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Encyclopedia > SIL International
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SIL International is a worldwide non-profit evangelical Christian organization whose main purpose is to study, develop and document lesser-known languages in order to expand linguistic knowledge, promote literacy and aid minority language development. Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... A non-profit organization (often called non-profit org or simply non-profit or not-for-profit) can be seen as an organization that doesnt have a goal to make a profit. ... The word evangelicalism usually refers to religious practices and traditions which are found in conservative, almost always Protestant, Christianity. ... Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on Jesus of Nazareth and his life, death, resurrection, and teachings as presented in the New Testament. ... Linguistics is the scientific study of language. ... World literacy rates by country The traditional definition of literacy is considered to be the ability to read and write, or the ability to use language–to read, write, listen, and speak. ... A minority language is a language spoken by a minority of the population of a country. ...


SIL International is the sister organization of Wycliffe Bible Translators, an agency dedicated to translating the Bible into minority languages. The organization provides a database of its research into the world's languages through its Ethnologue, a database of the world's languages. It has more than 6,000 members from over 50 countries. Wycliffe Bible Translators is an international, interdenominational or parachurch organization with U.S. headquarters in Orlando, Florida. ... The word Bible refers to the canonical collections of sacred writings of Judaism and Christianity. ... Ethnologue: Languages of the World is a web and print publication of SIL International (formerly known as the Summer Institute of Linguistics), a Christian linguistic service organization which studies lesser-known languages primarily to provide the speakers with Bibles in their native language. ...

Contents

History

SIL International, originally the Summer Institute of Linguistics, started as a small summer training session in Arkansas in 1934 to train missionaries of what later became Wycliffe Bible Translators in basic linguistic, anthropological and translation principles. The founder was William Cameron Townsend (1896-1982), a former Disciples of Christ missionary to Guatemala. Its headquarters are located in the southern section of Dallas, Texas. Linguistics is the scientific study of language. ... Official language(s) English Capital Little Rock Largest city Little Rock Area  Ranked 29th  - Total 53,179 sq mi (137,732 km²)  - Width 239 miles (385 km)  - Length 261 miles (420 km)  - % water 2. ... 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... Since the Lausanne Congress of 1974, a widely-accepted definition of a Christian mission has been to form a viable indigenous church-planting movement. ... Wycliffe Bible Translators is an international, interdenominational or parachurch organization with U.S. headquarters in Orlando, Florida. ... Linguistics is the scientific study of language. ... Anthropology (from the Greek word άνθρωπος = human) consists of the study of humankind (see genus Homo). ... Look up translate in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... William Cameron Townsend is a prominent christian missionary whose ministry began in the early twentieth century. ... 1896 (MDCCCXCVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The insignia of the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ). ...      Nickname: Big D Location in the state of Texas Country United States State Texas Counties Dallas, Collin, Denton, Kaufman, and Rockwall Mayor Laura Miller Area    - City 997. ...


From the 1950s to 1987, SIL training was hosted by the University of Oklahoma in Norman. The agreement between the university and SIL was terminated in 1987 after a controversy about SIL being involved in missionary activities and its relationship with Latin American governments. SIL training is now offered in many locations around the world. The University of Oklahoma, often called OU or Oklahoma, is a coeducational public research university located in the U.S. state of Oklahoma. ... Bizzell Library, University of Oklahoma Norman is the largest city in Cleveland County in the U.S. state of Oklahoma, and is part of the Oklahoma City Metropolitan Statistical Area. ...


One of the students at the first summer institute in 1934 was Kenneth L. Pike (19122000), who was to become the foremost figure in the history of SIL. He served as SIL's President from 19421979 and then as President Emeritus until his death in 2000. He worked at the University of Michigan for many years. SIL's current president is Carolyn P. Miller, who took the office in 1999 and participates in the linguistics program at Houghton College. 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... Kenneth L. Pike (June 9, 1912 - December 31, 2000) was an American linguist and anthropologist, a member of the National Academy of Sciences, the originator of the theory of tagmemics and coiner of the terms emic and etic. From 1947 to 1979 he was the first president of the Summer... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about the year 2000. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1942 calendar). ... For the Smashing Pumpkins song, see 1979 (song). ... The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor (UM or U of M) is a coeducational public research university in the U.S. state of Michigan. ... 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ... Houghton College is a 4-year Christian liberal arts college, operated by the Wesleyan Church. ...


Contributions

SIL's principal contribution to linguistics has been the data that has been gathered and analysed from over 1,000 minority and endangered languages[1], many of which had not been previously studied academically. SIL endeavors to share both the data and the results of analysis in order to contribute to the overall knowledge of language. This has resulted in publications on languages such as Hixkaryana and Piraha which have challenged the universality of some linguistic theories. SIL's work has resulted in over 20,000 technical publications, all of which are listed in the SIL Bibliography[2] Most of these are a reflection of linguistic fieldwork[3]. Hixkaryana is one of the Carib languages, spoken by just over 500 people on the Nhamundá river, a tributary of the Amazon River in Brazil. ... The Pirahã language is a language spoken by Pirahã people of Brazil. ...


SIL's focus has not been on the development of new linguistic theories, but tagmemics, though no longer promoted by SIL, was developed by Kenneth Pike, who also coined the words etic and emic, more widely used today in anthropology. Tagmemics is a linguistic theory developed by Kenneth L. Pike in his book Language in Relation to a Unified Theory of the Structure of Human Behavior, 3 vol. ... Emic and etic are terms used by some in the social sciences and the behavioral sciences to refer to two different kinds of data concerning human behavior. ... Emic and etic are terms used by some in the social sciences and the behavioral sciences to refer to two different kinds of data concerning human behavior. ...


Another focus of SIL is literacy work, particularly in indigenous languages. SIL assists local, regional, and national agencies that are developing formal and informal education in vernacular languages. These cooperative efforts enable new advances in the complex field of educational development in multilingual and multicultural societies[4].


SIL provides instructors and instructional materials for linguistics programs at several major institutions of higher learning around the world. In the USA these include Biola University, Moody Bible Institute, Houghton College, University of North Dakota, Northwest Christian College, Bryan College, University of Texas at Arlington, University of Oregon, and Dallas Theological Seminary. Other universities with SIL programmes include Trinity Western University in Canada and Charles Darwin University in Australia. Biola University is a private Christian university, located in the city of La Mirada in Los Angeles County, California with a satellite campus in Vista. ... Moody Bible Institute ( MBI ) was founded by evangelist and businessman Dwight Lyman Moody in 1886. ... Houghton College is a 4-year Christian liberal arts college, operated by the Wesleyan Church. ... The University of North Dakota (UND) is a comprehensive institution of higher learning in Grand Forks, North Dakota, USA. Founded in 1883, it is the largest and oldest such institution in the state of North Dakota. ... Northwest Christian College is located in Eugene, Oregon and has ties with the Christian Church. ... Bryan College Bryan College is a private co-educational Christian college located in Dayton, Tennessee. ... The University of Texas at Arlington , usually referred to as UT Arlington or UTA, has a student population of roughly 25,000 and is the third largest institution of the University of Texas System (after the University of Texas and the University of Texas at San Antonio). ... The University of Oregon is a public university located in Eugene, Oregon. ... Dallas Theological Seminary (DTS) is a conservative graduate-level theological seminary located in Dallas, Texas, which has been, according to its mission statement, equipping godly servant-leaders for the proclamation of His Word and the building up of the body of Christ worldwide since its founding by Lewis Sperry Chafer... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Charles Darwin University Charles Darwin University (CDU) is located in Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia. ...


SIL also presents the fruits of some its research through the International Museum of Culture.[5] Located in Dallas, Texas, it was developed by linguists and anthropologists associated with SIL International for the purpose of celebrating peoples of diverse cultures in an effort to promote greater appreciation and understanding of cultural differences.      Nickname: Big D Location in the state of Texas Country United States State Texas Counties Dallas, Collin, Denton, Kaufman, and Rockwall Mayor Laura Miller Area    - City 997. ...


International recognition

SIL holds formal consultative status with UNESCO and United Nations, and has been publicly recognized by UNESCO for their work in many parts of Asia.[6] SIL also holds non-governmental organization status in many countries. UNESCO logo UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, and social equity. ... The term non-governmental organization (NGO) is used in a variety of ways all over the world and, depending on the context in which it is used, can refer to many different types of organizations. ...


SIL's work has received appreciation and recognition in a number of international settings. In 1973, SIL was awarded the Ramon Magsaysay Award for International Understanding. This foundation honors outstanding individuals and organizations working in Asia who manifest greatness of spirit in service to the peoples of Asia.[7] Other notable examples include a UNESCO award and the 1979 International Reading Association Literacy Award for literacy work in Papua New Guinea[8]. The Ramon Magsaysay Award was established in April 1957 by the trustees of the Rockefeller Brothers Fund (RBF) based in New York City. ...


Ethnologue and the SIL code

Main article: Ethnologue

The Ethnologue, the most comprehensive guide to the world's languages, is published by SIL. It assigns three-letter codes to languages, which are widely used by other linguists. The 15th edition of the Ethnologue was published in 2005 and generally uses the ISO 639-3 standard. Ethnologue: Languages of the World is a web and print publication of SIL International (formerly known as the Summer Institute of Linguistics), a Christian linguistic service organization which studies lesser-known languages primarily to provide the speakers with Bibles in their native language. ... Ethnologue: Languages of the World is a web and print publication of SIL International (formerly known as the Summer Institute of Linguistics), a Christian linguistic service organization which studies lesser-known languages primarily to provide the speakers with Bibles in their native language. ... ISO 639-3 is in process of development as an international standard for language codes. ...


Controversy

Missionary activities

SIL has been accused of being involved in moving indigenous populations in South America from their native lands to make way for exploitation schemes of North American and European oil corporations. The most well known example is the case of the Huaorani people in Ecuador, which resulted in many deaths and the moving of the people into reservations controlled by the missionaries. South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America. ... World map showing Europe A satellite composite image of Europe Europe is one of the seven traditional continents of the Earth. ... The Huaorani, also known as Waorani, Waodani, or Auca (Quechua for savage), are an indigenous tribe of the Ecuadorian Oriente (in the Amazon region). ... BIA map of reservations in the United States Tribal sovereignty: Map of the United States, with non-reservation land highlighted. ...


In 1975, thirty anthropologists signed "The Denouncement of Pátzcuaro", alleging that SIL was a "tool of imperialism", linked to the CIA and "divisions within the communities that constitutes a hindrance to their organization and the defence of their communal rights". The CIA Seal The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an American intelligence agency, responsible for obtaining and analyzing information about foreign governments, corporations, and individuals, and reporting such information to the various branches of the U.S. Government. ...


In 1979, SIL's agreement with the Mexican government was officially terminated, but it continued to be active in that country (Clarke, p. 182). The same happened in 1980 in Ecuador (Yashar 2005, p. 118), although a token presence remained. Remnants of SIL presence were protested in every subsequent Indian uprising[9]. In the early 1990s, the newly-formed organisation of indigenous people of Ecuador CONAIE once more demanded the expulsion of SIL from the country[10]. CONAIEs flag which includes the Incan sun on the Pachakutik rainbow. ...


At a conference of the Inter-American Indian Institute in Merida, Yucatan, in November 1980, delegates denounced the Summer Institute of Linguistics for using a scientific name to conceal its religious agenda and capitalist worldview that was alien to indigenous traditions[11] The Yucatán Peninsula separates the Caribbean Sea from the Gulf of Mexico. ... In economics, a capitalist is someone who owns capital, presumably within the economic system of capitalism. ...


John Perkins provides an example of criticism of SIL activity: Confessions of an Economic Hitman John Perkins (b. ...

I had heard that (Jaime Roldos, President of Ecuador, 1979-81) accused The Summer Institute of Linguistics (SIL), an evangelical missionary group from the United States, of sinister collusion with the oil companies. I was familiar with SIL missionaries from my Peace Corps days. The organization had entered Ecuador, as it had in so many other countries, with the professed goal of studying, recording, and translating indigenous languages.
SIL had been working extensively with the Huaorani and Matsés tribes in the Amazon basin area, during the early years of oil exploration, when a disturbing pattern appeared to emerge. While it might have been a coincidence (and no link was ever proved), stories were told in many Amazonian communities that when seismologists reported to corporate headquarters that a certain region had characteristics indicating a high probability of oil beneath the surface, SIL went in and encouraged the indigenous people to move from that land, onto missionary reservations; there they would receive free food, shelter, clothes, medical treatment, and missionary-style education. The condition was that they had to deed their lands to the oil companies.
Rumors abounded that SIL missionaries used an assortment of underhanded techniques to persuade the tribes to abandon their homes and move to the missions. A frequently repeated story was that they had donated food heavily laced with laxatives - then offered medicines to cure the diarrhea epidemic. Throughout Huaorani territory, SIL airdropped false-bottomed food baskets containing tiny radio transmitters; The rumor was that receivers at highly sophisticated communications stations, manned by U.S. military personnel at the army base in Shell [a frontier outpost and military base hacked out of Ecuador’s Amazon jungle to service the oil company whose name it bears], tuned into these transmitters. Whenever a member of the tribe was bitten by a poisonous snake or became seriously ill, an SIL representative arrived with antivenom or the proper medicines - often in oil company helicopters."[12]

SIL was allegedly financed initially by expatriate coffee processors in Guatemala, and later by the Rockefellers, Standard Oil, the timber company Weyerhauser, and USAID. [...] By the 1980s, [SIL] was expelled from Brazil, Ecuador, Mexico, and Panama, and restricted in Colombia and Peru[13]. Peace Corps volunteers usually serve for two years. ... The Huaorani, also known as Waorani, Waodani, or Auca (Quechua for savage), are an indigenous tribe of the Ecuadorian Oriente (in the Amazon region). ... The Matsés are an indigenous tribe of the Peruvian and Brazilian Amazon. ... Amazon River basin The Amazon Basin is the part of South America drained by the Amazon River and its tributaries. ... Seismology (from the Greek seismos = earthquake and logos = word) is the scientific study of earthquakes and the movement of waves through the Earth. ... A laxative is a preparation used for encouraging defecation, or the expulsion of feces. ... Types 5-7 on the Bristol Stool Chart are often associated with diarrhea Diarrhea (in American English) or diarrhoea (in British English) is a generally unpleasant condition in which the sufferer has frequent watery, loose bowel movements (from the ancient Greek word διαρροή = leakage; literally meaning to run through). Acute infectious... In epidemiology, an epidemic (from Greek epi- upon + demos people) is a disease that appears as new cases in a given human population, during a given period, at a rate that substantially exceeds what is expected, based on recent experience (the number of new cases in the population during a... In communications and information processing, a transmitter (sometimes abbreviated XMTR) is an object (source) which sends information to an observer (receiver). ... For other uses, see Snake (disambiguation). ... Antivenom (or antivenin, or antivenene) is a biological product used in the treatment of venomous bites or stings. ... Robinson Helicopter Company (USA) R44, a four seat development of the R22 A helicopter is an aircraft which is lifted and propelled by one or more horizontal rotors, each having two or more rotor blades. ... An expatriate (in abbreviated form, expat) is a person temporarily or permanently residing in a country and culture other than that of his upbringing or legal residence. ... Rockefeller Rockefeller family Rockefeller Group International, Inc. ... Standard Oil (1870–1911) was a large, integrated, oil producing, transporting, refining, and marketing company. ... The United States Agency for International Development (or USAID) is the US government organization responsible for most non-military foreign aid. ...


In response to the allegations that Perkins published, SIL posted the following on their website (SIL Responds to Errors in "Confessions of an Economic Hit Man"), referring to an earlier (2004) publication of the book:

John Perkins in Confessions of an Economic Hit Man[14], makes a number of egregious errors in fact and presents false statements about SIL's activities in Ecuador in the 1950-60s. The comments are based on rumors that have never been substantiated and are contrary to documented eyewitness accounts. Throughout its 70 year history, SIL (Summer Institute of Linguistics) has been an active advocate and supporter of indigenous language communities in Latin America and around the world.
SIL entered Ecuador in 1953 in response to the expressed invitation of then President Galo Plaza to study, record and work on translation of materials into indigenous languages. SIL performed the work it was invited to do and maintained a full reporting relationship with Ecuador's Ministry of Education through 1982. At the urging and support of many indigenous communities, respected journalists, and civic leaders the government granted visas to certain SIL members to continue their activities until work was completed in 1992. SIL's linguistic research work was donated to local universities and is a matter of public record. Today a number of indigenous groups in eastern Ecuador enjoy their protected land as a result, in part, to SIL's advocacy before the government.
Perkins contends that SIL worked under the sponsorship and in support of oil companies in the Amazon. This is absolutely untrue. SIL has had no involvement with oil exploration and has never had any agreements with oil companies or any other parties to promote oil exploration. In fact, SIL members were known to have intervened to prevent violence between indigenous communities and oil company workers. Further, the accusation by Perkins that SIL has received support from the Rockefellers in Amazonia is also false. SIL has never received funding from the Rockefeller Foundation.[15]

Today, according to SIL's annual report, funds are donations from individuals, churches, and other organizations, channelled to SIL by the Wycliffe Bible Translators[16] Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... Galo Plaza Lasso (1906 – 1987) was an Ecuadorian political figure. ... Look up translate in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... Visa or VISA has several meanings: Look up visa in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Visa (document) — a document required to enter a specific country. ... Representation of a university class, 1350s. ... Advocacy is an umbrella term for organized activism related to a particular set of issues. ... Violence is any act of aggression and abuse which causes or intends to cause injury, in some cases criminal, or harm to persons, and (by some definitions) animals or property. ... The Rockefeller Foundation is a charitable organization based in New York City. ... An annual report is a document which a company presents to its Annual General Meeting for approval by its shareholders. ...


Notes

  1. ^ http://www.sil.org/SOCIOLX/NDG-LG-GRPS.HTML
  2. ^ Ethnologue Bibliography
  3. ^ http://www.sil.org/linguistics/fieldwork.html
  4. ^ http://www.sil.org/sil/
  5. ^ http://www.internationalmuseumofcultures.org/info/about.html
  6. ^ http://www.unescobkk.org/index.php?id=2900
  7. ^ http://www.rmaf.org.ph/Awardees/Response/ResponseSIL.htm
  8. ^ http://www.tsha.utexas.edu/handbook/online/articles/SS/pas2_print.html
  9. ^ Cleary/Steigenga 2004, p. 37
  10. ^ Yashar 2005, p. 146
  11. ^ Bonner 1999, p. 20
  12. ^ John Perkins, Confessions of an Economic Hit Man, Plume Publishers, January, 2006, paperback p.166-7
  13. ^ Cleary/Steigenga 2004, p. 36
  14. ^ San Francisco: Berrett Koehler Publications, Inc., 2004
  15. ^ http://www.sil.org/sil/facts/JPerkins.htm
  16. ^ http://www.sil.org/sil/annualreport/English.pdf

Confessions of an Economic Hitman Confessions of an Economic Hit Man (ISBN 0-452-28708-1) is an auto-biographical book written by John Perkins and published in 2004. ...

External links

SIL website

Because of technical limitations, some web browsers may not display some special characters in this article. ... In typography, a typeface is a co-ordinated set of character designs, which usually comprises an alphabet of letters, a set of numerals and a set of punctuation marks. ... The World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS) was a series of United Nations-sponsored conferences about information and communication that took place in 2003 and 2005. ...

Criticism of SIL activities

Other sites

Waxhaw is a town located in Union County, North Carolina. ... Official language(s) English Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Area  Ranked 28th  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (240 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (901 km)  - % water 9. ... Wycliffe Bible Translators is an international, interdenominational or parachurch organization with U.S. headquarters in Orlando, Florida. ... The World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS) was a series of United Nations-sponsored conferences about information and communication that took place in 2003 and 2005. ...

References

  • Ruth Margaret Brend, Kenneth Lee Pike (eds.): The Summer Institute of Linguistics: Its Works and Contributions (Walter De Gruyter 1977), ISBN 90-279-3355-3.
  • Gerard Colby, Charlotte Dennett: Thy Will Be Done: The Conquest of the Amazon: Nelson Rockefeller and Evangelism in the Age of Oil (Harper Collins 1995), ISBN 0-06-016764-5. This book contains allegations of Rockefeller's use of American missionaries, and in particular, the Summer Institute of Linguistics, who cooperated in conducting surveys, transporting CIA agents and indirectly assisting in the genocide of tribes in the Amazon basin.
  • John Perkins: Confessions of an Economic Hit Man (Berrett-Koehler Publishers 2004), ISBN 1-57675-301-8. Contains several references to SIL missionary activities and displacement of indigenous peoples in South America.
  • John Perkins: Confessions of an Economic Hit Man (Plume Publishers 2006), ISBN 0-452-28708-1. Contains several references to SIL missionary activities and displacement of indigenous peoples in South America.
  • W. A Willibrand: Oklahoma Indians and the Summer Institute of Linguistics (1953).
  • Søren Hvalkof, Peter Aaby (eds.): Is God an American? An Anthropological Perspective on the Missionary Work of the Summer Institute of Linguistics (A Survival International Document, International Workgroup for Indigenous Affairs, Copenhagen/London 1981), ISBN 87-980717-2-6.
  • Eni Pucinelli Orlandi: Sprache, Glaube, Macht: "Ethik und Sprachenpolitik / Language, Faith, Power: Ethics and Language Policy", in: Brigitte Schlieben-Lange (ed.): Zeitschrift für Literaturwissenschaft und Linguistik 116, Katechese, Sprache, Schrift (University of Siegen / J.B. Metzler 1999) The author presents a discourse analysis of the practices of SIL.
  • Laurie K. Hart: "The Story of the Wycliffe Translators: Pacifying the Last Frontiers". In: NACLA's Latin America & Empire Report, vol. VII, no. 10 (1973). This article describes SIL's collaboration with US oil corporations and military governments in South America in the 1950s and 1960s.
  • Michael Erard: How Linguists and Missionaries Share a Bible of 6,912 Languages. In: New York Times, July 19th, 2005.
  • Peter Gow: An Amazonian Myth and Its History (Oxford University Press 2001), ISBN 0-19-924195-3 / ISBN 0-19-924196-1.
  • Colin Clarke: Class, Ethnicity, and Community in Southern Mexico: Oaxaca's Peasentries (Oxford University Press 2001), ISBN 0-19-823387-6.[1]
  • Arthur Bonner: We Will Not Be Stopped: Evangelical Persecution, Catholicism, and Zapatismo in Chiapas, Mexico (Universal Publishers 1999), ISBN 1-58112-864-9.
  • Edward L. Cleary, Timothy J. Steigenga: Resurgent Voice in Latin America: Indigenous Peoples, Political Mobilization, and Religious Change (Rutgers University Press 2004), ISBN 0-8135-3461-5.
  • David Stoll: Fishers of Men or Founders of Empire? The Wycliffe Bible Translators in Latin America. A US Evangelical Mission in the Third World (London, Zed Press 1983), ISBN 0-86232-111-5. Criticism of SIL missionary activities.
  • Norman Lewis: The Missionaries (London, Secker and Warburg 1988; McGraw-Hill Companies 1989), ISBN 0-07-037613-1.
  • Richard Pettifer, Julian Bradley: Missionaries (BBC Publications 1991), ISBN 0-563-20702-7.
  • Deborah J. Yashar: Contesting Citizenship In Latin America. The Rise of Indigenous Movements and the Postliberal Challenge (Cambridge University Press 2005), ISBN 0-521-82746-9.
  • Castro Mantilla, Maria Dolores: El Trabajo del ILV en Bolivia, 1954—1980, Informe Final (The Work of SIL in Bolivia, 1954-1980, Final Report; La Paz, Ministerio de Desarollo Humano 1996). This report in Spanish contains a detailed chart of SIL activities in Latin American countries.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Terms of use, privacy policy, and external links disclaimer (269 words)
The resources found on the SIL International website are intended for scholarly research and educational use.
Republication or commercial use of anything on the SIL International website is expressly prohibited without the written consent of SIL International.
SIL International does not send unsolicited or "spam" e-mail and does not sell, rent, or trade its e-mail lists to third parties.
SIL International - Wikipedia (380 words)
SIL International è un'organizzazione non-profit, cristiana e scientifica con l'obiettivo principale di studiare, sviluppare e documentare le lingue per diffonderne la conoscenza e promuovere e aiutare le minoranze linguistiche.
SIL International, originariamente Summer Institute of Linguistics, è nata come piccola sessione di studio estiva in Arkansas nel 1934 per familiarizzare i missionari di quel nucleo che poi è andato a costituire i Wycliffe Bible Translators con conoscenze linguistiche, antropologiche e di traduzione.
Il SIL detiene uno stato formale consultivo presso l'UNESCO e l'ONU e fornisce istruttori e materiali istruttivi per i programmi linguistici per diverse istituzioni di studi superiori.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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