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Encyclopedia > Rutherford B. Hayes
Rutherford Birchard Hayes
Rutherford B. Hayes

In office
March 4, 1877 – March 4, 1881
Vice President William A. Wheeler
Preceded by Ulysses S. Grant
Succeeded by James A. Garfield

In office
January 10, 1876 – March 2, 1877
Lieutenant Thomas Lowry Young
Preceded by William Allen
Succeeded by Thomas Lowry Young

In office
January 13, 1868 – January 8, 1872
Lieutenant John C. Lee
Preceded by Jacob Dolson Cox
Succeeded by Edward Follansbee Noyes

Born October 4, 1822(1822-10-04)
Delaware, Ohio
Died January 17, 1893 (aged 70)
Fremont, Ohio
Political party Republican
Spouse Lucy Webb Hayes
Alma mater Harvard Law School
Occupation Lawyer
Religion Methodist [1]
Signature Rutherford B. Hayes's signature

Rutherford Birchard Hayes (October 4, 1822January 17, 1893) was an American politician, lawyer, military leader and the nineteenth President of the United States (1877–1881). Hayes was elected President by one electoral vote after the highly disputed election of 1876. Losing the popular vote to his opponent, Samuel Tilden, Hayes was the only president whose election was decided by a congressional commission. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1000x1277, 140 KB) U.S. President Rutherford B. Hayes. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1877 (MDCCCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1881 (MDCCCLXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... William Almon Wheeler (June 30, 1819 – June 4, 1887) was a Representative from New York and the nineteenth Vice President of the United States. ... Ulysses S. Grant,[2] born Hiram Ulysses Grant (April 27, 1822 – July 23, 1885), was an American general and the eighteenth President of the United States (1869–1877). ... James Abram Garfield (November 19, 1831–September 19, 1881) was the twentieth President of the United States. ... Ohio Governors Ohio was admitted to the Union on March 1, 1803. ... is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1876 Pick up Sticks(MDCCCLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 61st day of the year (62nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1877 (MDCCCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Thomas Lowry Young (December 14, 1832 - July 20, 1888) was a Republican politician from Ohio. ... William Allen is the name of several notable people: William Allen, 1919-1985, Chairman of Metropolitan Toronto William Allen (1704-1780), Chief justice of colonial Pennsylvania William Allen, (1770-1843), English Quaker, pharmacist and philanthropist William Allen (1793-1864), British Naval Officer, Rear Admiral William Allen (1803-1879), American statesman... Thomas Lowry Young (December 14, 1832 - July 20, 1888) was a Republican politician from Ohio. ... Ohio Governors Ohio was admitted to the Union on March 1, 1803. ... is the 13th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1868 (MDCCCLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 8th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1872 (MDCCCLXXII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The position of lieutenant governor of Ohio was established in 1852. ... Jacob Dolson Cox (October 27, 1828 - August 4, 1900) was an officer in the Union Army during the Civil War and later a Republican politician from Ohio. ... Edward Follansbee Noyes (October 3, 1832 – September 4, 1890) was a Republican politician from Ohio. ... is the 277th day of the year (278th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1822 (MDCCCXXII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The City of Delaware is located near the center of the state of Ohio, about 20 miles north of Columbus, Ohio. ... is the 17th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1893 (MDCCCXCIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Fremont is a city in Sandusky County, Ohio, United States. ... GOP redirects here. ... Lucy Ware Webb Hayes (August 28, 1831 - June 25, 1889) was the wife of President Rutherford B. Hayes of the United States of America and one of the most popular First Ladies of the nineteenth century. ... Alma mater is Latin for nourishing mother. It was used in ancient Rome as a title for the mother goddess, and in Medieval Christianity for the Virgin Mary. ... Harvard Law School (colloquially, Harvard Law or HLS) is one of the professional graduate schools of Harvard University. ... For the fish called lawyer, see Burbot. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... is the 277th day of the year (278th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1822 (MDCCCXXII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 17th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1893 (MDCCCXCIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      Politics of the United States takes place in a framework of a presidential... The United States Constitution, the supreme law of the United States The United States Reports, the official reporter of the Supreme Court of the United States The law of the United States was originally largely derived from the common law of the system of English law, which was in force... The United States Armed Forces are the military services of the United States. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... The United States presidential election of 1876 was one of the most disputed and intense presidential elections in American history. ... Samuel Jones Tilden (February 9, 1814 - August 4, 1886) was the Democratic candidate for the US presidency in the disputed election of 1876, the most controversial American election of the 19th century. ...

Contents

Early life

Hayes was born in Delaware, Ohio, on October 4, 1822. His parents were Rutherford Hayes (January 4, 1787 Brattleboro, VermontJuly 20, 1822 Delaware, Ohio) and Sophia Birchard (April 15, 1792 Wilmington, VermontOctober 30, 1866 Columbus, Ohio). His father, a storekeeper descended from Scottish immigrant to Connecticut George Hayes (1654-1725),[citation needed] died ten weeks before his birth and an uncle, Sardis Birchard, lived with the family and served as Hayes' guardian. Birchard was close to him throughout his life and became a father figure to him. Hayes attended the common schools and the Methodist Academy in Norwalk. He graduated from Kenyon College in Gambier, Ohio in August 1842 at the top of his class. He was an honorary member of Delta Kappa Epsilon fraternity. After briefly reading the law in Columbus, he graduated in 2 years from Harvard Law School in January 1845. He was admitted to the bar on May 10, 1845, and commenced practice in Lower Sandusky (now Fremont). After dissolving the partnership in Fremont in 1849, he moved to Cincinnati and resumed the practice of law. The City of Delaware is located near the center of the state of Ohio, about 20 miles north of Columbus, Ohio. ... is the 277th day of the year (278th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1822 (MDCCCXXII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 4th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1787 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Downtown Brattleboro, as seen looking across the Connecticut River from New Hampshire Brattleboro is a town in Windham County, Vermont, United States. ... is the 201st day of the year (202nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1822 (MDCCCXXII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The City of Delaware is located near the center of the state of Ohio, about 20 miles north of Columbus, Ohio. ... is the 105th day of the year (106th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1792 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... For other places called Wilmington, see Wilmington Wilmington, Vermont Wilmington is a town located in Windham County, Vermont. ... is the 303rd day of the year (304th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1866 (MDCCCLXVI) is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... Nickname: Location in the state of Ohio, USA Coordinates: , Country State Counties Franklin, Fairfield, Delaware Government  - Mayor Michael B. Coleman (D) Area  - City 212. ... Norwalk is a city in Huron County, Ohio, United States. ... Kenyon College is a private liberal arts college in Gambier, Ohio, founded in 1824 by Bishop Philander Chase of the The Episcopal Church, in parallel with the Bexley Hall seminary. ... Gambier is a village located in Knox County, Ohio. ... Delta Kappa Epsilon (ΔΚΕ; also pronounced D-K-E or Deke) is the oldest secret college mens fraternity of New England origin. ... Nickname: Location in the state of Ohio, USA Coordinates: , Country State Counties Franklin, Fairfield, Delaware Government  - Mayor Michael B. Coleman (D) Area  - City 212. ... Harvard Law School (colloquially, Harvard Law or HLS) is one of the professional graduate schools of Harvard University. ... A bar association is a body of lawyers who, in some jurisdictions, are responsible for the regulation of the legal profession. ... is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1845 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Fremont is a city in Sandusky County, Ohio, United States. ... Cincinnati redirects here. ...

Rutherford and Lucy Hayes on their wedding day, December 30, 1852.
Rutherford and Lucy Hayes on their wedding day, December 30, 1852.

On December 30, 1852, Hayes married Lucy Ware Webb. In 1856, he was nominated for but declined a municipal judgeship, but in 1858 accepted appointment as Cincinnati city solicitor by the city council and won election outright to that position in 1859, losing a reelection bid in 1860. Image File history File links RutherfordLucyHayes. ... Image File history File links RutherfordLucyHayes. ... is the 364th day of the year (365th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1852 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... is the 364th day of the year (365th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1852 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Lucy Ware Webb Hayes (August 28, 1831 - June 25, 1889) was the First Lady of the United States during the presidency of her husband Rutherford B. Hayes and one of the most popular First Ladies of the nineteenth century. ... Cincinnati redirects here. ...


Military service

Upon moving to Cincinnati Hayes had become a member of a prominent social organization, the Cincinnati Literary Club, whose members included Salmon P. Chase and Edward Noyes among others, and upon outbreak of the Civil War the Literary Club made a military company. Appointed a Major in the Twenty-third Ohio Regiment by Ohio Governor William Dennison, he originally served as regimental judge-advocate but then was promoted to Lieutenant Colonel and proved competent enough at field command that by August 1862 he had been promoted to Colonel and soon after received command of his original regiment after being wounded in action. Though other presidents served in the United States Civil War, Hayes was the only one that was wounded. He was wounded four times. This article is about the city of Ohio. ... Salmon Portland Chase (January 13, 1808 – May 7, 1873) was an American politician and jurist in the Civil War era who served as Senator from Ohio, Governor of Ohio, as U.S. Treasury Secretary under President Abraham Lincoln, and Chief Justice of the United States. ... Edward Follansbee Noyes (October 3, 1832 – September 4, 1890) was a Republican politician from Ohio. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... Major is a military rank the use of which varies according to country. ... William Dennison, Jr. ... In the U.S. Army, Air Force and Marine Corps, a lieutenant colonel is a commissioned officer superior to a major and inferior to a colonel. ... For other uses, see Colonel (disambiguation). ... The American Civil War was fought in the United States from 1861 until 1865 between the northern states, popularly referred to as the U.S., the Union, the North, or the Yankees; and the seceding southern states, commonly referred to as the Confederate States of America, the CSA, the Confederacy...


Breveted to Brigadier General in December 1862, he commanded the First Brigade of the Kanawha Division of the Army of West Virginia and turned back several raids. In 1864, Hayes showed particular gallantry in spearheading a frontal assault and temporarily taking command from George Crook at the savage Battle of Cloyd's Mountain and continued with Crook on to Charleston. Hayes continued commanding his Brigade during the Valley Campaigns of 1864, participating in such major battles as the Battle of Opequon, the Battle of Fisher's Hill, and the Battle of Cedar Creek. At the end of the Shenandoah campaign, Hayes was promoted to Brigadier General in October 1864 and breveted Major General. Hayes had been wounded three more times and had four horses shot from under him during his campaigning.[1] In the US military, brevet referred to a warrant authorizing a commissioned officer to hold a higher rank temporarily, but usually without receiving the pay of that higher rank. ... A Brigadier General, or one-star general, is the lowest rank of general officer in the United States and some other countries, ranking just above Colonel and just below Major General. ... The Army of West Virginia was a minor force during the Civil War that served the Union in southwestern Virginia and the Shenandoah Valley. ... George Crook (September 8, 1828 – March 21, 1890) was a career U.S. Army officer, most noted for his distinguished service during the American Civil War and the Indian Wars. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders George Crook Albert G. Jenkins Strength 6,100 2,400 Casualties 688 538 The Battle of Cloyds Mountain was a Union victory in western Virginia in 1864 that allowed the Union forces to destroy the last railroad connected from... Charleston, WV Capitol Building Charleston is the capital of West Virginia, a state of the United States of America. ... Eastern Theater operations in 1864 The Valley Campaigns of 1864 were American Civil War operations and battles that took place in the Shenandoah Valley of Virginia from May to October, 1864. ... The Battle of Opequon, also known as the Third Battle of Winchester, was a decisive victory for the Union army during the Valley Campaigns of 1864 in the American Civil War. ... Battle of Fishers Hill Conflict American Civil War Date September 21- 22, 1864 Place Shenandoah County, Virginia Result Union victory In the Battle of Fishers Hill, Phil Sheridan had almost 30,000 men while Jubal Anderson Early had just under 10,000. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Horatio G. Wright Philip H. Sheridan Jubal A. Early Strength 31,945 21,000 Casualties 5,665 2,910 The Battle of Cedar Creek, or The Battle of Belle Grove, October 19, 1864, was one of the final, and most... Eastern Theater operations in 1864 The Valley Campaigns of 1864 were American Civil War operations and battles that took place in the Shenandoah Valley of Virginia from May to October, 1864. ... A Brigadier General, or one-star general, is the lowest rank of general officer in the United States and some other countries, ranking just above Colonel and just below Major General. ... In the US military, brevet referred to a warrant authorizing a commissioned officer to hold a higher rank temporarily, but usually without receiving the pay of that higher rank. ... Insignia of a United States Air Force Major General German Generalmajor Insignia Major General is a military rank used in many countries. ...

Rutherford B. Hayes
October 4, 1822 - January 17, 1893

General Rutherford B. Hayes
Place of birth Delaware, Ohio, U.S.
Place of death Fremont, Ohio, U.S.
Allegiance United States of America
Years of service 1861 - 1865
Rank Brevet Major General
Battles/wars American Civil War
*Valley Campaigns of 1864
Other work U.S. Representative from Ohio, 29th and 32nd Governor of Ohio, 19th President of the United States

is the 277th day of the year (278th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1822 (MDCCCXXII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 17th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1893 (MDCCCXCIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Image File history File links General_Hayes. ... The City of Delaware is located near the center of the state of Ohio, about 20 miles north of Columbus, Ohio. ... For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American... Fremont is a city in Sandusky County, Ohio, United States. ... For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... Eastern Theater operations in 1864 The Valley Campaigns of 1864 were American Civil War operations and battles that took place in the Shenandoah Valley of Virginia from May to October, 1864. ... The House of Representatives is the larger of two houses that make up the U.S. Congress, the other being the United States Senate. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Ohio Governors Ohio was admitted to the Union on March 1, 1803. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ...

Hayes and McKinley

It was during his command of the 23rd Regiment of the Ohio Volunteer Infantry that Hayes met William McKinley, who would later become the 25th President of the United States. Hayes promoted McKinley twice under his military command, including once for an act of bravery at Antietam. During Hayes' first Ohio gubernatorial race, McKinley engaged in political campaigning and rallying for Hayes' election by "making speeches in the Canton area".[2] Later, as Governor of Ohio, Hayes provided political support for his fellow Republican and Ohioian during McKinley's bid for congressional election. Hayes was arguably one of the strongest political supporters underlying McKinley's military and political successes. This article is about the 25th President of the United States; for other people named William McKinley, see William McKinley (disambiguation). ...


Political service

Hayes began political life as a Whig but in 1853 joined the Free Soil party as a delegate nominating Salmon P. Chase for Governor of Ohio. The Whig Party was a political party of the United States during the era of Jacksonian democracy. ... In the United States, Free Soil was a position taken by northern citizens and politicians in the 19th century advocating that all new U.S. territory be closed to slavery. ... Salmon Portland Chase (January 13, 1808 – May 7, 1873) was an American politician and jurist in the Civil War era who served as Senator from Ohio, Governor of Ohio, as U.S. Treasury Secretary under President Abraham Lincoln, and Chief Justice of the United States. ...


While still in the Shenandoah in 1864, Hayes received the Republican nomination to Congress from Cincinnati. Hayes refused to campaign, stating "I have other business just now. Any man who would leave the army at this time to electioneer for Congress ought to be scalped." Despite this, Hayes was elected and served in the Thirty-ninth and again to the Fortieth Congresses and served from March 4, 1865, to July 20, 1867, when he resigned, having been nominated for Governor of Ohio. Through the powerful voice of his friend and Civil War subordinate James M. Comly's Ohio State Journal (one of the state's most influential newspapers), Hayes won the election and served as governor from 1868 to 1872. He was an unsuccessful candidate in 1872 for election to the Forty-third Congress, and had planned to retire from public life but was drafted by the Republican convention in 1875 to run for governor again and served from January 1876 to March 2, 1877. Hayes received national notice for leading a Republican sweep of a previously Democratic Ohio government. GOP redirects here. ... The Thirty-Ninth Congress of the United States began on March 4, 1865 and ended on March 3, 1867. ... // Dates of Sessions 1867-1869 The first session of this Congress took place in Washington, DC from March 4, 1867 to December 1, 1867. ... is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1865 (MDCCCLXV) is a common year starting on Sunday. ... is the 201st day of the year (202nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1867 (MDCCCLXVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Ohio Governors Ohio was admitted to the Union on March 1, 1803. ... James Munroe Stuart Comly (1832-1887), was a brigadier general in the Union Army during the American Civil War, as well as a journalist, attorney, newspaper editor and owner, historian and diplomat. ... The Columbus Citizen-Journal was a Scripps-Howard publication. ... {{move}} // Dates of Sessions December 1, 1873 to March 3, 1875. ... GOP redirects here. ... is the 61st day of the year (62nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1877 (MDCCCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... GOP redirects here. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic...


Election of 1876

Presidential electoral votes by state
Presidential electoral votes by state

A dark horse nominee (James G. Blaine had led the previous six ballots) by his convention, Hayes became president after the tumultuous, scandal-ridden years of the Grant administration. He had a reputation for honesty dating back to his Civil War years. Hayes was quite famous for his ability not to offend anyone. Henry Adams, a prominent political journalist and Washington insider, asserted that Hayes was "a third rate nonentity, whose only recommendation is that he is obnoxious to no one." Nevertheless, his opponent in the presidential election, Democrat Samuel J. Tilden, was the favorite to win the presidential election and, in fact, won the popular vote by about 250,000 votes (with about 8.5 million voters in total). The United States presidential election of 1876 was one of the most disputed and intense presidential elections in American history. ... Download high resolution version (1182x635, 104 KB)Image from http://nationalatlas. ... Download high resolution version (1182x635, 104 KB)Image from http://nationalatlas. ... This article describes dark horse candidates. ... James Gillespie Blaine (January 31, 1830 – January 27, 1893) was a U.S. Representative, Speaker of the United States House of Representatives, U.S. Senator from Maine and a two-time United States Secretary of State. ... Henry Adams Henry Brooks Adams (February 16, 1838 – March 27, 1918) was an American historian, journalist and novelist. ... The Democratic Party is one of two major political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. ... Samuel Jones Tilden (February 9, 1814 - August 4, 1886) was the Democratic candidate for the US presidency in the disputed election of 1876, the most controversial American election of the 19th century. ...

Hayes/Wheeler campaign poster
Hayes/Wheeler campaign poster

Four states' electoral college votes were contested. In order to win, the candidates had to muster 185 votes: Tilden was short just one, with 184 votes, Hayes had 165, with 20 votes representing the four states which were contested. To make matters worse, three of these states (Florida, Louisiana, and South Carolina) were in the South, which was still under military occupation (the fourth was Oregon). Additionally, historians note, the election was not fair because of the improper fraud and intimidation perpetrated from both sides. A popular phrase of the day called it an election without "a free ballot and a fair count." For the next four years, Democrats would refer to Hayes as "Rutherfraud B. Hayes" for his allegedly illegitimate election, as he had lost the popular vote by roughly 250,000 votes. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (535x790, 134 KB) http://hdl. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (535x790, 134 KB) http://hdl. ... This article is about Electoral Colleges in general. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Official language(s) English Capital Columbia Largest city Columbia Largest metro area Columbia Area  Ranked 40th  - Total 34,726 sq mi (82,965 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 260 miles (420 km)  - % water 6  - Latitude 32° 2′ N to 35° 13′ N  - Longitude 78° 32′ W to 83... This article is about the U.S. state. ...


To peacefully decide the results of the election, the two houses of Congress set up the Electoral Commission to investigate and decide upon the actual winner. The commission constituted 15 members: five from the House, five from the Senate and five from the Supreme Court. Additionally, the Commission was bi-partisan consisting of 7 Democrats, 7 Republicans and a "swing" vote in Joseph P. Bradley, a Supreme Court Justice. Bradley, however, was a Republican at heart and thus the ruling followed party lines: 8 to 7 voted for Hayes winning in all of the contested 20 electoral votes. The Florida Case Before the Electoral Commission by Cornelia Adele Strong Fassett The Electoral Commision was a fifteen-member body that was used to resolve disputes in U.S. presidential elections, best known for its use in the 1876 election between Samuel J. Tilden and Rutherford B. Hayes. ...


Key Ohio Republicans like James A. Garfield and the Democrats, however, agreed at a Washington hotel on the Wormley House Agreement. Southern Democrats were given assurances, in the Compromise of 1877, that if Hayes became president, he would pull federal troops out of the South and end Reconstruction. An agreement was made between them and the Republicans: if Hayes's cabinet consisted of at least one Southerner and he withdrew all Union troops from the South, then he would become President. James Abram Garfield (November 19, 1831–September 19, 1881) was the twentieth President of the United States. ... A drawing by Joseph Keppler depicts Roscoe Conkling as Mephistopheles, as Rutherford B. Hayes strolls off with a woman labeled as Solid South. The caption quotes Goethe: Unto that Power he doth belong / Which only doeth Right while ever willing Wrong. ... For other uses, see Reconstruction (disambiguation). ...


Presidency 1877–1881

Inauguration of Rutherford B. Hayes, March 5, 1877.
Inauguration of Rutherford B. Hayes, March 5, 1877.

Because March 4, 1877 was a Sunday, Hayes took the oath of office in the Red Room of the White House on March 3, becoming the first president to take the oath of office in the White House. This ceremony was held in secret, because the previous year's election had been so bitterly divisive that outgoing President Grant feared an insurrection by Tilden's supporters and wanted to ensure that any Democratic attempt to hijack the public inauguration ceremony would fail, Hayes having been sworn in already in private. Hayes took the oath again publicly on March 5 on the East Portico of the United States Capitol, and served until March 4, 1881. Hayes' best known quotation, "He serves his party best who serves his country best," is from his 1877 Inaugural Address. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (470x601, 75 KB) http://hdl. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (470x601, 75 KB) http://hdl. ... This article is about the day. ... 1877 (MDCCCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1877 (MDCCCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... For other uses, see White House (disambiguation). ... is the 62nd day of the year (63rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with President of the United States oath of office. ... This article is about the day. ... The United States Capitol is the capitol building that serves as the location for the United States Congress, the legislative branch of the U.S. federal government. ... is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1881 (MDCCCLXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Inaugural Addresses of the Presidents of the United States are given each time that a United States President is inaugurated. ...


Domestic policy

Hayes kicking Chester A. Arthur out of the New York Customs House.
Hayes kicking Chester A. Arthur out of the New York Customs House.

When Congress sent him the bills (complete with amendments) overturning civil rights enforcement, Hayes vetoed them four times before finally signing one that satisfied his requirement for black rights. However, his subsequent attempts to reconcile with his Southern Democrat opposition by handing them prestigious civil service appointments both alienated fellow Republicans and undermined his own previous attempts at civil service reform. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Chester Alan Arthur (October 5, 1829 – November 18, 1886) was an American politician who served as the 21st President of the United States. ... Tolls collected at the Holland Tunnel and other crossings help fund the Port Authority. ...


Hayes' most controversial domestic act -- apart from ending Reconstruction -- came with his response to the Great Railroad Strike of 1877, in which employees of the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad walked off the job and were joined across the country by thousands of workers in their own and sympathetic industries. When the labor disputes exploded into riots in several cities, Hayes called in federal troops, who, for the first time in U.S. history, fired on the striking workers, killing more than 70. Although the troops eventually managed to restore the peace, working people and industrialists alike were displeased with the military intervention. Workers feared that the federal government had turned permanently against them, while industrialists feared that such brutal action would spark revolution along the lines of the European Revolutions of 1848. Since the building of railroads they were the advance agents of industrialism, opening a national market for the first time and themselves providing a market for iron, steel, coal, and the products of related industries. ... The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad or B&O was a 19th century railroad which operated in the east coast of the United States and was the first railroad to offer commercial transportation of both people and freight. ... Categories: Stub | Riots ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... The European Revolutions of 1848, known in some countries as the Spring of Nations or the Year of Revolution, were a revolutionary wave which erupted in Sicily and then, further triggered by the revolutions of 1848 in France, soon spread to the rest of Europe and as far afield as...

LeftAn 1881 Puck cartoon show James A. Garfield, Hayes' successor in the presidency, finding a baby at his front door with a tag marked "Civil Service Reform, compliments of R.B. Hayes". Hayes is seen in the background dressed like a woman and holding a bag marked "R.B. Hayes' savings, Fremont, Ohio".
Left
An 1881 Puck cartoon show James A. Garfield, Hayes' successor in the presidency, finding a baby at his front door with a tag marked "Civil Service Reform, compliments of R.B. Hayes". Hayes is seen in the background dressed like a woman and holding a bag marked "R.B. Hayes' savings, Fremont, Ohio".

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The cover of the April 23, 1884 issue. ... James Abram Garfield (November 19, 1831–September 19, 1881) was the twentieth President of the United States. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... Fremont is a city in Sandusky County, Ohio, United States. ...

Foreign policy

In 1878, Hayes was asked by Argentina to act as arbitrator following the War of the Triple Alliance between Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay against Paraguay. The Argentines hoped that Hayes would give the Gran Chaco region to them; however, he decided in favor of the Paraguayans. His decision made him a hero in Paraguay, and a city (Villa Hayes) and a department (Presidente Hayes) were named in his honor. He also intended to build the U.S. controlled Panama Canal, though he wasn't the one who actually did it. Combatants Paraguay Uruguay, Argentina, Empire of Brazil Commanders Francisco Solano López † José E. Díaz Pedro II of Brazil Duke of Caxias Bartolomé Mitre Venancio Flores Strength at the beginning of the war ca. ... Landscape in the Gran Chaco, Paraguay The Gran Chaco (Quechua chaqu, hunting land), dubbed by some as the last South American frontier, is a sparsely populated, hot and semi-arid lowland region of the Río de la Plata basin, divided between Bolivia, Paraguay, Argentina and a small portion in... Villa Hayes is a town in Paraguay, located in the Presidente Hayes Department. ... A department is geographic area of a centralized country which functions as an administrative unit. ... Presidente Hayes is a department in Paraguay. ...


But for the most part, Hayes was not very involved in foreign policy. The bulk of his problems during his presidency were small and domestically related.


Notable legislation

During his presidency, Hayes signed a number of bills including one signed on February 15, 1879 which, for the first time, allowed female attorneys to argue cases before the Supreme Court of the United States. is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1879 (MDCCCLXXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... For the fish called lawyer, see Burbot. ... The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS[1]) is the highest judicial body in the United States and leads the federal judiciary. ...


Other acts include:

A drawing by Joseph Keppler depicts Roscoe Conkling as Mephistopheles, as Rutherford B. Hayes strolls off with a woman labeled as Solid South. The caption quotes Goethe: Unto that Power he doth belong / Which only doeth Right while ever willing Wrong. ... The Desert Land Act was passed by the United States Congress on 3 March 1877 to encourage and promote the economic development of the arid and semiarid public lands of the Western United States. ... The Bland-Allison Act of 1878 was a response to the Fourth Coinage Act, or the Crime of 73! demonetizing silver. ... The Timber and Stone Act of 1878 in the United States sold western timberland for $2. ...

Significant events during his presidency

Munn v. ... Since the building of railroads they were the advance agents of industrialism, opening a national market for the first time and themselves providing a market for iron, steel, coal, and the products of related industries. ...

Administration and Cabinet

Hayes' portrait
Hayes' portrait
The Hayes Cabinet
OFFICE NAME TERM
President Rutherford B. Hayes 1877 – 1881
Vice President William A. Wheeler 1877 – 1881
Secretary of State William M. Evarts 1877 – 1881
Secretary of Treasury John Sherman 1877 – 1881
Secretary of War George W. McCrary 1877 – 1879
Alexander Ramsey 1879 – 1881
Attorney General Charles Devens 1877 – 1881
Postmaster General David M. Key 1877 – 1880
Horace Maynard 1880 – 1881
Secretary of the Navy Richard W. Thompson 1877 – 1880
Nathan Goff, Jr. 1881
Secretary of the Interior Carl Schurz 1877 – 1881


Portrait of Rutherford Hayes (1822-1893). ... Portrait of Rutherford Hayes (1822-1893). ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... The Vice President of the United States[1] (sometimes referred to as VPOTUS[2] or Veep) is the first in the presidential line of succession, becoming the new President of the United States upon the death, resignation, or removal of the president. ... William Almon Wheeler (June 30, 1819 – June 4, 1887) was a Representative from New York and the nineteenth Vice President of the United States. ... Seal of the United States Department of State. ... Photograph of U.S. Secretary of State William M. Evarts William Maxwell Evarts (February 6, 1818–February 28, 1901) was an American lawyer and statesman. ... The United States Secretary of the Treasury is the head of the United States Department of the Treasury, concerned with finance and monetary matters, and, until 2003, some issues of national security and defense. ... John Sherman John Sherman (May 10, 1823–October 22, 1900) was a Senator from Ohio and a member of the United States Cabinet. ... The Secretary of War was a member of the United States Presidents Cabinet, beginning with George Washingtons administration. ... George Washington McCrary (August 29, 1835 - June 23, 1890) was a Congressman from Iowa and a United States Secretary of War. ... Alexander Ramsey (September 8, 1815 – April 22, 1903) was an American politician. ... Seal of the United States Department of Justice The United States Attorney General is the head of the United States Department of Justice (see 28 U.S.C. Â§ 503) concerned with legal affairs and is the chief law enforcement officer of the United States government. ... Charles Devens (April 4, 1820–January 7, 1891) was an American lawyer, jurist and statesman. ... The United States Postmaster General is the executive head of the United States Postal Service. ... David Key David McKendree Key (January 27, 1824 – February 3, 1900) was a Democratic U.S. Senator from Tennessee from 1875 to 1877 as well as the U.S. Postmaster General under President Hayes. ... Horace Maynard (August 30, 1814–May 3, 1882) was an American politician who served as attorney general of Tennessee, U.S. Representative in Congress and as U.S. Postmaster General in the Rutherford B. Hayes administration. ... Flag of the United States Secretary of the Navy. ... Richard Wigginton Thompson (8 June 1809 - 9 February 1900) was an American politician. ... Nathan Goff, Jr. ... The United States Secretary of the Interior is the head of the United States Department of the Interior, concerned with such matters as national parks and The Secretary is a member of the Presidents Cabinet. ... Carl Schurz (March 2, 1829 – May 14, 1906) was a German revolutionary, American statesman and reformer, and Union Army general in the American Civil War. ...

Supreme Court appointments

Hayes appointed two Associate Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States: The Justices of the United States Supreme Court, other than the Chief Justice, are termed Associate Justices. ...

This is about the pre-World-War-I US Supreme Court justice; for his grandson, the mid-20th-century holder of the same position, see John Marshall Harlan II. John Marshall Harlan (June 1, 1833 – October 14, 1911) was an American Supreme Court associate justice. ... 1888 engraving of Justice Woods William Burnham Woods (1824–1887) was an American jurist, politician, and soldier. ...

Post-Presidency

The Hayes' home called Spiegel Grove in Fremont, Ohio.
The Hayes' home called Spiegel Grove in Fremont, Ohio.
Rutherford and Lucy Hayes' grave at Spiegel Grove.
Rutherford and Lucy Hayes' grave at Spiegel Grove.

Hayes did not seek re-election in 1880, keeping his pledge that he would not run for a second term. He had, in his inaugural address, proposed a one-term limit for the presidency combined with an increase in the term length to six years. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 1. ... Spiegel is the German word for mirror. ... Fremont is a city in Sandusky County, Ohio, United States. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 1. ... Spiegel is the German word for mirror. ... Summary Keeping a promise made during the 1876 campaign, incumbent President Rutherford Hayes did not seek re-election. ... An inauguration is a ceremony of formal investiture whereby an individual assumes an office or position of authority. ... This article is about constitutional law; for the book by Vince Flynn see Term Limits (novel). ...


Hayes served on the Board of Trustees of the Ohio State University, the school he helped found during his time as governor of Ohio, from the end of his Presidency until his death. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Board of directors. ... The Ohio State University (OSU) is a coeducational public research university in the state of Ohio. ...


Rutherford Birchard Hayes died of complications of a heart attack in Fremont, Sandusky County, Ohio, at 12:00 p.m. on Tuesday January 17, 1893. His last words were "I know that I'm going where Lucy is." Interment was in Riverwood Cemetery. Following the gift of his home to the state of Ohio for the Spiegel Grove State Park, he was reinterred there in 1915. Heart attack redirects here. ... Fremont is a city in Sandusky County, Ohio, United States. ... Sandusky County is a county located in the state of Ohio. ... is the 17th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1893 (MDCCCXCIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Lucy Ware Webb Hayes (August 28, 1831 - June 25, 1889) was the wife of President Rutherford B. Hayes of the United States of America and one of the most popular First Ladies of the nineteenth century. ... Spiegel is the German word for mirror. ...


Family

Hayes was the youngest of four children. Two of his siblings, Lorenzo Hayes (1815–1825) and Sarah Sophia Hayes (1817–1821), died in childhood, as was common at the time. Hayes was close to his surviving sibling, Fanny Arabella Hayes (1820–1856), as can be seen in this diary entry, written just after her death:

July, 1856. —My dear only sister, my beloved Fanny, is dead! The dearest friend of childhood, the affectionate adviser, the confidante of all my life, the one I loved best, is gone; alas! never again to be seen on earth.

With Lucy Ware Webb, Hayes had the following children:

  • Birchard Austin Hayes (1853-1926)
  • James Webb Cook Hayes (1856-1934)
  • Rutherford Platt Hayes (1858-1927)
  • Joseph Thompson Hayes (1861-1863)
  • George Crook Hayes (1864-1866)
  • Fanny Hayes (1867-1950)
  • Scott Russell Hayes (1871-1923)
  • Manning Force Hayes (1873-1874)

References

  1. ^ Ex-President Hayes Dead; Neuralgia of the Heart the Cause. He Was Stricken Last Saturday at the Home of His Son in Cleveland - Taken Home Ill, but Expected to Recover - Obituary Sketch Creative Commons 2.5, The New York Times, January 18, 1893. Retrieved on November 30, 2007.
  2. ^ Ohio Historical Society | Ohio Governors

Image File history File links Page_white_acrobat. ...

External links

Wikisource
Wikisource has original works written by or about:
Rutherford B. Hayes
Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Rutherford B. Hayes
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Rutherford B. Hayes
  • Rutherford B. Hayes at the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress
  • Essays on Rutherford Hayes, each member of his cabinet, and the First Lady from the Miller Center of Public Affairs
  • Inaugural Address
  • The Rutherford B. Hayes Presidential Center, Fremont, Ohio
  • White House Biography
  • Diary and Letters of Rutherford B. Hayes
  • Works by Rutherford B. Hayes at Project Gutenberg
  • Rutherford B. Hayes at Find A Grave Retrieved on 2008-02-12
  • Hayes 1893 New York Times obituary
United States House of Representatives
Preceded by
Alexander Long
Member from Ohio's 2nd congressional district
March 4, 1865 – July 20, 1867
Succeeded by
Samuel F. Cary
Political offices
Preceded by
Jacob D. Cox
Governor of Ohio
1868 – 1872
Succeeded by
Edward F. Noyes
Preceded by
William Allen
Governor of Ohio
1876 – 1877
Succeeded by
Thomas L. Young
Preceded by
Ulysses S. Grant
President of the United States
March 4, 1877 – March 4, 1881
Succeeded by
James A. Garfield
Party political offices
Preceded by
Ulysses S. Grant
Republican Party presidential candidate
1876
Succeeded by
James A. Garfield
Honorary titles
Preceded by
Ulysses S. Grant
Oldest U.S. President still living
July 23, 1885 – January 17, 1893
Succeeded by
Benjamin Harrison
Persondata
NAME Hayes, Rutherford B.
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Rutherford Birchard Hayes
SHORT DESCRIPTION 19th President of the United States
DATE OF BIRTH October 4, 1822
PLACE OF BIRTH Delaware, Ohio
DATE OF DEATH January 17, 1893
PLACE OF DEATH Fremont, Ohio
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Charles Anderson (June 1, 1814 - September 2, 1895) was first a Whig and later a Republican politician from Ohio. ... Jacob Dolson Cox (October 27, 1828 - August 4, 1900) was an officer in the Union Army during the Civil War and later a Republican politician from Ohio. ... Edward Follansbee Noyes (October 3, 1832 - September 4, 1890) was a Republican politician from Ohio. ... William Allen ( December 27, 1803 - July 11, 1879) was a Democratic Representative and Senator from Ohio and Governor of Ohio. ... Thomas Lowry Young (December 14, 1832 - July 20, 1888) was a Republican politician from Ohio. ... Richard Moore Bishop (also known as Richard M. Bishop and Papa Richard) (November 4, 1812–March 2, 1893) was a Democratic politician from the U.S. state of Ohio. ... Charles Foster Charles Foster (April 12, 1828–January 9, 1904) was a U.S. Republican politician from Ohio. ... George Hoadly (July 31, 1826 - August 27, 1902) was a Democratic politician. ... Joseph Benson Foraker (July 5, 1846 – May 10, 1917) was a Republican politician from Ohio. ... James Edwin Campbell (July 7, 1843 - December 18, 1924) was a Democratic politician from Ohio. ... This article is about the 25th President of the United States; for other people named William McKinley, see William McKinley (disambiguation). ... Asa Smith Bushnell (September 16, 1834 - January 15, 1904) was a Republican politician from Ohio. ... George Kilborn Nash (August 14, 1842 - October 28, 1904) was a Republican politician from Ohio. ... Myron Timothy Herrick (October 9, 1854 - March 31, 1929) was a Republican politician from Ohio. ... John M. Pattison (June 13, 1847 - June 18, 1906) was a Democratic politician from Ohio. ... Andrew Lintner Harris (also known as The Farmer-Statesman) (November 17, 1835 – September 13, 1915) was one of the heroes of the Battle of Gettysburg and the last Civil War general to serve as a governor in the U.S., serving as the 44th governor of Ohio. ... Judson Harmon (February 3, 1846 - February 22, 1927) was a Democratic politician from Ohio. ... James Middleton Cox (March 31, 1870 – July 15, 1957) was a Governor of Ohio, U.S. Representative from Ohio and Democratic candidate for President of the United States in the election of 1920. ... Frank Bartlett Willis (December 28, 1871 - March 30, 1928) was a Republican politician from Ohio. ... Harry Lyman Davis (January 25, 1878 - May 21, 1950) was a Republican politician from Ohio. ... Alvin Victor Donahey (also known as A. Victor Donahey, A. Vic Donahey, Vic Donahey, or A. V. Donahey) (July 7, 1873 - April 8, 1946) was a Democratic politician from Ohio. ... Myers Young Cooper (November 25, 1873 - December 6, 1958) was a Republican politician from Ohio. ... George White (August 21, 1872 – December 15, 1953) was the 52nd Governor of Ohio. ... Martin Luther Davey (July 25, 1884 - March 31, 1946) was a Democratic politician from Ohio. ... John William Bricker (September 6, 1893 – March 22, 1986) was a United States politician from Ohio. ... Frank John Lausche (November 14, 1895 - April 21, 1990) was a Democratic politician from Ohio. ... Thomas James Herbert (October 28, 1894 - October 26, 1974) was a Republican politician from Ohio. ... John William Brown (born December 28, 1913, in Athens, Ohio; died October 29, 1993, in Medina, Ohio) was a Republican politician from Ohio. ... C. William ONeill (February 14, 1916 - August 20, 1978) was a Republican politician from Ohio. ... Michael Vincent DiSalle (January 6, 1908 - September 14, 1981) was a Democratic politician from Ohio. ... Governor James Rhodes James Allen Rhodes (September 13, 1909 – March 4, 2001) was an American Republican politician from Ohio, and as of 2004 one of only three U.S. state governors to be elected to four four-year terms in office. ... John Joyce Jack Gilligan (born March 22, 1921) is a Democratic politician from the U.S. state of Ohio who served as its 62nd governor. ... Governor James Rhodes James Allen Rhodes (September 13, 1909 – March 4, 2001) was an American Republican politician from Ohio, and as of 2004 one of only three U.S. state governors to be elected to four four-year terms in office. ... Richard Frank Dick Celeste (born November 11, 1937, in Cleveland, Ohio) is an American politician from Ohio, and a member of the Democratic Party. ... George Victor Voinovich (born July 15, 1936) is the senior United States Senator from the state of Ohio, and a member of the Republican Party. ... Nancy Putnam Hollister (born May 22, 1949) is a Republican politician from the U.S. state of Ohio. ... Robert Alphonso Bob Taft II (born January 8, 1942) is an American Republican politician. ... Ted Strickland, Ph. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... is the 277th day of the year (278th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1822 (MDCCCXXII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The City of Delaware is located near the center of the state of Ohio, about 20 miles north of Columbus, Ohio. ... is the 17th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1893 (MDCCCXCIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Fremont is a city in Sandusky County, Ohio, United States. ...

 
 

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