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Encyclopedia > SIMULA

Simula is a name for two programming languages, Simula I and Simula 67, developed in the 1960s at the Norwegian Computing Center in Oslo, by Ole-Johan Dahl and Kristen Nygaard. Syntactically, it is a fairly faithful superset of Algol 60. Norwegian Computing Center (NCC, in Norwegian: Norsk Regnesentral or NR for short) is a private, independent, non-profit research foundation founded in 1952. ... County Oslo NO-03 District Viken Municipality NO-0301 Administrative centre Oslo Mayor (2004) Per Ditlev-Simonsen (H) Official language form Neutral Area  - Total  - Land  - Percentage Ranked 224 454 km² 426 km² 0. ... Professor emeritus Ole-Johan Dahl (October 12, 1931 – June 29, 2002) was a Norwegian computer scientist and is considered to be one of the fathers of Simula and object-oriented programming along with Kristen Nygaard. ... Kristen Nygaard Kristen Nygaard (August 27, 1926 - August 10, 2002) was a Norwegian mathematician, computer programming language pioneer and politician. ... For other uses, see Syntax (disambiguation). ... ALGOL (short for ALGOrithmic Language) is a programming language originally developed in the mid 1950s which became the de facto standard way to report algorithms in print for almost the next 30 years. ...


Simula 67 introduced objects, classes, subclasses. Simula is a programming language developed in the 1960s at the Norwegian Computing Centre in Oslo, primarily by Ole-Johan Dahl and Kristen Nygaard. ... An object is fundamental concept in object-oriented programming. ... In object-oriented programming, classes are used to group related variables and functions. ... In object-oriented programming, a subclass is a class that inherits some properties from its superclass. ...


Simula is considered one of the earliest object-oriented programming languages, although the object model is often considered incomplete. (Proponents of the Smalltalk object model pinpoint some important deficiencies of the Simula concept of objects). As its name implies, Simula was designed for doing simulations, and the needs of that domain provided the framework for many of the features of object-oriented languages today. Object-oriented programming (OOP) is a computer programming paradigm in which a software system is modeled as a set of objects that interact with each other. ... A programming paradigm is a paradigmatic style of programming (compare with a methodology, which is a paradigmatic style of doing software engineering). ... Smalltalk is a dynamically typed object oriented programming language designed at Xerox PARC by Alan Kay, Dan Ingalls, Ted Kaehler, Adele Goldberg, and others during the 1970s. ...


Simula has been used in a wide range of applications such as simulating VLSI designs, processes, protocols, algorithms, and other applications such as typesetting, computer graphics, and education. Since Simula-type objects are reimplemented in C++, the influence of Simula is often understated. Very-large-scale integration (VLSI) is the process of creating integrated circuits by combining thousands of transistor-based circuits into a single chip. ... Process (lat. ... For other senses of this word, see protocol. ... In mathematics, computing, linguistics, and related disciplines, an algorithm is a procedure (a finite set of well-defined instructions) for accomplishing some task which, given an initial state, will terminate in a defined end-state. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... It has been suggested that CG artwork be merged into this article or section. ...

Contents

History

Kristen Nygaard started writing computer simulation programs in 1957. Nygaard saw a need for a better way of describing the heterogeneity and the operation of a system. To go further with his ideas on a formal computer language for describing a system, Nygaard realized that he needed someone with more programming skills than himself. Ole-Johan Dahl joined him on his work January 1962. The decision of linking the language up to Algol 60 was made shortly after. By May 1962 the main concepts for a simulation language were set. "SIMULA I" was born, a special purpose programming language for simulating discrete event systems. Kristen Nygaard Kristen Nygaard (August 27, 1926 - August 10, 2002) was a Norwegian mathematician, computer programming language pioneer and politician. ... In computer science, an instruction typically refers to a single operation of a processor within a computer architecture. ... System (from the Latin (systēma), and this from the Greek (sustēma)) is an assemblage of entity/objects, real or abstract, comprising a whole with each and every component/element interacting or related to at least one other component/element. ... The term computer language is a more expansive and alternate term for the more commonly-used term programming language. ... Computer programming (often simply programming) is the craft of implementing one or more interrelated abstract algorithms using a particular programming language to produce a concrete computer program. ... Professor emeritus Ole-Johan Dahl (October 12, 1931 – June 29, 2002) was a Norwegian computer scientist and is considered to be one of the fathers of Simula and object-oriented programming along with Kristen Nygaard. ... ALGOL (short for ALGOrithmic Language) is a programming language originally developed in the mid 1950s which became the de facto standard way to report algorithms in print for almost the next 30 years. ... Wooden mechanical horse simulator during WWI. A simulation is an imitation of some real thing, state of affairs, or process. ... A programming language is an artificial language that can be used to control the behavior of a machine, particularly a computer. ... Wooden mechanical horse simulator during WWI. A simulation is an imitation of some real thing, state of affairs, or process. ...


Kristen Nygaard was invited to Univac late May 1962 in connection with the marketing of their new UNIVAC 1107 computer. At that visit Nygaard presented the ideas of Simula to Robert Bemer, the director of systems programming at Univac. Berner was a sworn ALGOL fan and found the Simula project compelling. Berner was also chairing a session at the second international conference on information processing hosted by IFIP. He invited Nygaard, which presented the paper "SIMULA -- An Extension of ALGOL to the Description of Discrete-Event Networks". Kristen Nygaard Kristen Nygaard (August 27, 1926 - August 10, 2002) was a Norwegian mathematician, computer programming language pioneer and politician. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The UNIVAC 1107 was the first member of Sperry Rands UNIVAC 1100 series of computers, introduced in October 1962. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... ALGOL (short for ALGOrithmic Language) is a family of imperative computer programming languages originally developed in the mid 1950s which became the de facto standard way to report algorithms in print for almost the next 30 years. ... The International Federation for Information Processing, usually known as IFIP, is an umbrella organization for national societies working in the field of information technology. ...


Norwegian Computing Center got a UNIVAC 1107 August 1963 at a considerable discount, on which Dahl implemented the SIMULA I under contract with Univac. The implementation was based on the UNIVAC Algol 60 compiler. SIMULA I was fully operational on UNIVAC 1107 January 1965. In the following couple of years Dahl and Nygaard spent a lot of time teaching Simula. Simula spread to several countries around the world and SIMULA I were later implemented on Burroughs B5500 computers and the Russian URAL-16 computer. Norwegian Computing Center (NCC, in Norwegian: Norsk Regnesentral or NR for short) is a private, independent, non-profit research foundation founded in 1952. ... The UNIVAC 1107 was the first member of Sperry Rands UNIVAC 1100 series of computers, introduced in October 1962. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... ALGOL (short for ALGOrithmic Language) is a programming language originally developed in the mid 1950s which became the de facto standard way to report algorithms in print for almost the next 30 years. ... The UNIVAC 1107 was the first member of Sperry Rands UNIVAC 1100 series of computers, introduced in October 1962. ... The Burroughs large systems were the largest of three series of Burroughs Corporation mainframe computers. ... This article gives a list of Soviet computer systems. ...


In 1966 C. A. R. Hoare introduced the concept of record class construct, which Dahl and Nygaard extended with the concept of prefixing and other features to meet their requirements for a generalized process concept. Dahl and Nygaard presented their paper on Class and Subclass Declarations at the IFIP Working Conference on simulation languages in Oslo, May 1967. This paper became the first formal definition of Simula 67. In June 1967 a conference was held to standardize the language and initiate a number of implementations. Dahl proposed to unify the Type and the Class concept. This led to serious discussions, and the proposal got rejected by the board. SIMULA 67 was formally standardized on the first meeting of the SIMULA Standards Group (SSG) in February 1968. Sir Charles Antony Richard Hoare (Tony Hoare or C.A.R. Hoare, born January 11, 1934) is a British computer scientist, probably best known for the development of Quicksort, the worlds most widely used sorting algorithm, in 1960. ... In object-oriented programming, classes are used to group related variables and functions. ... In object-oriented programming, a subclass is a class that inherits some properties from its superclass. ... The International Federation for Information Processing, usually known as IFIP, is an umbrella organization for national societies working in the field of information technology. ... County Oslo NO-03 District Viken Municipality NO-0301 Administrative centre Oslo Mayor (2004) Per Ditlev-Simonsen (H) Official language form Neutral Area  - Total  - Land  - Percentage Ranked 224 454 km² 426 km² 0. ... A data type is a constraint placed upon the interpretation of data in a type system in computer programming. ... In object-oriented programming, classes are used to group related variables and functions. ...


In the late sixties and the early seventies there were four main implementations of Simula:

These implementations were ported to a wide range of platforms. The TOPS-10 implemented the concept of public, protected, and private member variables and methods, that later got integrated into Simula 87. Simula 87 is the latest standard and is ported to a wide range of platforms. There are mainly three implementations: This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Norwegian Computing Center (NCC, in Norwegian: Norsk Regnesentral or NR for short) is a private, independent, non-profit research foundation founded in 1952. ... System/360 Model 65 operators console, with register value lamps and toggle switches (middle of picture) and emergency pull switch (upper right). ... IBM logo The IBM System/370 (often: S/370) was a model range of IBM mainframes announced on June 30, 1970 as the successors to the System/360 family. ... There were two different 3000 series computers from Control Data Corporation, upper and lower. ... The University of Oslo (in Norwegian Universitetet i Oslo, in Latin Universitas Osloensis) was founded in 1811 as Universitas Regia Fredericiana (the Royal Frederick University, in Norwegian Det Kongelige Frederiks Universitet). ... The TOPS-10 System was a computer operating system from Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) for the PDP-10 released in 1964 and later on for the DEC-System10. ... ENEA is a Swedish information techonology company from Täby working in the area of operating systems and consulting. ... The TOPS-10 System was a computer operating system from Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) for the PDP-10 released in 1964 and later on for the DEC-System10. ...

  • Simula AS
  • Lund Simula
  • GNU Cim

In November 2001 Dahl and Nygaard were awarded the IEEE John von Neumann Medal by the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers "For the introduction of the concepts underlying object-oriented programming through the design and implementation of SIMULA 67". In February 2002 they received the 2001 A. M. Turing Award by the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), with the citation: "For ideas fundamental to the emergence of object oriented programming, through their design of the programming languages Simula I and Simula 67." Unfortunately neither Dahl, nor Nygaard could make it to the ACM Turing Award Lecture, scheduled to be delivered at the OOPSLA 2002 conference in Seattle, as they both passed away within two months of each other in June and August, respectively. The IEEE John von Neumann Medal was established by the IEEE Board of Directors in 1990 and may be presented annually for outstanding achievements in computer-related science and technology. ... The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers or IEEE (pronounced as eye-triple-ee) is an international non-profit, professional organization incorporated in the State of New York, United States. ... Object-oriented programming (OOP) is a programming paradigm that uses abstraction to create models based on the real world. ... The A.M. Turing Award is given annually by the Association for Computing Machinery to a person selected for contributions of a technical nature made to the computing community. ... The Association for Computing Machinery, or ACM, was founded in 1947 as the worlds first scientific and educational computing society. ... OOPSLA (Object-Oriented Programming, Systems, Languages & Applications) is an annual ACM conference. ...


Classic Hello world

Note that Simula is case-insensitive. An example of a Hello world program in Simula: Text sometimes exhibits case sensitivity, that is, words can differ in meaning based on the differing use of uppercase and lowercase letters. ... A hello world program is a software program that prints out Hello world! on a display device. ...

 ! a comment; Begin OutText ("Hello World!"); Outimage; End; 

Classes in Simula

Simula was the first Object-Oriented Programming Language. This means that Simula knows about objects and classes of objects. Each class is a package or module of procedures, functions, and data. From a class, it is possible to create instances as a way to get objects that represent entities from the real world. The set of objects and their relations may be used in simulations of some aspect of our world.


Here is a simple class in Simula:

 Begin Class Greetings; Begin OutText ("Hello World!"); OutImage; End; Ref(Greetings) hello; hello:- New Greetings; End of program; 

This program says "Hello World!" too.


Jensen's Device

Simula supports call by name so the Jensen's Device can be implemented as follows: Parameters are a way of allowing the same sequence of commands to operate on different data without re-specifying the instructions. ... Jensens Device is a computer programming technique devised by Danish computer scientist Jørn Jensen after studying the ALGOL 60 Report. ...

 Begin Integer i; Real Procedure sum (i, lo, hi, term); Name i, term; Integer i, lo, hi; Real term; Begin Real temp; temp:= 0; i:= lo; While i <= hi Do Begin temp:= temp + term; i:= i + 1; End; sum:= temp End; OutFix (sum (i, 1, 100, 1/i), 15, 20); End 

See also

Object-oriented programming (OOP) is a programming paradigm that uses abstraction to create models based on the real world. ... BETA is a pure object-oriented language from the Scandinavian School in System Development where the first object-oriented language Simula was developed. ... A computer simulation language describes the operation of a simulation on a computer. ...

Source

  • Compiling Simula Early history of the development of Simula by Jan Rune Holmevik

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Montreal SIMULA Site (903 words)
It is small consolation to us Simula fans that all students who were exposed to the language feel Simula would have been a much better base than C++ from which to develop "Java".
Simula was also used for the main case study in our advanced OS course.
Simula historian and author of several articles on the history and social impacts of technology.
Encyclopedia4U - Simula - Encyclopedia Article (196 words)
Simula was designed for simulations, and the needs of that domain provided the framework for many of the features of object oriented languages today.
Simula was developed in the 1960s at the Norwegian Computing Centre in Oslo, primarily by Ole-Johan Dahl and Kristen Nygaard.
Simula is still used a little for serious work in 2002, but it is probably fair to say its historical influence is more important than actual work being done with it.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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