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Encyclopedia > Ruthenia

Ruthenia is a name applied to parts of Eastern Europe which were populated by Eastern Slavic peoples, as well as to various states that existed in this territory in the past. Essentially, the word is a Latin rendering of the ancient place name Rus. See Etymology of Rus and derivatives. Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current national boundaries: Russia (dark orange), other countries of the former USSR (medium orange) and other former communist regimes (light orange). ... The Slavic peoples are the most numerous ethnic and linguistic body of peoples currently living in Europe. ... Latin is the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... The word Rus or Rus (Русь in Cyrillic Alphabet) may refer to: the Rus (people) of disputed origin who were at the roots of the statehood of Eastern Slavic peoples; the territories they ruled, also known by the Latinized name, Ruthenia; Kievan Rus, the most powerful of early Ruthenian (Eastern... Originally Rus was a medieval state and country consisting mostly of Early East Slavs. ...


Today the historical territory of Rus, in the broadest sense, forms part(s) of the territories of Ukraine, Belarus, Russia, a small part of north-eastern Slovakia and a narrow strip of eastern Poland.


Due to the continuous political instability of this territory, the term Ruthenia may mean significantly different things, depending on who applies this term, when, why and to which period.


The term "Ruthenia" may refer to one or more of the following entities, appearing roughly in chronological order:

Contents


Early Middle Ages

Main article: Kievan Rus’

If the name Ruthenia has any connection to the name Rus, it is in the west generally held to derive from the Varangians whom the early Slavic and Finnic tribes called Rus' and this name is derived from the Old Norse root roðs- or roths- referring to the domain of rowing and still existing in the Finnish and Estonian names for Sweden, Ruotsi and Rootsi. Later the name came to denote not only the Scandinavian aristocracy in Eastern Europe but also the ethnically mixed population of their domains. Ivan Goryushkin-Skoropudov. ... The Varangians or Variags were Vikings who travelled eastwards from Sweden and Norway. ... Finnic (Fennic, sometimes Baltic Finnic) may refer to Finnish-similar languages spoken close to the Gulf of Finland, i. ... Old Norse or Danish tongue is the Germanic language once spoken by the inhabitants of the Nordic countries (for instance during the Viking Age). ...


Some modern scholars use the spelling Ruthenia when discussing the Middle Ages in English texts. However, the ancient state of Rus did not have a proper name apart from the phrase zemlya ruskaya, and therefore there were different spellings in different languages. The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Originally Rus was a medieval state and country consisting mostly of Early East Slavs. ...


The term Ruteni first appears in the form rex Rutenorum in the 12th-century Augsburg annals. It was most likely a reflex of the ancient tradition, when the barbaric people were called by the names found in Classical Latin authors, i.e. Danes were called Daci and Germans were called Theutoni. Likewise, the Rus passed by the name of Ruteni, the form being influenced by one of the Gallic tribes mentioned by Julius Caesar. Augsburg is a city in south-central Germany. ... Annals are a form of historical writing which record events year by year. ... Latin is the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... Alternate meanings: see Dacia (disambiguation) Dacia, in ancient geography the land of the Daci or Getae, was a large district of Central Europe, bounded on the north by the Carpathians, on the south by the Danube, on the west by the Tisa (Tisza river, in Hungary), on the east by... This entry is about the Teutonic people, not to be confused with the Teutonic Knights. ... Gallic, derived from the name for the ancient Roman province of Gaul, describes the cultural traditions and national characters of the French speaking nations and regions, as Hispanic does for the Hispanophone world, Anglo-Saxon for the Anglophone, and Lusitanic for the Lusophone. ... Bust of Julius Caesar Gaius Julius Caesar (Classical Latin: IMP·C·IVLIVS·CAESAR·DIVVS¹) (b. ...


There is a 12th-century Latin geography from France which says that "Russia is also called Ruthenia, as you may see from the following phrase of Lucan…" The original Latin text: Polonia in uno sui capite contingit Russiam, quae et Ruthenia, de qua Lucanus: Solvuntur flavi longa statione Rutheni. Earlier the Rus had been referred to as Rugi (one of the foremost Gothic tribes) and Rutuli (an Italic tribe mentioned by Virgil in the Aeneid). Marcus Annaeus Lucanus (November 3, AD 39-April 30, 65), better known in English as Lucan, was a Roman poet, and is one of the outstanding figures of the Silver Latin period. ... A goth girl as seen on the satirical cartoon South Park This article is about the contemporary goth/gothic subculture. ... For other uses see Virgil (disambiguation). ... The Aeneid is a Latin epic written by Virgil in the 1st century BC that tells the legendary story of Aeneas, a Trojan who traveled to Italy where he became the ancestor of the Romans. ...


By the end of the 12th century, the word Ruthenia was used, among the alternative spelling Ruscia and Russia, in Latin papal documents to denote the lands formerly dominated by Kiev. By the 13th century, the term became the dominant name for Rus' in Latin documents, particularly those written in Hungary, Bohemia, and Poland. (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... Latin is the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... The Pope is the Catholic Bishop and patriarch of Rome, and head of the Catholic Church. ... A monument to St. ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... Bohemia For the place in the USA, see Bohemia, New York. ...


Late Middle Ages

By the 14th century, the state of Rus had disintegrated into loosely united principalities. Vladimir-Suzdal and the Novgorod Republic in the north fell under Mongol influence. Later, one of the daughter-principalities of Vladimir-Suzdal, the Moscow principality took control of most of the northern principalities of Rus, and continued the use of the word, "Rus'," to cover the expanded state. Being an Orthodox Christian country, it had few contacts with the Pope and therefore did rarely use the term Ruthenia. Natives used other forms of the name Rus derivatives of word Rus for their country, and some of these forms also passed into Latin and English. (13th century - 14th century - 15th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 14th century was that century which lasted from 1301 to 1400. ... Vladimir-Suzdal Principality, Vladimir-Suzdal Rus (Владимирско-Суздальская Русь), or Vladimir-Suzdal Grand Duchy (Влади́миро-Су́здальское кня́жество) was one of major principalities within the Kievan Rus and after its collapse. ... Medieval walls of Novgorod City The Novgorod Feudal Republic (Новгородская феодальная республика in Russian, or Novgorodskaya feodalnaya respublika) was a powerful medieval state which stretched from the Baltic Sea to the Ural Mountains between the 12th and 15th century. ... The Mongol Invasion of Russia was an invasion of the medieval state of Kievan Rus by a large army of nomadic Mongols, starting in 1223. ... Muscovy (Moscow principality (княжество Московское) to Grand Duchy of Moscow (Великое Княжество Московское) to Russian Tsardom (Царство Русское) is a traditional Western name for the Russian state that existed from the 14th century to the late 17th century. ... Eastern Orthodoxy (also called Greek Orthodoxy and Russian Orthodoxy) is a Christian tradition which represents the majority of Eastern Christianity. ... Originally Rus was a medieval state and country consisting mostly of Early East Slavs. ...


The territories of Halych-Volynia in the south fell under Catholic Lithuanian and Polish influence, and therefore were usually denoted by the Latin Ruthenia, because the Pope preferred this spelling. He used it, for example, when he proclaimed one of the local princes "King of Ruthenia". However, other spellings were used in Latin, English and other languages during this period as well. Halych-Volynia principality was the Ruthenian successor state of Kievan Rus on the territory of Rus menora (Rus propria) including the lands of Red Ruthenia, Black Ruthenia, and the remainder of southwestern Rus. This state also briefly controlled the region of Bessarabia and Moldavia. ... Latin is the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... Kingdom of Galicia Flag of Przemyśl Danylo King of Rus or Danylo of Galicia (properly Danylo Romanovich or Даниил Романович), (1201-1264) was the 1st King of Galicia, Knyaz of Halych (1205–1206, 1211–1212, 1229–1231, 1233–1235, 1238–1255), Peremyshl (1211, todays Przemyśl), Vladimir and Volhyn (1212...


These southern territories have corresponding names in Polish:

Belarus (Belarusian: Белару́сь, Russian: Белару́сь (formerly: Белору́ссия)) is a landlocked nation of Eastern Europe with the capital Minsk. ... White Russia is an obsolete name for the former Soviet republic of Belarus. ... Black Ruthenia (or Black Rus, Чорная Русь in Ruthenian language, RuÅ› Czarna in Polish) is the name of the historical independent principality in the southwestern part of contemporary Belarus on the upper reaches of the river Nioman. ... Red Ruthenia (Old Slavonic, Russian and Ukrainian: Chervona Rus, Polish: RuÅ› Czerwona, Latin: Ruthenia Rubra or Russia Rubra) is the name used since the medieval times to refer to the area known as Eastern Galicia prior to World War I. // History Originally it was related to a certain territory between... For alternative meanings of Przemysl see: Przemysl (disambiguation page). ... The Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, or simply Galicia, was the largest and northernmost province of Austria from 1772 until 1918, with Lemberg (Lwów, Lviv) as its capital city. ... The Ruthenian Voivodship (Polish: Województwo Ruskie) (1366-1772) was a unit of administrative division and local government in the Kingdom of Poland. ...

Modern age

Belarusians

The Belarusians often called themselves "Litvins" because they lived in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, and the name "Ruthenians" was not always applied to them. The presumable banner of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania with the coat of arms, called Пагоня in Belarusian, Vytis in Lithuanian and Pogoń in Polish Another version of the Lithuanian banner The Grand Duchy of Lithuania (Lithuanian: Lietuvos Didžioji Kunigaikštystė, Belarusian: Вялі́кае Кня́ства Літо́ўскае (ВКЛ), Ukrainian: Велике Князівство Литовське (ВКЛ), Polish: Wielkie Księstwo Litewskie) was an...


A notable exception occurred shortly after World War II, in relation to Belarusians from the Kresy region of pre-WWII Poland who found themselves in displaced persons camps in the Western occupation zones of the post-war Germany. At that time the notion of a Belarusian nation met with little recognition in the West. Therefore, to avoid confusion with the term "Russian" and hence "repatriation" to the Soviet Union (which finalized the annexion of Kresy after the war), the terms White Ruthenian, Whiteruthenian, and Krivian were used. The last of these terms derives from the name of an old Eastern Slavic tribe called the Krivichs, which used to inhabit the territory of Belarus. World War II was a truly global conflict with many facets: immense human suffering, fierce indoctrinations, and the use of new, extremely devastating weapons like the atom bomb World War II, also known as the Second World War, was a mid-20th-century conflict that engulfed much of the globe... The name Kresy (Polish for borderlands) (or more correctly Kresy Wschodnie, Eastern Borderlands) is used by Poles to refer to the eastern part of Poland in the inter-war period. ... Power lines leading to a trash dump hover just overhead in El Carpio, a Nicaraguan refugee camp in Costa Rica Under international law, a refugee is a person who is outside his/her country of nationality or habitual residence; has a well-founded fear of persecution because of his/her... A compass rose with west highlighted This article refers to the cardinal direction; for other uses see West (disambiguation). ... Kriwi  album cover The Krivichs (Кривичи́ in Russian, Крывічы́ in Belarusian or Krivichi), a tribe of Early East Slavs between the 6th and the 12th centuries, which inhabited the upper reaches of the Volga, Dnieper, Western Dvina, the southern part of the Lake Peipus and parts of the Neman basin. ...


Ukrainians

The name "Ruthenia" survived a bit longer as a name for Ukraine. From 1840 on, nationalists encouraged people to give up the name "Little Rus" for Ukrayina. 1840 is a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ...


In the 1880s and 1900s, due to the spread of the name "Ukraine" as a substitute for "Ruthenia" among the Ruthenian/Ukrainian population of the Russian Empire, the name, "Ruthenian" was often restricted to mean western Ukraine, an area then part of the Austro-Hungarian state. // Events and Trends Technology Development and commercial production of electric lighting Development and commercial production of gasoline-powered automobile by Karl Benz, Gottlieb Daimler and Maybach First commercial production and sales of phonographs and phonograph recordings. ... // Events and Trends Technology Lawrence Hargrave makes the first stable wing design for a heavier-than-air aircraft Orville and Wilbur Wright make the first documented flight in a powered heavier-than-air aircraft Mass production of automobile Wide popularity of home phonograph Panama Canal is built by the United...


In the early 20th century, the name "Ukraine" was widely accepted in Galicia/Halychyna and the name "Ruthenia" became narrowed to the area south of the Carpathian mountains in the Kingdom of Hungary. Carpathian Ruthenia incorporated the cities of Mukachiv/Mukachevo/Munkács, Uzhhorod/Ungvár and Presov/Pryashiv/Eperjes. This area had been part of the Hungarian kingdom since the late 11th century, and had been known as "Magna Rus'", but was also called "Karpato-Rus'" or "Zakarpattya" (see Carpathian Ruthenia). (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999 in the... The Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, or simply Galicia, was the largest and northernmost province of Austria from 1772 until 1918, with Lemberg (Lwów, Lviv) as its capital city. ... Satellite image of the Carpathians The Carpathian Mountains (Czech, Polish, and Slovak: Karpaty; Serbian: Karpati; Hungarian: Kárpátok; Romanian: CarpaÅ£i; Ukrainian: Карпати, Karpaty) are the eastern wing of the great Central Mountain System of Europe, curving 1500 km (~900 miles) along the borders of the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Poland... The Kingdom of Hungary (Hungarian: Magyar Királyság) is the name of a multiethnic kingdom that existed in Central Europe from 1000 to 1918. ... Carpathian Ruthenia (Ukrainian Карпатська Русь, Karpatska Rus ) or Carpatho-Ukraine or Carpathian Ukraine is a name for a small part of Central Europe that was part of the Kingdom of Hungary (since 1526 under Habsburg rule). ... Mukacheve (Мукачеве, Ruthenian: Мукачів (Mukachiv), Russian: Мукачево (Mukachevo), Hungarian: Munkács, Slovak and Czech: Mukačevo, German: Munkatsch, Yiddish: Munkacz) is a city in Zakarpattya region of southwestern Ukraine. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Prešov (Hungarian: Eperjes, German: Preschau or Eperies) is a town in eastern Slovakia. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 11th century was that century which lasted from 1001 to 1100. ... Carpathian Ruthenia (Ukrainian Карпатська Русь, Karpatska Rus ) or Carpatho-Ukraine or Carpathian Ukraine is a name for a small part of Central Europe that was part of the Kingdom of Hungary (since 1526 under Habsburg rule). ...


After being incorporated into Czechoslovakia between World War I and World War II, the area tried to declare its independence as "Carpatho-Ukraine" at the dawn of World War II. The term Rusyn arose around this time for the nationality and language of three groups of montagnards in the Carpathians. The name "Ruthenia" became largely identical with Carpathian Ruthenia, i.e. mostly the westernmost region of present-day Ukraine. World War I was primarily a European conflict with many facets: immense human sacrifice, stalemate trench warfare, and the use of new, devastating weapons - tanks, aircraft, machineguns, and poison gas. ... World War II was a truly global conflict with many facets: immense human suffering, fierce indoctrinations, and the use of new, extremely devastating weapons like the atom bomb World War II, also known as the Second World War, was a mid-20th-century conflict that engulfed much of the globe... Carpatho-Ukraine (Ukrainian: , Karpats’ka Ukrayina) was an autonomous region within Czechoslovakia from late 1938 to March 15, 1939. ... Rusyn can refer to: Rusyns Rusyn language This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Carpathian Ruthenia (Ukrainian Карпатська Русь, Karpatska Rus ) or Carpatho-Ukraine or Carpathian Ukraine is a name for a small part of Central Europe that was part of the Kingdom of Hungary (since 1526 under Habsburg rule). ...


A Ruthenian minority also remained in northeastern Czechoslovakia (now Slovakia) after World War II. The people of the region rapidly became Slovakicised, because their language is closely related to the Slovak language and because most of them refused to identify themselves as Ukrainians, as the Communist government, after 1953, wished them to do. World War II was a truly global conflict with many facets: immense human suffering, fierce indoctrinations, and the use of new, extremely devastating weapons like the atom bomb World War II, also known as the Second World War, was a mid-20th-century conflict that engulfed much of the globe... The Slovak language (slovenčina, slovenský jazyk) is an Indo-European language, more precisely a West Slavic language (together with mainly the Czech, Polish, and Sorbian languages). ... Communism - Wikipedia /**/ @import /w/skins-1. ... 1953 is a common year starting on Thursday. ...


See also

Originally Rus was a medieval state and country consisting mostly of Early East Slavs. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Ruthenian may refer to: Ruthenia, a name applied to various parts of Eastern Europe Ruthenians, the peoples of Ruthenia Ruthenian language, a name applied to several Slavic languages This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The Ruthenian Catholic Church is a sui iuris Catholic Church of the Byzantine Eastern Rite. ...

Places

Clandestine Christian communities existed in Kiev for decades before the official baptism. ... Black Ruthenia (or Black Rus, Чорная Русь in Ruthenian language, RuÅ› Czarna in Polish) is the name of the historical independent principality in the southwestern part of contemporary Belarus on the upper reaches of the river Nioman. ... Bukovina, in green, divided between Romania (red) and Ukraine (yellow) Bukovina (current usage), The Bukovina, increasingly an archaism, which, however, is to be found in older literature, is the territory on the slopes of the northeastern Carpathian Mountains and the adjoining plains. ... Carpathian Ruthenia (Ukrainian Карпатська Русь, Karpatska Rus ) or Carpatho-Ukraine or Carpathian Ukraine is a name for a small part of Central Europe that was part of the Kingdom of Hungary (since 1526 under Habsburg rule). ... Carpatho-Ukraine (Ukrainian: , Karpats’ka Ukrayina) was an autonomous region within Czechoslovakia from late 1938 to March 15, 1939. ... The period of the Middle Ages has a special meaning in history of the Russian culture. ... The Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, or simply Galicia, was the largest and northernmost province of Austria from 1772 until 1918, with Lemberg (Lwów, Lviv) as its capital city. ... The presumable banner of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania with the coat of arms, called Пагоня in Belarusian, Vytis in Lithuanian and PogoÅ„ in Polish Another version of the Lithuanian banner The Grand Duchy of Lithuania (Lithuanian: Lietuvos Didžioji KunigaikÅ¡tystÄ—, Belarusian: Вялі́кае Кня́ства Літо́ўскае (ВКЛ), Ukrainian: Велике Князівство Литовське (ВКЛ), Polish: Wielkie KsiÄ™stwo Litewskie) was an... National motto: None Official language Russian (among many others in political subdivisions) Official script Cyrillic alphabet Capital Moscow Largest city Moscow President Vladimir Putin Prime Minister Mikhail Fradkov Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 1st 17,075,200 km² 0. ... Halych-Volhynia, or Halych-Volodymyr, was a large state in Ruthenia (Rus ) which existed in the 13th and 14th centuries. ... This article describes the history of the Eastern European nation of Belarus and the Belarusian people. ... In the first centuries of its emergence in the 10th century, the Polish nation was led by a series of strong rulers who converted the Poles to Christendom, created a strong Central European state, and integrated Poland into European culture. ... The history of Russia begins with that of the East Slavs, the ethnic group that eventually split into the Russians, Ukrainians, and Belarusians. ... After the Union of Lublin in 1569 and the formation of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth the gentry of Ukraine voted for membership in the Polish part of the Commonwealth. ... Big Coat of Arms of the Russian Empire, adopted in 1882 Central element from the Coat of Arms of the Russian Empire Imperial Russia is the term used to cover the period of Russian history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great, through the expansion of the Russian... Kievan Rus′ (Russian: , Kievskaya Rus; Ukrainian: , Kyivs’ka Rus’) was the early, mostly East Slavic¹ state dominated by the city of Kiev (Russian: Ки́ев, Kiev; Ukrainian: Ки́їв, Kyiv), from about 880 to the middle of the 12th century. ... The following is a list of Slavic states that existed in the first half of the second millennium on the territories of contemporary Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine. ... Little Russia or Malorossiya (Russian: ) was the name for the territory of Ukraine applied in the time of the Russian Empire and earlier. ... Muscovy (Moscow principality (княжество Московское) to Grand Duchy of Moscow (Великое Княжество Московское) to Russian Tsardom (Царство Русское) is a traditional Western name for the Russian state that existed from the 14th century to the late 17th century. ... Places inhabited by Rusyns include or have included the following places inhabited by each of the smaller ethnicities: Lemko: Poland: Subcarpathian Voivodship Boyko: Poland: Subcarpathian Voivodship Ukraine: Zakarpattya region Slovakia: Presov region Hucul: Ukraine: Ivano-Frankivsk region, Chernivtsi region These can also be referred to as Carpathian Ruthenia but... 19th-century proposed coat of arms for a Polish–Lithuanian– Ruthenian Commonwealth. ... Red Ruthenia (Old Slavonic, Russian and Ukrainian: Chervona Rus, Polish: RuÅ› Czerwona, Latin: Ruthenia Rubra or Russia Rubra) is the name used since the medieval times to refer to the area known as Eastern Galicia prior to World War I. // History Originally it was related to a certain territory between... Ruritania was an imaginary kingdom, in Central Europe, in three novels by the writer Anthony Hope: The Prisoner of Zenda (1894), The Heart of Princess Osra (1896), and Rupert of Hentzau (1898). ... The word Rus or Rus (Русь in Cyrillic Alphabet) may refer to: the Rus (people) of disputed origin who were at the roots of the statehood of Eastern Slavic peoples; the territories they ruled, also known by the Latinized name, Ruthenia; Kievan Rus, the most powerful of early Ruthenian (Eastern... Imperial Russia is the term used to cover the period of Russian history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great, through the expansion of the Russian Empire from the Baltic to the Pacific Ocean, to the deposal of Nicholas II of Russia, the last tsar, at the start... The Ruthenian Voivodship (Polish: Województwo Ruskie) (1366-1772) was a unit of administrative division and local government in the Kingdom of Poland. ... Subcarpathian voivodship since 1999 The Subcarpathian Voivodship (in Polish województwo podkarpackie) is an administrative and local government region or voivodship of south-eastern Poland. ... Zakarpattya or Transcarpathia (Закарпатська область, Zakarpats’ka oblast’ in Ukrainian) is an oblast (region) of Ukraine. ... The West Ukrainian National Republic (Західно Українська Народна Республика, Zakhidno Ukrayinska Narodna Respublyka or ЗУНР, ZUNR) was a short-lived republic that existed in late 1918 and early 1919 in eastern Galicia, Bukovina and Transcarpathia and included the cities of Lviv, Kolomyya, and Stanislav. ... White Russia is an obsolete name for the former Soviet republic of Belarus. ... Belarus (Belarusian: Белару́сь, Russian: Белару́сь (formerly: Белору́ссия)) is a landlocked nation of Eastern Europe with the capital Minsk. ... Districts of Zakarpattia Oblast House of the Council of Zakarpattia Oblast in Uzhhorod with Taras Shevchenko Monument Zakarpattia Oblast or Transcarpathian Oblast (Ukrainian: ; Kárpátalja in Hungarian) is an oblast (province) of Ukraine. ...

People

Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... The East Slavs are the ethnic group that evolved into the Russian, Ukrainian and Belarusian peoples. ... This article addresses the History of the Jews in Carpathian Ruthenia. ... Hutsuls or Huculs (Ukrainian: Гуцули, singular Гуцул) are a group of Ukrainian highlanders, considered a subgroup of Rusyns by some references. ... According to an old legend, Lech, Czech and Rus were eponymous brothers who founded the three Slavic nations: Poland (formerly also known as Lechia), Bohemia (now known as the Czech Republic) and Ruthenia (Rus) respectively. ... Lemko - one of four major groups of Ruthenian montagnards of the northwest Carpathian mountain chain, having a unique dialect and culture. ... Poleszuk (Polish), Poliszuk or Polishchuk (local Ukrainian dialect), Palyashchuk (Belarusian), or Poleshchuk (Russian) is the name given to the people who populated the swamps of Polesie. ... Rusyns, also called Ruthenians, Ruthenes, Rusins, Rysins, Carpatho-Rusins, and Russniaks, are a modern group of ethnic groups that speak the Rusyn language and are descended from the Ruthenians that did not become Ukrainians in the 19th century. ... The origins of the Rus (or Rus , Русь) are controversial. ... Ruthenians is a name that has been applied to different ethnic groups at different times; for an explanation of the reasons for this, see Ruthenia. ... This article is part of the article Czechoslovakia. ... The Shlakhtov Ruthenians are the westernmost Ruthenian ethnic group in Poland, formerly inhabiting 4 villages around Szlachtowa in the Pieniny Mountains (between the Poprad and Dunajec Rivers). ... The Slavic peoples are the most numerous ethnic and linguistic body of peoples currently living in Europe. ...

Language

Belarusian (беларуская мова) is the language of the Belarusian nation. ... The Church Slavonic language (ru: церковнославя́нский язы́к, tserkovnoslavyánskiy yazík) is the liturgical language of the Bulgarian Orthodox Church, Russian Orthodox Church, Serbian Orthodox Church and other Slavic Orthodox Churches. ... This article or section should be merged with Proto-Slavic language Common Slavonic is the common language spoken by the Slavs, which eventually broke up into the ancestors of the modern Slavic languages. ... This article or section should be merged with List of East Slavic languages The East Slavic languages constitute one of three regional subgroups of Slavic languages, currently spoken in Eastern Europe. ... Great Russian language (Великорусский язык, Velikorusskiy yazyk) is a name given in the 19th century to the Russian language as opposed to the Ukrainian and Belarusian languages. ... The history proper of the Russian language dates from just before the turn of the second millennium. ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... Ruthenian was a historic East Slavic language, spoken in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and after 1569 in the East Slavic territories of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ... Old Church Slavonic (also called Old Church Slavic or Old Bulgarian, incorrectly Old Slavic) is the first literary Slavic language, developed from the Slavic dialect of Solun (Thessaloniki) by 9th century Byzantine missionaries, Saints Cyril and Methodius (actually they were bularian slavs). ... Old East Slavic language is one name for a language spoken between the 10th and 14th centuries in Kievan Rus and its successor states, the ancestor of the modern East Slavic languages. ... The name Old Russian language has been applied to different things. ... The name Old Ruthenian language has been applied to different things. ... The name Old Ruthenian language has been applied to different things. ... This article or section should include material from Common Slavonic Proto-Slavic is a reconstructed language which is a common ancestor of all Slavic languages. ... Russian (русский язык   listen?) is the most widely spoken language of Europe and the most widespread of the Slavic languages. ... Ruthenian was a historic East Slavic language, spoken in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and after 1569 in the East Slavic territories of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ... Rusyn, though by most outsiders considered one language and even having only one SIL code rue, is in fact the name of two independent languages spoken by Rusyns: Carpatho-Rusyn (also called Ruthenian) Pannonian-Rusyn (also called Rusnak) Carpatho-Rusyn (Ruthenian) The Rusyn language of the Carpathian Mountains is an... The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages), a group of closely related languages of the Slavic peoples and a subgroup of Indo-European languages, have speakers in most of Eastern Europe, in much of the Balkans, in parts of Central Europe, and in the northern part of Asia. ... Surzhyk (Ukrainian: , originally meaning ‘flour or bread made from mixed grains’, e. ... Trasianka or trasyanka (be: трасянка) is a Belarusian–Russian patois or a kind of interlanguage (from the linguistic point of view). ... Ukrainian (украї́нська мо́ва, ukrayins’ka mova) is the official language of Ukraine. ...

External links

  • Why is the "Russia" White? - a book review of Ales Biely's "Chronicle of Ruthenia Alba"

Reference


  Results from FactBites:
 
Ruthenia - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1034 words)
Ruthenia is a name applied to parts of Eastern Europe which were populated by Eastern Slavic peoples, as well as to various states that existed in this territory in the past.
By the end of the 12th century, the word Ruthenia was used, among the alternative spelling Ruscia and Russia, in Latin papal documents to denote the lands formerly dominated by Kiev.
In the early 20th century, the name "Ukraine" was widely accepted in Galicia/Halychyna and the name "Ruthenia" became narrowed to the area south of the Carpathian mountains in the Kingdom of Hungary.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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