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Encyclopedia > SCRAM

A SCRAM is an emergency shutdown of a nuclear reactor - though the term has been extended to cover shutdowns of other complex operations, such as server farms and even large model railroads (see Tech Model Railroad Club). Nuclear power station at Leibstadt, Switzerland. ... A typical server farm. ... This article needs cleanup. ... The Tech Model Railroad Club (TMRC), also known as The Midnight Requistioning Committe a student organization at MIT, is one of the most famous model railroad clubs in the world. ...


In modern nuclear power plants, a SCRAM rapidly (less than four seconds, by test) inserts all the control rods into the reactor core, thus halting the nuclear reaction as rapidly as possible. A typical large boiling water reactor will have 185 of these control rods. A nuclear power plant in Cattenom, France. ... A boiling water reactor (BWR) is a light water reactor design used in some nuclear power stations. ...


Many sources state that the term is actually an acronym, most commonly expanded to safety control rod axe man, referring in that case to a person who would use an axe to cut a wire or rope to drop a control rod into a reactor to shut it down. This became another meaning of the word SCRAM after people working at the first nuclear reactor pile in Chicago, Illinois, known as CP-1, incorporated it into their emergency procedures. (An alternative derivation is that it stood for Simulated Chicago Reactor Axe Man). Many attribute the usage to Enrico Fermi, who supposedly wrote the “axe man” phrase into the original reactor design. There were multiple safety systems in place at the Chicago pile, with some electrically-controlled control rods as well as vessels containing a cadmium solution available to stop any reactions if necessary. Therefore, the job of the “SCRAM man” to drop another control rod by the force of gravity was most likely superfluous. Acronyms and initialisms are abbreviations formed from the initial letter or letters of words, such as NATO and XHTML, and are pronounced in a way that is distinct from the full pronunciation of what the letters stand for. ... Firefighter with a fire-axe An axe (also spelt as ax) is a tool with a metal blade that is securely fastened at a 90 degree angle to a handle, usually of wood, while a blade fastened horizontally is called an adze. ... A control rod is a rod made of a chemical element capable of absorbing many neutrons without decaying themselves. ... Chicago (officially named the City of Chicago) is the third largest city in the United States and the largest inland city in the country, with an official population of 2,896,016, as of the 2000 census. ... Enrico Fermi (September 29, 1901 – November 28, 1954) was an Italian physicist most noted for his work on beta decay, the development of the first nuclear reactor, and for the development of quantum theory. ... Electricity is a property of certain subatomic particles (e. ... General Name, Symbol, Number Cadmium, Cd, 48 Chemical series Transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 5, d Density, Hardness 8650 kg/m3, 2 Appearance Silvery gray metallic Atomic properties Atomic weight 112. ... Gravitation is the tendency of masses to move toward each other. ...


Some sources indicate that the term may also stand for safety cut rope axe man or start cutting right away, man, but this confusion provides further evidence that the term SCRAM was likely a backronym when it was first proposed in this context. At the time of the Chicago pile, scram was a common imperative, meaning roughly “get away, now!” The workers at CP-1 labeled an emergency shutdown button “SCRAM,” since they would immediately be scramming from the premises as soon as the button was hit. (In modern nuclear power plants, the operators do not leave the Control Room in the event of a SCRAM or a major accident.) A backronym or bacronym is a reverse acronym, that is, the words of the expanded term were chosen to fit the letters of the acronym. ... In linguistics, many grammars have the concept of grammatical mood, which describes the relationship of a verb with reality and intent. ...


References

  • NRC Glossary: Scram (http://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/basic-ref/glossary/scram.html)
  • Etymology of SCRAM (http://www.vanderbilt.edu/radsafe/9710/msg00067.html)
  • The Jargon File: Scram Switch (http://catb.org/jargon/html/S/scram-switch.html)

Scram is a game designed by Chris Crawford for the Atari 800. The player controlled the valves and switches of a nuclear reactor directly with the joystick. Occasionally, earthquakes would occur and the player must analyze the heat readings and dispatch repair crews to the affected area of the plant. Chris Crawford is a noted computer game designer and writer, responsible for a number of important games in the 1980s, for founding The Journal of Computer Game Design and for organizing the Computer Game Developers Conference. ... Atari built a series of 8-bit home computers based on the MOS Technology 6502 CPU, starting in 1979. ... Nuclear power station at Leibstadt, Switzerland. ... Joystick elements: 1. ...


Scram is also a similar game written for the DEC Alpha, where the player would control a small astronaut with a jetpack as she attempted to trigger all the cooling valves in an nuclear reactor before the levels rose to a critical level. AXP redirects here. ... U.S. Space Shuttle astronaut Bruce McCandless II using a manned maneuvering unit. ... A jet pack is a technology that is not yet practical but often appears in fiction. ...


Scram[1] (http://www.scrammagazine.com) is also an occasional journal of unpopular culture


  Results from FactBites:
 
Scram (387 words)
A scram is an emergency shutdown of a nuclear reactor, though the term has been extended to cover shutdowns of other complex operations, such as server farms and even large model railroads (see Tech Model Railroad Club).
At the time of the Chicago pile, scram was a common imperative, meaning roughly “get away, now!” The workers at CP-1 labeled an emergency shutdown button “SCRAM,” since they would immediately be scramming from the premesis as soon as the button was hit.
Scram is also a similar game written for the DEC Alpha, where the player would control a small astronaut with a jetpack as she attempted to trigger all the cooling valves in an nuclear reactor before the levels rose to a critical level.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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