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Encyclopedia > SS Normandie
SS Normandie

An aerial view of the S.S. Normandie
Career Civil and naval ensign of France
Owners: Compagnie Générale Transatlantique
Builders: Penhoët, Saint Nazaire, France
Laid down: January 26 1931
Launched: October 29, 1932
Christened: October 29, 1932
Maiden voyage: May 29, 1935
Fate: Caught fire, capsized at Pier 88 in the New York Passenger Ship Terminal in New York City in 1942; wreck remained on site throughout WWII, and was sold for scrap on October 3rd 1946
General Characteristics
Tonnage: 79,280/83,423 gross tons
Displacement: 71,300 tons (approx)
Length: 1,029 feet (313.6 m)
Beam: 119.4 ft (36.4 m)
Draft: 37.00 ft (11.3 m)
Height: 184 ft (56.1 m)
Power: Four Turbo-electric, total 160,000 hp (200,000 hp max).
Propulsion: Four 3- (later 4-) bladed, 23 tons each
Speed: Designed speed 29 knots, could reach 32.2 knots
Passenger Capacity: 1,972: 848 First Class (cabin), 670 Tourist Class, 454 Third Class
Crew: 1,345

The Normandie was a French ocean liner built in Saint-Nazaire France for Compagnie Générale Transatlantique. When launched in 1932 she was the largest and fastest ship in the world, and she maintains the distinction of being the most powerful steam turbo-electric propelled passenger ship ever built. Her novel design features and lavish interiors have led many to consider her the greatest of all ocean liners. Despite this, she was not a commercial success, and relied partly on government subsidy to operate. Image File history File links SS_Normandie. ... Image File history File links Civil_and_Naval_Ensign_of_France. ... Location within France Saint-Nazaire (Breton: Sant-Nazer), is a town and commune in the Loire-Atlantique département of France, of which it is a sous-préfecture. ... is the 26th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 302nd day of the year (303rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1932 (MCMXXXII) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1932 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 302nd day of the year (303rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1932 (MCMXXXII) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1932 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 149th day of the year (150th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1935 (MCMXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar). ... New York City Cruise Liner Teminal in Hells Kitchen at 52nd Street. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... UP 18, a locomotive with a turbo-electric drivetrain A turbo-electric transmission uses electric generators to convert the mechanical energy of a turbine (steam or gas) into electric energy and electric motors to convert it back into mechanical energy to power the driveshafts. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Saint-Nazaire is also a commune of the Gard département of France. ... The poster Normandie (1935) is one of Cassandres most famous designs The Compagnie Générale Transatlantique (shortened to and commonly named Transat), known overseas as the French Line, was a shipping company established in 1861 as an attempt to revive the French merchant marine, the poor state of... UP 18, a locomotive with a turbo-electric drivetrain A turbo-electric transmission uses electric generators to convert the mechanical energy of a turbine (steam or gas) into electric energy and electric motors to convert it back into mechanical energy to power the driveshafts. ...


In 1942, while being converted to a troopship during World War II, Normandie caught fire, capsized, and sank at the New York Passenger Ship Terminal. Although she was salvaged at great expense, restoration was deemed too costly, and she was scrapped in October 1946. USS John Land (AP-167) in San Francisco Bay sometime in 1945-46; soldiers crowd the decks in anticipation of homecoming. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... New York City Cruise Liner Teminal in Hells Kitchen at 52nd Street. ...

Contents

Origin

The beginnings of Normandie can be traced to the Roaring Twenties when shipping companies started to look for new ships to replace the aging veterans, such as the RMS Mauretania which had first sailed in 1907. Those earlier ships had been designed around the huge numbers of steerage-class immigrants coming from Europe to the United States; when the U.S. closed the door on most immigration in the early 1920s, steamship companies ordered vessels built to serve middle-class tourists instead, particularly Americans who travelled to Europe for alcohol-fuelled fun during Prohibition. Companies like Cunard and White Star Line planned to build their own super-liners to rival the newer ships on the scene. These new ships included the record-breaking Bremen and Europa, both German ships. The French Line was not to be left out of this new race and soon began to plan their own supership. A scene typical of the Follies of Florenz Ziegfeld, the most popular Broadway impresario of the decade. ... RMS Mauretania (also known as Maury), sister ship of the Lusitania, was an ocean liner built by Swan, Hunter & Wigham Richardson at Wallsend, Tyne and Wear, and was launched on September 20, 1906. ... The term Prohibition, also known as A Dry Law, refers to a law in a certain country by which the manufacture, transportation, import, export, and sale of alcoholic beverages is restricted or illegal. ... Cunard may refer to: Samuel Cunard (1787–1865), British shipping magnate. ... Babylon 5 starships, see the article White Star. ... Image:SS Bremen 1920 profile NYC.png The profile of the Bremen as originally built - the funnels were raised by five meters in 1930. ... The SS Europa was one of a pair of fast ocean liners built in the late twenties for the North German Lloyd line (NDL) for the transatlantic passenger service. ... The poster Normandie (1935) is one of Cassandres most famous designs The Compagnie Générale Transatlantique (shortened to and commonly named Transat), known overseas as the French Line, was a shipping company established in 1861 as an attempt to revive the French merchant marine, the poor state of...


The designers intended to construct a ship similar to French Line ships of the past, but then they were approached by Vladimir Yourkevitch, a former ship architect for the Imperial Russian Navy before the revolution who had emigrated to France. His ideas included a slanting clipper-like bow and a bulbous forefoot beneath the waterline in combination with a slim hull, a design which worked wonderfully in his scale model. The French engineers were so impressed that they asked Yourkevitch to join their project. Vladimir Yourkevitch working on design of SS Normandie Vladimir Ivanovich Yourkevitch (Russian: , also spelled Yurkevich, 1885-December 13, 1964) was a Russian Naval Engineer, developer of modern design of ship hull, designer of famous ocean liner SS Normandie. ... Russian Navy Jack Russian Navy Ensign The Imperial Russian Navy refers to the Navy of Imperial Russia, before the Soviet Union. ...


Construction and launch

Adolphe Cassandre's famed 1935 depiction of the S.S. Normandie.
Adolphe Cassandre's famed 1935 depiction of the S.S. Normandie.

Work began on the ship (not yet named Normandie) in January 1931, soon after the terrifying stock market crash of 1929. This was fortunate for the French: The competing White Star Line's ship (the Oceanic) – started before the crash – had to be cancelled and the Cunard ship was put on hold, both because their financing, organized before the crash, ran into trouble. Soon, the French builders also ran into difficulty, and had to ask their government for money to continue construction, a subsidy that was questioned in the press. Still, the building was followed heavily by newspapers and national interest was deep. Though she was designed to represent France in the nation-state contest of the great liners, and though she was built in a French shipyard and, using French-built major parts including the 29 boilers, the turbines, generators and even the 4 massive engines (designed by Alsthom, which later worked on the Queen Mary 2), a few secondary parts of her came from other European countries - e.g., the ship's great rudder was built by Skoda Works in Czechoslovakia, while the steering mechanism, including the teak wheel, came from Edinburgh. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Black Monday (1987) on the Dow Jones Industrial Average A stock market crash is a sudden dramatic decline of stock prices across a significant cross-section of a stock market. ... Babylon 5 starships, see the article White Star. ... In the 1920s, the White Star Line hired the shipbuilders Harland and Wolff to build the first 1000-foot-long ocean liner, with the planned name of Oceanic. ... Cunard may refer to: Samuel Cunard (1787–1865), British shipping magnate. ... I name the ship Queen Mary 2 --Queen Elizabeth II The Queen Mary 2 is a Cunard Line passenger ship named after the earlier Cunard liner Queen Mary, which was in turn named after Mary of Teck. ... Stern-mounted steering oar of an Egyptian riverboat depicted in the Tomb of Menna (c. ... ... Species Tectona grandis Tectona hamiltoniana Tectona philippinensis Teak (Tectona), is a genus of tropical hardwood trees in the family Verbenaceae, native to the south and southeast of Asia, and is commonly found as a component of monsoon forest vegetation. ... For other uses, see Edinburgh (disambiguation). ...


As construction went on, the growing hull in Saint-Nazaire had no name except for "T-6" (with "6" for "6th" and "T" for "Transat", short for "CIE. GLE. TRANSATLANTIQUE" aka the "French Line"), the contract name. Many names were suggested including Doumer, after the recently assassinated president Paul Doumer. Finally the name Normandie was decided upon after much speculation. In what may be a unique quirk of French nomenclature, the name carries no definite article. In France, ship prefixes are customarily masculine inherited from the French terms for ship which can be "paquebot", "navire", "bateau", "bâtiment", etc. (including le "France" which is not grammatically correct), but English-speakers usually refer to ships as feminine entities ("she's a beauty"), and the French Line carried many rich American customers. After discussion, the shipbuilders announced that their ship was to be called simply "Normandie," preceded by no "le" or "la" (French masculine/feminine for "the") to avoid any confusion. Saint-Nazaire is also a commune of the Gard département of France. ... The poster Normandie (1935) is one of Cassandres most famous designs The Compagnie Générale Transatlantique (shortened to and commonly named Transat), known overseas as the French Line, was a shipping company established in 1861 as an attempt to revive the French merchant marine, the poor state of... The poster Normandie (1935) is one of Cassandres most famous designs The Compagnie Générale Transatlantique (shortened to and commonly named Transat), known overseas as the French Line, was a shipping company established in 1861 as an attempt to revive the French merchant marine, the poor state of... President is a title held by many leaders of organizations, companies, trade unions, universities, and countries. ... French statesman Paul Doumer Paul Doumer (March 22, 1857 – May 7, 1932) was the President of France from June 13, 1931 to his death. ... The SS France, from a 1912 postcard. ...


On October 29, 1932 – three years to the day after the stock market crashNormandie was launched in front of 200,000 spectators. The 27,567 ton hull that slid into the Loire River was the largest ever launched and it caused a large wave that crashed into a few hundred people, but with no injury. Normandie was outfitted until early 1935, meaning all her interior, funnels, engines, etc. were put in to make her into a working vessel. Finally, in April 1935, Normandie was ready for her trials, which were watched by reporters. The superiority of Vladimir Yourkevitch's hull design was immediately visible: hardly a wave was created. The ship demonstrated impressive performance during these trials, reaching a top speed of 32.2 knots and performing an emergency stop from that speed in only 1,700 meters. Black Monday (1987) on the Dow Jones Industrial Average A stock market crash is a sudden dramatic decline of stock prices across a significant cross-section of a stock market. ... The Loire River (pronounced in French), the longest river in France with a length of just over 1000 km, drains an area of 117,000 km², more than a fifth of France. ... Vladimir Yourkevitch working on design of SS Normandie Vladimir Ivanovich Yourkevitch (Russian: , also spelled Yurkevich, 1885-December 13, 1964) was a Russian Naval Engineer, developer of modern design of ship hull, designer of famous ocean liner SS Normandie. ...


One of the most famous posters of Normandie was made by Adolphe Mouron Cassandre who was a Russian emigrant to France, like Yourkevitch himself. The poster Normandie (1935) is Cassandres most famous design Adolphe Mouron Cassandre (January 24, 1901 – June 19, 1968) was an influential Ukrainian-French painter, commercial poster artist, and typeface designer. ...

Interior

The luxurious interiors of Normandie were marvels of Art Déco and the Streamline Moderne style. Many of her sculptures and wall paintings made indirect or direct allusions to Normandy, the province of France for which she was named. Drawings and photographs from the era show a series of vast public rooms of great elegance. The children's dining room was decorated by Jean de Brunhoff, who covered the walls with Babar the Elephant and his entourage. Indeed, the interior was quite dazzling but perhaps the most dazzling was the first class dining room. Asheville City Hall. ... Bathers building, now a Maritime Museum at San Franciscos Aquatic Park, 1937, evokes a streamlined double–ended ferryboat Judges tower at San Franciscos Aquatic Park The Bauhaus style, also kown as Art Moderne, the International Style or Streamline Moderne succeeded the closely related Art Deco style... Flag of Normandy Normandy (in French: Normandie, and in Norman: Normaundie) is a geographical region in northern France. ... Jean de Brunhoff (December 9, 1899 – October 16, 1937) was a French writer and illustrator known for co-creating Babar, which first appeared in 1931. ... Cover of the first Babar story published 1931 Cover of the second Babar story published 1932 This article is about Babar the Elephant. ...

Medallions from the dining-room doors of the SS Normandie, sold at auction in 1945, now adorn the front and side entrances of Our Lady of Lebanon Roman Catholic Church, in Brooklyn Heights, at the corner of Remsen and Henry.
Medallions from the dining-room doors of the SS Normandie, sold at auction in 1945, now adorn the front and side entrances of Our Lady of Lebanon Roman Catholic Church, in Brooklyn Heights, at the corner of Remsen and Henry.
Side entrance of Our Lady of Lebanon Roman Catholic Church.
Side entrance of Our Lady of Lebanon Roman Catholic Church.

Three hundred and five feet long, 46 feet wide and 28 feet high, this was by far the largest room afloat. Passengers entered the dining room through 20 foot tall doors adorned with bronze medallions by the artist Raymond Subes. The ten medallions featured French castles, cathedrals, and the French ocean liner SS Ile de France.
This first class dining room could seat 700 diners at a time with 150 tables, serving them with some of the best meals in the world. This ship was a floating promotion of the most sophisticated French cuisine of the period. However due to the design of the ship, no natural lighting could get in. The designers illuminated the room with twelve tall pillars of Lalique glass and along the walls stood 38 columns equally bright. In addition, two chandeliers hung at each end of the room. From this gorgeous display of lights came the nickname "Ship of Light". Image File history File linksMetadata Normandie_doors. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Normandie_doors. ... Expensive real estate: Brooklyn Heights in the snow taken from the Promenade, 2003 Brooklyn Heights is a neighborhood within the New York City borough of Brooklyn; originally designated through popular reference as Brooklyn Village, it has, since 1834, become a prevalent area of the Brooklyn borough. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... SS isle De France This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... French cuisine is considered to be one of the worlds most refined and elegant styles of cooking. ... René Jules Lalique was born in Ay, Marne, France on April 6, 1860, and died May 5, 1945. ...


A popular feature was a cafe which led to the grand salon, one of the most popular rooms on board which would be transformed into a nightclub during voyages. In addition, Normandie boasted both an indoor and outdoor pool (the second ship to have one, after the Italian liner Rex), a chapel and a theatre which could function as both a stage and cinema. The SS Rex was a product of Navigazione Generale Italiana (later become Italian Line - Italia Società di Navigazione). ...


The interiors were filled with long perspectives and spectacular entryways such as long, wide staircases in order to give a suitable frame to the many upper middle class ladies who saw an Atlantic crossing as a way to show off their clothes and jewels, and sometimes their husbands.


In addition to a novel hull shape which made it possible for her to attain her great speed at lesser power expenditure than that of the other big liners, Normandie was filled with technical feats. She had turbo-electric engines which improved fuel efficiency and made control and maintenance much easier. The machinery of the top deck and forecastle, normally an eyesore or an annoyance for passengers on the other liners, had been integrated within the ship, concealing it completely and releasing nearly all of the exposed deck space for the passengers' use. An early form of radar was installed to detect icebergs and other ships. For other uses, see Radar (disambiguation). ...


Career

After more fitting out and final touches, the maiden voyage came on May 29, 1935. Fifty thousand people came to Le Havre to see the large ship off, on what was hoped would be a record-breaking crossing. And indeed it was. Normandie reached New York after just four days, three hours and fourteen minutes, thus snatching away the Blue Riband from the Italian liner Rex. This prize was a source of great pride for the French. They had watched other countries gain this prestigious award year after year but had never had it themselves, until Normandie. Her average speed on the maiden voyage was around 30 knots and on the eastbound crossing to France she averaged over 30 knots, shattering records on the way. The maiden voyage of a ship or aircraft is the first cruise or flight in revenue service, typically following a series of shakedown cruises or test-flights. ... is the 149th day of the year (150th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1935 (MCMXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar). ... Le Havre is a city in Normandy, northern France, on the English Channel, at the mouth of the Seine. ... The Blue Riband is an award held by the ship with the record for a transatlantic crossing. ... The SS Rex was a product of Navigazione Generale Italiana (later become Italian Line - Italia Società di Navigazione). ...


With the Blue Riband hers, Normandie had a successful year but come 1936 a new ship was on the scene. The RMS Queen Mary, Cunard's superliner, entered service in the summer of 1936. They had announced the Queen Mary would surpass 80,000 tons. At 79,280 gross tons, Normandie would in that case lose the prestigious title of being the world’s largest liner to her British rival. Therefore, the French Line decided to increase Normandie’s size, mainly through the addition of an enclosed tourist lounge on the aft boat deck. Following these and a few other alterations, Normandie was re-measured at 83,423 gross tons. Exceeding the Queen Mary by some 2,000 tons, she would remain the world’s largest. However in August of that year, the Queen Mary stole the Blue Riband from the Normandie averaging 30.14 knots, thus starting a fierce rivalry. The Blue Riband is an award held by the ship with the record for a transatlantic crossing. ... types/51 sh/sh liner/36 qma/qma. ... Cunard may refer to: Samuel Cunard (1787–1865), British shipping magnate. ... The Blue Riband is an award held by the ship with the record for a transatlantic crossing. ...


In July of 1937 Normandie regained the Blue Riband once more, but the Queen Mary took it back the next year. After this the captain of Normandie sent a message to the British liner saying "Bravo to the Queen Mary until next time!" This rivalry could have gone on into the 1940s but was unfortunately put to a halt due to World War II, ensuring that there would be no 'next time'. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


Trapp Family Singers

In her short lived but prosperous life, Normandie was able to carry a number of distinguished passengers, including the Trapp family Singers (the real family that The Sound of Music was based upon). The Normandie carried the family singers from New York to Southampton in 1938, and from Southampton, the family proceeded to Scandinavia for a tour before eventually returning to America.


Demise

USS Lafayette capsized in New York harbor (1942).
USS Lafayette capsized in New York harbor (1942).

The outbreak of war found Normandie in New York Harbor. Soon the Queen Mary docked near Normandie. She would later be refitted to become a troop ship. In addition, the newly launched RMS Queen Elizabeth docked nearby, so for two weeks the three largest liners in the world were docked side by side. Soon, the Queens left and Normandie was left alone. In 1940, after the Fall of France, the United States seized the ship. Image File history File links NormandieNY.jpg‎ Normandie capsized in New York harbor. ... Image File history File links NormandieNY.jpg‎ Normandie capsized in New York harbor. ... RMS Queen Elizabeth was a steam-powered ocean liner of the Cunard Steamship Company. ... In World War II, Battle of France or Case Yellow (Fall Gelb in German) was the German invasion of France and the Low Countries, executed 10 May 1940 which ended the Phony War. ...


By 1941, the United States Navy decided to convert Normandie into a troopship, and renamed her USS Lafayette, in reference to the historical American-French alliance. The ship was moored at Manhattan's Pier 88 for the conversion. On 9 February 1942, sparks from a welding torch ignited a stack of thousands of life vests filled with kapok, a highly flammable material, that had been stored in the first-class dining room. The woodwork had not yet been removed, and the fire spread rapidly. The ship had a very efficient fire protection system, but it had been disconnected during the conversion, and the New York City fire department's hoses did not fit the ship's French inlets. All on board fled the ship. As firefighters on shore and in fire boats poured water on the blaze, the ship developed a dangerous list to port due to the greater amount of water being pumped into the seaward side of the vessel by fireboats. About 2:45 a.m. on 10 February, Lafayette capsized, nearly crushing a fire boat. Vladimir Yourkevitch had been at the scene, and had suggested that he be allowed to enter the vessel and open the sea-cocks. This would flood the lower decks of the ship and cause it to settle the few feet to the bottom of the dock. Thus stabilised, water could be pumped into the burning areas without the risk of capsize - however the suggestion was not acted on. USS John Land (AP-167) in San Francisco Bay sometime in 1945-46; soldiers crowd the decks in anticipation of homecoming. ... Marie-Joseph-Paul-Roch-Yves-Gilbert du Motier, marquis de La Fayette (September 6, 1757 – May 20, 1834), was a French aristocrat most famous for his participation in the American Revolutionary War and early French Revolution. ... John Trumbulls Declaration of Independence, showing the five-man committee in charge of drafting the Declaration in 1776 as it presents its work to the Second Continental Congress in Philadelphia The American Revolution refers to the period during the last half of the 18th century in which the Thirteen... New York City Cruise Liner Teminal in Hells Kitchen at 52nd Street. ... Binomial name (L.) Gaertn. ... A team at the 2005 ISAF Team Racing World Championship narrowly avoids capsizing. ... Vladimir Yourkevitch working on design of SS Normandie Vladimir Ivanovich Yourkevitch (Russian: , also spelled Yurkevich, 1885-December 13, 1964) was a Russian Naval Engineer, developer of modern design of ship hull, designer of famous ocean liner SS Normandie. ...


A shot of the capsized ship makes a brief cameo appearance towards the end of Alfred Hitchcock's film Saboteur. Peter Jackson in The Fellowship of the Ring (top), The Two Towers (middle) and The Return of the King (bottom). ... This article or section includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Saboteur is a 1942 Universal film directed by Alfred Hitchcock with a screenplay written by Peter Viertel and Joan Harrison. ...

Salvaged USS Lafayette, now property of Lipsett, waiting for scrap operations (1946).
Salvaged USS Lafayette, now property of Lipsett, waiting for scrap operations (1946).

The ship was truncated and finally righted in 1943 in the world's most expensive salvage operation. It was subsequently determined that the cost of restoring the liner was too great. After neither the US Navy nor the French Line offered to do so, the ship's designer, Vladimir Yourkevitch, made a last-ditch proposal to cut the ship down and restore her as a mid-sized passenger liner. This, too, failed to draw backing, and the former Normandie was sold for a mere $161,680 to Lipsett Inc., an American salvage company, and scrapped on October 1946. Image File history File links Normandielipsett. ... Image File history File links Normandielipsett. ...


A Lady Fights Back

The 1944 documentary short film "A Lady Fights Back" tells the story, up to that time, of the Normandie. It does not mention that the ship capsized or sank, saying only that it listed heavily to port and showing many pictures of it in that position. It leaves the story with the ship floating free, though devoid of superstructure, saying it was destined to participate in the war effort and that the filmers were not allowed to show any more current pictures of it.


The film also makes the claim that the Navy used the restoration of the Normandie as a training exercise and used that training to repair ships damaged in the December 1941 Pearl Harbor raid.


The film is Installment 50 in John Nesbitt's Passing Parade series, presented by MGM. It is included in the DVD of the 1944 movie Thirty Seconds Over Tokyo.


Influences

The S.S. Normandie inspired the architecture and design of the Normandie Hotel in San Juan, Puerto Rico. It was designed by Félix Benítez, a Puerto Rican engineer, as a tribute to his French wife, Moineau, whom he met aboard the French ocean liner. The Normandie Hotel is a hotel located in San Juan, Puerto Rico. ... Nickname: Location of San Juan within the island of Puerto Rico Coordinates: Country United States Territory Puerto Rico Founded 1508/1521 Area  - City 76. ... Félix Benítez (March 27, 1886–November 2, 1975) was the Puerto Rican engineer who designed the Normandie Hotel, located in San Juan, Puerto Rico. ...


At first, the three funnels should have been classic cylindric-shaped, but Marin-Marie, a French designer working on the Normandie project, decided to use a modern aerodynamic shape instead. The last funnel was a dummy needed for the ship's balance and actually used as the dog kennel. The main mast's location, which was usually in front of the bridge, was changed in order to enhance visibility. A kennel is the name given to any structure or shelter for dogs. ...


Marin-Marie gave an innovative line to Normandie, a silhouette which was since used in each and every following ocean liners including the Queen Mary 2.


Views of the S.S. Normandie

The streamlined profile of Normandie. The third stack was a dummy, only used to balance the ship's profile aesthetically.
The streamlined profile of Normandie. The third stack was a dummy, only used to balance the ship's profile aesthetically.
Side elevation and cutaway, revealing the vast amount of internal space devoted to the Normandie's public rooms

Download high resolution version (1000x297, 40 KB)Photograph of the SS Normandie on a 1930s postcard. ... Download high resolution version (1000x297, 40 KB)Photograph of the SS Normandie on a 1930s postcard. ... In fluid dynamics, a streamline is the path that an imaginary massless particle would make if it followed the flow of a fluid in which it was embedded. ... Download high resolution version (2500x1042, 93 KB)SS Normandie side elevation and cutaway, drawn by John Conway (Nyctopterus), 2004, from plans in The Shipbuilder and Marine Engine Builder, 1935. ... Download high resolution version (2500x1042, 93 KB)SS Normandie side elevation and cutaway, drawn by John Conway (Nyctopterus), 2004, from plans in The Shipbuilder and Marine Engine Builder, 1935. ...

References

  • Ardman, Harvey. "Normandie, Her Life and Times," New York, Franklin Watts, 1985
  • Brinnin, John Malcolm. The Sway of the Grand Saloon : a Social History of the North Atlantic. New York : Delacorte Press, 1971
  • Coleman, Terry. The liners : a history of the North Atlantic crossing. Harmondsworth, England : Penguin Books, 1977
  • Fox, Robert. Liners: The Golden Age. Die Grosse Zeit der Ozeanriesen. L'Age d'or des paquebots.[trilingual text ] Cologne: Konneman, 1999.
  • Kludas, Arnold. Record breakers of the North Atlantic - Blue Riband Liners 1838-1952, Chatham Publishing, London, 2000.
  • Maddocks, Melvin The Great Liners. Alexandria, Virginia: Time-Life Books, 1978.
  • Maxtone-Graham, John. The Only Way to Cross. New York: Collier Books, 1972.
  • Boks, W. Holland: photo of the model boat SS Normandie 1935.
  • Lange Eric & Villers Claude (directed by, original footages by Jean Vivié) A Bord Du Normandie (on board Normandy). Produced by Lobster. France 2005.

• Streater, L: 5 volume series of books from construction to salvage, Marpubs, 2007


External links

Preceded by
Rex
Holder of the Blue Riband (Westbound)
1935–1938
Succeeded by
RMS Queen Mary
Preceded by
Bremen
Holder of the Blue Riband (Eastbound)
1935–1938
Succeeded by
RMS Queen Mary
Preceded by
RMS Majestic
World's Largest Passenger Ship
1935–1940
Succeeded by
RMS Queen Elizabeth

  Results from FactBites:
 
SS Normandie - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1915 words)
The beginnings of the Normandie can be traced to the Roaring Twenties when shipping companies started to look for new ships to replace the aging veterans, such as the RMS Mauretania who had first sailed in 1907.
Her average speed on the maiden voyage was around 30 knots and on the eastbound crossing to France she averaged over 30 knots, shattering records on the way.
The SS Normandie inspired the architecture and design of the Normandie Hotel in San Juan, Puerto Rico.
SS Normandie - definition of SS Normandie in Encyclopedia (843 words)
The Normandie was an ocean liner built in Saint-Nazaire, France in 1935.
Originally, she measured 79,280 tons, but when the 81,000 ton RMS Queen Mary was launched, the French Line added a large deckhouse that brought the Normandie's tonnage to 83,423 tons.
The Normandie had been laid up in New York Harbour along with the Ile De France, another French liner, in the summer of 1939 when World War II started.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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