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Encyclopedia > Rwandan genocide

The Rwandan Genocide was an attempt to exterminate the Tutsi minority of Rwanda, and the moderates of its Hutu majority, in 1994. It was the bloodiest period of the Rwandan Civil War. Refugee camp in Zaire, 1994 The Great Lakes refugee crisis is the common name for the situation beginning with the exodus in April 1994 of over two million Rwandans to neighboring countries of the Great Lakes region of Africa in the aftermath of the Rwandan Genocide. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... Wanted poster for the ICTR The International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR) is a court under the auspices of the United Nations for the prosecution of offenses committed in Rwanda during the genocide which occurred there during April, 1994, commencing on April 6. ... Combatants AFDL, Uganda, Rwanda Zaire Commanders Laurent-Désiré Kabila Mobutu Sésé Seko Casualties Civilians killed: 200,000+ The First Congo War was a conflict from late 1996 to 1997 in which Zairean President Mobutu Sésé Seko was overthrown by rebel forces backed by foreign powers such as... Combatants Democratic Republic of the Congo, Namibia, Zimbabwe, Angola, Chad, Mai-Mai, Hutu-aligned forces Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, Movement for the Liberation of Congo Congolese Rally for Democracy Tutsi-aligned forces Commanders Laurent-Désiré Kabila (Congo), Joseph Kabila (Congo), Sam Nujoma Robert Mugabe José Eduardo dos Santos Idriss D... This is a bibliography of books and sources on the subject of the 1994 Rwandan Genocide. ... The Tutsi are one of three native peoples of the nations of Rwanda and Burundi in central Africa, the other two being the Twa and the Hutu. ... The Hutu are a Central African ethnic group, living mainly in Rwanda and Burundi. ... Combatants FAR. Also elements of the Zairean DSP (1990-1991) and elements of parachute regiments of the French Army (1990-1993) RPF Commanders Juvénal Habyarimana† Col. ...


Under external guidance, the Tutsi rebels and Hutu regime were able to agree to a cease-fire, with the preliminary implementation of the Arusha Accords, in 1993. The diplomatic efforts to end the conflict were at first thought to be successful, yet even with the RPF (political wing of the RPA) and the government in talks, certain factions, like the Akazu, were against any agreement for cooperation between the regime, and the rebels; to end Rwanda's ethnic and economic troubles and progress towards a stable nationhood. The genocide was primarily the action of two statutory factions, the MRND (political wing of the Interahamwe) and the CDR (political wing of the Impuzamugambi), against dissenters to their culture of Hutu power. Over the course of about 100 days, from April 6 to mid-July, at least 500,000 Tutsis and thousands of Hutus were killed during the genocide.[1] Some estimates put the death toll around the 800,000 and 1,000,000 marks.[2] The Arusha Accords (also known as the Arusha Peace Agreement, or the Arusha negotiations) were a set of five accords (or protocols) signed by the Rwandese Patriotic Front and the Government of Rwanda in Arusha, Tanzania on 4 August 1993, ending the civil war. ... This article is about negotiations. ... The Rwandan Patriotic Front (also translated as: Rwandese Patriotic Front; or referred to as: Patriotic Front of Rwanda) abbreviated as RPF (also often referred to as FPR from French: Front patriotique rwandais) is the current ruling political party of Rwanda, led by President Paul Kagame. ... The Rwandan Patriotic Army (RPA) is the national army of Rwanda. ... Akazu (Little house) is an informal organisation of hutus created around former president Juvenal Habyarimana, being responsible, among others, for planning the 1994 genocide. ... For other uses, see Genocide (disambiguation). ... The Interahamwe (Kinyarwanda meaning Those who stand together or Those who work together or Those who fight together) is a Hutu paramilitary organization. ... The Coalition for the Defence of the Republic (Coalition pour la Défense de la République in French) was a Rwandan pro-genocide Hutu political party founded by Juvénal Habyarimana in 1991. ... The Impuzamugambi (sometimes Impuza Mugambi), which means Those who have the same goal or Those who have a single goal in the Kinyarwanda language, was a Hutu militia in Rwanda formed in 1992. ... is the 96th day of the year (97th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


With a resurgence in the civil war, and the support of the French for the Hutu regime, against the Tutsi rebels, the genocide was to prove too difficult and volatile for the United Nations to handle. Ultimately, an invasion successfully brought the country under the RPF's control, although their efforts towards a conclusion to the conflict were brought to a contravention, after the French, under Operation Turquoise, established and maintained a "safe zone" for Hutu refugess to flee to, in the south-west. Eventually, after the UN Mandate of the French mission was at an end, millions of these people went across the borders, mainly to Zaire (now the Democratic Republic of the Congo). The presence among the refugees of the genocidaires (see Great Lakes refugee crisis), on the border with Rwanda, was the cause for the First and Second Congo Wars, with clashes between these groups and the, now coalitional, Rwandan government, continuing even until today.[1] UN redirects here. ... Opération Turquoise was the a French military operation in Rwanda in 1994-1995. ... The term UN mandate is typically used to refer to a long-term international mission which has been authorized by the United Nations General Assembly or the UN Security Council in particular. ... Refugee camp in Zaire, 1994 The Great Lakes refugee crisis is the common name for the situation beginning with the exodus in April 1994 of over two million Rwandans to neighboring countries of the Great Lakes region of Africa in the aftermath of the Rwandan Genocide. ... Combatants AFDL, Uganda, Rwanda Zaire Commanders Laurent-Désiré Kabila Mobutu Sésé Seko Casualties Civilians killed: 200,000+ The First Congo War was a conflict from late 1996 to 1997 in which Zairean President Mobutu Sésé Seko was overthrown by rebel forces backed by foreign powers such as... Combatants Democratic Republic of the Congo, Namibia, Zimbabwe, Angola, Chad, Mai-Mai, Hutu-aligned forces Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, Movement for the Liberation of Congo Congolese Rally for Democracy Tutsi-aligned forces Commanders Laurent-Désiré Kabila (Congo), Joseph Kabila (Congo), Sam Nujoma Robert Mugabe José Eduardo dos Santos Idriss D...


The UN's neglect of the Rwandan Genocide, under comprehensive media coverage, drew severe criticism. France, Belgium, and the United States in particular, still receive negative attention for their complacency towards the fascist Hutu regime's activities, and the potential for UNAMIR to save Rwandan lives. Canada, Ghana, and the Netherlands, did provide consistant support for the UN mission, under the command of Roméo Dallaire, although it was left without an appropriate mandate for the capacity to intervene from the U.N. Security Council. Despite emphatic demands from UNAMIR's commanders in Rwanda, before and throughout the genocide, its requests for authorization to end it were refused, and its interventional capacity was even reduced. UN redirects here. ... Fascism (in Italian, fascismo), capitalized, was the authoritarian political movement which ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943 under the leadership of Benito Mussolini. ... The United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda was a relief mission instituted by the United Nations to aid the implementation of the Arusha Accords, signed August 4, 1993 in order to ease tensions between the Hutu-dominated Rwandese government and the Tutsi rebels (for the most part centered in the... Lieutenant-General Roméo Alain Dallaire, OC, CMM, GOQ, MSC, CD (born June 25, 1946 in Denekamp, The Netherlands) is a French Canadian senator, humanitarian, author and retired general. ... “Security Council” redirects here. ...

Contents

Background

Main article: History of Rwanda
Map of Rwanda
Map of Rwanda

In the fifteenth century the Tutsis were the rulers of most of today's Rwanda, with some Hutus among the nobility. Tutsis were a minority of the population, mostly herders, and the majority Hutus were mostly croppers. When the kings, known as Mwamis, began to centralize their administrations, they distributed land among individuals rather than agreeing for it to be held by the hereditary chieftains, who were mainly Hutu. Consequently, the aristocracy of Rwanda under the Mwamis were mainly Tutsi. This article discusses the history of Rwanda. ... map of Rwanda, converted directly from CIA World Factbook GIF File links The following pages link to this file: Rwanda Geography of Rwanda Lake Kivu Categories: CIA World Factbook images ... map of Rwanda, converted directly from CIA World Factbook GIF File links The following pages link to this file: Rwanda Geography of Rwanda Lake Kivu Categories: CIA World Factbook images ... The Tutsi are one of three native peoples of the nations of Rwanda and Burundi in central Africa, the other two being the Twa and the Hutu. ... The Hutu are a Central African ethnic group, living mainly in Rwanda and Burundi. ... title for the King of Rwanda or the King of Burundi This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


With Mwami Rwabugiri on the throne, Rwanda became an expansionist state. Its rulers did not bother to assess the ethnic identities of conquered peoples brought under their sway, simply labeling all of them “Hutu”. The “Hutu” identity, consequently, was to be a trans-ethnic one. Eventually, “Tutsi” and “Hutu” were seen to be economic distinctions, rather than particularly ethnic. In fact, there was social mobility between the Tutsis and Hutus, on the basis of hierachial status. One could kwihutura, or lose “Hutuness”, with the accumulation of wealth.[3] Conversely, a Tutsi bereft of property could gucupira, or lose “Tutsiness”.[4] Redistribution of land, between the 1860s and 1890s, resulted in its owners demanding manual labor in return for the right to occupy their property. This system of patronage, known as uburetwa, i.e. work for access to land, left Hutus in a serf-like status, with Tutsis as their feudal masters.[citations needed] Kigeri IV King of Rwanda ruled the country from 1853 to 1895. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... An economic system is a particular set of social institutions which deals with the production, distribution and consumption of goods and services in a particular society. ... The term Ethnicity redirects here. ... Social mobility is the degree to which, in a given society, an individuals social status can change throughout the course of their life (known as intragenerational mobility), or the degree to which that individuals offspring and subsequent generations move up and down the class system (intergenerational mobility). ... ... Serf redirects here. ... Roland pledges his fealty to Charlemagne; from a manuscript of a chanson de geste Feudalism, a term first used in the late modern period (17th century), in its most classic sense refers to a Medieval European political system comprised of a set of reciprocal legal and military obligations among the...

Further information: Origins of Tutsi and Hutu
Further information: Kingdom of Rwanda

At the Berlin Conference of 1886, Rwanda and its neighbour Burundi, under a similar Tutsi-Hutu monarchial arrangement, were annexed by the Germans, with this state of affairs in effect until the 1919 Treaty of Versailles, when they were ceded to Belgium.[5] The Belgians sought an explanation for the complex hierachies they found in the colonies, and the simple distinction of Tutsi and Hutu, on the basis of race, rather than class, was theirs. The Belgians brought in identification cards for every Rwandan. These meant there was a continuation of preferential treatment for Tutsis over Hutus, on the basis of ethic, rather than of economic, alignment.[6] The origins of the Tutsi and Hutu peoples is a key issue in the history of Rwanda, as well as the Great Lakes region of Africa. ... The Kingdom of Banyarwanda or Rwanda was founded in the 15th century by a pastoral tribe, the Tutsi. ... The conference of Berlin The Berlin Conference (German: or Congo Conference) of 1884–85 regulated European colonization and trade in Africa during the New Imperialism period, and coincided with Germanys sudden emergence as an imperial power. ... This article is about the Treaty of Versailles of June 28, 1919, which ended World War I. For other uses, see Treaty of Versailles (disambiguation) . Left to right, Prime Minister David Lloyd George of the United Kingdom, Prime Minister Vittorio Emanuele Orlando of Italy, Prime Minister Georges Clemenceau of France... // German identity card with a KINEGRAM®. A piece of identification (ID) is a document designed to verify aspects of a persons identity. ...


A social revolution led by the Hutu nationalist party Parmehutu (Parti du Mouvement de l'Émancipation Hutu), in 1959, was the foundation of a Hutu-led republic of Rwanda, with independence in 1961.[7] It was ultimately the first stage of the Rwandan Civil War. With the deaths of some 20,000 Tutsi, and exile of some 200,000 others, the Tutsi rebellion against the Hutu regime found its roots. Until the time of the genocide, there were sporadic killings of Tutsi citizens. In an official action between December 1963 and January 1964, roughly 14,000 Tutsis were killed after a rebel incursion into southern Rwanda. In 1973, with the political turmoil in neighboring Burundi, there was an influx of Hutus into Rwanda, while Grégoire Kayibanda, the founder of Parmehutu, and first president of the republic, and his army chief Juvenal Habyarimana began the institution of Committees of Public Safety, which led to several hundred deaths and an exodus of over a hundred thousand Tutsis from the country. Parmehutu (Parti du Mouvement de lEmancipation Hutu; French: Party of the Hutu Emancipation Movement), also known as MDR-Parmehutu (Mouvement démocratique republicain Parmehutu; French: Parmehutu Democratic Republican Movement) is a now-defunct political party of Rwanda and Burundi. ... Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants FAR. Also elements of the Zairean DSP (1990-1991) and elements of parachute regiments of the French Army (1990-1993) RPF Commanders Juvénal Habyarimana† Col. ... For other uses, see 1963 (disambiguation). ... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... Grégoire Kayibanda (May 1, 1924-December 15, 1976) was a Rwandan politician. ... Juvénal Habyarimana (March 8, 1937 - April 6, 1994) was president of Rwanda from 1973 until his death in 1994. ...


Civil war

Main article: Rwandan Civil War

The Tutsi refugee diaspora was by the late 1980s a coherent political and military organization. Large numbers of Tutsi refugees in Uganda had joined the victorious rebel National Resistance Movement during the Ugandan Bush War and made themselves a separate movement. This was similar to the NRM, with two parts, the political RPF and the military RPA. On the international stage this movement is known as the RPF. Combatants FAR. Also elements of the Zairean DSP (1990-1991) and elements of parachute regiments of the French Army (1990-1993) RPF Commanders Juvénal Habyarimana† Col. ... The National Resistance Movement is a political organization in Uganda. ... Combatants Uganda National Liberation Front (The national army of Uganda) National Resistance Army (guerilla rebels) Commanders Milton Obote General Oyite-Ojok Brigadier Opon Acak Brigadier Olara-Okello Yoweri Museveni Salim Saleh Steven Kashaka Joram Mugume Pecos Kuteesa Fred Rwigema The war in the bush (also known as the Luwero War...


In October, 1990, the RPF began their invasion of Rwanda to restore themselves within the nation. The journal Kangura, a Hutu counteraction towards the Tutsi journal Kanguka, active from 1990 to 1993, was instrumental in incitement of Hutu disdain for Tutsis,[8] on the basis of their ethnicity, rather than their previous economic advantages. Hassan Ngeze, founder and editor of Kangura, published the widely read Hutu Ten Commandments, which called for the formal installment of Hutu Power ideology in schools, a strictly Hutu army, and included the commandment, "The Hutu should stop having mercy on the Tutsi." The cover of the December 1993 issue of Kangura. ... Hassan Ngeze (born 1962) is a Rwandan journalist, best known for his Hutu Ten Commandments, which fomented anti-Tutsi feeling among Rwandan Hutus prior to the Rwandan Genocide. ... Hutu Power was an ideology propounded by the akazu and other Hutu extremists which culminated in the 1994 genocide against the Tutsi and moderate Hutu. ...


In August 1993, the rebels and the Government of Rwanda signed the Arusha Accords, to end the civil war. The accords stripped considerable power from President Juvénal Habyarimana, who had been all-powerful. Most of the power was vested in the Transitional Broad Based Government (TBBG) that would include the RPF as well as the five political parties that had formed the coalition government, in place since April 1992, to govern until proper elections could be held. The Transitional National Assembly (TNA), the legislative branch of the transitional government, was open to all parties, including the RPF. The extremist Hutu Coalition for the Defence of the Republic (CDR), nominally controlled by President Habyarimana, was strongly opposed to sharing power with the RPF, however, and refused to sign the accords. When at last it decided to agree to the terms, the accords were opposed by the RPF. The situation remained unchanged until the genocide.[citations needed] The Arusha Accords (also known as the Arusha Peace Agreement, or the Arusha negotiations) were a set of five accords (or protocols) signed by the Rwandese Patriotic Front and the Government of Rwanda in Arusha, Tanzania on 4 August 1993, ending the civil war. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Coalition for the Defence of the Republic (Coalition pour la Défense de la République in French) was a Rwandan pro-genocide Hutu political party founded by Juvénal Habyarimana in 1991. ...


Preparations for the genocide

Government leaders were in communication with figures among the population, to form and arm militias called Interahamwe (meaning "Those who stand (fight, kill) together") and Impuzamugambi (meaning "Those who have the same (or a single) goal"). These groups, especially the youth wings[citations needed], were to be responsible for most of the violence. The Interahamwe (Kinyarwanda meaning Those who stand together or Those who work together or Those who fight together) is a Hutu paramilitary organization. ... The Impuzamugambi (sometimes Impuza Mugambi), which means Those who have the same goal or Those who have a single goal in the Kinyarwanda language, was a Hutu militia in Rwanda formed in 1992. ...


On January 11, 1994 Lieutenant General Roméo Dallaire (UN Force Commander in Rwanda) notified Military Advisor to the Secretary-General, Major-General Maurice Baril of four major weapons caches and plans by the Hutus for extermination of Tutsis. The telegram from Dallaire stated that an informant who was a top level Interahamwe militia trainer was in charge of demonstrations carried out a few days before. The goal of the demonstrations was to provoke an RPF battalion in Kigali into firing upon demonstrators and Belgian United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda (UNAMIR) troops into using force. Under such a scenario the Interhamwe would have an excuse to engage the Belgian troops and the RPF battalion. Several Belgians were to be killed, which would guarantee a withdrawal of the Belgian contingent. According to the informant 1,700 Interhamwe militiamen were trained in Governmental Forces camps and he was ordered to register all the Kigali Tutsis. Dallaire made immediate plans for UNAMIR troops to seize the arms caches and advised UN Headquarters of his intentions, believing these actions lay within his mission's mandate. The following day headquarters stated in another cable that the outlined actions went beyond the mandate granted to UNAMIR under Security Council Resolution 872. Instead, President Habyarimana was to be informed of possible Arusha Accords violations and the discovered concerns and report back on measures taken. The January 11 telegram later played an important role in discussion about what information was available to the United Nations prior to the genocide.[9] is the 11th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... Lieutenant-General Roméo Alain Dallaire, OC, CMM, GOQ, MSC, CD (born June 25, 1946 in Denekamp, The Netherlands) is a French Canadian senator, humanitarian, author and retired general. ... Joseph Gérard Maurice Baril, CD (September 22, 1943-) was a General in the Canadian Armed Forces, a Military Advisor to the United Nations Secretary-General & head of the Military Division of the Department of Peacekeeping Operations of the United Nations from 1992 to 1997, and Chief of the Defence... The United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda was a relief mission instituted by the United Nations to aid the implementation of the Arusha Accords, signed August 4, 1993 in order to ease tensions between the Hutu-dominated Rwandese government and the Tutsi rebels (for the most part centered in the... is the 11th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The killing was well organized.[10] By the time the killing started, the militia in Rwanda was 30,000 strong — one militia member for every ten families — and organized nationwide, with representatives in every neighborhood. Some militia members were able to acquire AK-47 assault rifles by completing requisition forms. Other weapons, such as grenades, required no paperwork and were widely distributed. Many members of the Interahamwe and Impuzamugambi were armed only with machetes, but these were some of the most effective killers.[citation needed] Avtomat Kalashnikova model 1947 g. ... The AK is the worlds most common assault rifle. ... Grenade may refer to: The well-known hand grenade commonly used by soldiers. ... Categories: Weapon stubs | Swords | Mechanical hand tools ...


Rwandan Prime Minister Jean Kambanda revealed, in his testimony before the International Criminal Tribunal, that the genocide was openly discussed in cabinet meetings and that "one cabinet minister said she was personally in favor of getting rid of all Tutsi; without the Tutsi, she told ministers, all of Rwanda's problems would be over."[11] In addition to Kambanda, the genocide's organizers included Colonel Théoneste Bagosora, a retired army officer, and many top ranking government officials and members of the army, such as General Augustin Bizimungu. On the local level, the Genocide's planners included Burgomasters, or mayors, and members of the police. Jean Kambanda (born October 19, 1955) was the prime minister in the caretaker government of Rwanda from the start of the 1994 Rwandan Genocide. ... Wanted poster for the ICTR The International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR) is a court under the auspices of the United Nations for the prosecution of offenses committed in Rwanda during the genocide which occurred there during April, 1994, commencing on April 6. ... Colonel Théoneste Bagosora (born August 16, 1941) is a Rwandan military officer. ... General Augustin Bizimungu Augustin Bizimungu is a former general in the Rwandan army. ...


Catalyst and initial events

On April 6, 1994, the airplane carrying Rwandan President Juvénal Habyarimana, and Cyprien Ntaryamira, the Hutu president of Burundi, was shot down as it prepared to land in Kigali. Both presidents died when the plane crashed. Responsibility for the attack is disputed, with both the RPF and Hutu extremists being blamed. But in spite of disagreements about the identities of its perpetrators, the attack on the plane is to many observers the catalyst for the genocide. The assassination of Juvénal Habyarimana and Cyprien Ntaryamira on the evening of April 6, 1994 was the catalyst for the Rwandan Genocide. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... is the 96th day of the year (97th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Cyprien Ntaryamira Cyprien Ntaryamira (March 6, 1955 - April 6, 1994), was President of Burundi from February 5, 1994 until he died in a plane crash April 6, 1994. ... Kigali, population 851,024 (2005), is the capital and largest city of Rwanda. ...


On April 6 and April 7 the staff of the Rwandan Armed Forces (RAF) and Colonel Bagosora clashed verbally with the UNAMIR Force Commander Lieutenant General Dallaire, who stressed the legal authority of the Prime Minister, Agathe Uwilingiyimana, to take control of the situation as outlined in the Arusha Accords. Bagosora disputed the authority, and Dallaire gave an escort of UNAMIR personnel to Mrs. Uwilingiyimana to protect her and to allow her to send a calming message on the radio the next morning. But by then, the presidential guard had occupied the radio station and Mrs. Uwilingiyimana had to cancel her speech. In the middle of the day, she was assassinated by the presidential guard. The ten Belgian UNAMIR soldiers sent to protect her were later found killed; Major Bernard Ntuyahaga was convicted of the murders in 2007. Other moderate officials who favored the Arusha Accords were quickly assassinated. Protected by UNAMIR, Faustin Twagiramungu escaped execution. In his book Shake Hands with the Devil, Dallaire recalled the events from April 7, the first day of the genocide: is the 96th day of the year (97th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... April 7 is the 97th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (98th in leap years). ... The Rwandan Armed Forces (FAR, from French Force armée rwandais) was the national army of Rwanda until 1994, when the Hutu-dominated government collapsed in the aftermath of the Rwandan Genocide and the invasion by Paul Kagames Rwandan Patriotic Front. ... Agathe Uwilingiyimana (1953 - 7 April 1994) was a Rwandan political figure. ... Major Bernard Ntuyahaga, Rwandan Armed Forces, (probably born in 1952) was convicted by a Belgian court in the murders of ten United Nations peacekeepers at the start of the Rwandan Genocide. ... Faustin Twagiramungu (born 1945 in Cyangugu province) is an ethnic TWA politician in Rwanda. ... April 7 is the 97th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (98th in leap years). ...

I called the Force HQ and got through to [Ghanaian Brigadier General] Henry Anyidoho. He had horrifying news. The UNAMIR-protected VIPs - Lando Ndasingwa [the head of the Parti libéral], Joseph Kavaruganda [president of the constitutional court], and many other moderates had been abducted by the Presidential Guard and had been killed, along with their families [...] UNAMIR had been able to rescue Prime Minister Faustin, who was now at the Force HQ.[12][13] The Republic of Ghana is a nation in West Africa. ... A Brigadier General, or one-star general, is the lowest rank of general officer in the United States and some other countries, ranking just above Colonel and just below Major General. ... Landoald Lando Ndasingwa (died 7 April 1994) was a Rwandan politican, leader of the moderate Parti libéral du Rwanda. ... The Liberal Party (French: Parti Libéral) is a political party in Rwanda. ... Joseph Kavaruganda (died 7 April 1994) was a Rwandan judge, and president of Rwandas Constitional Court. ...

Genocide

Murambi Technical School, where many victims were killed, is now a genocide museum.
Murambi Technical School, where many victims were killed, is now a genocide museum.

MRND, the ruling party of Rwanda from 1975 to 1994, under President Juvénal Habyarimana, has been implicated in organizing many aspects of the genocide. Military and Hutu militia groups began rounding up and killing all Tutsis they could capture as well as the political moderates irrespective of their ethnic backgrounds.[citations needed] Large numbers of opposition politicians were also murdered. Many nations evacuated their nationals from Kigali and closed their embassies as violence escalated. National radio urged people to stay in their homes, and the government-funded station RTLM broadcast vitriolic attacks against Tutsis and Hutu moderates. Hundreds of roadblocks were set up by the militia around the country. Lieutenant-General Dallaire and UNAMIR were escorting Tutsis in Kigali, and thus unable to stop the Hutus from escalating the violence. During this time, the Hutus also targeted Lieutenant-General Dallaire, and UNAMIR personnel through the RTLM. Victims of the Rwandan Genocide. ... Victims of the Rwandan Genocide. ... Once a school, it is now a holocaust museum exhibiting mummified bodies of some of the 40,000 people crammed into classrooms for protection and then butchered over four days during the 1994 Rwandan genocide. ... Mouvement Républicain Nationale pour la Démocratie et le Développement (MRND, English: National Republican Movement for Democracy and Development) is a now-defunct political party in Rwanda. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Genocide (disambiguation). ... Radio Télévision Libre de Mille Collines (RTLM) was a Rwandan radio station which broadcast from 8 July 1993 to 31 July 1994. ... Radio Télévision Libre de Mille Collines (RTLM) was a Rwandan radio station which broadcast from 8 July 1993 to 31 July 1994. ...


The killing was quickly implemented throughout most of the country. The first to organize killings on the scale characterizing a genocide was the mayor of the northwestern town of Gisenyi, who on the evening of April 6th called a meeting to distribute arms and send out militias to kill Tutsis. Gisenyi was a center of anti-Tutsi sentiment, both as the homeland of the akazu and as the refuge for thousands of people displaced by the rebel occupation of large areas in the north. While killing occurred in other towns immediately after Habyarimana's assassination, it took several days for them to become organized on the scale of Gisenyi. The major exception to this pattern was in Butare Province. In Butare, Jean-Baptiste Habyalimana was the only Tutsi prefect and the province was the only one dominated by an opposition party. Prefect Habyarimana opposed the genocide, resulting in the province becoming a haven of relative calm, until he was arrested and killed on April 19th. Finding the population of Butare lacking in enthusiasm for the killing, the government sent in militia members from Kigali and armed and mobilized the large population of Burundian refugees in the province, who had fled the Tutsi-dominated army fighting in the Burundian Civil War.[citation needed] Gisenyi is a lake resort, lying on Lake Kivu in Rwanda. ... Akazu (Little house) is an informal organisation of hutus created around former president Juvenal Habyarimana, being responsible, among others, for planning the 1994 genocide. ... A displaced person (sometimes abbreviated DP) is the general term for someone who has been forced to leave his or her native place, a phenomenon known as forced migration. ... Map showing Butare Province Butare was a province (prefecture) of Rwanda prior to its dissolution in January 2006. ... The Burundi Civil War is driven by ethnic rivalries between Hutu and Tutsi tribal factions of Burundi. ...

Skulls in Murambi Technical School
Skulls in Murambi Technical School

Most of the victims were killed in their villages or in towns, often by their neighbors and fellow villagers. The militia members typically murdered their victims by hacking them with machetes, although some army units used rifles. The victims were often found hiding in churches and school buildings, where Hutu gangs massacred them. Ordinary citizens were called on by local officials and government-sponsored radio to kill their neighbors, and those who refused to kill were often killed themselves. "Either you took part in the massacres or you were massacred yourself."[14] One such massacre occurred at Nyarubuye. On 12 April 1994, more than 1,500 Tutsis sought refuge in a Catholic church in Nyange, in then Kivumu commune. Local Interahamwe acting in concert with the priest and other local authorities then used bulldozers to knock down the church building.[1] People who tried to escape were hacked down with machetes or shot. Local priest Athanase Seromba was later found guilty and sentenced to life in prison by the ICTR for his role in the demolition of his church and convicted of the crime of genocide and crimes against humanity.[2][15][16] In another case, thousands sought refuge in Ecole Technique Officielle school in Kigali where Belgian UNAMIR soldiers were stationed. However, on 11 April 1994, Belgian soldiers withdrew from the school and members of the Rwandan armed forces and militia killed all the Tutsis who were hiding there.[17] Aftermath of Rwandan Genocide photo taken 2001 during the visit of US Rep. ... Aftermath of Rwandan Genocide photo taken 2001 during the visit of US Rep. ... The Nyarubuye Massacre is the name given to the killing of an estimated 20,000 civilians at the Nyarubuye Roman Catholic Church and took place on 15-April 16, 1994 in the province of Kibungo, 140 km (60 miles) east of the Rwandan capital Kigali. ... is the 102nd day of the year (103rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... Athanase Seromba (born 1963), Rwandan priest who is charged for his alleged involvement in the Rwandan genocide. ... In international law, a crime against humanity consists of acts of persecution or any large scale atrocities against a body of people, as being the criminal offence above all others. ... is the 101st day of the year (102nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ...


There is no consensus on the number of dead between April 6 and mid-July. Unlike the genocides carried out by the Nazis or by the Khmer Rouge in Cambodia, authorities made no attempts to record deaths. The RPF government has stated that 1,071,000 were killed, 10% of whom were Hutu. Philip Gourevitch agrees with an estimate of one million, while the United Nations lists the toll as 800,000. Alex de Waal and Rakiya Omar of African Rights estimates the number as "around 750,000," while Allison Des Forges of Human Rights Watch states that it was "at least 500,000." James Smith of Aegis Trust notes, "What's important to remember is that there was a genocide. There was an attempt to eliminate Tutsis — men, women, and children — and to erase any memory of their existence."[18] is the 96th day of the year (97th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... National Socialism redirects here. ... Flag of Democratic Kampuchea The Khmer Rouge (Khmer: ) was the ruling political party of Cambodia—which it renamed the Democratic Kampuchea—from 1975 to 1979. ... Philip Gourevitch (born 1961) is an American author and journalist. ... Alexander de Waal is a British writer and researcher on African issues. ... Human Rights Watch Banner Human Rights Watch is a United States-based international non-government organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights. ... Aegis Trust is a United Kingdom-based anti-genocide campaign founded in 2000 by Drs James and Stephen Smith. ...


UNAMIR and the international community

A school chalk board in Kigali. Note the names "Dallaire", UNAMIR Force Commander, and "Marchal", UNAMIR Kigali sector commander.
A school chalk board in Kigali. Note the names "Dallaire", UNAMIR Force Commander, and "Marchal", UNAMIR Kigali sector commander.

UNAMIR was hampered from the outset by resistance from numerous members of the United Nations Security Council from becoming deeply involved first in the Arusha process and then the genocide.[19][20] Only Belgium had asked for a strong UNAMIR mandate, but after the murder of the ten Belgian peacekeepers protecting the Prime Minister in early April, Belgium pulled out of the peacekeeping mission.[21] The United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda (UNAMIR) was a relief mission instituted by the United Nations. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (1500 × 1000 pixel, file size: 759 KiB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Picture from [1] Photographer Philip Kromer/mrflip File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (1500 × 1000 pixel, file size: 759 KiB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Picture from [1] Photographer Philip Kromer/mrflip File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not... “Security Council” redirects here. ...


The UN and its member states appeared largely detached from the realities on the ground.[22] In the midst of the crisis, Dallaire was instructed to focus UNAMIR on only evacuating foreign nationals from Rwanda, and the change in orders led Belgian peacekeepers to abandon a technical school filled with 2,000 refugees, while Hutu militants waited outside, drinking beer and chanting "Hutu Power." After the Belgians left, the militants entered the school and massacred those inside, including hundreds of children. Four days later, the Security Council voted to reduce UNAMIR to 260 men.[23] Hutu Power was an ideology propounded by the akazu and other Hutu extremists which culminated in the 1994 genocide against the Tutsi and moderate Hutu. ...


Following the withdrawal of the Belgian forces, Lt-Gen Dallaire consolidated his contingent of Canadian, Ghanaian and Dutch soldiers in urban areas and focused on providing areas of "safe control". His actions are credited with directly saving the lives of 20,000 Tutsis. The administrative head of UNAMIR, former Cameroonian foreign minister Jacques-Roger Booh-Booh, has been criticized for downplaying the significance of Dallaire's reports and for holding close ties to the Hutu militant elite.[citations needed] The Republic of Ghana is a nation in West Africa. ... The Republic of Cameroon is a unitary republic of central Africa. ... Jacques-Roger Booh-Booh is the former foreign minister of Cameroon, best known for his role as the head of UNAMIR, the small force dispatched by the United Nations to Rwanda in an effort to keep the peace between Hutu and Tutsi ethnic groups. ...


The US government was reluctant to involve itself in the "local conflict" in Rwanda, and refused to even refer to it as "Genocide", a decision which President Bill Clinton later came to regret in a Frontline television interview in which he states that he believes if he had sent 5,000 US peacekeepers, more than 500,000 lives could have been saved.[24] William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ...


The new Rwandan government, led by interim President Théodore Sindikubwabo, worked hard to minimize international criticism. Rwanda at that time had a seat on the Security Council and its ambassador argued that the claims of genocide were exaggerated and that the government was doing all that it could to stop it. France, which felt the US and UK would use the massacres to try to expand their influence in that Francophone part of Africa, also worked to prevent a foreign intervention.[citations needed] Théodore Sindikubwabo (born 1928 – died late 1990s) was the interim president of Rwanda from April 9 to July 19, 1994. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...

A French soldier, one of the international force supporting the relief effort for Rwandan refugees, adjusts the concertina wire surrounding the airport.
A French soldier, one of the international force supporting the relief effort for Rwandan refugees, adjusts the concertina wire surrounding the airport.

Finally, on May 17, 1994, the UN conceded that "acts of genocide may have been committed." [25] By that time, the Red Cross estimated that 500,000 Rwandans had been killed. The UN agreed to send 5,500 troops to Rwanda, most of whom were to be provided by African countries.[26] This was the original number of troops requested by General Dallaire before the killing escalated. The UN also requested 50 armoured personnel carriers from the U.S., but for the transport alone they were charged 6.5 million U.S. dollars by the U.S. Army. Deployment of these forces was delayed due to arguments over their cost and other factors.[27] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 508 pixelsFull resolution (2897 × 1840 pixel, file size: 3. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 508 pixelsFull resolution (2897 × 1840 pixel, file size: 3. ... is the 137th day of the year (138th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... The Anarchist Black Cross was originally called the Anarchist Red Cross. The band Redd Kross was originally called Red Cross. This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Armoured personnel carriers (APCs) are armoured fighting vehicles developed to transport infantry on the battlefield. ...


On June 22, with no sign of UN deployment taking place, the Security Council authorized French forces to land in Goma, Zaire on a humanitarian mission. They deployed throughout southwest Rwanda in an area they called "Zone Turquoise," quelling the genocide and stopping the fighting there, but often arriving in areas only after the Tutsi had been forced out or killed. Operation Turquoise is charged with aiding the Hutu army against the RPF. The former Rwandan ambassador to France Jacques Bihozagara has testified, "Operation Turquoise was aimed only at protecting genocide perpetrators, because the genocide continued even within the Turquoise zone." France has always denied any role in the killing.[28] is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Opération Turquoise was the a French military operation in Rwanda in 1994-1995. ...


Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF) renewed invasion

Main article: Rwandan Civil War
See also: Great Lakes refugee crisis

The Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF) battalion of Tutsi rebels stationed in Kigali under the Arusha Accords came under attack immediately after the shooting down of the president's plane. The battalion fought its way out of Kigali and joined up with RPF units in the north.[29] The resulting civil war raged concurrently with the genocide for two months. The nature of the genocide was not immediately apparent to foreign observers, and was initially explained as a violent phase of the civil war. Mark Doyle, the correspondent for the BBC News in Kigali, tried to explain the complex situation in late April 1994 thusly: Combatants FAR. Also elements of the Zairean DSP (1990-1991) and elements of parachute regiments of the French Army (1990-1993) RPF Commanders Juvénal Habyarimana† Col. ... Refugee camp in Zaire, 1994 The Great Lakes refugee crisis is the common name for the situation beginning with the exodus in April 1994 of over two million Rwandans to neighboring countries of the Great Lakes region of Africa in the aftermath of the Rwandan Genocide. ... The Rwandan Patriotic Front (also translated as: Rwandese Patriotic Front; or referred to as: Patriotic Front of Rwanda) abbreviated as RPF (also often referred to as FPR from French: Front patriotique rwandais) is the current ruling political party of Rwanda, led by President Paul Kagame. ... Mark Doyle is a world affairs correspondent for BBC News. ... This article refers to the news department of the British Broadcasting Corporation, for the BBC News Channel see BBC News (TV channel). ...

Look you have to understand that there are two wars going on here. There’s a shooting war and a genocide war. The two are connected, but also distinct. In the shooting war, there are two conventional armies at each other, and in the genocide war, one of those armies, the government side with help from civilians, is involved in mass killings.[30]

The victory of the RPF rebels and overthrow of the Hutu regime ended the genocide in July 1994, 100 days after it started. The Hutu are a Central African ethnic group, living mainly in Rwanda and Burundi. ...


Aftermath

Refugee camp in Zaire, 1994
Refugee camp in Zaire, 1994

Approximately two million Hutus, participants in the genocide, and the bystanders, with anticipation of Tutsi retaliation, fled from Rwanda, to Burundi, Tanzania, Uganda, and for the most part Zaire (now the Democratic Republic of the Congo DRC). Thousands of them died in epidemics of diseases common to the squalor of refugee camps, such as cholera and dysentery.[31] The United States staged the Operation Support Hope airlift from July to September 1994 to stabilize the situation in the camps. Refugee camp for Rwandans located in what is now the eastern Democratic Republic of Congo following the Rwandan Genocide Original caption: Rwandan refugees making camp in Kimbumba. ... Refugee camp for Rwandans located in what is now the eastern Democratic Republic of Congo following the Rwandan Genocide Original caption: Rwandan refugees making camp in Kimbumba. ... Motto: Justice – Paix – Travail(French) Justice – Peace – Work Anthem: Debout Congolais Capital (and largest city) Kinshasaa Official languages French Recognised regional languages Lingala, Kongo/Kituba, Swahili, Tshiluba Demonym Congolese Government Semi-Presidential Republic  -  President Joseph Kabila  -  Prime Minister Antoine Gizenga Independence  -  from Belgium June 30, 1960  Area  -  Total 2,344... Distribution of cholera Cholera, sometimes known as Asiatic cholera or epidemic cholera, is an infectious gastroenteritis caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. ... Dysentery (formerly known as flux or the bloody flux) is an infection of the digestive system that results in severe diarrhea containing mucus and blood in the feces and is typically the result of unsanitary water containing micro-organisms which damage the intestinal lining. ...


After the victory of the RPF, the size of UNAMIR (henceforth called UNAMIR 2) was increased to its full strength, remaining in Rwanda until March 8, 1996.[32] is the 67th day of the year (68th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ...


In October 1996, an uprising by the ethnic Tutsi Banyamulenge people in eastern Zaire marked the beginning of the First Congo War, and led to a return of more than 600,000 to Rwanda during the last two weeks of November. This massive repatriation was followed at the end of December 1996 by the return of 500,000 more from Tanzania after they were ejected by the Tanzanian government. Various successor organizations to the Hutu militants operated in the eastern DRC for the next decade.[citations needed] The Banyamulenge are a group of Tutsi living in the eastern region of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). ... Combatants AFDL, Uganda, Rwanda Zaire Commanders Laurent-Désiré Kabila Mobutu Sésé Seko Casualties Civilians killed: 200,000+ The First Congo War was a conflict from late 1996 to 1997 in which Zairean President Mobutu Sésé Seko was overthrown by rebel forces backed by foreign powers such as...

With the return of the refugees, the government began the long-awaited genocide trials, which had an uncertain start at the end of 1996 and inched forward in 1997. In 2001, the government began implementing a participatory justice system, known as Gacaca, in order to address the enormous backlog of cases.[33] Meanwhile, the UN set up the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, currently based in Arusha, Tanzania. The UN Tribunal has jurisdiction over high level members of the government and armed forces, while Rwanda is responsible for prosecuting lower level leaders and local people.[34] Tensions arose between Rwanda and the UN over the use of the death penalty, though these were largely resolved once Rwanda abolished its use in 2007.[35] However, domestic tensions continued over support for the death penalty, and the interest in conducting the trials at home. [36] Download high resolution version (580x773, 112 KB)Wanted poster for fugitives wanted for the Rwandan Genocide made by the US Government for the Rewards for Justice program to assist the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda. ... Download high resolution version (580x773, 112 KB)Wanted poster for fugitives wanted for the Rwandan Genocide made by the US Government for the Rewards for Justice program to assist the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda. ... Wanted poster for the ICTR The International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR) is a court under the auspices of the United Nations for the prosecution of offenses committed in Rwanda during the genocide which occurred there during April, 1994, commencing on April 6. ... Gacaca courts are a new form of community justice that have been used in Rwanda in the wake of the Rwandan Genocide. ... Wanted poster for the ICTR The International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR) is a court under the auspices of the United Nations for the prosecution of offenses committed in Rwanda during the genocide which occurred there during April, 1994, commencing on April 6. ... Arusha with a view of Mount Meru This article refers to the city of Arusha. ...


In March 1998, on a visit to Rwanda, U.S. President Bill Clinton spoke to the crowd assembled on the tarmac at Kigali Airport: "We come here today partly in recognition of the fact that we in the United States and the world community did not do as much as we could have and should have done to try to limit what occurred" in Rwanda.[37] Four years after the genocide, Clinton issued what today is known as the "Clinton apology," in which he acknowledged his failure to efficiently deal with the situation in Rwanda, but never formally apologized for any non-action by the U.S./international community. William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ...


Despite substantial international assistance and political reforms — including Rwanda's first ever local elections held in March 1999 — the country continues to struggle to boost investment and agricultural output and to foster reconciliation. In March 2000, after removing Pasteur Bizimungu, Paul Kagame became President of Rwanda. On August 25, 2003, Kagame won the first national elections since the RPF took power in 1994. A series of massive population displacements, a nagging Hutu extremist insurgency, and Rwandan involvement in the First and Second Congo Wars in the neighboring Democratic Republic of the Congo continue to hinder Rwanda's efforts.[citations needed] Pasteur Bizimungu (born 1950) was the President of Rwanda from July 19, 1994 until March 23, 2000. ... Paul Kagame (born October 23, 1957) is the current President of Rwanda and the founder of the Rwandan Patriotic Front. ... is the 237th day of the year (238th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants AFDL, Uganda, Rwanda Zaire Commanders Laurent-Désiré Kabila Mobutu Sésé Seko Casualties Civilians killed: 200,000+ The First Congo War was a conflict from late 1996 to 1997 in which Zairean President Mobutu Sésé Seko was overthrown by rebel forces backed by foreign powers such as... Combatants Democratic Republic of the Congo, Namibia, Zimbabwe, Angola, Chad, Mai-Mai, Hutu-aligned forces Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, Movement for the Liberation of Congo Congolese Rally for Democracy Tutsi-aligned forces Commanders Laurent-Désiré Kabila (Congo), Joseph Kabila (Congo), Sam Nujoma Robert Mugabe José Eduardo dos Santos Idriss D...


Lieutenant-General Roméo Dallaire became the most well-known eyewitness to the genocide after co-writing the 2003 book Shake Hands with the Devil: The Failure of Humanity in Rwanda describing his experiences with depression and post-traumatic stress disorder.[38] Lieutenant-General Roméo Alain Dallaire, OC, CMM, GOQ, MSC, CD (born June 25, 1946 in Denekamp, The Netherlands) is a French Canadian senator, humanitarian, author and retired general. ... Shake Hands with the Devil: The Failure of Humanity in Rwanda is a 2003 book by Lieutenant-General Roméo Dallaire of the Canadian Armed Forces, with help from Major Brent Beardsley. ... On the Threshold of Eternity. ... Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a term for certain severe psychological consequences of exposure to, or confrontation with, stressful events that the person experiences as highly traumatic. ...


Charges of revisionism

Graph showing the population of Rwanda from 1961 to 2003. (Data from U.N. Food and Agriculture Organization)
Graph showing the population of Rwanda from 1961 to 2003. (Data from U.N. Food and Agriculture Organization)

The context of the 1994 Rwandan genocide continues to be a matter of historical debate.[39] There have been frequent charges of revisionism.[40] Suspicions about United Nations and French policies in Rwanda between 1990 and 1994 and allegations that France supported the Hutus led to the creation of a French Parliamentary Commission on Rwanda, which published its report on December 15, 1998.[41] In particular, François-Xavier Verschave, former president of the French NGO Survie, which accused the French army of protecting the Hutus during the genocide, was instrumental in establishing this Parliamentary commission. To counter those allegations, there emerged a "double genocides" theory, accusing the Tutsis of engaging in a "counter-genocide" against the Hutus.[42] This theory is promulgated in Black Furies, White Liars (2005), the controversial book by French investigative journalist Pierre Péan. Jean-Pierre Chrétien, a French historian whom Péan describes as an active member of the "pro-Tutsi lobby," criticizes Péan's "amazing revisionist passion" ("étonnante passion révisioniste").[43] Image File history File links Subject : evolution of demography in Rwanda (1961-2003) Source : Data FAOSTAT, year 2004 : http://faostat. ... Image File history File links Subject : evolution of demography in Rwanda (1961-2003) Source : Data FAOSTAT, year 2004 : http://faostat. ... FAO redirects here. ... Historical revisionism is the attempt to change commonly held ideas about the past. ... The French Parliamentary Commission on Rwanda was decided in the beginning of 1998 after a press campaign and articles by journalist Patrick de Saint-Exupéry in the Figaro newspaper. ... is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... François-Xavier Verschave (October 28, 1945, Lille, France; June 29, 2005, Villeurbanne) was primarily known as one of the founder of the French NGO Survie (Survival), which he presided since 1995, and as the coiner of the term Françafrique, since then passed into popular usage - the expression designed... Survie (French for survival) is a non-governmental organization (NG0) founded in 1984, with the objective of struggling against hunger and corruption in the Third World. ... Pierre Péan is a controversial French author and journalist. ...


Political background

After its military victory in July 1994, the Rwandese Patriotic Front organized a coalition government similar to that established by President Juvénal Habyarimana in 1992. Called The Broad Based Government of National Unity, its fundamental law is based on a combination of the constitution, the Arusha accords, and political declarations by the parties. The MRND party was outlawed. The Rwandese Patriotic Front or Rwandan Patriotic Front, abbreviated as RPF (also often referred to as FPR from French: Front patriotique rwandais), is the current ruling political party of Rwanda, led by President Paul Kagame. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Mouvement Républicain Nationale pour la Démocratie et le Développement (MRND, English: National Republican Movement for Democracy and Development) is a now-defunct political party in Rwanda. ...


Political organizing was banned until 2003. The first post-war presidential and legislative elections were held in August and September 2003, respectively.


The biggest problems facing the government are reintegration of more than 2 million refugees returning from as long ago as 1959; the end of the insurgency and counter-insurgency among ex-military and Interahamwe militia and the Rwandan Patriotic Army, which is concentrated in the north and south west; and the shift away from crisis to medium- and long-term development planning. The prison population will continue to be an urgent problem for the foreseeable future, having swelled to more than 100,000 in the 3 years after the war. Trying this many suspects of genocide will tax Rwanda's resources sorely. “Insurrection” redirects here. ... Counter-insurgency is the combating of insurgency, by the government (or allies) of the territory in which the insurgency takes place. ... The Interahamwe (Kinyarwanda meaning Those who stand together or Those who work together or Those who fight together) is a Hutu paramilitary organization. ...


The current government prohibits any form of discrimination by ethnicity, race or religion. The government has also passed laws prohibiting emphasis on Hutu or Tutsi identity in most types of political activity.


Bibliography

See: Bibliography of the Rwandan Genocide This is a bibliography of books and sources on the subject of the 1994 Rwandan Genocide. ...


Filmography

Main article: Filmography of the Rwandan Genocide

Shake Hands being filmed in Kigali, July 2006 Shake Hands with the Devil is a Canadian dramatic feature film currently in production starring Roy Dupuis as Roméo Dallaire. ... // Docudramas tend to demonstrate some or most of the following characteristics: A strict focus on the facts of the event being treated, as they are known; A tendency to avoid overt commentary or authorial editorializing; The use of literary and narrative techniques to flesh out or render story-like the... Documentary film is a broad category of visual expression that is based on the attempt, in one fashion or another, to document reality. ... Hotel Rwanda is an historical drama film that shows the quiet heroism of one man, Paul Rusesabagina (Don Cheadle), during the Rwandan Genocide. ... The historical drama is a film genre in which stories are based upon historical events and famous persons. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion, because: it is patent nonsense. ... The historical drama is a film genre in which stories are based upon historical events and famous persons. ... Sometimes In April is a narrative film (not a documentary) detailing the Rwandan Genocide that occurred during 1994. ...

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b >Des Forges, Alison (1999). Leave None to Tell the Story: Genocide in Rwanda. Human Rights Watch. ISBN ISBN 1-56432-171-1. Retrieved on 2007-01-12. 
  2. ^ See, e.g., Rwanda: How the genocide happened, BBC, April 1, 2004, which gives an estimate of 800,000, and OAU sets inquiry into Rwanda genocide, Africa Recovery, Vol. 12 1#1 (August 1998), page 4, which estimates the number at between 500,000 and 1,000,000.
  3. ^ "When Does a Settler Become a Native? Reflections of the Colonial Roots of Citizenship in Equatorial and South Africa"PDF by Mahmood Mamdani, University of Cape Town, 13 May 1998, pp. 5-6
  4. ^ "Rethinking East African Integration: From Economic to Political and from State to Civil Society"PDF (185 KiB) by Hannington Ochwada, Africa Development, Vol. XXIX, No. 2, 2004, pp. 53–7. P. 57
  5. ^ Timeline RwandaPDF (76.4 KiB), Amnesty International. Accessed February 23, 2007
  6. ^ Doyle, Mark (May/June 2006). "Rewriting Rwanda". Foreign Policy (154). 
  7. ^ "The Hutu Revolution" section in Leave None to Tell the Story: Genocide in Rwanda, Human Rights Watch, 1999
  8. ^ Linda Melvern, Conspiracy to Murder: The Rwandan Genocide, Verso, 2004, ISBN 1859845886, p. 49
  9. ^ Report of the Independent Inquiry into the Actions of the United Nations During the 1994 Genocide in Rwanda 4-5 (15 December 1999). Retrieved on 2007-02-24.
  10. ^ "Leave None to Tell the Story: Genocide in Rwanda." Human Rights Watch. Report (Updated 1 April 2004)
  11. ^ Qtd. by Mark Doyle. "Ex-Rwandan PM reveals genocide planning." BBC News. On-line posting. 26 March 2004.
  12. ^ Roméo Dallaire. "Shake Hands with the Devil: The Failure of Humanity in Rwanda". London: Arrow Books, 2004. 242-244. ISBN 0-09-947893-5
  13. ^ Faustin Twagiramungu from the opposition party Democratic Republican Movement was supposed to become Prime Minister after Agathe Uwilingiyimana assassination. However, on April 9, 1994, Jean Kambanda was sworn in. Faustin Twagiramungu became Prime Minister on July 19, 1994, only after the Rwandese Patriotic Front captured Kigali.
  14. ^ Qtd. in The Rwanda Crisis: History of a Genocide (London: Hurst, 1995), by Gérard Prunier; rpt. in "Rwanda & Burundi: The Conflict." Contemporary Tragedy. On-line posting. The Holocaust: A Tragic Legacy.
  15. ^ International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (13 December 2006). "Catholic Priest Athanase Seromba Sentenced to Fifteen Years". Press release. Retrieved on 2007-01-07.
  16. ^ International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (22 December 2006). "Prosecutor to Appeal Against Seromba’s Sentence". Press release. Retrieved on 2007-01-07.}
  17. ^ ICTR YEARBOOK 1994-1996. International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, 77-8. Retrieved on 2007-01-07. 
  18. ^ "RWANDA: No consensus on genocide death toll". Agence France-Presse. hosted by iAfrica.com. On-line posting. April 6, 2004.
  19. ^ Report of The Independent Inquiry into the Actions of the UN During the 1994 Genocide in Rwanda; Statement of the Secretary-General on Receiving the Report [1999])
  20. ^ Frontline: interview with Phillip Gourevitch.. Retrieved on 2007-04-09.
  21. ^ Timeline of Events in Rwanda, American RadioWorks (see April 14, 1994)
  22. ^ Report; Statement
  23. ^ UN Security Council Resolution 912 (1994), implementing an "adjustment" of UNAMIR's mandate and force level as outlined in the Special Report of the Secretary-General on the United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda dated April 20, 1994 (document no. S/1994/470)
  24. ^ Frontline: the triumph of evil.. Retrieved on 2007-04-09.
  25. ^ Various PBS contributors, 100 days of Slaughter: A Chronology of U.S./U.N. Actions, <http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/evil/etc/slaughter.html>. Retrieved on 26 July 2007 
  26. ^ Schabas 2000:461
  27. ^ Evidence of Inaction: A National Security Archive Briefing Book, ed. Ferroggiaro)
  28. ^ "France accused on Rwanda killings", BBC News, 24 October 2006
  29. ^ Col. Scott R. Feil. "Could 4,999 Peacekeepers Have Saved 500,000 Rwandans?: Early Intervention Reconsidered", ISD Report
  30. ^ Transcript of remarks by Mark Doyle in Panel 3: International media coverage of the Genocide of the symposium Media and the Rwandan Genocide held at Carleton University, 13 March 2004
  31. ^ Ch. 10: "The Rwandan genocide and its aftermath"PDF in State of the World's Refugees 2000, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees
  32. ^ Homepage for the United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda, un.org
  33. ^ "Rwanda still searching for justice" by Robert Walker, BBC News, 30 March 2004
  34. ^ "Justice and Responsibility" chapter in "Leave None to Tell the Story: Genocide in Rwanda", Human Rights Watch, 1999
  35. ^ "Rwanda's ban on executions helps bring genocide justice", Reuters via CNN, July 27, 2007
  36. ^ "Impact of ICTR in Rwanda", Law is Cool via Audrey Boctor, August 21, 2007
  37. ^ Power, Samantha. “Bystanders to Genocide.” Atlantic Monthly. Sept. 2001. <http://www.theatlantic.com/doc/200109/power-genocide>.
  38. ^ "Camouflage and exposure", Canadian Medical Association Journal, April 29, 2003; 168 (9)
  39. ^ Letter by Gasana Ndoba (President de La Commission Nationale des Droits de L'Homme du Rwanda). Conference Mondiale sur Le Racisme, La Discrimation Raciale, La Xenophobie et L'Intolerance qui y est Associée. Durban, Afrique du Sud, 31 août-7 septembre 2001. Online posting.
  40. ^ N° 300 ASSEMBLÉE NATIONALE: CONSTITUTION DU 4 OCTOBRE 1958: DOUZIÈME LÉGISLATURE: Enregistré à la Présidence de l'Assemblée nationale le 15 octobre 2002. Online posting. National Assembly of France. Proposition 300
  41. ^ N° 1271: ASSEMBLÉE NATIONALE: CONSTITUTION DU 4 OCTOBRE 1958: ONZIÈME LÉGISLATURE: Enregistré à la Présidence de l'Assemblée nationale le 15 décembre 1998: RAPPORT D'INFORMATION: DÉPOSÉ: en application de l'article 145 du Règlement: PAR LA MISSION D'INFORMATION(1) DE LA COMMISSION DE LA DÉFENSE NATIONALE ET DES FORCES ARMÉES ET DE LA COMMISSION DES AFFAIRES ÉTRANGÈRES, sur les opérations militaires menées par la France, d'autres pays et l'ONU au Rwanda entre 1990 et 1994. Online posting. National Assembly of France. December 15, 1998. Proposition 1271
  42. ^ Jean-Paul Gouteux. "Mémoire et révisionnisme du génocide rwandais en France: Racines politiques, impact médiatique." Online posting. Amnistia.net February 12, 2004.
  43. ^ "Point de Vue: Un pamphlet teinté d'africanisme colonial." Le Monde December 9, 2005. Qtd. by Thierry Perret in "Les dossiers de presse : Afrique-France: Rwanda/« l’affaire » Péan." Online posting. RFI Service Pro December 22, 2005. Chrétien's "Point de Vue" posted online in Observatoire de l'Afrique centrale 8 (December 2005).

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  Results from FactBites:
 
Rwanda: Accountability for War Crimes and Genocide: Special Reports: U.S. Institute of Peace (8236 words)
Rwandan courts should not impose harsher penalties—including the death penalty—in their trials of second- or third-tier defendants than the penalties the international tribunal will impose on the organizers of the genocide.
Rwandan law permits use of the death penalty in cases of genocide, and Rwandan authorities have repeatedly stated their intention to impose it.
Rwandan officials and foreign observers have warned that in the absence of justice being administered by the courts—international or domestic—victims will be more likely to take the law into their own hands.
Crimes Of War Project > The Book (1257 words)
The planning of this genocide, which was important legally because it established the clear intent of its architects to commit the crime, had become known to the United Nations well before it took place.
The Rwandan government's effort in 1993 to carry out a census in which all Rwandans had to state their tribe had been followed by a slaughter of Tutsis in the northern part of the country.
According to the provisions of the Genocide Convention, the government was guilty on all counts of the Convention's Article 3: genocide, conspiracy to commit genocide, direct and public incitement to commit genocide, and complicity in genocide.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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