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iRye

Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Liliopsida
Order: Poales
Family: Poaceae
Subfamily: Pooideae
Tribe: Triticeae
Genus: Secale
Species: S. cereale
Binomial name
Secale cereale
M.Bieb.

Rye (Secale cereale) is a grass grown extensively as a grain and forage crop. It is a member of the wheat tribe (Triticeae) and is closely related to barley and wheat. Rye grain is used for flour, rye bread, rye beer, some whiskies, some vodkas, and animal fodder. It can also be eaten whole, either as boiled rye berries, or by being rolled, similar to rolled oats. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (600x900, 56 KB)Description: Rye (secale cereale) Source: USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database / Hitchcock, A.S. (rev. ... Scientific classification or biological classification is how biologists group and categorize extinct and living species of organisms. ... Divisions Green algae Chlorophyta Charophyta Land plants (embryophytes) Non-vascular plants (bryophytes) Marchantiophyta - liverworts Anthocerotophyta - hornworts Bryophyta - mosses Vascular plants (tracheophytes) †Rhyniophyta - rhyniophytes †Zosterophyllophyta - zosterophylls Lycopodiophyta - clubmosses †Trimerophytophyta - trimerophytes Equisetophyta - horsetails Pteridophyta - true ferns Psilotophyta - whisk ferns Ophioglossophyta - adderstongues Seed plants (spermatophytes) †Pteridospermatophyta - seed ferns Pinophyta - conifers Cycadophyta - cycads Ginkgophyta... Classes Magnoliopsida - Dicots Liliopsida - Monocots The flowering plants (also called angiosperms) are the dominant and most familiar group of land plants. ... Liliopsida is the botanical name for a class. ... families see text Poales is a botanical name at the rank of order. ... Subfamilies There are 7 subfamilies: Subfamily Arundinoideae Subfamily Bambusoideae Subfamily Centothecoideae Subfamily Chloridoideae Subfamily Panicoideae Subfamily Pooideae Subfamily Stipoideae The true grasses are monocotyledonous plants (Class Liliopsida) in the Family Poaceae, also known as Gramineae. ... Subdivisions See text The Pooideae is a subfamily of the true grass family Poaceae. ... Genera See text. ... Binomial name Secale cereale References: ITIS 42089 2002-09-22 Rye (Secale cereale) is a grass grown extensively as a grain and forage crop. ... In biology, binomial nomenclature is the formal method of naming species. ... Subfamilies There are 7 subfamilies: Subfamily Arundinoideae Subfamily Bambusoideae Subfamily Centothecoideae Subfamily Chloridoideae Subfamily Panicoideae Subfamily Pooideae Subfamily Stipoideae The true grasses are monocotyledonous plants (Class Liliopsida) in the Family Poaceae, also known as Gramineae. ... Genera See text. ... Binomial name Hordeum vulgare L. Barley (Hordeum vulgare) is a major food and animal feed crop, a member of the grass family Poaceae. ... Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. compactum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 For the indie rock group see: Wheat (band). ... Look up flour in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Rye bread is bread made with rye flour. ... Rye beer is the newest trend in brewing today, but the practice of adding rye to a beer recipe has quite a bit of history. ... Rye whisky describes two types of whiskies, theoretically distilled from rye. ... Vodka bottling machine, Shatskaya Vodka Shatsk, Russia Vodka is typically a colorless liquor, usually distilled from fermented grain. ... Fodder growing from barley In agriculture, fodder or animal feed is any foodstuff that is used specifically to feed livestock, such as cattle, sheep, chickens and pigs. ... The oat, like some other cereals, has a hard, inedible outer hull that must be removed before the grain can be eaten. ...


Rye should not be confused with Ryegrass which is used for lawns, pasture, and hay for livestock. Species See text Ryegrass (Lolium) is a genus of nine species of tufted grasses, family Poaceae. ...

wild rye
wild rye

Contents

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1067, 257 KB) Wild Rye File links The following pages link to this file: Rye ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1067, 257 KB) Wild Rye File links The following pages link to this file: Rye ...

History

The early history of rye is unclear. The wild ancestor of rye has not been identified with certainty, but is one of a number of species that grow wild in central and eastern Turkey, and adjacent areas. Domesticated rye occurs in small quantities at a number of Neolithic sites in Turkey, such as PPNB Can Hasan III, but is otherwise virtually absent from the archaeological record until the Bronze Age of central Europe, c. 1800-1500 BC. It is possible that rye travelled west from Turkey as a minor admixture in wheat, and was only later cultivated in its own right. Pre-Pottery Neolithic B is a division of the Neolithic developed by Dame Kathleen Kenyon during her archaeological excavations at Jericho in Palestine. ...


Since the Middle Ages, rye has been widely cultivated in Central and Eastern Europe and is the main bread cereal in most areas east of the French-German border and north of Hungary. The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Central Europe is the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe. ... Eastern Europe is the eastern region of Europe variably defined. ... Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ...


Claims of much earlier cultivation of rye, at the Epipalaeolithic site of Tell Abu Hureyra in the Euphrates valley of northern Syria, remain controversial. Critics point to inconsistencies in the radiocarbon dates, and identifications based solely on grain, rather than on chaff. The Epipalaeolithic (or Epi-Palaeolithic, Epipaleolithic, or Epi-Paleolithic) was a period in the development of human technology that immediately precedes the neolithic period, as an alternative to mesolithic. ... Tell Abu Hureyra (tell is arabic for mount) was a site of an ancient settlement in the northern Levant or western Mesopotamia. ...


Agronomy

Rye, alone or overseeded, is planted as a livestock forage or harvested for hay. It is highly tolerant of soil acidity and is more tolerant of dry and cool conditions than wheat, though not as tolerant of cold as barley. In Turkey, rye is often grown as an admixture in wheat crops. It is appreciated for the flavour it brings to bread, as well as its ability to compensate for wheat's reduced yields in hard years. Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. compactum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 For the indie rock group see: Wheat (band). ... Binomial name Hordeum vulgare L. Barley (Hordeum vulgare) is a major food and animal feed crop, a member of the grass family Poaceae. ...


The flame moth, rustic shoulder-knot and turnip moth are among the species of Lepidoptera whose larvae feed on rye. Binomial name Axylia putris Linnaeus, 1761 The Flame (Axylia putris) is a moth of the family Noctuidae. ... Binomial name Apamea sordens Hufnagel, 1766 The Rustic Shoulder-knot (Apamea sordens) is a moth of the family Noctuidae. ... Binomial name Agrotis segetum Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775 The Turnip Moth (Agrotis segetum) is a moth of the family Noctuidae. ... Super Families Butterflies Hesperioidea Papilionoidea Moths Micropterigoidea Heterobathmioidea Eriocranioidea Acanthopteroctetoidea Lophocoronoidea Neopseustoidea Mnesarchaeoidea Hepialoidea Nepticuloidea Incurvarioidea Palaephatoidea Tischeriodea Simaethistoidea Tineoidea Gracillarioidea Yponomeutoidea Gelechioidea Zygaenoidea Sesioidea Cossoidea Tortricoidea Choreutoida Urodoidea Galacticoidea Schreckensteinioidea Epermenioidea Pterophoroidea Aluctoidea Immoidea Axioidea Hyblaeoidea Thyridoidea Whalleyanoidea Pyraloidea Mimallonoidea Lasiocampoidea Geometroidea Drepanoidea Bombycoidea Calliduloidae Hedyloidea Noctuoidea Families About...


Rye is highly susceptible to the ergot fungus. Consumption of ergot-infected rye by humans and animals results in a serious medical condition known as ergotism. Ergotism can cause both physical and mental harm, including convulsions, miscarriage, necrosis of digits, and hallucinations. Historically, damp northern countries that have depended on rye as a staple crop were subject to periodic epidemics of this condition. Species About 50, including: Claviceps africanum Claviceps fusiformis Claviceps paspali Claviceps purpurea Ergot is the common name of a fungus in the genus Claviceps. ... Ergotism is the effect of long-term ergot poisoning, classically due to the ingestion of the alkaloids produced by the Claviceps purpurea fungus which infects rye and other cereals, and more recently by the action of a number of ergoline-based drugs. ...


Uses

Rye bread, including pumpernickel, is a widely eaten food in Northern Europe. Rye is also used to make the familiar crisp bread. Rye flour has a lower gluten content than wheat flour, and contains a higher proportion of soluble fiber. Rye bread is bread made with rye flour. ... Pumpernickel is a type of German sourdough bread made with a combination of rye flour and rye meal (a more coarsely ground form of the flour). ... Some slices of crisp bread Crisp bread (Swedish: knäckebröd, spisbröd, hÃ¥rdbröd, or hÃ¥rt bröd Norwegian: knekkebrød, Finnish: näkkileipä) is a very flat and dry Nordic type of bread or cracker, containing mostly rye flour. ... Look up flour in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Wheat - a prime source of gluten Gluten is an amorphous ergastic protein found combined with starch in the endosperm of some cereals, notably wheat, rye, and barley. ... Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. compactum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 For the indie rock group see: Wheat (band). ... Dietary fibers are long-chain carbohydrates (polysaccharides) that are indigestible by the human digestive tract. ...


Some non-food uses of rye include rye whisky and use as an alternative medicine in a liquid form, known as rye extract. Often marketed as Oralmat, rye extract is a liquid obtained from rye and similar to that extracted from Wheatgrass. Its benefits are said to include a strengthened immune system, increased energy levels and relief from allergies, but there is no clinical evidence for its efficacy. Rye whisky describes two types of whiskies, theoretically distilled from rye. ... It has been suggested that Complementary and Alternative Medicine be merged into this article or section. ... Extracting wheatgrass juice with a manual juicing machine. ... ... This article needs cleanup. ...


Rye straw is used to make corn dollies. Corn dollies are a form of straw work associated with harvest customs. ...


Rye can also be used to make sparkling wine sparkling wine at home by simply adding sugar and a few grains of rye to wine in the bottling process. Such sparkling wines usually have more deposit that commercial versions and the bottles must be shaken at least once a week to ensure that the rye does its job in creating carbon dioxide bubbles. It must be stressed that such wines usually contain carbonic acid carbonic acid wich makes the acohol in the drink act faster than less acidic drinks such as lager beer. A glass of sparkling wine A Sparkling wine cork Sparkling wine is a wine with significant levels of carbon dioxide in it making it fizzy. ... Carbonic acid (ancient name acid of air or aerial acid) is the only inorganic carbon acid, and has the formula H2CO3. ...


See also

Species About 50, including: Claviceps africanum Claviceps fusiformis Claviceps paspali Claviceps purpurea Ergot is the common name of a fungus in the genus Claviceps. ... Ergotism is the effect of long-term ergot poisoning, classically due to the ingestion of the alkaloids produced by the Claviceps purpurea fungus which infects rye and other cereals, and more recently by the action of a number of ergoline-based drugs. ... Rye beer is the newest trend in brewing today, but the practice of adding rye to a beer recipe has quite a bit of history. ... Rye whisky describes two types of whiskies, theoretically distilled from rye. ...

References

Please note that the ITIS system URL has changed (25 September 2006). ... September 22 is the 265th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (266th in leap years). ... For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Secale cereale
  • Gordon Hillmann: New evidence of Lateglacial cereal cultivation at Abu Hureyra on the Euphrates, in: The Holocene 11/4 (July 2001), p. 383-393.

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