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Encyclopedia > SHACAL

SHACAL-1 and SHACAL-2 are block ciphers based on cryptographic hash function from the SHA family. It was designed by Helena Handschuh and David Naccache, both cryptographers from the smart card manufacturer Gemplus. Encryption Decryption In cryptography, a block cipher is a symmetric key cipher which operates on fixed-length groups of bits, termed blocks, with an unvarying transformation. ... In cryptography, a cryptographic hash function is a hash function with certain additional security properties to make it suitable for use as a primitive in various information security applications, such as authentication and message integrity. ... The SHA (Secure Hash Algorithm) family is a set of related cryptographic hash functions. ... Smart card used for health insurance in France. ...


SHACAL-1 (originally simply SHACAL) is a 160-bit block cipher based on SHA-1, and supports keys from 128-bit to 512-bit. SHACAL-2 is a 256-bit block cipher based upon the larger hash function SHA-256. The SHA (Secure Hash Algorithm) family is a set of related cryptographic hash functions designed by the National Security Agency (NSA) and published by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). ...


In 2003, SHACAL-2 was selected by the NESSIE project as one of their 17 recommended algorithms. 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... NESSIE (New European Schemes for Signatures, Integrity and Encryption) was a European research project funded from 2000–2003 to identify secure cryptographic primitives. ...


Design

SHACAL is based on the following observation of SHA-1:


The hash function SHA-1 is designed around a compression function. This function takes as input a 160-bit state and a 512-bit data word and outputs a new 160-bit state. The hash function works by repeatedly calling this compression function with successive 512-bit data blocks and each time updating the state accordingly. This compression function is easily invertible if the data block is known, i.e. given the data block on which it acted and the output of the compression function, one can compute that state that went in.


SHACAL turns the SHA-1 compression function into a block cipher by using the state input as the data block and using the data input as the key input. In other words SHACAL views the SHA-1 compression function as 160-bit block cipher with a 512-bit key.


Keys shorter than 512 bits are supported by padding them with zero up to 512. SHACAL is not intended to be used with keys shorter than 128 bit.


References

  • Eli Biham, Orr Dunkelman, Nathan Keller: Rectangle Attacks on 49-Round SHACAL-1. FSE 2003: pp22–35
  • Helena Handschuh, Lars R. Knudsen, Matthew J. B. Robshaw: Analysis of SHA-1 in Encryption Mode. CT-RSA 2001: pp70–83
  • Seokhie Hong, Jongsung Kim, Guil Kim, Jaechul Sung, Changhoon Lee, Sangjin Lee: Impossible Differential Attack on 30-Round SHACAL-2. INDOCRYPT 2003: pp97–106
  • Jongsung Kim, Guil Kim, Sangjin Lee, Jongin Lim and Junghwan Song, Related-Key Attacks on Reduced Rounds of SHACAL-2, INDOCRYPT 2004, pp175-190.
  • Jongsung Kim, Guil Kim, Seokhie Hong, Sangjin Lee, Dowon Hong: The Related-Key Rectangle Attack — Application to SHACAL-1. ACISP 2004: pp123–136
  • Jongsung Kim, Dukjae Moon, Wonil Lee, Seokhie Hong, Sangjin Lee, Seokwon Jung: Amplified Boomerang Attack against Reduced-Round SHACAL. ASIACRYPT 2002: pp243–253
  • Markku-Juhani Olavi Saarinen: Cryptanalysis of Block Ciphers Based on SHA-1 and MD5. FSE 2003: pp36–44
  • YongSup Shin, Jongsung Kim, Guil Kim, Seokhie Hong, Sangjin Lee: Differential-Linear Type Attacks on Reduced Rounds of SHACAL-2. ACISP 2004: pp110–122


Block ciphers edit
Algorithms: 3-Way | AES | Akelarre | Anubis | Blowfish | Camellia | CAST-128 | CAST-256 | CMEA | CS-Cipher | DEAL | DES | DES-X | FEAL | FOX | FROG | G-DES | GOST | ICE | IDEA | Iraqi | KASUMI | KHAZAD | Khufu and Khafre | LOKI89/91 | LOKI97 | Lucifer | MacGuffin | Madryga | MAGENTA | MARS | MISTY1 | MMB | NewDES | Noekeon | RC2 | RC5 | RC6 | REDOC | Red Pike | S-1 | SAFER | SEED | Serpent | SHACAL | SHARK | Skipjack | Square | TEA | Triple DES | Twofish | XTEA
Design: Feistel network | Key schedule | Product cipher | S-box | SPN   Attacks: Brute force | Linear / Differential cryptanalysis | Mod n | Related key | XSL   Standardization: AES process | CRYPTREC | NESSIE   Misc: Avalanche effect | Block size | IV | Key size | Modes of operation | Piling-up lemma | Weak key

  Results from FactBites:
 
SHACAL - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (415 words)
In 2003, SHACAL-2 was selected by the NESSIE project as one of their 17 recommended algorithms.
SHACAL turns the SHA-1 compression function into a block cipher by using the state input as the data block and using the data input as the key input.
SHACAL is not intended to be used with keys shorter than 128 bit.
SHACAL-2 - definition of SHACAL-2 in Encyclopedia (383 words)
SHACAL is a 160-bit block cipher based on the cryptographic hash function SHA-1.
Later the same designers introduced SHACAL-2 which is similarly a 256-bit block cipher based upon the larger hash function SHA-256.
To avoid confusion, the initial SHACAL design is now called SHACAL-1.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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