early 1980s. US also begun to introduce new B-1B quasi-stealth bomber and secretly developed ATB project. The USSR's force was little threat to the US, on the other hand, tasked almost entirely with attacking US convoys in the Atlantic and land targets on Eurasian landmass. Although USSR had 1200 medium and heavy bombers at those days but only 150 of them: Tupolev Tu-95's and Myasishchev M-4s could reach North America (the latter with in-flight refueling), they faced a difficult problems penetrating admittedly smaller and poorly defended US airspace but possessing too few bombers available than US bombers would have penetrating the much larger and heavier defended USSR's airspace. This changed when new Tu-95MS and Tu-160 bombers appeared since 1984 equipped with Soviet first AS-15 cruise missiles. By limiting the phase-in as it was proposed, the US would be left with a strategic advantage, for a time. The Boeing AGM-86B and AGM-86C ALCM are sub-sonic air-launched cruise missiles (ALCMs) operated by the United States Air Force. ... The Boeing IDS (formerly Rockwell) B-1B Lancer is a long-range strategic bomber in service with the USAF. Together with the B-52 Stratofortress, it is the backbone of the United Statess long-range bomber force. ... ATB is: André Tanneberger is a German DJ Active Time Battle system is a feature of role-playing games All Terrain Bike is a human powered vehicle Alberta Treasury Branches or ATB Financial is an Albertan crown corporation specializing in financial services Articulated Tug Barge (ATB) consists of a tank... The Tupolev Tu-95 (Туполев Ту–95) (NATO reporting name Bear) is the most successful and longest-serving Tupolev strategic bomber and missile carrier built by the Soviet Union during the Cold War. ... The Myasishchev M-4 Molot (Russian: Hammer, NATO reporting name Bison) is a four-engined strategic bomber, designed by Vladimir Myasishchev and developed by the Soviet Union in the 1950s to provide a bomber capable of attacking targets in North America. ... The Tupolev Tu-95 (NATO reporting name Bear) is the most successful Tupolev strategic bomber and missile carrier from the times of the Soviet Union. ... Tupolev Tu-160 The Tupolev Tu-160 (NATO reporting name Blackjack) is a supersonic, swing-wing heavy bomber designed in the Soviet Union. ... The Raduga Kh-55 (NATO reporting name AS_15 Kent) is a Soviet/CIS long-range cruise missile with a nuclear warhead. ...


As Time Magazine put it at the time, "Under Reagan's ceilings, the U.S. would have to make considerably less of an adjustment in its strategic forces than would the Soviet Union. That feature of the proposal will almost certainly prompt the Soviets to charge that it is unfair and one-sided. No doubt some American arms-control advocates will agree, accusing the Administration of making the Kremlin an offer it cannot possibly accept—a deceptively equal-looking, deliberately nonnegotiable proposal that is part of what some suspect is the hardliners' secret agenda of sabotaging disarmament so that the U.S. can get on with the business of rearmament." Time Magazine did point out that, "The Soviets' monstrous ICBMs have given them a nearly 3-to-1 advantage over the U.S. in "throw weight"—the cumulative power to "throw" megatons of death and destruction at the other nation." (Clockwise from upper left) Time magazine covers from May 7, 1945; July 25, 1969; December 31, 1999; September 14, 2001; and April 21, 2003. ... (Clockwise from upper left) Time magazine covers from May 7, 1945; July 25, 1969; December 31, 1999; September 14, 2001; and April 21, 2003. ...


Negotiations

Continued negotiation of the START process was delayed several times because US agreement terms were considered as non-negotiable by pre-Gorbachev Soviet rulers. Reagan's introduction of the Strategic Defense Initiative program in 1983 regardless of its possible pure disinformation and propaganda goals was seen as a threat by the Soviet Union, and they withdrew from setting a timetable for further negotiations. Due to these facts dramatic nuclear arms race took place during the 1980s ended in 1991 by nuclear parity preservation at more than ten thousand strategic warheads level on both sides. The Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) was proposed by U.S. President Ronald Reagan on March 23, 1983[1] to use ground-based and space-based systems to protect the United States from attack by strategic nuclear ballistic missiles. ...


Ratification

It was signed on July 31, 1991, five months before the collapse of the Soviet Union. Entry-into-force was delayed due to the collapse of the USSR and awaiting an Annex that enforced the terms of the treaty upon the newly independent states of Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Ukraine. The latter three agreed to transport their nuclear arms to Russia for disposal. is the 212th day of the year (213th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... The Soviet Unions collapse into independent nations began in earnest in 1985. ...


It remains in effect between the U.S. and Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Ukraine — incidentally, the last three have dearmed.


Today, the United States has 5,866 and Russia has 4,162 deployed warheads. [2]


Implementation

365 B-52Gs were flown to the Aerospace Maintenance and Regeneration Center at Davis-Monthan Air Force Base in Arizona. The bombers were stripped of all usable parts, then chopped into five pieces by a 13,000-pound steel blade dropped from a crane. The guillotine sliced four times on each plane, severing the wings and leaving the fuselage in three pieces. The ruined B-52s remained in place for three months so that Russian satellites could confirm that the bombers had been destroyed, after which they were sold for scrap.[3] Welcome sign at AMARC. Boeing 707s being used for salvage parts for the C-135 airframe at AMARC. The Aerospace Maintenance and Regeneration Group (AMARG) is an aircraft storage and maintenance facility at Davis-Monthan Air Force Base in Tucson, Arizona. ... Davis-Monthan Air Force Base (IATA: DMA, ICAO: KDMA), also referred to as D-M, is a key US Air Combat Command installation, located within the city limits of Tucson, in Pima County, Arizona. ... This article is about the decapitation device. ...


References

  1. ^ Time to START, Says Reagan
  2. ^ Arms Control Association: Fact Sheets
  3. ^ B-52s Satellite View

External links


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